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Sample records for proximal interphalangeal pip

  1. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  2. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicone arthroplasty for chronic proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criner, Katherine T; Ilyas, Asif M

    2011-12-01

    Chronic dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint pose a significant treatment challenge. Chronically dislocated PIP joints can experience several changes to the articular cartilage including pressure necrosis, degeneration, and the development of secondary incongruence. Moreover, chronic dislocation allows the edema and hemorrhage from soft tissue trauma to develop into collateral ligament fibrosis and inelastic scar formation. Similarly, chronic dislocations associated with a fracture at the base of the middle phalanx can also experience changes in the form of joint incongruency, bony resorption, or malunion formation. Subsequently, these cumulative joint changes prohibit standard open reduction of the PIP joint and can cause significant loss of motion thereby demanding a different approach to restore motion and minimize pain. We propose the use of silicone arthroplasty in the management of chronic dislocations of the PIP joint.

  4. Irreducible Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation of the Fourth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dislocation of the interphalangeal joint of the toe is a very rare injury and there are only few published reports. Most of the cases reported are those of the hallucal interphalangeal joint. There are only very few reports of complex dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth toe in the world literature. Nigerian ...

  5. A prospective randomized study of conservative versus surgical treatment of unstable palmar plate disruption in the proximal interphalangeal finger joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Jens Christian; Petersen, Kirstin; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of conservative versus operative treatment for unstable palmar plate disruption in the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fingers with respect to preservation of joint stability, mobility, and pain. The study was conducted as a prospective...... do not recommend primary surgical repair of unstable isolated palmar plate lesions in the proximal interphalangeal joints of the 4 ulnar fingers. Type of study/level of evidence Therapeutic, Level II....

  6. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J

    2009-08-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  7. [Supplementary arthrolysis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of fingers in surgical treatment of Dupuytren's contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, B; Biber, F; Sauer, H; Ries, C; Spies, C; Franke, J

    2016-02-01

    Correction of residual flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint after excision of diseased connective tissue in Dupuytren's contracture by stepwise arthrolysis. Flexion deformity of the PIP joint of 20° or more after excision of the diseased connective tissue in Dupuytren's contracture. Joint deformities, osteoarthrosis, intrinsic muscle contracture, instability of the PIP joint. Arthrolysis of the PIP joint is performed by six consecutive steps: dissection of the remaining skin ligaments, opening the flexor tendon sheath by transverse incision at the distal end of the A2 pulley, dissection of the checkrein ligaments, dissection of the accessory collateral ligaments, releasing the palmar plate proximally, releasing the palmar plate up to its insertion at the middle phalanx base. Dorsal plaster of Paris with extended fingers and compressive dressing in the palm for 2 days, occupational/physical therapy, static and possible dynamic extension splint several weeks/months. A total of 31 fingers in 28 patients with Dupuytren's contracture were evaluated an average of 22 months after arthrolysis of the PIP joint. In all, 26 joints with an average recurrent flexion contracture of 29° were improved compared to the preoperative flexion contracture of 81°; 4 PIP joints with a recurrent flexion contracture averaging 60° were worse. In one patient, PIP flexion contracture of 90° was unchanged at follow-up although the joint could be extended intraoperatively to 10° of flexion.

  8. Minimally invasive proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a locking compression plate and tissue engineering in horses: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-pil; Yamaga, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the efficacy of 2 minimally invasive techniques for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis in horses. The PIP joints of both forelimbs (n = 6) were stabilized with locking compression plates (LCP) using a minimally invasive technique (LCP technique). Subsequently, for 1 randomly selected PIP joint of each horse, surgical drilling (SurD) was performed and tissue engineering (TE) was applied (LCP/SurD/TE technique). Minimally invasive PIP joint arthrodesis with LCP demonstrated low postoperative infection rates. Gross and histological evaluations revealed considerable destruction of the articular cartilage in the LCP/SurD/TE-treated joints. In contrast, almost no destruction of the cartilage was observed in the LCP-treated joints. Our results suggest that the LCP technique alone is not sufficient for PIP joint arthrodesis and that the LCP/SurD/TE technique may be useful for PIP joint arthrodesis in horses. PMID:25392547

  9. Volar plating for unstable proximal interphalangeal joint dorsal fracture-dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Andre E J; Tan, David M K; Chong, Alphonsus K S; Chew, Winston Y C

    2012-01-01

    To report our results of open reduction internal fixation with volar mini plate and screw fixation for unstable dorsal fracture dislocations (DFDs) of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. We performed a retrospective review of 13 consecutive DFDs of the PIP joint treated with volar mini plate and screw fixation, measuring both clinical and radiological outcomes. The age range of our patients was 15 to 56 years (average, 33 y). Six injuries were related to work, 5 to sports, and 2 to motor vehicle accidents. Of the 13 DFDs, 6 were comminuted. Articular involvement ranged from 30% to 70% (average, 44%). The average time to surgery was 7 days (range, 0-23 d). Patients had follow-up of 12 to 60 months (average, 25 mo). Four patients had a postoperative course complicated by plate and screw removal at an average of 4 months later, either as part of a secondary procedure to improve range of motion or owing to patient request. All patients returned to their original occupation. Of the 13 patients, 11 were satisfied with the result, and 12 of 13 had either no or mild pain. All 13 DFDs united in good alignment but 3 showed degenerative changes. Average grip strength was 85% of the unaffected side, and average active PIP joint and distal interphalangeal joint motion arcs were 75° and 65°, respectively. Average Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 4 (range, 0-9). All patients had non-tender swelling of the proximal interphalangeal joints but no signs of flexor tenosynovitis or infection. Fixation of unstable PIP joint DFDs via a volar approach is technically feasible with mini plates and screws. This treatment allows early active range of motion and provides good objective and subjective outcomes; however, noteworthy complications occurred in 39% of patients. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Flexion Contracture After Homodigital Island Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akito; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Kaji, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-11-01

    To identify independent predictors of postoperative proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture after direct-flow homodigital island flap transfer. Forty-four fingertip amputations in 39 patients treated with oblique triangular flaps were evaluated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Five variables were examined: patient age, injured finger, mechanism of injury, flap advancement distance, and time required for wound healing. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the extent to which these variables affected the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. The average reduction in the passive extension angle of the PIP joint was 16° at final follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated significant correlations of PIP joint flexion contracture with age, injured finger, and time for wound healing, but no significant correlation with the distance the flap was advanced. Multivariate analysis indicated that the age and duration of wound healing were independent predictors of the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. Elderly people and cases with delayed wound healing are at risk for postoperative PIP joint contracture after homodigital flap transfer. Intervention with early hand therapy and orthotics may be useful in elderly patients with delayed wound healing. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unstable dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations treated with extension-block pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, David M; Weichbrodt, Matthew T; Huang, Chris; Hagberg, William C; Balk, Marshall L

    2015-03-01

    Unstable proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocations, which can cause significant disability, can be treated with multiple techniques. Extension-block pinning (EBP) allows for early motion and is less technically demanding than alternative surgical treatments. In the study reported here, 12 patients with unstable dorsal PIP fracture-dislocations were treated with closed reduction of the PIP joint followed by percutaneous insertion of a Kirschner wire (K-wire) into the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx. For these patients, extent of articular surface involvement averaged 43% (range, 25%-75%). Active motion was initiated early after surgery, and the K-wire was removed a mean of 25 days after pinning. Radiographic reduction of joint dislocation was achieved and maintained for 11 of the 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 35.5 months. At follow-up, mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 0.64 (scale, 0-10). Mean score on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire was 5.7, suggesting minimal functional impairment. Mean PIP active motion was 84° (range, 50°-110°). Grip strength was equal between operative and contralateral hands. Patient satisfaction most closely correlated with low VAS and QuickDASH scores. One patient developed a malunion, which was treated with corrective osteotomy. EBP is a simple, safe, and reproducible technique for unstable PIP fracture-dislocations. This technique yields outcomes similar to those reported for more complex surgical procedures.

  12. [Complex fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint. A case report and focus on palmar proximal interphalangeal fractures-dislocations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E; Thomsen, L; Hans-Moevi Akué, A; Falcone, M-O

    2013-10-01

    The palmar fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of fingers is an uncommon injury. We report a complex form in a 16-year old teenager, associating a palmar fracture-dislocation and a fracture of the base of the middle phalanx with the dorsal fragment dislocated between the neck of the proximal phalange and the palmar plate. The management was surgical with open reduction and fixation of the fragments by K-wires and temporary PIP arthrorisis. The result at 6months of follow- up after removal of the wires and physiotherapy was satisfactory. The patient was painless with a range of motion of 115°. Clinically, the sagittal and frontal stability of the joint both in flexion and extension was maintained. Osseous healing was obtained on X-ray control. The patient went back to his usual activities. A focus on palmar fracture-dislocations of PIP joint is presented through incidence, mechanism and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Modified hemihamate arthroplasty technique for treatment of acute proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dae Suk; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Choy, Won Sik

    2014-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients who underwent modified hemihamate arthroplasty for the treatment of comminuted dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. This technique was used to minimize the potential risk of complications at the recipient site by volarly oblique osteotomy in the coronal plane at graft harvesting and anatomical repair of the detached flexor sheath. The average joint involvement of the fracture was 58.4%, and the mean duration of follow-up was 38 months. The active range of motion of the distal interphalangeal, PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint was 80.4, 85.4, and 91.8 degrees, respectively. The mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score was 4.8, and all patients achieved bony union at final follow-up. One patient showed radiographic signs of graft absorption, but this did not limit their daily activities. The modified hemihamate arthroplasty technique is safe and reliable and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage when used to treat comminuted dorsal fracture-dislocations of the PIP joint.

  14. Open Reduction of Proximal Interphalangeal Fracture-Dislocation through a Midlateral Incision Using Absorbable Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint is a relatively common injury. Various treatments for fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint have been reported. In the present study, we performed open reduction through a midlateral incision using absorbable sutures to reduce the small bone fragments and performed volar plate repair.MethodsWe treated nine patients with fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint with small fractured bone fragments too small for pinning or screw fixation. Patients with volar plate injury were treated with open reduction and volar plate repair at the periosteum of the middle phalangeal bone base by the modified Kessler method using absorbable sutures. All patients were placed in a dorsal aluminum extension block splint, which maintained the PIP joint in approximately 30 degrees of flexion to avoid excessive tension on the sutured volar plate.ResultsAt a mean final follow-up of postoperative 9 months, all patients were evaluated radiographically and had adequate alignment of the PIP joint and reduction of the displaced bone fragments. Range of motion was improved and there were no complications.ConclusionsThis technique is an excellent alternative to the current method of treating patients with fracture-dislocations that include small fragments that are too small for pinning or screw fixation. It is a less invasive surgical method and enables stable reduction and early exercise without noticeable complications.

  15. [Fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint: Diagnostic and operative therapy options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglaub, F; Langer, M F; Hahn, P; Müller, L P; Ahrens, C; Spies, C K

    2016-02-01

    Joint fractures of the fingers often entail operative interventions in contrast to extra-articular fractures. These types of fracture are inclined to dislocate in addition to the actual fracture. The proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in particular often shows comminuted fractures due to the long leverage of the finger and a relatively small diameter of the joint. The clinical examination, X-ray diagnostics and if necessary computed tomography allow the classification into stable and unstable fractures. Unstable fractures must be treated by surgical reduction and fixation. A multitude of operative techniques are available for these mostly complicated fractures. The foremost goal is a stable osteosynthesis of the fracture with repositioning of the dislocation, which enables early physiotherapy in order to prevent tendon adhesion and contracture. This article presents the different types of PIP joint fractures, their specific surgical treatment and postoperative treatment regimens.

  16. Resection of the flexor digitorum superficialis for trigger finger with proximal interphalangeal joint positional contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Yann; Kinnen, Louis

    2012-11-01

    Open release of the A1 pulley is a widely known procedure for the treatment of trigger finger. A subset of patients presents with both trigger finger and a positional contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. These patients usually have a long history of trigger finger or have already undergone a surgical release of the annular pulley. This study is a retrospective review of the outcomes of resection of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) for patients whose trigger finger was associated with a positional contracture of the PIP joint. Thirty-six patients (39 fingers) were treated by resection of the FDS after section of the A1 pulley. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (range, 45-90 y). Seven patients (19 %) had previously undergone an open release of the A1 pulley and had developed a positional contracture of the PIP joint 2 to 5 months afterward. We performed a retrospective review with a mean follow-up of 30 months (range, 12-60 mo). No patient was lost to follow-up. The active range of motion was recorded at the PIP joint before and after surgery. The mean preoperative positional contracture of the PIP joint was 24° (range, 15°-30°). The mean postoperative positional contracture of the PIP joint was 4° (range, 0°-10°). The most commonly affected digit was the middle finger (26 fingers, 67%). In 28 fingers (72%), full extension was achieved following only the surgical procedure. The remaining 11 fingers (28%) had a postoperative residual positional contracture (range, 5°-10°). However, all fingers achieved a full range of motion after physical therapy and an injection of betamethasone. All of the resected tendons had histological damage. This technique is a useful treatment for selected patients whose trigger finger is associated with a positional contracture. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Complications following dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelson, John J; Stern, Peter J; Abzug, Joshua M; Chang, James; Osterman, A Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are challenging injuries to treat and are associated with many complications. The determination of stability is crucial to appropriate management. Stable injuries can usually be treated nonsurgically, whereas unstable injuries typically require surgical stabilization. Many surgical techniques have been used, including extension block pinning, volar plate arthroplasty, open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation, and hemihamate autografting. Because stiffness and flexion contracture are frequent complications, every effort should be made to initiate early motion while maintaining concentric reduction. Other complications include redislocation, chronic swelling, swan neck and coronal plane deformities, and pin tract infections. Assessing injury characteristics, including chronicity, the percentage of articular surface fractured, and the degree of comminution, and understanding complications will help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Chronic dislocations and those injuries in which painful arthritis develops can be successfully treated with salvage procedures, including arthroplasty and arthrodesis.

  18. The effect of a therapy protocol for increasing correction of severely contracted proximal interphalangeal joints caused by dupuytren disease and treated with collagenase injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirven, Terri M; Bachoura, Abdo; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Osterman, A Lee

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of a specific orthotic intervention and therapy protocol on proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures of greater than 40° caused by Dupuytren disease and treated with collagenase injections. All patients with PIP joints contracted at least 40° by Dupuytren disease were prospectively invited to participate in the study. Following standard collagenase injection and cord rupture by a hand surgeon, a certified hand therapist evaluated and treated each patient based on a defined treatment protocol that consisted of orthotic intervention to address residual PIP joint contracture. In addition, exercises were initiated emphasizing reverse blocking for PIP joint extension and distal interphalangeal joint flexion exercises with the PIP joint held in extension to lengthen a frequently shortened oblique retinacular ligament. Patients were assessed before injection, immediately after injection, and 1 and 4 weeks later. There were 22 fingers in 21 patients. The mean age at treatment was 63 years (range, 37-80 y). The mean baseline passive PIP joint contracture was 56° (range, 40° to 80°). At cord rupture, the mean PIP joint contracture became 22° (range, 0° to 55°). One week after cord rupture and therapy, the contracture decreased further to a mean of 12° (range, 0° to 36°). By 4 weeks, the mean contracture was 7° (range, 0° to 35°). The differences in PIP joint contracture were statistically significant at all time points except when comparing the means at 1 week and 4 weeks. The results represent an 88% improvement of the PIP joint contracture. In the short term, it appears that severe PIP joint contractures benefit from specific, postinjection orthotic intervention and targeted exercises. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint in Dupuytren's disease: does capsuloligamentous release improve outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, K; Prommersberger, K J; Jacobs, C; Lanz, U B

    2004-06-01

    This prospective study assessed whether patients with severe proximal interphalangeal joint contracture (#10878;60 degrees ) due to Dupuytren's disease which persisted after fasciectomy alone benefited from an additional capsuloligamentous release. Forty-three patients with 43 severely contracted proximal interphalangeal joints underwent operative correction followed by a standardized postoperative rehabilitation programme. All were followed for 6 months. In 11 patients correction of the proximal interphalangeal joint to 20 degrees could not be achieved by fasciectomy alone, and an additional capsuloligamentous release was performed which effectively corrected all their residual flexion contractures. There were no statistically significant differences between the capsulotomy and the non-capsulotomy group with respect to the residual proximal interphalangeal joint contracture at the end of surgery, or at their last follow-up examination.

  20. Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and treatment: an evolutionary process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kenneth Michael; Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Conroy, Frank; Chan, Jeff; Buckley, Emily; Carroll, Sean Michael

    2014-07-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) dislocations represent a significant proportion of hand clinic visits and typically require frequent follow-ups for clinical assessment, orthotic adjustments, and physiotherapy. There are a large number of treatment options available for PIPJ dislocations, yet no prospective or controlled studies have been carried out, largely due to the diversity of the various types of injuries. We retrospectively reviewed all the PIPJ dislocations in our institution over a five-year period and directly compared the different splinting techniques that we have used over this time frame. There were a total of 77 dislocations of the PIPJ (57 men and 20 women) that were included in our study. We found that our management has shifted gradually from complete immobilisation to controlled early mobilisation with figure-of-eight splints. Following treatment, the range of motion of the PIPJ in the figure-of-eight group was significantly greater than that in the other three methods (Ptreatment groups. The treatment of PIPJ dislocations has undergone a significant evolution in our experience. Early controlled mobilisation has become increasingly important, and therefore, splints have had to be adapted to allow for this. The figure-of-eight splint has yielded excellent results in our experience. It should be considered for all PIPJ dislocations, but careful patient selection is required to achieve optimum results.

  1. Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocations and Treatment: An Evolutionary Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Michael Joyce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ dislocations represent a significant proportion of hand clinic visits and typically require frequent follow-ups for clinical assessment, orthotic adjustments, and physiotherapy. There are a large number of treatment options available for PIPJ dislocations, yet no prospective or controlled studies have been carried out, largely due to the diversity of the various types of injuries. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all the PIPJ dislocations in our institution over a five-year period and directly compared the different splinting techniques that we have used over this time frame. Results There were a total of 77 dislocations of the PIPJ (57 men and 20 women that were included in our study. We found that our management has shifted gradually from complete immobilisation to controlled early mobilisation with figure-of-eight splints. Following treatment, the range of motion of the PIPJ in the figure-of-eight group was significantly greater than that in the other three methods (P<0.05 used. There were significantly fewer hospital visits in the figure-of-eight splint group than in the other treatment groups. Conclusions The treatment of PIPJ dislocations has undergone a significant evolution in our experience. Early controlled mobilisation has become increasingly important, and therefore, splints have had to be adapted to allow for this. The figure-of-eight splint has yielded excellent results in our experience. It should be considered for all PIPJ dislocations, but careful patient selection is required to achieve optimum results.

  2. Optical clearing of human skin for the enhancement of optical imaging of proximal interphalangeal joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, Ekaterina A.; Kolesnikov, Aleksandr S.; Zabarylo, Urszula; Minet, Olaf; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-01-01

    We are proposing a new method for enhancement of optical imaging of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in humans at skin using optical clearing technique. A set of illuminating laser diodes with the wavelengths 670, 820, and 904 nm were used as a light source. The laser diodes, monochromatic digital CCD camera and specific software allowed for detection of the finger joint image in a transillumination mode. The experiments were carried out in vivo with human fingers. Dehydrated glycerol and hand cream with urea (5%) were used as optical clearing agents (OCAs). The contrast of the obtained images was analyzed to determine the effect of the OCA. It was found that glycerol application to the human skin during 60 min caused the decrease of contrast in 1.4 folds for 670 nm and the increase of contrast in 1.5 and 1.7 folds for 820 nm and 904 nm, respectively. At the same time, the hand cream application to the human skin during 60 min caused the decrease of contrast in 1.1 folds for 670 nm and the increase of contrast in 1.3 and 1.1 folds for 820 nm and 904 nm, respectively. The results have shown that glycerol and the hand cream with 5% urea allow for obtaining of more distinct image of finger joint in the NIR. Obtained data can be used for development of optical diagnostic methods of rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. The quantitative role of flexor sheath incision in correcting Dupuytren proximal interphalangeal joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, P E; Floyd, E W; Earp, B E

    2016-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding intra-operative treatment of residual proximal interphalangeal joint contractures after Dupuytren's fasciectomy. We test the hypothesis that a simple release of the digital flexor sheath can correct residual fixed flexion contracture after subtotal fasciectomy. We prospectively enrolled 19 patients (22 digits) with Dupuytren's contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The average pre-operative extension deficit of the proximal interphalangeal joints was 58° (range 30-90). The flexion contracture of the joint was corrected to an average of 28° after fasciectomy. In most digits (20 of 21), subsequent incision of the flexor sheath further corrected the contracture by an average of 23°, resulting in correction to an average flexion contracture of 4.7° (range 0-40). Our results support that contracture of the tendon sheath is a contributor to Dupuytren's contracture of the joint and that sheath release is a simple, low morbidity addition to correct Dupuytren's contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Additional release of the proximal interphalangeal joint after fasciectomy, after release of the flexor sheath, is not necessary in many patients. IV (Case Series, Therapeutic). © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Stability of acute dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cadaveric biomechanical study to characterize proximal interphalangeal joint stability after an injury to different amounts of the volar articular base of the middle phalanx (intact, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% volar defects). Eighteen digits on 6 hands were tested through full proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion using computer-controlled flexion and extension via the digital tendons. We collected proximal interphalangeal joint kinematic cine data in a true lateral projection with mini-fluoroscopy. We measured the amount of dorsal middle phalanx translation in full proximal interphalangeal joint extension. As we cycled the joint from full flexion into extension, we recorded the angle at which subluxation occurred. No specimens with 20% volar bony defect subluxated. All specimens in the 60% and 80% groups subluxated at an average flexion angle of 67° (range, 10° to 90°) in the 60% group and at all degrees of flexion in the 80% group. In the 40% group, 28% of specimens demonstrated subluxation at an average flexion angle of 14° (range, 4° to 40°). Mean dorsal translation of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx at full digital extension was 0.2 mm in the 20% group, 0.8 mm in the 40% group, 3.2 mm in the 60% group, and 3.1 mm in the 80% group. Simulated volar articular bony defects of 20% were stable, whereas those with 60% and 80% defects were unstable during digital motion. Stability in the 40% group was variable and appeared to be the threshold for stability. Knowledge of the typical amount of middle phalanx defect and degree of proximal interphalangeal joint extension that can lead to joint instability may improve management of mechanically important proximal interphalangeal joint fracture dislocations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

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    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  6. Management of difficult intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Xing, S G; Mailaender, P; Stang, F

    2015-01-01

    Intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are difficult clinically because the bone and soft tissue structures are small and intricate. Suboptimal treatment of intra-articular fractures typically leads to functional impairment of the hand. This article reviews the current methods of treatment, together with the senior author's experience in treating difficult proximal interphalangeal joint fractures and dislocations. Besides conservative treatments, surgical treatments include open or closed reduction with traditional Osteosynthesis, such as K-wires, screws or plates. Among recent developments are the percutaneous application of thin cannulated compression screws and novel dynamic external fixators. After a preferred minimally invasive treatment with stable reconstruction of the articular surface, sufficient aftercare is necessary to improve surgical outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Neurovascular Advancement Flap to Release Flexion Contracture of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, James; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Various methods have been described to surgically release posttraumatic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Extension of the distal digit often creates a soft tissue defect on the volar aspect of the finger. Although various flaps and skin grafting have been utilized for coverage of this defect, they can be associated with morbidity. We present our experience with a volar neurovascular advancement flap to achieve soft tissue release in proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. This advancement flap is designed to include both digital neurovascular bundles and eliminates the need for a secondary procedure as it allows primary closure of the subsequent defect. It is indicated for contracture lengthening of 10 to 14 mm. Surgical considerations of flap design are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radial collateral ligament injury of the little finger proximal interphalangeal joint in young pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hyun Sik; Cho, Hoyune Esther; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jihyeong; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-08-01

    To report the features of radial collateral ligament injury of the little finger proximal interphalangeal joint in young piano players. Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 6 cases of radial collateral ligament injury of the little finger proximal interphalangeal joint in young piano players at a single referral center. We conducted a retrospective review of charts and radiographs and telephone-interviewed all patients at a mean follow-up of 33 months (range, 12-66 mo) to evaluate features of this injury. All patients were girls with a mean age of 10 years (range, 8-12 y), and all had injuries in their right hands. Patients had been playing piano for a mean 3.8 years (range, 3-5 y) and practicing for a mean 1.8 hours per day (range, 1-3 h). Pain was commonly aggravated when they played octaves or advanced pieces requiring extensive finger movements. All patients were playing on standard-size piano keyboards and had generalized hypermobility with a mean Beighton and Horan score of 6.3 (range, 5-9). Two patients had an ulnar deviation deformity of 10° and 15° each at the proximal interphalangeal joint whereas the others had no fixed joint deformity. Five patients showed improvement with conservative treatment, but 1 patient underwent surgery. In our practice, all piano-related radial collateral ligament injuries were in female preadolescents with evidence of generalized hypermobility; patients had been playing piano extensively, suggesting that the injury could have resulted from stress on the joint during piano playing. Future studies should further evaluate the efficacy of modifying keyboard size, techniques, and repertoires for piano lessons and of patient education for this type of injury. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A closed dorsolateral dislocation of PIP joint of the fourth toe-a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interphalangeal (IP) joint dislocations of the toes are uncommon lesions. We present here a case of closed dorsolateral dislocation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fourth toe. Closed reduction and buddy strapping have been done with middle toe for two weeks under digital block. There was painless full range ...

  10. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joints in dupuytren contracture: combined analysis of 4 phase 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamente, Marie A; Hurst, Lawrence C; Benhaim, Prosper; Cohen, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    To examine the results of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures from 4 phase 3 clinical trials of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Patients enrolled in Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II and JOINT I/II with one or more PIP joint contractures (20° to 80°) received CCH 0.58 mg/0.20 mL or placebo (Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II only) injected directly into a palpable cord. The percentage of PIP joints achieving clinical success (0° to 5° of full extension), clinical improvement (50% or more reduction in baseline contracture), and range of motion improvement at 30 days after the first and last CCH injections was assessed. The PIP joint contractures were classified into low (40° or less) and high (more than 40°) baseline severity. Adverse events were recorded. A total of 506 adults (mean age, 63 ± 10 y; 80% male) received 1,165 CCH injections in 644 PIP joint cords (mean, 1.6 injections/cord). Most patients (60%) received 1 injection, with 24%, 16%, and 1% receiving 2, 3, and 4 injections, respectively. Clinical success and clinical improvement occurred in 27% and 49% of PIP joints after one injection and in 34% and 58% after the last injection. Patients with lower baseline severity showed greater improvement and response was comparable between fingers, as were improvements in range of motion. Adverse events occurring in more than 10% of patients were peripheral edema (58%), contusion (38%), injection site hemorrhage (23%), injection site pain (21%), injection site swelling (16%), and tenderness (13%). This incidence was consistent with data reported in phase 3 trials. Two tendon ruptures occurred. No further ruptures occurred after a modified injection technique was adopted. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was effective and well tolerated in the short term in patients with Dupuytren PIP joint contractures. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of hemi-hamate reconstruction versus volar plate arthroplasty in the treatment of dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    To compare stability and range of motion after hemi-hamate reconstruction versus volar plate arthroplasty in a biomechanical proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocation model. Eighteen digits from 6 cadaver hands were tested. We created defects of 40%, 60%, and 80% in the palmar base of each digit's middle phalanx, simulating an acute PIP joint fracture-dislocation. Each defect scenario was reconstructed with a hemi-hamate arthroplasty followed by a volar plate arthroplasty. A computer-controlled mechanism was used to bring each digit's PIP joint from full extension to full flexion via the digital tendons in each testing state, and in the intact state. During each testing scenario we collected PIP joint cinedata in a true lateral projection using mini-fluoroscopy. A digital radiography program was used to measure the amount of middle phalanx dorsal translation (subluxation) in full PIP joint extension. We recorded the angle at which subluxation, if present, occurred during each testing scenario. Average dorsal displacement of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx was 0.01 mm for the hemi-hamate reconstructed joints and -0.03 mm for the volar plate arthroplasty, compared with the intact state. Flexion contractures were noted in each of the specimens reconstructed with volar plate arthroplasty. Degree of contracture was directly correlated with defect size, averaging 20° for 40% defects, 35° for 60% defects, and 60° for 80% defects. We observed no flexion contractures in the hemi-hamate reconstructions. Surgeons can use both hemi-hamate and volar plate arthroplasty to restore PIP joint stability following a fracture dislocation with a large middle phalanx palmar base defect. Use of volar plate arthroplasty led to an increasing flexion contracture as the middle phalanx palmar base defect increased. Clinicians can use the information from this study to help with surgical decision-making and patient education. Copyright © 2015

  12. Comparative study on the effectiveness of corticosteroid injections between trigger fingers with and without proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, R; Sunagawa, T; Nakashima, Y; Kawanishi, Y; Masuda, T; Ochi, M

    2016-02-01

    Trigger fingers with proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture are suggested to have a poorer response to corticosteroid injection than those without contracture, though this has not been proven scientifically. We compared the clinical response to corticosteroid injection between trigger fingers with and without proximal interphalangeal joint contracture, and investigated the influence of the injection on the A1 pulley and flexor digitorum tendons using ultrasonography. One month after injection, pain was significantly reduced in the no contracture group, and 56% of trigger fingers with proximal interphalangeal joint contracture resolved. Before injection, relative thickening of the A1 pulley and flexor digitorum tendons, and a partial hypoechoic lesion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon were observed in the contracture group. One month after injection, the thickening of the tendons and the A1 pulley was reduced, but the partial hypoechoic lesion was still observed in significant numbers. We have demonstrated that the presence of a proximal interphalangeal joint contracture was associated with a reduced clinical response to corticosteroid injection, and we suggest that the pathologic change in the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, represented by the partial hypoechoic lesion, contributed to corticosteroid injection resistance. IV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Invited Hand Article: Current Concepts in Treatment of Fracture-Dislocations of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Steven C.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations are common injuries that require expedient and attentive treatment for the best outcomes. Management can range from protective splinting and early mobilization to complex operations. In this review, the current concepts surrounding the managment of these injuries are reviewed. Methods A literature review was performed of all recent articles pertaining to proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocation, with specific focus on middle phalangeal base fractures. Where appropriate, older articles, or articles on closely related injury types were included for completeness. The methodology and outcomes of each study were analyzed. Results When small avulsion fractures are present, good results are routinely obtained with reduction and early mobilization of stable injuries. Strategies for management of the unstable dorsal fracture-dislocation have evolved over time. To provide early stability, a variety of techniques have evolved, including closed, percutaneous, external, and internal fixation methods. Although each of these techniques can be successful in skilled hands, none have been subjected to rigorous, prospective, comparative trials. Volar dislocations fare less well, with significant loss of motion in many studies. Pilon fractures represent the most complicated injuries, and return of normal motion is not expected. Conclusion The best outcomes can be achieved by (1) establishing enough stability to allow early motion, (2) restoring gliding joint motion rather than non-congruent motion, and (3) restoring the articular surface congruity when possible. Although the majority of literature on this topic consists of expert opinion and retrospective case series, the consensus appears to favor less invasive techniques whenever possible. PMID:25415092

  14. Goniometry of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, Part II: placement prefereces, interrater reliability, and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, G N; VanDeven, K M; Phillips, E C; Ehretsman, R L

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this repeated-measures single-case-design study were to describe goniometric placement preferences and their effect on the measurement of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, to determine interrater reliability, and to determine concurrent validity. Thirty-nine therapists measured one patient dorsally and laterally with the DeVore and the 6" clear goniometers. No significant differences were found between the two goniometers used in the study. Comparison of the means of lateral and dorsal measurements revealed that the only joint associated with a significant difference was the contracted index proximal interphalangeal joint (p=0.0347). Preferences did affect the standard deviations and ranges but not the means of the measurements. Interrater reliability was high (ICC 2,1: 0.99 and 0.86). Clinical and radiographic measurements were markedly different from each other (paired-difference t-tests), leading to inconclusive concurrent validity.

  15. Delayed treatment of unstable proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations with a dynamic external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao Fang; Mi, Jing Yi; Rui, Yong Jun; Xue, Ming Yu; Chou, Jiandong; Tian, Jian; Chim, Harvey

    2015-10-01

    Fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) remain a challenging problem to treat. Although there are a number of papers describing the use of dynamic external fixators and force couples for treatment of unstable PIPJ fracture-dislocations acutely, the literature is scarce on delayed treatment of PIPJ fracture-dislocations, where malunion of the articular surface may theoretically compromise postoperative range of motion (ROM) at the PIPJ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic distraction external fixation (DDEF) for the delayed treatment of PIPJ fracture-dislocations at least 3 weeks after the inciting injury. Ten consecutive patients were treated with delayed DDEF between 2010 and 2013. Postoperative ROM at the PIPJ was measured. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire were administered to all patients postoperatively. Mean time from injury to surgery was 27.5 days. The mean follow-up period was 23.7 months (range 10-36). The mean active ROM at the PIPJ on final postoperative follow-up was 83.9° (range 52-100). None of the patients experienced pin-tract infections. Mean DASH score was 3.7+3.4 and mean Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire score was 97.3+3.0. All patients returned to work and resumed normal activities. Delayed treatment of unstable PIPJ fracture-dislocations with a DDEF is effective in restoring function to the PIPJ. Nascent malunion of the PIPJ articular surface does not compromise postoperative outcomes and the joint surface undergoes remodelling over time to restore a smooth and functional articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load under axial compression and torsion, single cycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  17. A closed dorsolateral dislocation of PIP joint of the fourth toe-a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Giris Kumar Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interphalangeal (IP joint dislocations of the toes are uncommon lesions. We present here a case of closed dorsolateral dislocation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint of the fourth toe. Closed reduction and buddy strapping have been done with middle toe for two weeks under digital block. There was painless full range of movement after 2 weeks. We propose that attempt of closed reduction must be given adequately under anesthesia before proceeding for open reduction.

  18. Effect of a collateral ligament sparing surgical approach on mechanical properties of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Jose J; Lillich, James D; Beard, Warren L; Anderson, David E; Armbrust, Laura J; Frink, Elizabeth; Lease, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    To (1) compare the effect of a collateral ligament sparing surgical approach with an open surgical approach on mechanical properties of proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis, and (2) to determine the percentage of articular cartilage surface removed by transarticular (TA) drilling with different diameter drill bits. Randomized paired limb design. Cadaveric equine limbs (n=76). Cadaveric PIPJ were drilled using a 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5 mm drill bit at 80-84° to the dorsal plane to remove articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx (P1) and the proximal articular surface of the middle phalanx (P2). Bone ends were photographed and the percentage of the projected surface area that was denuded of cartilage was measured. PIPJ arthrodesis constructs (3-hole dynamic compression plate [DCP], two 5.5 mm TA screws inserted in lag fashion, medial and lateral to the DCP; DCP-TA) were created using 2 surgical approaches in paired limbs. A conventional open approach was used in 1 limb and a collateral ligament sparing approach used in the other limb. Constructs were tested to failure in single-cycle 3-point dorsopalmar/plantar or lateromedial bending. Maximum load, yield load, and composite stiffness were compared between techniques. The 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 mm drill bits removed 24±4%, 35±5%, and 45±7% of total PIPJ articular cartilage surface, respectively. Constructs with the collateral ligament sparing approach had significantly greater mean yield load (11.3±2.8 versus 7.68±1.1 kN, P=.008) and mean maximum load (13.5±3.1 versus 10.1±1.94 kN, P=.02) under lateromedial bending. Under dorsopalmar/plantar bending there was no significant difference between surgical approaches. The collateral ligament sparing arthrodesis technique had a shorter surgical time (19±3 minutes) compared with the open technique (31±3 minutes). A collateral ligament sparing surgical approach to the PIPJ with removal of articular

  19. Intraoperative Fracture of a Pyrocarbon PIP Total Joint—A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Skie, Martin; Gove, Nicholas; Ciocanel, Despina

    2007-01-01

    Pain or dysfunction of the finger joints due to arthritis or traumatic injuries that fail medical management may necessitate arthroplasty or joint replacement. The goals of the finger joint implant arthroplasty are to relieve pain, to correct deformity, and to improve the function and appearance of the hand. Several prosthetic implants have been used for the replacement of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. Pyrocarbon materials, a form of pyrolytic carbon, a ceramic-like material, have...

  20. Ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Klarlund, Mette; Narvestad, E.

    2006-01-01

    ultrasonography can provide information on signs of inflammation and destruction in RA finger joints that are not available with conventional radiography and clinical examination, and comparable to the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second to fifth metacarpophalangeal and proximal...... interphalangeal joints of 40 RA patients and 20 control persons were assessed with ultrasonography, clinical examination, radiography and MRI. With MRI as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting bone erosions in the finger joints were 0.59, 0.98 and 0.......96, respectively; they were 0.42, 0.99 and 0.95 for radiography. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography, with signs of inflammation on T1-weighted MRI sequences as the reference method, were 0.70, 0.78 and 0.76, respectively; they were 0.40, 0.85 and 0.72 for the clinical examination...

  1. A PALMAR FRACTURE-DISLOCATION OF THE PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF THE MIDDLE FINGER CAUSED BY BOWLING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kurosaka

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During bowling, a twenty year old man could not pull out his middle finger from the ball in release and injured his finger. X-ray revealed a palmar fracture- dislocation of the PIP joint. We manipulated the PIP joint, but a gap remained at the fracture site on the X-ray after reduction. Surgical treatment was performed with a screw. Postoperatively, the middle finger was fixed with a splint for two weeks, and then active range of motion exercises were started. One year after the operation, the fracture had healed with a congruous joint surface, and the patient had full range of motion in the middle finger with no difficulties in activities of daily living. The etiology of a palmar fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint is still controversial, but we suggested the mechanism of the fracture-dislocation was caused by a shearing force to the middle phalangeal base from a dorsal direction. The main cause of the current injury was the poor fit between the middle finger and the hole of the bowling ball. Bowling is a popular and safe sport, but we should be aware of unexpected hand injuries related to bowling which may occur, especially in players at a recreational level

  2. Sonographic analyses of pulley and flexor tendon in idiopathic trigger finger with interphalangeal joint contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the sonographic appearance of the pulley and flexor tendon in idiopathic trigger finger in correlation with the contracture of the interphalangeal (IP) joint in the thumb or proximal IP (PIP) joint in the other digits. Sonographic measurements using axial images were performed in 177 affected digits including 17 thumbs and 34 other digits judged to have IP or PIP joint contracture and 77 contralateral control digits. The A1 pulley of the contracture group was significantly thicker than that of the non-contracture group in all digits, whereas the flexor tendon was thicker only in digits other than the thumb. In the analysis using calculated cut-off values, A1 pulley thickening in the thumb and A1 pulley and flexor tendon thickening in the other digits showed statistically significant correlations with IP or PIP joint contracture. This study sonographically confirmed previous reports showing that enlargement of the flexor tendons contribute to the pathogenesis of PIP joint contracture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Dislocation of the PIP-Joint - Treatment of a common (ball)sports injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Seubert, Wibke; Bührer, Gregor; Horch, Raymund E

    2017-09-01

    Background  Fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint often occur during sports or accidents. Dislocations of the PIP-joint are the most common ligamentary injuries of the hand. As this kind of injury is so frequent, hand surgeons and other physicians should be aware of the correct treatment. Objectives  This paper summarises the most common injury patterns and the correct treatment of PIP-joint dislocations. Materials and Methods  This paper reviews the current literature and describes the standardised treatment of PIP-joint dislocations. Results  What is most important is that reposition is anatomically correct, and this should be controlled by X-ray examination. Depending on the instability and possible combination with other injuries (e. g. injury to the palmar plate), early functional physiotherapy of the joint or a short immobilisation period is indicated. Conclusions  Early functional treatment of the injured PIP-joint, initially using buddy taping, is important to restore PIP-joint movement and function. Depending on the injury, joint immobilisation using a K-wire may be indicated. Detailed informed consent is necessary to explain to the patient the severity of the injury and possible complications, such as chronic functional disorders or development of arthrosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Radiosynovectomy of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Synovitis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Rhenium-188 Labeled Tin-colloid and Imaging with Single-photon Emission Computerized Tomography/Computed Tomography: A First Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajamani, Venkataraman; Krishnan, Boopathi; Mallia, Madhav; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that is mainly characterized by the asymmetric erosive synovitis, particularly affecting peripheral joints. Radiation synovectomy or radiosynovectomy (RSV), also known as radiosynoviorthesis was first described in 1950's as an adjuvant treatment for RA. RSV is based on the irradiation of the joint synovium by the intra-articular administration of various β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. As a generator-produced β-emitting radionuclide, the importance of rhenium-188 (Re-188) for radionuclide therapy is increasing rapidly. There are previous reports which used Re-188 tin colloid in knee joint synovitis, but use of Re-188 tin colloid in small joint is not yet reported. We describe the use of Re-188 tin colloid in a 45-year-old female who presented with right 4(th) proximal interphalangeal joint synovitis due to rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Soft tissue distraction using pentagonal frame for long-standing traumatic flexion deformity of interphalangeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazerani Shahram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Interphalangeal joint con-tracture is a challenging complication of hand trauma, which reduces the functional capacity of the entire hand. In this study we evaluated the results of soft tissue distraction with no collateral ligament transection or volar plate removal in comparison with traditional operation of contracture re-lease and partial ligament transection and volar plate removal. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 40 pa-tients in two equal groups (A and B were studied. Patients suffering from chronic flexion contracture of abrasive trau-matic nature were included. Group A were treated by soft tissue distraction using pentagonal frame technique and in Group B the contracture release was followed by finger splinting. Results: Analyzed data revealed a significant differ-ence between the two groups for range of motion in the proximal interphalangeal joints (P<0.05, while it was not meaningful in the distal interphalangeal joints (P>0.05. There was not a significant difference in the degrees of flexion contracture between groups (P>0.05. Regression analysis showed that using pentagonal frame technique significantly increased the mean improvement in range of motion of proxi-mal interphalangeal joints (P<0.001, while the higher the preoperative flexion contracture was observed in proximal interphalangeal joints, the lower improvement was achieved in range of motion of proximal interphalangeal joints after intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Soft tissue distraction using pentagonal frame technique with gradual and continuous collateral liga-ment and surrounding joint tissues distraction combined with skin Z-plasty significantly improves the range of mo-tion in patients with chronic traumatic flexion deformity of proximal and/or distal interphalangeal joints. Key words: Osteogenesis, distraction; Finger joint; Hand deformities

  6. Causes of prolapse and collapse of the proximal interphalangeal joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractAn understanding of abnormal finger motion depends on a basic knowledge of normal functional anatomy, which can be found in the contributions made by Eyler and Markee (1954), Kaplan (1953), Milford (1968), Stack (1962), Tubiana and Valeillin (1963). It is then possible to appreciate that

  7. [The lateral-dorsal transposition flap for closure of a palmar soft tissue defect of the proximal phalanx on the little finger after limited fasciectomy in recurrent Dupuytren's contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, L; Hohendorff, B; Pillukat, T; van Schoonhoven, J

    2016-02-01

    Closure of a palmar soft tissue defect of the proximal phalanx after limited fasciectomy in recurrent Dupuytren's contracture. A palmar soft tissue defect between the distal flexion crease of the palm and the flexion crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) after limited fasciectomy in Dupuytren's contracture. Scars at the lateral-dorsal portion of the proximal phalanx (e.g., after burns). Modified incision after Bruner ("mini-Bruner"). Removal of the involved fascial cord. If necessary, arthrolysis of the PIP. Raising the lateral-dorsal transposition flap from distal to proximal and rotating it into the palmar soft tissue defect of the proximal phalanx. Closure of the donor site with a skin transplant. Dorsal plaster of Paris with extended fingers and compressive dressing in the palm for 2 days. Afterwards static dorsal splint and daily physiotherapy. Between 2002 and 2007, a total of 32 lateral-dorsal transposition flaps in 30 patients with recurrent Dupuytren's disease of the little finger underwent surgery. In a retrospective study, 19 patients with 20 flaps were available for follow-up evaluation after a mean of 6 years. All flaps had healed. The median flexion contracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint was 0° (preoperatively, 20°), and of the PIP 20° (preoperatively, 85°) according to Tubiana stage 1 (preoperatively, Tubiana stage 3). The median grip strength of both the operated and the contralateral hand was 39 kg. The DASH score averaged 11 points. Overall, 11 patients were very satisfied, 6 patients were satisfied, 1 patient was less satisfied, and 1 patient was unsatisfied.

  8. Double Dislocation of Interphalangeal Joints Accompanied with Contralateral Shoulder Dislocation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Pradyumna Ramchandra; Jariwala, Arpit

    2016-02-01

    Dislocation of any joint is an orthopaedic emergency and needs immediate attention by the attending physician. A delay in reducing a dislocated joint can lead to disastrous complications both immediately as well as in the long run. Although anterior dislocation of a shoulder joint is by far the commonest dislocation encountered by any emergency care physician, other joints may also get dislocated. In certain cases two joints may get dislocated simultaneously. Such dislocation is known as a double dislocation. Double dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint and the distal interphalangeal joint in the same finger is a rare injury. High impact loading at the fingertip is the primary cause in most cases and it is often associated with younger individuals playing contact sports. The right little finger is the digit commonly involved and this injury is evident in football players more often than not. Although closed reduction is a preferred treatment, it may not be always successful. Time of presentation, tendon interposition, associated swelling and co-existent phalangeal fractures are certain key impediments to a successful closed reduction manoeuvre. In patients with an open injury, a thorough wash out and appropriate antibiotic cover is mandatory. We report a rare case of double dislocation of the interphalangeal joints accompanied with contralateral shoulder dislocation in an elderly man sustained after a fall which was treated successfully with closed reduction and early mobilization. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  10. Dynamic pinch tolerance of the phalanges and interphalangeal joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard; Stacey, Stephen; Parenteau, Chantal

    2008-03-01

    This article presents force and displacement tolerances for pinch loading of the bones and joints of the digits. Dynamic (54 mm/s) pinch loading was applied in a dorsal-palmar direction to all digits (fingers and thumb) on matched pairs of hands from 8 adult human cadavers. Opposed 3.1-mm thick, 1.0-mm radius of curvature aluminum pinching surfaces were used to represent the geometry of moving surfaces in an automobile, such as doors, lift gates, or window edges. Injury timing was determined using acoustic sensors. The applied force and the distance between the pinching surfaces at the time of an acoustic burst were recorded. The force tolerance ranged from 245 N for the distal phalanx of the fifth digit (little finger) to 1,155 N for the middle phalanx of the second digit (index finger), with a general trend toward increasing force tolerance for more proximal anatomical structures. The distance between pinching surfaces (gap) at the time of injury ranged from 4.5 mm for the distal interphalangeal joint of the fifth digit to 9.1 mm for the proximal phalanx of the third digit (middle finger). Orthopedic trauma found during necropsy of the test specimens included tuft fractures, transverse fractures, cortical crush injuries, a longitudinal fracture, and tendon injuries. A value of approximately 35% of the initial dorsal-palmar dimension of the phalanx is reasonably representative of the gap tolerance for all digits and loading sites considered here. Although additional testing is required to quantify variability in tolerance, the tests here indicate that moving surfaces having geometry similar to that considered here would not be expected to injure a digit if the opposing surfaces come no closer together than 35% of the digit's dorsal-palmar dimension.

  11. PIP(2)-binding site in Kir channels: definition by multiscale biomolecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Phillip J; Hopkinson, Richard; Ashcroft, Frances M; Sansom, Mark S P

    2009-11-24

    Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is an activator of mammalian inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. Multiscale simulations, via a sequential combination of coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics, enabled exploration of the interactions of PIP(2) molecules within the inner leaflet of a lipid bilayer membrane with possible binding sites on Kir channels. Three Kir channel structures were investigated: X-ray structures of KirBac1.1 and of a Kir3.1-KirBac1.3 chimera and a homology model of Kir6.2. Coarse-grained simulations of the Kir channels in PIP(2)-containing lipid bilayers identified the PIP(2)-binding site on each channel. These models of the PIP(2)-channel complexes were refined by conversion to an atomistic representation followed by molecular dynamics simulation in a lipid bilayer. All three channels were revealed to contain a conserved binding site at the N-terminal end of the slide (M0) helix, at the interface between adjacent subunits of the channel. This binding site agrees with mutagenesis data and is in the proximity of the site occupied by a detergent molecule in the Kir chimera channel crystal. Polar contacts in the coarse-grained simulations corresponded to long-lived electrostatic and H-bonding interactions between the channel and PIP(2) in the atomistic simulations, enabling identification of key side chains.

  12. The PIP-II Reference Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri, [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-06-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is a high-intensity proton facility being developed to support a world-leading neutrino program over the next two decades at Fermilab. PIP-II is an integral part of the U.S. Intensity Frontier Roadmap as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 [1]. As an immediate goal PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing a beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of LBNF [1,2] operations. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term concept for a sustained campaign of upgrades and improvements to achieve multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab. PIP-II is based on three major thrusts. They are (1) the recently completed upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector (MI) for the NOvA experiment, (2) the Proton Improvement Plan [3] currently underway, and (3) the Project X Reference Design [4]. Note that: The Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) consolidates a set of improvements to the existing Linac, Booster, and Main Injector (MI) aimed at supporting 15 Hz Booster beam operation. In combination, the NOvA upgrades and PIP create a capability of delivering 700 kW beam power from the Main Injector at 120 GeV; The scope of the Project X Reference Design Report was aimed well beyond PIP. It described a complete concept for a multi-MW proton facility that could support a broad particle physics program based on neutrino, kaon, muon, and nucleon experiments [5,6]. The Project X conceptual design has evolved over a number of years, incorporating continuous input on physics research goals and advances in the underlying technology development programs [7,8,9]. PIP-II, to high degree, inherits these goals as the goals for future developments and upgrades. This document (PIP-II Reference Design Report) describes an initial step in the development of the Fermilab accelerating complex. The plan described in this Report balances the far-term goals of the Laboratory

  13. Coxins interfalangeanos sobre paquidermodactilia Interphalangeal pads on pachydermodactyly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Coxins interfalangeanos são nodulações ceratósicas, de limites precisos, com aproximadamente um centímetro de diâmetro, geralmente sobre as articulações interfalangenas das mãos. A paquidermodactilia é uma tumefação uniforme da pele que ocorre nas falanges proximais das mãos. É relatado o caso de um jovem com associação de paquidermodactilia e coxins interfalangeanos, fato não encontrado na literatura médica. Embora haja descrição que considera serem essas manifestações diversas da mesma doença, acredita-se que sejam entidades distintas. O ato compulsivo de atritar a pele parece ser o denominador comum mais aceito para justificar as duas doenças. Os autores postulam que o coxim interfalangeano seria uma resposta epidérmica, enquanto a paquidermodactilia, uma resposta dérmica a um mesmo fator traumático sobre a pele. O paciente foi tratado com infiltração intralesional de triancinolona, com melhora clínica expressiva das duas manifestações.Knuckle pads are keratotic nodulations within precise limits and approximately one centimeter in diameter, usually on the interphalangeal joints of the hands. Pachydermodactyly is a uniform swelling of the skin occurring in the proximal phalanges of the hands. A case involving a young man suffering from several knuckle pad lesions concomitant with pachydermodactyly was studied. This association has not been previously described in the literature. Although it has been reported that both conditions are different manifestations of the same disease, they are believed to be distinct disorders. The compulsive act of rubbing the skin seems to be a common denominator mostly accepted as the cause of both diseases. The authors affirm that knuckle pads may be acquired as an epidermal response, while pachydermodactyly, is a dermal response to the same traumatic factor to the skin. The patient was treated with intralesional infiltration of triamcinolone resulting in a remarkable clinical

  14. The PIP-II Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Burov, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chakravarty, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chen, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dixon, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Edelen, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holmes, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kazakov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Klebaner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kourbanis, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Leveling, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Melnychuk, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nicol, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostiguy, J. -F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasquinelli, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Passarelli, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ristori, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patrick, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Saini, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schappert, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Steimel, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Scarpine, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vivoli, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Warner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yakovlev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostroumov, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conway, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) encompasses a set of upgrades and improvements to the Fermilab accelerator complex aimed at supporting a world-leading neutrino program over the next several decades. PIP-II is an integral part of the strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 and formalized through the Mission Need Statement approved in November 2015. As an immediate goal, PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing proton beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) program, currently anticipated for the mid- 2020s. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term goal of establishing a high-intensity proton facility that is unique within the world, ultimately leading to multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab....

  15. PIP-II Transfer Line Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivoli, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-15

    The U.S. Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report encouraged the realization of Fermilab's Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) to support future neutrino programs in the United States. PIP-II aims at enhancing the capabilities of the Fermilab existing accelerator complex while simultaneously providing a flexible platform for its future upgrades. The central part of PIP-II project is the construction of a new 800 MeV H- Superconducting (SC) Linac together with upgrades of the Booster and Main Injector synchrotrons. New transfer lines will also be needed to deliver beam to the down-stream accelerators and facilities. In this paper we present the recent development of the design of the transfer lines discussing the principles that guided their design, the constraints and requirements imposed by the existing accelerator complex and the following modifications implemented to comply with a better understanding of the limitations and further requirements that emerged during the development of the project.

  16. Hallux interphalangeal joint range of motion in feet with and without limited first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, Pedro V; Trujillo, Piedad; Güiza, Israel

    2012-01-01

    This work was designed to assess the degree of correlation between hallux interphalangeal joint and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and to compare the mobility of the hallux interphalangeal joint between participants with and without limited first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion (hallux limitus). Dorsiflexion of the hallux interphalangeal joint was measured in 60 normal feet and in 60 feet with hallux limitus to find correlations with first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion with the Spearman correlation coefficient and a simple linear regression equation. In addition, movement of the hallux interphalangeal joint was compared between normal and hallux limitus feet with the Mann-Whitney U test. Significant differences were found between the groups in mean ± SD interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion (control group: 1.17° ± 2.50° ; hallux limitus group: 10.65° ± 8.24° ; P dorsiflexion and hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion (ρ = -0.766, P dorsiflexion = 27.17 - 0.381 × first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion. Hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion was greater in feet with hallux limitus than in normal feet. There was a strong inverse correlation between first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion.

  17. Irreducible plantar dislocation of the interphalangeal joint of the great toe due to an accessory sesamoid bone: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Takaaki; Katsuo, Shinichi; Sunayama, Chiaki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Ojima, Tomohiro; Yamakado, Kotaro; Ando, Tomonari; Watanabe, Shin; Hayashi, Seigaku; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Great toe dislocation frequently occurs at the metatarsophalangeal joint. However, an irreducible dislocation of the great toe interphalangeal (IP) joint due to an accessory sesamoid bone is relatively unusual. A 23-year-old woman suffered a dislocated IP joint of the left great toe. The distal phalanx was plantar subluxated, and the articular surface was misaligned. Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography images did not indicate any factors inhibiting reduction. In addition, the sesamoid bone at the IP joint was found to be rotated in the long-axis direction. The sesamoid bone of the IP joint was hooked from the distal direction and occupied the intercondylar area. IP joint of the left great toe was flexed and the distal phalanx was pushed toward the proximal phalanx during reduction locking with fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia, and the dislocation was successfully reduced. The sesamoid bone at the IP joint is anatomically located dorsal to the flexor hallucis longus tendon and volar plate. The sesamoid bone fitted exactly in the distal intercondylar area. The sesamoid bone in our patient could be rotated by forcible plantar flexion of the IP joint displaced proximally and hooked into the intercondylar area from the proximal aspect. Then, the distal phalanx was pulled proximally through the volar plate. This is the first report on a plantar dislocation of the IP joint.

  18. Distal interphalangeal joint implant arthroplasty in a musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D A; Peimer, C A

    1998-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease commonly affects the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints, causing articular destruction and marginal bone formation. Treatment for pain relief and function is most often done through arthrodesis. The case of a 70-year-old concert violinist with left index finger DIP joint osteoarthritis is presented. Arthritis in the involved joint caused pain and deformity and interfered with the patient's ability to play music. Trial arthrodesis with K-wires proved impossible because of the patient's need for continued mobility. Swanson hinge implant arthroplasty was performed on the affected DIP joint. The patient eventually achieved an excellent result and was able to return to playing the violin professionally. Treatment and therapy guidelines are presented.

  19. Pip and Pop: Nonspatial Auditory Signals Improve Spatial Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Searching for an object within a cluttered, continuously changing environment can be a very time-consuming process. The authors show that a simple auditory pip drastically decreases search times for a synchronized visual object that is normally very difficult to find. This effect occurs even though the pip contains no information on the location…

  20. Brainstem electrical responses from selected tone pip stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M H; Seitz, M R; Jacobson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Brainstem-electrical responses were obtained from 10 normal hearing adult subjects using frequency specific tone pips as stimuli. The four frequency specific tone pips (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were diamond shaped with a 2.5-msec rise/fall time. Each tone pip was presented at four intensity levels (70, 50, 30, and 10 dB hearing threshold level), and graphic recordings were made for each frequency at the specific intensity levels. Frequency specific Wave V intensity-latency functions were plotted, and these results were compared to tone pip data obtained in previous studies. In addition, suggested test procedures for obtaining tone pip brainstem-evoked responses under diagnostic conditions are discussed.

  1. The treatment of prolapse and collapse of the proximal interphalangeal joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractIt is intended here to discuss the correction of these deformities rather than the treatment of the conditions leading to prolapse and collapse. Most hand surgeons will agree that in this kind of surgery success and failure go hand in hand and that it is difficult to separate the two.

  2. Difference in Success Treating Proximal Interphalangeal and Metacarpophalangeal Joints with Collagenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liv Hansen, Karina; Werlinrud, Jens Christian; Larsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dupuytren disease (DD) is a fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fasciae causing extension deficit and impaired hand function. Treatment with injection of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a nonsurgical treatment method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffe......BACKGROUND: Dupuytren disease (DD) is a fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fasciae causing extension deficit and impaired hand function. Treatment with injection of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a nonsurgical treatment method. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  3. Treatment of unstable proximal interphalangeal joint fractures with hemi-hamate osteochondral autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, M; Awada, T; Marin Braun, F; Rostoucher, P; Ninou, M; Erhard, L

    2017-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological results after hemi-hamate resurfacing arthroplasty in patients with acute or chronic unstable fractures of the base of the middle phalanx and to describe technical features that can facilitate the surgical procedure. Hemi-hamate arthroplasties were done in 19 patients (mean age 39 years) with an isolated fracture at the base of the middle phalanx that involved more than 40% of the articular surface. We assessed ten chronic cases (treated >6 weeks after fracture) and nine acute ones (partial graft lysis. IV.

  4. Vascularized transfer of two coherent toe joints in simultaneously reconstructing MCP and PIP of a mutilated finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleitner, K; Blank, B; Klein, S; Geis, S; Aung, T; Prantl, L; Dolderer, J H

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of metacarpal- and interphalangeal joints after severe hand injuries has been proven to be challenging. Commonly used procedures like arthrodesis, amputation or ray resection of the finger compromise the functionality of the injured finger. Especially for young patients, the restoration of all functions of the fingers is a priority. Local tissue transfers for finger joint reconstructions is not an option due to inacceptable donor site morbidity; microsurgical tissue transfers in terms of free toe joint transfers have proven to be a valuable method. We present the case of a patient who suffered an excessive injury from a circular saw to his dominant hand. The MCP Joints of D2-D4 were fully destroyed, along with the PIP joint of a subtotally amputated D4. Arteries, nerves and tendons could be coapted directly, while primarily reconstructing of the finger joints was impossible. To ensure a possible regain of full functionality, two coherent joints, the MTP and the PIP of one toe, were transferred to the ring finger as a single transplant, reconstructing the MCP and the PIP joints of the injured finger in a one step procedure. Additionally the MCP joint of the D2 was reconstructed by the use of a free PIP-joint transfer, further the MCP joint of the D3 was replaced by an MCP endoprosthesis. After a follow up of 3 years the patient displayed full function of his dominant hand including sensitivity, and has gone back to manual work without limitations. The result was cosmetically acceptable and the donor site defect was easily being tolerated by the patient who is playing soccer in the regional soccer league. Free double toe joint transfer has been proven feasible in this patient. While transferring a single toe joint to reconstruct a finger joint is a well-established method, our review of the latest literature showed no case of a free transfer of two coherent joints and three transplanted joints in one hand. The applied microsurgical technique should

  5. NAMMA CLOUD MICROPHYSICS (CAPS-PIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Cloud Microphysics (CAPS-PIP) dataset consists of particle size distributions from the Clouds, Aerosol and Preciptaition Spectrometer (CAPS) and the...

  6. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incubated ostrich eggs with intermediate levels of water loss, i.e. between 9.0 and 18.9% of fresh-egg weight, were more likely to pip in the correct position overall than those with higher or lower levels of water loss. Chicks from eggs stored for intermediate periods, i.e. 3, 4 and 6 days prior to being set, were more likely to pip ...

  7. Distal border synovial invaginations of the equine distal sesamoid bone communicate with the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Julien; Videau, Marine

    2017-03-20

    Macroscopic studies have suggested a link between distal border synovial invaginations of the navicular bone and the distal interphalangeal joint. However, many practitioners consider that these invaginations are directly and solely related to navicular disease. The objective was to investigate the communication pattern of these synovial invaginations with the synovial compartments of the distal interphalangeal joint and the navicular bursa, using minimally invasive imaging techniques. In a prospective observational study, 10 cadaveric limbs with radiographically evident distal border synovial invaginations were randomly assigned to computed tomography arthrography or bursography groups, using iopamidol. In 5/5 limbs, contrast medium filled the invaginations following distal interphalangeal arthrography. In the other five limbs, no contrast medium filled the invaginations following bursography. Contrary to existing beliefs, these invaginations are more likely associated with distal interphalangeal joint synovitis and may not be directly linked to primary navicular bone pathology, but might reflect distal interphalangeal arthropathy. Therefore, the rationale for assessment of these invaginations in stallion selection or pre-purchase examinations as a predictive sign for navicular disease is questionable. Nonetheless, comorbidities are frequent in the equine distal limb. Enlarged synovial invaginations may also be seen in limbs with concomitant primary navicular disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible inter-related pathological processes.

  8. Follow-the-Leader Control for the PIPS Prototype Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L. II; Lippitt, Thimas

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the payload inspection and processing system (PIPS), an automated system programmed off-line for inspection of space shuttle payloads after integration and prior to launch. PIPS features a hyper-redundant 18-degree of freedom (DOF) serpentine truss manipulator capable of snake like motions to avoid obstacles. During the summer of 1995, the author worked on the same project, developing a follow-the-leader (FTL) algorithm in graphical simulation which ensures whole arm collision avoidance by forcing ensuing links to follow the same tip trajectory. The summer 1996 work was to control the prototype PIPS hardware in follow-the-leader mode. The project was successful in providing FTL control in hardware. The STS-82 payload mockup was used in the laboratory to demonstrate serpentine motions to avoid obstacles in a realistic environment.

  9. [REPAIR OF COMPOSITE TISSUE DEFECTS OF DORSAL THUMB INCLUDING INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT BY TRANSPLANTATION OF MODIFIED HALLUX TOE-NAIL COMPOSITE TISSUE FLAP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinwei; He, Zaopeng; Li, Wei; Zhou, Congzhen; Zheng Yudong; Zeng, Difan; Liu, Dongbo

    2015-11-01

    To explore a new improved technique and its effectiveness to repair dorsal thumb composite tissue defects including interphalangeal joint by transplantation of modified hallux toe-nail composite tissue flap. The hallux toe-nail composite tissue flap carrying distal half hallux proximal phalanx, extensor hallucis longus, and interphalangeal joint capsule were designed and applied to repair the dorsal skin, nails, and interphalangeal joint defect of thumb in 14 cases between January 2007 and June 2013. They were all males, aged from 19 to 52 years (mean, 30 years). The time from injury to hospital was 0.5-2.0 hours (mean, 1.2 hours). The area of the thumb nail and dorsal skin defects ranged from 2.5 cm x 1.5 cm to 5.0 cm x 2.5 cm. The dorsal interphalangeal joint had different degrees of bone defect, with residual bone and joint capsule at the palm side. The length of bone defect ranged from 2.5 to 4.0 cm (mean, 3.4 cm). The hallux nail flap size ranged from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 3.0 cm. The donor sites were repaired by skin grafting in 5 cases, and retrograde second dorsal metatarsal artery island flap in 9 cases. After operation, arterial crisis occurred in 1 case and the flap survived after relieving pressure; the other flaps survived, and wounds healed by first intention. Liquefaction necrosis of the skin grafting at donor site occurred in 3 cases, and the other skin grafting and all retrograde second dorsal metatarsal artery island flaps survived. The follow-up ranged from 9 months to 3 years and 6 months (mean, 23 months). The secondary plastic operation was performed in 4 cases at 6 months after operation because of slightly bulky composite tissue flaps. The other composite tissue flaps had good appearance, color, and texture. The growth of the nail was good in 12 cases, and slightly thickened in 2 cases. At last follow-up, X-ray examination showed that bone graft and proximal phalanx of the thumb had good bone healing in 12 cases. Good bone healing was

  10. Crystal structure of the novel complex formed between zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) from human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Bilgrami, Sameeta; Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Nagendra; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Singh, T P

    2008-12-19

    This is the first report on the formation of a complex between zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and prolactin-inducible protein (PIP). The complex was purified from human seminal plasma and crystallized using 20% polyethylene glycol 9000 and 5% hexaethylene glycol. The structure of the complex has been determined using X-ray crystallographic method and refined to an R(cryst) of 0.199 (R(free)=0.239). The structure of ZAG is broadly similar to the structure of serum ZAG. The scaffolding of PIP consists of seven beta-strands that are organized in the form of two antiparallel beta-pleated sheets, resulting in the formation of a sandwiched beta-sheet. The amino acid sequence of PIP contains one potential N-glycosylation site at Asn77, and the same is found glycosylated with four sugar residues. The structure of the complex shows that the beta-structure of PIP is ideally aligned with the beta-structure of domain alpha3 of ZAG to form a long interface between two proteins. The proximal beta-strands at the long interface are arranged in an antiparallel manner. There are 12 hydrogen bonds and three salt bridges between ZAG and PIP. At the two ends of vertical interface, two salt bridges are formed between pairs of Lys41-Asp233 and Lys68-Glu229. On the perpendicular interface involving alpha1-alpha2 domains of ZAG and a loop of PIP, another salt bridge is formed. The internal space at the corner of the L-shaped structure is filled with solvent molecules including a carbonate ion. The overall buried area in the complex is approximately 914 A(2), which is considerably higher than the 660 A(2) reported for the class I major histocompatibility complex structures.

  11. Irreducible dislocation of the thumb interphalangeal joint due to displaced flexor pollicis longus tendon: case report and new reduction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kiyohito; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Igeta, Yuka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    Dislocation of the thumb interphalangeal (IP) joint is uncommon because of the inherent stability of the joint. Cases in which reduction was blocked by the volar plate, the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, the sesamoid bone, and an osteochondral fragment have been described in the literature. This article reports a case of closed thumb IP joint dislocation caused by the displacement of the FPL tendon. A new percutaneous reduction technique for this injury will also be presented. A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with an obvious thumb deformity. Radiographs confirmed dorsal dislocation of the thumb IP joint without associated fracture. Closed reduction was not successful. Percutaneous reduction was performed under locoregional anesthesia, because the dislocation was due to an FPL tendon that had displaced dorsally and radially to the proximal phalanx. After reduction, Kirschner wire fixation was not needed, but IP joint immobilization with a splint was required for 3 weeks. Postoperatively, there were no complications in soft tissues and the operative scar was almost unrecognizable. This technique enables a mini-invasive reduction by operating percutaneously on the FPL. In addition, unlike with a volar zigzag approach, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of postoperative adhesion of the flexor tendon. This new minimally invasive reduction technique is useful for irreducible dislocation of the thumb IP joint due to a displaced FPL tendon.

  12. PIP joint volar rotatory dislocation: An anatomical study to explore extensor system lesions and the Stener effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journé, A; Dana, C; Kilinc, A S; Nourissat, G; Doursounian, L

    2013-06-01

    Volar rotatory dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint results from volar rotation of the condyle around an intact opposite collateral ligament. A cadaveric study was preformed to better understand the mechanisms of this injury. Thirty-two long fingers (II to V) were studied. After partial section of the triangular ligament, the radial collateral ligament was cut (partly or completely, at proximal or distal insertion) and volar rotatory dislocation was induced. We studied the incidence of a fixed dislocation, the distal extension of the triangular ligament lesion, and the Stener lesion of the radial collateral ligament. A buttonhole lesion was produced by a dislocated lateral band in all cases with complete section of the collateral ligament. When the lesion of the triangular ligament extended distally, dislocation became irreducible. A Stener effect (interposition of the lateral band between the condyle and the collateral ligament) was observed after reduction in 21% of cases with proximal lesions of the radial collateral ligament. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  14. Transition Crossing in the Main Injector for PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Chaurize, S. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) [1] is Fermilab’s plan for providing powerful, high-intensity proton beams to the laboratory’s experiments. PIP II will include upgrades to the Booster, Recycler and Main Injector which will be required to accelerate 50% more beam as well as increasing the Booster repetition rate from 15 to 20 Hz. To accommodate the faster rate, the momentum separation of the slip stacking beams in the Recycler must increase which will result in in larger longitudinal emittance bunches in MI. In order to cross transition without losses, it is expected a gamma-t jump will be needed. Gamma-t jump schemes for the MI are investigated.

  15. [Repair of collateral ligament rupture in the interphalangeal joint using superficial flexor tendon of finger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, S; Guan, Z M; Liu, C

    2000-01-01

    To introduce the surgical procedure and clinical result of microsurgical repair on collateral ligament rupture in the interphalangeal joint using superficial flexor tendon of finger. From 1987, 23 cases with collateral ligament rupture in the interphalangeal joint were repaired by part of superficial flexor tendon of finger. The initial point of collateral ligament was drilled two holes, 2 to 3 mm in distance, and crossed by steel wire. Then the superficial flexor tendon of finger was crossed under the steel wire and sutured to the terminal point of superficial flexor tendon of finger by 5/0 to 7/0 nontraumatic suture thread to maintain suitable tension, and sutured to collateral ligament by 8/0 nontraumatic suture thread. Extension splint fixation was performed 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Followed up 3 to 6 months, 15 cases were excellent, 6 cases were better, 2 cases were moderate, and the excellent rate was 91.34% according to Saetta standard. Microsurgical repair on collateral ligament rupture in the interphalangeal joint using superficial flexor tendon of finger is a convenient and effective surgical method.

  16. Neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials using a tone pip auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, E S; Zamba-Papanicolaou, E; Pantziaris, M; Kleopas, K; Kyriakides, T; Papacostas, S; Pattichis, C; Iliopoulos, I; Piperidou, C

    2004-01-01

    To obtain neurogenic vestibular evoked potentials (NVESTEPs) with surface scalp recording using a tone pip auditory stimulus. Fourteen neurologically normal volunteers (Age range 26-45 years, 10 females and 4 males), and two patients with sensorineural hearing loss and possible multiple sclerosis respectively, were examined. Two channel recordings were obtained, the first channel being P3 referred to Fpz, and the second channel being P4 referred to Fpz. A 1 kHz tone pip stimulus with two cycles was delivered via headphones monoaurally with contralateral masking noise. A consistent negative wave with a mean absolute latency of 4.72 msec was obtained, which we have named N5. 25% of the ears tested had better responses at the ipsilateral parietal electrode. In the patient with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, NVESTEPs was present, suggesting that the NVESTEP is not a cochlear response. In the patient with possible multiple sclerosis, an abnormal NVESTEP response and a normal BAEP response were found. Use of a tone-pip rather than a click auditory stimulus allows a lower click intensity to be used in the production of NVESTEP responses, leads to a shorter testing time, and is therefore more comfortable for the patient. This study adds to our impression that the NVESTEP may be a physiological response that can be used to assess the vestibular system and is different from the BAEP response. Further testing in patients with symptoms of dizziness and with disorders specific for the vestibular nerve is required.

  17. Hearing-aid-processed tone pips: electroacoustic and ABR characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E; Klein, A J; Snydee, K A

    1999-04-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) recorded while wearing a hearing aid may supply supplemental information about the benefit and appropriateness of the hearing aid for certain infants. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the effects of different output limiting circuits on the acoustics of tone-pip stimuli used for ABR recordings and (2) assess how changes in hearing-aid-processed stimuli affect ABR characteristics. Electroacoustic input/output functions to tone-pip stimuli were constructed for three different output limiting circuits (wide dynamic range compression, output compression, and linear with peak clipping) available in a programmable hearing aid. Wave V latency and amplitude functions were then measured to the same stimuli and hearing aid settings in five normal-hearing adults. Electroacoustic results showed that none of the output limiting circuits, including linear peak clipping, were effectively activated by tone pips compared to the hearing aid performance to continuous tones. Aided wave V latency and amplitude functions were asymptotic to high stimulus levels, suggesting that cochlear output was in saturation.

  18. A lightweight PIP solution for ultra deep water applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, P.; Monti, P. [Saipem Energy International, Saipem Group (Italy); Donato, S. [Milanese (Italy)

    2002-12-01

    The flow assurance requirements associated to deep and ultra-deep water field developments are becoming more and more stringent. Overall Heat Transfer values lower than 1.0 W/m{sup 2} deg. C, associated to long cool down periods, are appearing now, and such requirements (or more stringent ones) are expected to be the trend for the future. The PIP configuration represents a common solution, for the fulfillment of these requirements. Saipem, in co-operation with Saipem Energy International, is developing a new PIP concept, patent pending, characterised by low weight components and materials. In particular, this concept adopts an outer carrier pipe composed by low cost Glass Reinforced Plastics, connected mechanically to the inner pipe through a joint composed by a polymeric material. A high performance insulating material provides the requested thermal performances. This new concept can be treated as a single pipe: in particular, only a single welding (the welding of the inner pipe) has to be made on the J-Lay ramp. The submerged weight of this system is low, mainly f stringent thermal requirements have to be satisfied. This fact results in low tension requirements at the J-Lay ramp. Therefore, this lightweight PIP system can be installed also in 2500 m water depth, using the standard J-Lay technology. Concerning ultra deep water applications, this new concept can be attractive either for flow-lines running on the sea bottom, or for rigid sections of hybrid risers. (authors)

  19. CAPS and Munc13 utilize distinct PIP2-linked mechanisms to promote vesicle exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Greg; Yamaga, Masaki; Kielar-Grevstad, D. Michelle; Bruinsma, Stephen; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides provide compartment-specific signals for membrane trafficking. Plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis, but whether vesicles fuse into PIP2-rich membrane domains in live cells and whether PIP2 is metabolized during Ca2+-triggered fusion were unknown. Ca2+-dependent activator protein in secretion 1 (CAPS-1; CADPS/UNC31) and ubMunc13-2 (UNC13B) are PIP2-binding proteins required for Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. These proteins are likely effectors for PIP2, but their localization during exocytosis had not been determined. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in live cells, we identify PIP2-rich membrane domains at sites of vesicle fusion. CAPS is found to reside on vesicles but depends on plasma membrane PIP2 for its activity. Munc13 is cytoplasmic, but Ca2+-dependent translocation to PIP2-rich plasma membrane domains is required for its activity. The results reveal that vesicle fusion into PIP2-rich membrane domains is facilitated by sequential PIP2-dependent activation of CAPS and PIP2-dependent recruitment of Munc13. PIP2 hydrolysis only occurs under strong Ca2+ influx conditions sufficient to activate phospholipase Cη2 (PLCη2). Such conditions reduce CAPS activity and enhance Munc13 activity, establishing PLCη2 as a Ca2+-dependent modulator of exocytosis. These studies provide a direct view of the spatial distribution of PIP2 linked to vesicle exocytosis via regulation of lipid-dependent protein effectors CAPS and Munc13. PMID:24356451

  20. Anoctamin 6 Contributes to Cl- Secretion in Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace)-stimulated Diarrhea: AN ESSENTIAL ROLE FOR PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BISPHOSPHATE (PIP2) SIGNALING IN CHOLERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Joydeep; Hayashi, Mikio; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Ghosh, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Rajsekhar; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Chatterjee, Tanaya; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2016-12-23

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae has been shown to contribute to diarrhea. However, the signaling mechanism and specific type of Cl- channel activated by Ace are still unknown. We have shown here that the recombinant Ace protein induced ICl of apical plasma membrane, which was inhibited by classical CaCC blockers. Surprisingly, an Ace-elicited rise of current was neither affected by ANO1 (TMEM16A)-specific inhibitor T16A(inh)-AO1(TAO1) nor by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTR inh-172. Ace stimulated whole-cell current in Caco-2 cells. However, the apical ICl was attenuated by knockdown of ANO6 (TMEM16F). This impaired phenotype was restored by re-expression of ANO6 in Caco-2 cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of ANO currents in HEK293 cells transiently expressing mouse ANO1-mCherry or ANO6-GFP confirmed that Ace induced Cl- secretion. Application of Ace produced ANO6 but not the ANO1 currents. Ace was not able to induce a [Ca2+]i rise in Caco-2 cells, but cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) increased. Identification of the PIP2-binding motif at the N-terminal sequence among human and mouse ANO6 variants along with binding of PIP2 directly to ANO6 in HEK293 cells indicate likely PIP2 regulation of ANO6. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of Ace stimulated Cl- current along with intestinal fluid accumulation, and binding of PIP2 to the proximal KR motif of channel proteins, whose mutagenesis correlates with altered binding of PIP2, is comparable with ANO6 stimulation. We conclude that ANO6 is predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it contributes secretory diarrhea by Ace stimulation in a calcium-independent mechanism of RhoA-ROCK-PIP2 signaling. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The PIP mammary prosthesis: a product recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M G; Stanek, Jan J

    2012-06-01

    Concerns about the durability of silicone breast implants manufactured by Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) have been expressed for several years prior to their formal withdrawal from the market in March 2010. Although precise details of what elements were at fault remain unclear, concerns have been raised about both the elastomer and the filler gel. Media speculation has focussed on device safety, longevity and, recently, a possible association with lymphoma, specifically anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). There is however, no actual data concerning these implants with which to guide and inform when concerned patients seek advice. PIP mammary prostheses were used by the senior author for both primary and revision breast augmentation (BA) during the period January 2000-August 2005. A database of patients was constructed and attempts made to contact each patient offering a free consultation and referral for ultrasound scan (USS). Chief outcome measures included secondary surgery, the implant rupture rate and time to rupture. 453 consecutive patients with PIP devices were identified. Of this number 30 had already undergone implant exchange for a variety of reasons. 180 (39.7%) could not be contacted and 19 had undergone explantation elsewhere, including the NHS. Of those who could be contacted, 47 declined consultation as they had no concerns. 97 had neither clinical signs nor radiographic evidence of implant rupture and elected to remain under regular review. At the time of writing, 38 have undergone implant exchange after ultrasonographic indication of rupture and the overall patient rupture rate for the PIP implant is 15.9-33.8%. This cohort correlates reduced implant longevity with each successive year from 2000 and no cases of ALCL have been diagnosed. Long-term studies such as this are difficult to undertake for a number of reasons as they place a significant additional burden of resources on a practice. They are, however, essential from an industry perspective

  2. Importance of proximal A2 and A4 pulleys to maintaining kinematics in the hand: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C; Sensinger, Jon; McNeal, David; Chow, Bettina; Amirouche, Farid; Gonzalez, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The A2 and A4 pulleys have been shown to be important in finger flexor tendon function. Other authors have suggested either reconstruction or venting of portions of these pulleys in an attempt to preserve finger function in certain clinical situations. This study examines the effects of partial incision of these pulleys on finger flexion kinematics and biomechanics. The index and ring fingers of 16 cadaveric hands were studied. The flexor digitorum profundus tendon was isolated and attached to a computer driven servo-motor. Micro-potentiometers measured flexion angles of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal inter-phalangeal and distal inter-phalangeal joints. Joint inertial torques were calculated making use of this experimental kinematic data. Proximal 50 % incisions of either the A2 or the A4 pulleys resulted in a statistically significant decrease in overall finger motion. This effect was greatest in the proximal inter-phalangeal joint, with a decrease in joint motion, as well as an earlier time to initiation of motion. These changes in finger motion were more pronounced with A2 pulley incision than they were with A4 pulley incision, but the changes were statistically significant in either case. No significant changes in joint inertial torques were shown. Our data provides evidence to the importance of the proximal portions of the A2 and A4 pulleys, and may support partial distal incision of these pulleys in certain clinical situations.

  3. Dynamic PIP2 interactions with voltage sensor elements contribute to KCNQ2 channel gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiansen; Zhou, Pingzheng; Chen, Zhuxi; Li, Min; Jiang, Hualiang; Gao, Zhaobing; Yang, Huaiyu

    2013-01-01

    The S4 segment and the S4–S5 linker of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are crucial for voltage sensing. Previous studies on the Shaker and Kv1.2 channels have shown that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) exerts opposing effects on Kv channels, up-regulating the current amplitude, while decreasing the voltage sensitivity. Interactions between PIP2 and the S4 segment or the S4–S5 linker in the closed state have been highlighted to explain the effects of PIP2 on voltage sensitivity. Here, we show that PIP2 preferentially interacts with the S4–S5 linker in the open-state KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) channel, whereas it contacts the S2–S3 loop in the closed state. These interactions are different from the PIP2–Shaker and PIP2–Kv1.2 interactions. Consistently, PIP2 exerts different effects on KCNQ2 relative to the Shaker and Kv1.2 channels; PIP2 up-regulates both the current amplitude and voltage sensitivity of the KCNQ2 channel. Disruption of the interaction of PIP2 with the S4–S5 linker by a single mutation decreases the voltage sensitivity and current amplitude, whereas disruption of the interaction with the S2–S3 loop does not alter voltage sensitivity. These results provide insight into the mechanism of PIP2 action on KCNQ channels. In the closed state, PIP2 is anchored at the S2–S3 loop; upon channel activation, PIP2 interacts with the S4–S5 linker and is involved in channel gating. PMID:24277843

  4. PIP-II Injector Test: Challenges and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P. F. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the Injector Test warm front end, including results of the beam commissioning through the installed components, and progress with SRF cryomodules and other systems.

  5. Investigation of the MARCKS-PIP2 Interaction through Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and the Use of a Novel Spin-Labeled PIP2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauch, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    The phospholipid, phosphoinositol 4, 5, bisphosphate (PIP2) has been implicated in a number of diverse cellular functions, which include membrane trafficking, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis and exocytosis...

  6. The Paradox of Giftedness and Autism: Packet of Information for Professionals (PIP)--Revised (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Colangelo, Nicholas; O'Brien, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This "Packet of Information for Professionals" (PIP) was developed for professionals who work with gifted and talented students who have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of PIP is to offer recommendations that will lead to a positive experience for twice-exceptional students who participate in specialized programs for…

  7. Low PIP2 molar fractions induce nanometer size clustering in giant unilamellar vesicles containing POPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvemini, Iyrri; Gaua, D.; Reid, J.

    2014-01-01

    PIP2, these results demonstrate the presence of PIP2 enriched clusters that are smaller than the resolution limit of the fluorescent microscope. In addition, we report the presence of a hypsochromic shift of the fluorescence for the BODIPY labeled lipids that we attributed to clustering...

  8. Rare open hallux interphalangeal joint dislocations sustained in combatives training: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc D; May, Ian C; Sweet, Kerry J

    2014-02-01

    Hallux interphalangeal joint dislocations are a very rare occurrence, and open medial dislocations of the hallux interphalangeal joint, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in the literature. We report two open medial dislocations, one with fracture, that were sustained within a year of each other at the same military installation. Both patients presented were active duty soldiers that were involved in barefoot combatives and caught their hallux in the fold of the mats while simultaneously experiencing a "twisting force" applied to their foot by their combatives partner. Each soldier required surgical intervention and healed uneventfully, able to return to full activities in an average of 10 weeks with no residual pain. Two injuries of this rarity occurring with the same mechanism of injury within a year at the same military base raise concerns about the surface and shoegear being used for combatives training. The initial analysis of these two separate but similar cases points to the fact that injuries to the foot and toes may be reduced by using seamless mats and/or wearing closed-toed shoes (wrestling style) during combatives training. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. [Control observation between mild moxibustion and TDP for obsolete collateral ligament injury of interphalangeal joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulei; Li, Weihua; Xu, Xiaokang; Ding, Chenguang; Tian, Ling; Duan, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Zhifang; Sun, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects between mild moxibustion and specific electromagnetic spectrum therapy apparatus (TDP) for obsolete collateral ligament injury of interphalangeal joints. Sixty patients were randomly divided into a mild moxibustion group and a TDP group, 30 cases in each one. In the mild moxibustion group, pure moxa sticks were used at the affected digital joints locally for 20-30 min a time. In the TDP group, TDP was applied at the affected digital joints locally for 20-30 min a time. The treatment was given once a day for two courses, and 10-day treatment was made into a course. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, swelling degree of the affected digital joints before and after treatment were observed and the clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated in the two groups. The excellent rate was 56.7% (17/30) and the excellent and, good rate was 83.4% (25/30) in the mild moxibustion group,which were better than 36.7% (11/30) and 76.7% (23/30) in the TDP group respectively (both P ligament injury of interphalangeal joints, which is superior to TDP.

  10. Improved C/SiC Ceramic Composites Made Using PIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easler, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Improved carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic-matrix composite (C/SiC CMC) materials, suitable for fabrication of thick-section structural components, are producible by use of a combination of raw materials and processing conditions different from such combinations used in the prior art. In comparison with prior C/SiC CMC materials, these materials have more nearly uniform density, less porosity, and greater strength. The majority of raw-material/processing-condition combinations used in the prior art involve the use of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) for densifying the matrix. In contrast, in synthesizing a material of the present type, one uses a combination of infiltration with, and pyrolysis of, a preceramic polymer [polymer infiltration followed by pyrolysis (PIP)]. PIP processing is performed in repeated, tailored cycles of infiltration followed by pyrolysis. Densification by PIP processing takes less time and costs less than does densification by CVI. When one of these improved materials was tested by exposure to a high-temperature, inert-gas environment that caused prior C/SiC CMCs to lose strength, this material did not lose strength. (Information on the temperature and exposure time was not available at the time of writing this article.) A material of the present improved type consists, more specifically, of (1) carbon fibers coated with an engineered fiber/matrix interface material and (2) a ceramic matrix, containing SiC, derived from a pre-ceramic polymer with ceramic powder additions. The enhancements of properties of these materials relative to those of prior C/SiC CMC materials are attributable largely to engineering of the fiber/ matrix interfacial material and the densification process. The synthesis of a material of this type includes processing at an elevated temperature to a low level of open porosity. The approach followed in this processing allows one to fabricate not only simple plates but also more complexly shaped parts. The carbon fiber

  11. Split degenerate states and stable p+ip phases from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pan, Qiyuan [Hunan Normal Univ., Key Lab. of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Dept. of Physics, Changsha (China); Zeng, Hua-Bi [Yangzhou University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou, Jiangsu (China); National Central University, Department of Physics, Chungli (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we investigate the p+ip superfluid phases in the complex vector field holographic p-wave model. We find that in the probe limit, the p+ip phase and the p-wave phase are equally stable, hence the p and ip orders can be mixed with an arbitrary ratio to form more general p+λip phases, which are also equally stable with the p-wave and p+ip phases. As a result, the system possesses a degenerate thermal state in the superfluid region. We further study the case on considering the back-reaction on the metric, and we find that the degenerate ground states will be separated into p-wave and p+ip phases, and the p-wave phase is more stable. Finally, due to the different critical temperature of the zeroth order phase transitions from p-wave and p+ip phases to the normal phase, there is a temperature region where the p+ip phase exists but the p-wave phase does not. In this region we find the stable holographic p+ip phase for the first time. (orig.)

  12. Regulation of Sperm Capacitation and the Acrosome Reaction by PIP 2 and Actin Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Breitbart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin polymerization and development of hyperactivated (HA motility are two processes that take place during sperm capacitation. Actin polymerization occurs during capacitation and prior to the acrosome reaction, fast F-actin breakdown takes place. The increase in F-actin during capacitation depends upon inactivation of the actin severing protein, gelsolin, by its binding to phosphatydilinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 and its phosphorylation on tyrosine-438 by Src. Activation of gelsolin following its release from PIP 2 is known to cause F-actin breakdown and inhibition of sperm motility, which can be restored by adding PIP 2 to the cells. Reduction of PIP 2 synthesis inhibits actin polymerization and motility, while increasing PIP 2 synthesis enhances these activities. Furthermore, sperm demonstrating low motility contained low levels of PIP 2 and F-actin. During capacitation there was an increase in PIP 2 and F-actin levels in the sperm head and a decrease in the tail. In spermatozoa with high motility, gelsolin was mainly localized to the sperm head before capacitation, whereas in low motility sperm, most of the gelsolin was localized to the tail before capacitation and translocated to the head during capacitation. We also showed that phosphorylation of gelsolin on tyrosine-438 depends upon its binding to PIP 2 . Stimulation of phospholipase C, by Ca 2 + -ionophore or by activating the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor, inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of gelsolin and enhances enzyme activity. In conclusion, these data indicate that the increase of PIP 2 and/or F-actin in the head during capacitation enhances gelsolin translocation to the head. As a result, the decrease of gelsolin in the tail allows the maintenance of high levels of F-actin in this structure, which is essential for the development of HA motility.

  13. Prolactin-induced protein (PIP regulates proliferation of luminal A type breast cancer cells in an estrogen-independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Baniwal

    Full Text Available Prolactin-induced Protein (PIP, an aspartyl protease unessential for normal mammalian cell function, is required for the proliferation and invasion of some breast cancer (BCa cell types. Because PIP expression is particularly high in the Luminal A BCa subtype, we investigated the roles of PIP in the related T47D BCa cell line. Nucleic acid and antibody arrays were employed to screen effects of PIP silencing on global gene expression and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, respectively. Expression of PIP-stimulated genes, as defined in the T47D cell culture model, was well correlated with the expression of PIP itself across a cohort of 557 mRNA profiles of diverse BCa tumors, and bioinformatics analysis revealed cJUN and cMYC as major nodes in the PIP-dependent gene network. Among 71 RTKs tested, PIP silencing resulted in decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, ephrin B3 (EphB3, FYN, and hemopoietic cell kinase (HCK. Ablation of PIP also abrogated serum-induced activation of the downstream serine/threonine kinases AKT, ERK1/2, and JNK1. Consistent with these results, PIP-depleted cells exhibited defects in adhesion to fibronectin, cytoskeletal stress fiber assembly and protein secretion. In addition, PIP silencing abrogated the mitogenic response of T47D BCa cells to estradiol (E2. The dependence of BCa cell proliferation was unrelated, however, to estrogen signaling because: 1 PIP silencing did not affect the transcriptional response of estrogen target genes to hormone treatment, and 2 PIP was required for the proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant BCa cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PIP may therefore serve the bases for both augmentation of existing therapies for hormone-dependent tumors and the development of novel therapeutic approaches for hormone-resistant BCa.

  14. Two rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, are involved in transport and providing tolerance to boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Mosa, Kareem A; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is responsible for low cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. In this report, we characterized two rice genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, for their involvement in B permeability and tolerance. Transcript analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 were downregulated in shoots and strongly upregulated in rice roots by high B treatment. Expression of both OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in yeast HD9 strain lacking Fps1, ACR3, and Ycf1 resulted in an increased B sensitivity. Furthermore, yeast HD9 strain expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 accumulated significantly higher B as compared to empty vector control, which suggests their involvement in B transport. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis imparted higher tolerance under B toxicity. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 showed significantly higher biomass production and greater root length, however there was no difference in B accumulation in long term uptake assay. Short-term uptake assay using tracer B (¹⁰B) in shoots and roots demonstrated increased ¹⁰B accumulation in Arabidopsis lines expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, compare to wild type control plants. Efflux assay of B in the roots showed that ¹⁰B was effluxed from the Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsPIP2;4 or OsPIP2;7 during the initial 1-h of assay. These data indicate that OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 are involved in mediating B transport in rice and provide tolerance via efflux of excess B from roots and shoot tissues. These genes will be highly useful in developing B tolerant crops for enhanced yield in the areas affected by high B toxicity.

  15. Evidence of sinks and sources in the phospholipase C activated PIP2 cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratekar, Rohit; Panda, Aniruddha; Padinjat, Raghu; Krishna, Sandeep

    2018-02-10

    In many eukaryotic signalling cascades, receptor mediated phospholipase C (PLC) activity triggers phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) hydrolysis leading to information transfer. Coupled with PLC activation is a sequence of reactions spread across multiple compartments which resynthesize PIP2 , a process essential for supporting sustained PLC signalling. The biochemical strategies coordinating these reactions and, in particular, whether this is a closed cycle with no net addition or loss of metabolites, are poorly understood. Using mathematical models, we find that most closed PIP2 cycles cannot explain experimentally observed changes in key metabolic intermediates in particular mutants. Thus, we propose that the PIP2 cycle likely includes at least one metabolic source and one sink whose net activity results in the experimentally observed regulation of this key signalling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual Regulation of Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels by PIP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo A Rodríguez Menchaca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 16 years, there has been an impressive number of ion channels shown to be sensitive to the major phosphoinositide in the plasma membrane, phosphatidilinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Among them are voltage-gated channels, which are crucial for both neuronal and cardiac excitability. Voltage-gated calcium (Cav channels were shown to be regulated bidirectionally by PIP2. On one hand, PIP2 stabilized their activity by reducing current rundown but on the other hand it produced a voltage-dependent inhibition by shifting the activation curve to more positive voltages. For voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels PIP2 was first shown to prevent N-type inactivation. Careful examination of the effects of PIP2 on the activation mechanism of Kv1.2 has shown a similar bidirectional regulation as in the Cav channels. The two effects could be distinguished kinetically, in terms of their sensitivities to PIP2 and by distinct molecular determinants. The rightward shift of the Kv1.2 voltage dependence implicated basic residues in the S4-S5 linker and was consistent with stabilization of the inactive state of the voltage sensor. A third type of a voltage-gated ion channel modulated by PIP2 is the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channel. PIP2 has been shown to enhance the opening of HCN channels by shifting their voltage-dependent activation toward depolarized potentials. The sea urchin HCN channel, SpIH, showed again a PIP2-mediated bidirectional effect but in reverse order than the depolarization-activated Cav and Kv channels: a voltage-dependent potentiation, like the mammalian HCN channels, but also an inhibition of the cGMP-induced current activation. Just like the Kv1.2 channels, distinct molecular determinants underlied the PIP2 dual effects on SpIH channels. The dual regulation of these very different ion channels, all of which are voltage dependent, points to conserved mechanisms of regulation of these channels by PIP2.

  17. [Expression of ZmPIP1 subgroup genes in maize roots under water shortage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, An-Hui; Zhang, Sui-Qi; Deng, Xi-Ping; Shan, Lun; Liu, Xiao-Fang

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the role of ZmPIP1-1 and ZmPIP1-2 in water uptake of roots and drought resistance of crops, semi-quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of ZmPIP1-1 and ZmPIP1-2 in root systems of different maize genotypes under water deficit. These genotypes showed different resistance to water shortage under field conditions. The reference gene to target genes was tubulin. Maize seedlings were grown by hydroponics in a growth chamber. Water deficit was imposed on the seedlings with PEG-6000. The result showed that ZmPIP1-1 was up-regulated under water deficit in root systems of plants of the filial generation 'Hudan 4' and the mother line 'Tiansi', which were resistant to water shortage, but there was no noticeable up-regulation of ZmPIP1-1 in the root systems of the father line '803', which was sensitive to water deprivation. The result also showed that the extent of up-regulation was positively correlated with drought resistance of maize (Fig.3). On the other hand, the expression of ZmPIP1-1 showed different degrees of tendency after different duration of water stress in the root systems of the maize seedlings of different genotypes. The result showed that ZmPIP1-2 was identically expressed in three different species of maize and under different water conditions. The results support the theory that the intercellular water transport contributes to increased water uptake in root systems under water deficit by up-regulating the number of some kinds of aquaporins. The increases amount of transcripts of aquaporins is positively correlated to drought resistance of plant varieties. But not all kinds of number of aquaporins is up-regulated during water shortage, some kinds of aquaporins are identically expressed under water deficit conditions and well watered conditions.

  18. Yubitsume: ritualistic self-amputation of proximal digits among the Yakuza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-07-01

    Yubitsume is the ritualistic self-amputation of the proximal digits at the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) among members of the Japanese Mafia, or Yakuza. This practice of self-mutilation is done as a sign of apology for making a mistake deemed punishable by higher-ranking members or violating the code of the Yakuza. Members of the Yakuza may present to emergency departments seeking medical assistance to stop hemorrhage or treat infection at the site of injury following self-amputation or to have the severed portion of the injured finger reattached. .© 2014 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  19. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  20. Complications following surgical treatment for Dupuytren's contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R; Conolly, W B

    1996-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a proliferative fibroplasia that can lead to a significant contracture of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints, causing a functional disability. Surgical excision of the Dupuytren's tissue and release of the contracted joints may be necessary to restore function. Most patients require hand therapy postoperatively. Postoperative complications have been reported at 17%. These include excessive inflammation, hematoma, ischemic skin necrosis, infection, granuloma formation, transient paresthesia, scar contracture, persistent proximal interphalangeal (PIP) flexion contracture, distal interphalangeal (DIP) hyperextension deformity, joint stiffness, poor flexion and grip strength, pain, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). The hand therapist plays a vital role in the early detection and treatment of many of these complications.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging guided treatment of equine distal interphalangeal joint collateral ligaments: 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel A. White

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the success of treating distal interphalangeal joint collateral ligament (DIJCL desmopathy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI guided ligament injection. Methods: Medical records of 13 adult horses diagnosed with DIJCL desmopathy using low field MRI and treated by MRI guided ligament injection of mesenchymal stem cells and/or platelet rich plasma were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, MRI diagnosis, treatment type, time to resolution of lameness and level of exercise after treatment. Results: Collateral ligament inflammation was diagnosed as a cause of lameness in 13 horses. MRI was used to guide the injection of the injured DIJCL. All lameness attributed to DIJCL desmopathy resolved with the resulting level of performance at expected (10 or less than expected (3. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Injection of the DIJCL can be completed in horses standing in a low field magnet guided by MRI as previously demonstrated in cadaver specimens. Administration of stem cells or PRP appears useful as a treatment for DIJCL desmopathy.

  2. A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1;1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Miao, Hongxia; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-08

    Aquaporin (AQP) proteins function in transporting water and other small molecules through the biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to survive in drought or salt stress conditions. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought and salt stresses is not completely understood in plants. In this study, we have identified a PIP1 subfamily AQP (MaPIP1;1) gene from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Transient expression of MaPIP1;1-GFP fusion protein indicated its localization at plasma membrane. The expression of MaPIP1;1 was induced by NaCl and water deficient treatment. Overexpression of MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased primary root elongation, root hair numbers and survival rates compared to WT under salt or drought conditions. Physiological indices demonstrated that the increased salt tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is related to reduced membrane injury and high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio. Additionally, the improved drought tolerance conferred by MaPIP1;1 is associated with decreased membrane injury and improved osmotic adjustment. Finally, reduced expression of ABA-responsive genes in MaPIP1;1-overexpressing plants reflects their improved physiological status. Our results demonstrated that heterologous expression of banana MaPIP1;1 in Arabidopsis confers salt and drought stress tolerances by reducing membrane injury, improving ion distribution and maintaining osmotic balance.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and scintigraphy of the finger joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, M; Ostergaard, M; Jensen, K E

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and erosion development of the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints by magnetic resonance imaging in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or suspected RA followed up for one year...

  4. Dual effect of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate PIP(2) on Shaker K(+) [corrected] channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Delemotte, Lucie; Kasimova, Marina A; Labro, Alain J; Snyders, Dirk J; Fedida, David; Tarek, Mounir; Baró, Isabelle; Loussouarn, Gildas

    2012-10-19

    Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is a phospholipid of the plasma membrane that has been shown to be a key regulator of several ion channels. Functional studies and more recently structural studies of Kir channels have revealed the major impact of PIP(2) on the open state stabilization. A similar effect of PIP(2) on the delayed rectifiers Kv7.1 and Kv11.1, two voltage-gated K(+) channels, has been suggested, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive and nothing is known on PIP(2) effect on other Kv such as those of the Shaker family. By combining giant-patch ionic and gating current recordings in COS-7 cells, and voltage-clamp fluorimetry in Xenopus oocytes, both heterologously expressing the voltage-dependent Shaker channel, we show that PIP(2) exerts 1) a gain-of-function effect on the maximal current amplitude, consistent with a stabilization of the open state and 2) a loss-of-function effect by positive-shifting the activation voltage dependence, most likely through a direct effect on the voltage sensor movement, as illustrated by molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. The signaling phospholipid PIP3 creates a new interaction surface on the nuclear receptor SF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blind, Raymond D; Sablin, Elena P; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Deacon, Ashley M; Das, Debanu; Fletterick, Robert J; Ingraham, Holly A

    2014-10-21

    The signaling phosphatidylinositol lipids PI(4,5)P2 (PIP2) and PI(3,4,5)P3 (PIP3) bind nuclear receptor 5A family (NR5As), but their regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, the crystal structures of human NR5A1 (steroidogenic factor-1, SF-1) ligand binding domain (LBD) bound to PIP2 and PIP3 show the lipid hydrophobic tails sequestered in the hormone pocket, as predicted. However, unlike classic nuclear receptor hormones, the phosphoinositide head groups are fully solvent-exposed and complete the LBD fold by organizing the receptor architecture at the hormone pocket entrance. The highest affinity phosphoinositide ligand PIP3 stabilizes the coactivator binding groove and increases coactivator peptide recruitment. This receptor-ligand topology defines a previously unidentified regulatory protein-lipid surface on SF-1 with the phosphoinositide head group at its nexus and poised to interact with other proteins. This surface on SF-1 coincides with the predicted binding site of the corepressor DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region on chromosome X), and importantly harbors missense mutations associated with human endocrine disorders. Our data provide the structural basis for this poorly understood cluster of human SF-1 mutations and demonstrates how signaling phosphoinositides function as regulatory ligands for NR5As.

  6. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  7. No difference between two types of exercise after proximal phalangeal fracture fixation: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lauren; Crosbie, Jack; Wajon, Anne; Ada, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Are 6 weeks of synergistic wrist and finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint constrained in an orthosis (constrained exercises) more effective than traditional finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint unconstrained (unconstrained exercises) after open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal phalangeal fracture in terms of impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction at 6 and 12 weeks? Randomised, parallel-group trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. Sixty-six participants within 1 week of open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fractures. The experimental group carried out 6 weeks of synergistic wrist and finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint constrained, whilst the control group carried out finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint unconstrained, as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. The primary outcomes were: active proximal interphalangeal joint extension of the injured finger, total active range of motion, and strength. Secondary outcomes were: pain, difficulty with specific hand activity and difficulty with usual hand activity. A blinded assessor measured outcomes at Weeks 1, 6 and 12. By Week 6, there were no significant between-group differences in improvement for: active proximal interphalangeal joint extension (MD 2 deg, 95% CI -3 to 7); total active finger range of motion (MD 0 deg, 95% CI -21 to 22); strength (MD -2kg, 95% CI -8 to 4); pain (MD 1/50, 95% CI -3 to 5); difficulty with specific hand activity (MD 2/60, 95% CI -3 to 8); or difficulty with usual hand activity (MD 0/40, 95% CI -4 to 3). By Week 12, there were also no significant between-group differences in any outcome. Constrained and unconstrained exercises has similar effects after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fracture. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000294055). Copyright © 2016

  8. Strong and healthy in Primary School Klasse2000 Program, Germany: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Andrea; Horst, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Developing a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) diagram helps identify and clarify the key objectives, processes, activities, and evaluation indicators of school-based nutrition programs. The Mondelēz International Foundation has recently supported the development of PIP analyses for programs in seven countries around the world. The results were shared with other project organizers at a Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The objectives were to develop the PIP assessment of the Strong and Healthy in Primary School Klasse2000 Program in order to refine the primary, secondary, and tertiary objectives of the program; identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs); and identify core indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles. The PIP report was developed based on detailed instructions provided prior to the workshop, taking into account the Klasse2000 Program evaluation reports. The following CCPs were identified: monitoring the qualifications and motivation of teaching staff (external health promoters and schoolteachers); assessing involvement of the students' environmental influences, including families, schools, and sponsors; and assessing the children's healthy lifestyle knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after program exposure. The healthy lifestyle indicators identified were children's knowledge of healthy diets and health-enhancing physical activities; the availability of healthy breakfast and snacks; the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweetened and unsweetened drinks,fast food, and sweets, as well as attitudes toward physical activity; and the frequency and extent of physical activity in school and during free time. Body mass index (BMI) was identified as the final outcome indicator. Developing a PIP report helped to focus the objectives of the program. Identifying CCPs helped draw attention to the

  9. Evaluation of the diffusion of corticosteroids between the distal interphalangeal joint and navicular bursa in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Frederik E; Schumacher, James; Castro, Fernando A; Holder, Troy E; Carroll, Roger C; Sega, Gary A; Rogers, Chris W

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether clinically effective concentrations of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone can be achieved in the navicular bursa after injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) or triamcinolone acetonide (TA) into the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and whether clinically effective concentrations of these drugs can be achieved in the DIPJ after injecting the navicular bursa with the same doses of MPA or TA. 32 healthy horses. Horses in groups 1 through 4 received 40 mg of MPA in the DIPJ, 10 mg of TA in the DIPJ, 40 mg of MPA in the navicular bursa, and 10 mg of TA in the navicular bursa, respectively. Concentrations of corticosteroids that diffused into the adjacent synovial structure were determined. For group 1, injection of MPA into the DIPJ yielded a mean +/- SD concentration of 0.24 +/- 0.072 microg of methylprednisolone/mL in the navicular bursa. For group 2, injection of TA into the DIPJ yielded 0.124 +/- 0.075 microg of triamcinolone/mL in the navicular bursa. For group 3, injection of MPA into the navicular bursa yielded 0.05 +/- 0.012 microg of methylprednisolone/mL in the DIPJ. For group 4, injection of TA into the navicular bursa yielded 0.091 +/- 0.026 microg of triamcinolone/mL in the DIPJ. A clinically effective concentration of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone diffused between the DIPJ and navicular bursa after intra-articular or intrabursal injection, which would justify injection of the DIPJ with MPA or TA to ameliorate inflammation of the navicular bursa.

  10. Comparison of Extension Orthosis Versus Percutaneous Pinning of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint for Closed Mallet Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfree, Kevin J; Odgers, Ryan A; Ivy, Cynthia C

    2016-05-01

    We compared a static extension orthosis with percutaneous pinning of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) for treatment of closed mallet injuries. After receiving counsel about treatment options, 44 patients (25 women and 19 men; mean age, 57 years) freely chose orthosis and 18 patients (5 women and 13 men; mean age, 51 years) chose pinning. Both the extension orthosis and the pin remained in place for 6 weeks; the pin then was removed, and the care in both groups was transitioned to nighttime orthosis use for an additional 6 weeks. The patients in the pin group were allowed to immediately resume unrestricted activity postoperatively. The mean follow-up was 32 months in the orthosis group and 19 months in the pin group. Final residual extensor lag was better in the pin group (5 vs 10 degrees, P = 0.048). Improvement between the groups was in favor of percutaneous pinning (36 vs 17 degrees, P = 0.001). No correlation was seen between time to treatment (≤14 vs >14 days from injury) and final extensor lag in either group (P = 0.85). The final mean DIPJ flexion was 53 degrees for orthosis and 46 degrees for pinning. Among the patients, 93% of the orthosis group and 100% of the pin group said that they would choose the same treatment again. Both groups had a mean of 5 hand therapy visits during treatment. Two complications occurred in the orthosis group (5%) and 3 (17%) occurred in the pin group. Extension orthotics and pinning are both well-tolerated, effective treatments of mallet injury. The techniques produce satisfactory correction of extensor lag and have high patient satisfaction. Pinning allows better correction of DIPJ extensor lag and results in a smaller degree of final extensor lag. Pinning is more expensive and may result in more DIPJ stiffness (ie, loss of active flexion), but it may be justified in certain patients (eg, medical professionals, food service workers) who would have difficulty working with an orthosis.

  11. PipMaker—A Web Server for Aligning Two Genomic DNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Scott; Zhang, Zheng; Frazer, Kelly A.; Smit, Arian; Riemer, Cathy; Bouck, John; Gibbs, Richard; Hardison, Ross; Miller, Webb

    2000-01-01

    PipMaker (http://bio.cse.psu.edu) is a World-Wide Web site for comparing two long DNA sequences to identify conserved segments and for producing informative, high-resolution displays of the resulting alignments. One display is a percent identity plot (pip), which shows both the position in one sequence and the degree of similarity for each aligning segment between the two sequences in a compact and easily understandable form. Positions along the horizontal axis can be labeled with features su...

  12. Structure and Stability of the Spinach Aquaporin SoPIP2;1 in Detergent Micelles and Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Ines; Survery, Sabeen; Ibragimova, Sania

    2011-01-01

    Background: SoPIP2;1 constitutes one of the major integral proteins in spinach leaf plasma membranes and belongs to the aquaporin family. SoPIP2;1 is a highly permeable and selective water channel that has been successfully overexpressed and purified with high yields. In order to optimize...

  13. The IDA/IDA-LIKE and PIP/PIP-LIKE gene families in Arabidopsis: phylogenetic relationship, expression patterns, and transcriptional effect of the PIPL3 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Ane Kjersti; Najafi, Javad; Liu, Bin; Winge, Per; Butenko, Melinka A; Hornslien, Karina S; Kumpf, Robert; Aalen, Reidunn B; Bones, Atle M; Brembu, Tore

    2015-08-01

    Peptide ligands play crucial roles in the life cycle of plants by modulating the innate immunity against pathogens and regulating growth and developmental processes. One well-studied example is INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), which controls floral organ abscission and lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana. IDA belongs to a family of five additional IDA-LIKE (IDL) members that have all been suggested to be involved in regulation of Arabidopsis development. Here we present three novel members of the IDL subfamily and show that two of them are strongly and rapidly induced by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, we provide data that the recently identified PAMP-INDUCED SECRETED PEPTIDE (PIP) and PIP-LIKE (PIPL) peptides, which show similarity to the IDL and C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) peptides, are not only involved in innate immune response in Arabidopsis but are also induced by abiotic stress. Expression patterns of the IDA/IDL and PIP/PIPL genes were analysed using in silico data, qRT-PCR and GUS promoter lines. Transcriptomic responses to PIPL3 peptide treatment suggested a role in regulation of biotic stress responses and cell wall modification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Development and Initial Validation of the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale (PIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and subsequently evaluate the internal construct and criterion-related validity of the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale (PIPS). Different task characteristics were selected considered to be important as unravelled in research in apraxic adults to tap a broad range of possible imitation mechanisms.…

  15. Intake, digestibility and toxic effects of vine husks and pips fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veekunde

    Vine husks and pips, after pressing four red wine cultivars (Merlot, Shiraz, ... level close to maintenance (40-45 g DM/kg LW0.75 per day) as recommended by Van Es ... Table 1 Physical (on an air dry basis) composition and chemical (on a dry ...

  16. 76 FR 14358 - Pesticides; Data Requirements for Plant-Incorporated Protectants (PIPs) and Certain Exemptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... registration. Cisgenic PIPs are formed when genetic material is transferred, using bioengineering technology, between plants that could transfer the genetic material naturally. DATES: Comments must be received on or... by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and...

  17. A Soluble Fluorescent Binding Assay Reveals PIP2 Antagonism of TREK-1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanos, Cerrone; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Hansen, Scott B

    2017-08-08

    Lipid regulation of ion channels by low-abundance signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidic acid (PA) has emerged as a central cellular mechanism for controlling ion channels and the excitability of nerves. A lack of robust assays suitable for facile detection of a lipid bound to a channel has hampered the probing of the lipid binding sites and measuring the pharmacology of putative lipid agonists for ion channels. Here, we show a fluorescent PIP2 competition assay for detergent-purified potassium channels, including TWIK-1-related K+-channel (TREK-1). Anionic lipids PA and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) bind dose dependently (9.1 and 96 μM, respectively) and agonize the channel. Our assay shows PIP2 binds with high affinity (0.87 μM) but surprisingly can directly antagonize TREK-1 in liposomes. We propose a model for TREK-1 lipid regulation where PIP2 can compete with PA and PG agonism based on the affinity of the lipid for a site within the channel. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Louisiana PIP Program: An Innovative Step Toward Quality Public Education or an Unmanageable Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Ernest G.; Nowatny, Franz A.

    1982-01-01

    Louisiana's Educational Employees' Professional Improvement Program (PIP) is described. The voluntary statewide program features: (1) use of individual professional development plans submitted by school staff participants; (2) a combination of academic work, inservice training, workshops, and conferences over a five-year period; and (3) salary…

  19. A Soluble Fluorescent Binding Assay Reveals PIP2 Antagonism of TREK-1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerrone Cabanos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid regulation of ion channels by low-abundance signaling lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 and phosphatidic acid (PA has emerged as a central cellular mechanism for controlling ion channels and the excitability of nerves. A lack of robust assays suitable for facile detection of a lipid bound to a channel has hampered the probing of the lipid binding sites and measuring the pharmacology of putative lipid agonists for ion channels. Here, we show a fluorescent PIP2 competition assay for detergent-purified potassium channels, including TWIK-1-related K+-channel (TREK-1. Anionic lipids PA and phosphatidylglycerol (PG bind dose dependently (9.1 and 96 μM, respectively and agonize the channel. Our assay shows PIP2 binds with high affinity (0.87 μM but surprisingly can directly antagonize TREK-1 in liposomes. We propose a model for TREK-1 lipid regulation where PIP2 can compete with PA and PG agonism based on the affinity of the lipid for a site within the channel.

  20. Chracterization of the beam from the RFQ of the PIP-II Injector Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Carneiro. J.-P., Carneiro. J.-P. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; Sista, V. L.S. [Bhabha Atomic Res. Ctr.; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A 2.1 MeV, 10 mA CW RFQ has been installed and commissioned at the Fermilab’s test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test. This report describes the measure-ments of the beam properties after acceleration in the RFQ, including the energy and emittance.

  1. PIP-II Injector Test’s Low Energy Beam Transport: Commissioning and Selected Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Andrews, R. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J.-P. [Fermilab; Chen, A. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; D' Arcy, R. [University Coll. London; Wiesner, C. [Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)

    2016-09-16

    The PIP2IT test accelerator is under construction at Fermilab. Its ion source and Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) in its initial (straight) configuration have been commissioned to full specification parameters. This paper introduces the LEBT design and summarizes the outcome of the commissioning activities.

  2. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  3. SUPERFICIAL DIGITAL FLEXOR TENOTOMY AND SUPERIOR CHECK LIGAMENT DESMOTOMY IN HORSES: RADIO-METARCARPAL, METACARPOPHALANGEAL AND INTERPHALANGEAL GONIOMETRY TENOTOMIA DO MÚSCULO FLEXOR DIGITAL SUPERFICIAL E DESMOTOMIA ACESSÓRIA EM EQUINOS: GONIOMETRIA RADIOMETACARPIANA, METACARPOFALÂNGICA E INTERFALÂNGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Hussni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the superficial digital tenotomy and the superior check ligament desmotomy on the radio-metacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, proximal and distal interphalangeal angles in horses. Under general anesthesia the superficial digital flexor tenotomy and superior check ligament desmotomy were performed, respectively, on the right and left forelimbs in nine horses. Before surgery and on 15th, 30th, and 60th postoperative days the radio-metacarpal, metacarpophalangeal, and proximal and distal interphalangeal angles were measured by radiographic examination. Tenotomy decreased significantly the metacarpophalangeal angle (mean ± standard deviation: preoperative – 140.7º ± 6.85; 60th day – 128.2º ± 5.93 and increased the distal interphalangeal angle (mean ± standard deviation: preoperative – 172.6 ± 1.87; 60th day – 167.6 ± 1.36. Desmotomy decreased the proximal interphalangeal angle (mean ± standard deviation: preoperative – 180.2º ± 5.43; 60th day- 197.3º ± 8.29. These surgical procedures did not change the radio-metacarpal angle. The superficial digital flexor tenotomy and the superior check ligament desmotomy cause different and significant changes in joint angles distal to the carpus.

    KEY WORDS: Desmotomy, horses, joint angles, tenotomy.
    A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da tenotomia do músculo flexor digital superficial e a desmotomia do seu ligamento acessório sobre os ângulos formados pelas faces dorsais radiometacarpiano, metacarpofalângico e interfalângicos proximal e distal em equinos. Realizaram-se em nove equinos a tenotomia do músculo flexor digital superficial no membro torácico direito (MTD e a desmotomia de seu ligamento acessório no membro torácico esquerdo (MTE. A goniometria radiológica foi procedida no pré-operatório e aos quinze, trinta e sessenta dias após as cirurgias. A tenotomia praticada no MTD diminuiu

  4. Irrigant flow during photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jon D; Jaramillo, David E; DiVito, Enrico; Peters, Ove A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare fluid movements generated from photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was performed using 6-μm melamine spheres in water. Measurement areas were 3-mm-long sections of the canal in the coronal, midroot and apical regions for PIPS (erbium/yttrium-aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser set at 15 Hz with 20 mJ), or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, non-cutting insert at 30% unit power) was performed in simulated root canals prepared to an apical size #30/0.04 taper. Fluid movement was analysed directly subjacent to the apical ends of ultrasonic insert or fiber optic tips as well as at midroot and apically. During PUI, measured average velocities were around 0.03 m/s in the immediate vicinity of the sides and tip of the ultrasonic file. Speeds decayed to non-measureable values at a distance of about 2 mm from the sides and tip. During PIPS, typical average speeds were about ten times higher than those measured for PUI, and they were measured throughout the length of the canal, at distances up to 20 mm away. PIPS caused higher average fluid speeds when compared to PUI, both close and distant from the instrument. The findings of this study could be relevant to the debriding and disinfecting stage of endodontic therapy. Irrigation enhancement beyond needle irrigation is relevant to more effectively eradicate microorganisms from root canal systems. PIPS may be an alternative approach due to its ability to create high streaming velocities further away from the activation source compared to ultrasonic activation.

  5. Clinical and radiographic changes of carpi, tarsi and interphalangeal joints of beef zebu bulls on semen collection regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Motta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis and osteochondrosis are highly correlated to reproductive failure in bulls. This study aimed to evaluate the carpal, tarsal and interphalangeal lesions in beef zebu bulls on semen collection regimen. Twenty-one beef cattle bulls, in a total of forty-one animals, were split into three age-based groups: animals from two to four years old (GI, from more than four to eight years old (GII and above eight years old (GIII. The clinical findings were conformational changes of limbs, synovial effusion, peripheral venous engorgement of joints and prolonged decubitus. The total population showed moderate clinical manifestation and radiographic score. The GIII presented more severe joint lesions. Carpi and tarsi regions had discrete to difuse osteophytosis, subchondral cysts, cartilaginous flaps, bone incongruence and fragmentation, osteitis, and ankylosis. Interphalangeal joints presented osteophytosis, distal phalanx osteitis and enthesophytosis. The digital radiographic examination allowed full identification of articular lesions and their clinical correspondences, besides the positive correlation between age, body weight and radiographic score.

  6. Ser123 Is Essential for the Water Channel Activity of McPIP2;1 from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua-Romero, Julio C.; Pantoja, Omar; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2010-01-01

    The increased expression of McPIP2;1 (MipC), a root-specific aquaporin (AQP) from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, under salt stress has suggested a role for this AQP in the salt tolerance of the plant. However, whether McPIP2;1 transports water or another solute and how its activity is regulated are so far unknown. Therefore, wild type (wt) or mutated McPIP2;1 protein was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Then, the osmotic water permeability (Pf) of the oocytes membrane was assessed by hypotonic challenges. Selectivity of McPIP2;1 to water was determined by radiolabeled glycerol or urea uptake assays. Moreover, swelling and in vitro phosphorylation assays revealed that both water permeation and phosphorylation status of McPIP2;1 were significantly increased by the phosphorylation agonists okadaic acid (OA), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and 8-Br-cAMP, and markedly decreased by the inhibitory peptides PKI 14-22 and PKC 20-28, inhibitors of protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC), respectively. Substitution of Ser123 or both, Ser123 and Ser282, abolished the water channel activity of McPIP2;1 while substitution of Ser282 only partially inhibited it (51.9% inhibition). Despite lacking Ser123 and/or Ser282, the McPIP2;1 mutant forms were still phosphorylated in vitro, which suggests that phosphorylation may have a dual role on this AQP. Our results indicate that McPIP2;1 water permeability depends completely on Ser123 and is positively regulated by PKA- and PKC-mediated phosphorylation. Regulation of the phosphorylation status of McPIP2;1 may contribute to control water transport through root cells when the plant is subjected to high salinity conditions. PMID:20332086

  7. Ser123 is essential for the water channel activity of McPIP2;1 from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Pantoja, Omar; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2010-05-28

    The increased expression of McPIP2;1 (MipC), a root-specific aquaporin (AQP) from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, under salt stress has suggested a role for this AQP in the salt tolerance of the plant. However, whether McPIP2;1 transports water or another solute and how its activity is regulated are so far unknown. Therefore, wild type (wt) or mutated McPIP2;1 protein was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Then, the osmotic water permeability (P(f)) of the oocytes membrane was assessed by hypotonic challenges. Selectivity of McPIP2;1 to water was determined by radiolabeled glycerol or urea uptake assays. Moreover, swelling and in vitro phosphorylation assays revealed that both water permeation and phosphorylation status of McPIP2;1 were significantly increased by the phosphorylation agonists okadaic acid (OA), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and 8-Br-cAMP, and markedly decreased by the inhibitory peptides PKI 14-22 and PKC 20-28, inhibitors of protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC), respectively. Substitution of Ser(123) or both, Ser(123) and Ser(282), abolished the water channel activity of McPIP2;1 while substitution of Ser(282) only partially inhibited it (51.9% inhibition). Despite lacking Ser(123) and/or Ser(282), the McPIP2;1 mutant forms were still phosphorylated in vitro, which suggests that phosphorylation may have a dual role on this AQP. Our results indicate that McPIP2;1 water permeability depends completely on Ser(123) and is positively regulated by PKA- and PKC-mediated phosphorylation. Regulation of the phosphorylation status of McPIP2;1 may contribute to control water transport through root cells when the plant is subjected to high salinity conditions.

  8. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  9. Extreme depletion of PIP3 accompanies the increased life span and stress tolerance of PI3K-null C. elegans mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet eBharill

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of animal longevity shows remarkable plasticity, in that a variety of genetic lesions are able to extend lifespan by as much as tenfold. Such studies have implicated several key signaling pathways that must normally limit longevity, since their disruption prolongs life. Little is known, however, about the proximal effectors of aging on which these pathways are presumed to converge, and to date, no pharmacologic agents even approach the life-extending effects of genetic mutation. In the present study, we have sought to define the downstream consequences of age-1 nonsense mutations, which confer 10-fold life extension to the nematode C. elegans ― the largest effect documented for any single mutation. Such mutations insert a premature stop codon upstream of the catalytic domain of the AGE-1/ p110α subunit of class-I PI3K. As expected, we do not detect class-I PI3K (and based on our sensitivity, it constitutes <14% of wild-type levels, nor do we find any PI3K activity as judged by immunodetection of phosphorylated AKT, which strongly requires PIP3 for activation by upstream kinases, or immunodetection of its product, PIP3. In the latter case, the upper 95%-confidence limit for PIP3 is 1.4% of the wild-type level. We tested a variety of commercially available PI3K inhibitors, as well as three phosphatidylinositol analogues (PIAs that are most active in inhibiting AKT activation, for effects on longevity and survival of oxidative stress. Of these, GDC-0941, PIA6 and PIA24 (each at 1 or 10 μM extended lifespan by 7–14%, while PIAs 6, 12 and 24 (at 1 or 10 μM increased survival time in 5-mM peroxide by 12–52%.These effects may have been conferred by insulinlike signaling, since a reporter regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, SOD3::GFP, was stimulated by these PIAs in the same rank order (PIA24>PIA6>PIA12 as lifespan. A second reporter, PEPCK::GFP, was equally activated (~40% by all three.

  10. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  11. Prevention of exercised induced cardiomyopathy following Pip-PMO treatment in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Corinne A; Saleh, Amer F; Carr, Carolyn A; Hammond, Suzan M; Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; Godfrey, Caroline; McClorey, Graham; Varela, Miguel A; Roberts, Thomas C; Clarke, Kieran; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew J A

    2015-03-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene. In addition to skeletal muscle wasting, DMD patients develop cardiomyopathy, which significantly contributes to mortality. Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) are a promising DMD therapy, restoring functional dystrophin protein by exon skipping. However, a major limitation with current AOs is the absence of dystrophin correction in heart. Pip peptide-AOs demonstrate high activity in cardiac muscle. To determine their therapeutic value, dystrophic mdx mice were subject to forced exercise to model the DMD cardiac phenotype. Repeated peptide-AO treatments resulted in high levels of cardiac dystrophin protein, which prevented the exercised induced progression of cardiomyopathy, normalising heart size as well as stabilising other cardiac parameters. Treated mice also exhibited significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis and improved sarcolemmal integrity. This work demonstrates that high levels of cardiac dystrophin restored by Pip peptide-AOs prevents further deterioration of cardiomyopathy and pathology following exercise in dystrophic DMD mice.

  12. Installation Progress at the PIP-II Injector Test at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Andrews, R. [Fermilab; Chen, A. [Fermilab; Czajkowski, J. [Fermilab; Derwent, P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Kendziora, K. [Fermilab; Mitchell, D. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab; Zuchnik, T. [Fermilab; Edelen, A. [Colorado State U.

    2016-10-04

    A CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting linac “PIP-II” is being planned to upgrade Fermilab's injection complex. To validate the front-end concept, a test acceler-ator (The PIP-II Injector Test, formerly known as "PXIE") is under construction. The warm part of this accelerator comprises a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) capable of operation in Con-tinuous Wave (CW) mode, and a 10 m-long Medium En-ergy Beam Transport (MEBT). The paper will report on the installation of the RFQ and the first sections of the MEBT and related mechanical design considerations.

  13. Status of the Warm Front End of PIP-II Injector Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab; Alvarez, Matthew [Fermilab; Andrews, Richard [Fermilab; Baffes, Curtis [Fermilab; Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Fermilab; Chen, Alex [Fermilab; Derwent, Paul [Fermilab; Edelen, Jonathan [Fermilab; Frolov, Daniil [Fermilab; Hanna, Bruce [Fermilab; Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Saewert, Gregory [Fermilab; Saini, Arun [Fermilab; Scarpine, Victor [Fermilab; Sista, V. Lalitha [Fermilab; Steimel, Jim [Fermilab; Sun, Ding [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H⁻ SRF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H⁻ ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the warm front end.

  14. MultiPipMaker and supporting tools: alignments and analysis of multiple genomic DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Scott; Elnitski, Laura; Li, Mei; Weirauch, Matt; Riemer, Cathy; Smit, Arian; Green, Eric D.; Hardison, Ross C.; Miller, Webb

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of multiple sequence alignments can generate important, testable hypotheses about the phylogenetic history and cellular function of genomic sequences. We describe the MultiPipMaker server, which aligns multiple, long genomic DNA sequences quickly and with good sensitivity (available at http://bio.cse.psu.edu/ since May 2001). Alignments are computed between a contiguous reference sequence and one or more secondary sequences, which can be finished or draft sequence. The outputs includ...

  15. PIP2 epigenetically represses rRNA genes transcription interacting with PHF8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uličná, Lívia; Kalendová, Alžběta; Kalasová, Ilona; Vacík, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1863, č. 3 (2018), s. 266-275 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PIP2 * PHF8 * rDNA transcription * H3K9me2 * Nucleus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.547, year: 2016

  16. Nutritive value of red vine husks and pips for sheep | Ferreira | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of red vine husks and pips as a component of animal feed was investigated. Twenty-five Dohne Merino ram lambs (mean live weight + s.d. = 41.4 + 2.3 kg) were used. A completely randomised design was used and the animals were assigned to five diets including 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% vine husks and ...

  17. "Cooking and Active Leisure" TAS Program, Spain: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Elena; Pareja, Sara Lucía; Milá, Raimon; Cinca, Núria

    2014-09-01

    The "Cooking and Active Leisure" Tu y Alícia por la Salud (CAL-TAS) Program is a school-based pilot that addresses healthy lifestyle needs of Spanish secondary school students with initiatives that research has proven to improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. The objectives were to perform a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to describe key activities and processes of the CAL-TAS Program, identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs), and identify a suite of common indicators of healthy lifestyles to be applied across participant schools. The CAL-TAS Program designers and implementation team developed this PIP analysis through an iterative process and presented the results for feedback at the seven-country Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The team identified three PIP CCPs: teachers' motivation and training, changes in students' knowledge of healthy lifestyles, and changes in students' healthy lifestyle behavior. The selected indicators of the program's impact on healthy lifestyles are adequacy of food intake, level of knowledge of healthy lifestyles gained, and adequacy of physical activity level according to World Health Organization recommendations. A clear definition of impact indicators, as well as collection of accurate data on healthy lifestyle behaviors and knowledge, is essential to understanding the effectiveness of this program before it can be scaled up. CAL-TAS is an effective secondary school-based program encouraging healthy lifestyles. The PIP analysis was instrumental in identifying CCPs to sustain and improve the quality of the program. The team hopes to sustain and improve the program through these program evaluation recommendations.

  18. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Godwin, FRCS

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants.

  19. Intake, digestibility and toxic effects of vine husks and pips fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veekunde

    Abstract. The potential of red vine husks and pips as a component of animal feed was investigated. Twenty-five. Dohne Merino ram lambs (mean live weight ± s.d. = 41.4 ± 2.3 kg) were used. A completely randomised design was used and the animals were assigned to five diets including 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% vine ...

  20. Ready, Steady, Go! Program, Italy: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veracini, Giordana; Leonardi, Elisabetta; Girotti, Rita; Thrasher, Erika Willumsen

    2014-09-01

    Ready, Steady, Go! promotes proper nutrition and physical activity among people of all ages in targeted neighborhoods and encourages social integration and children's participation in decisions that affect their lives. It also seeks to involve parents in activities so that they can influence their children's attitudes toward lifestyles and personal development. This partnership has reached 70,000 Italian children and adults with new opportunities for physical activities and social experiences that help them improve nutritional behaviors while having fun with their peers. To assess the Ready, Steady, Go! Program logic and to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a core suite of impact indicators based on a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis. The PIP analysis team reviewed the key activities and processes that form Ready, Steady, Go! and then identified key CCPs for the project. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The PIP analysis confirmed that Ready, Steady, Go! has a structure that is likely to support the primary aims of the program. The CCPs identified are training of teachers in healthy lifestyles, teachers' active participation in the program, access to remodeled and well-equipped sports and recreational centers, participation of parents and grandparents, and involvement of local institutions and networks. A suite of impact indicators for changes in healthy lifestyle knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was identified. Project staff are now more aware of the importance of carefully monitoring the CCPs and have decided to conduct quarterly PIP-informed quality control evaluations.

  1. Isolation, Characterization, and Functional Role of the High-Potential Iron-Sulfur Protein (HiPIP) from Rhodoferax fermentans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochkoeppler, A.; Kofod, P.; Ferro, G.

    1995-01-01

    other sources and, in particular, the iron content is consistent with the presence of one [Fe4S4] cubane cluster per molecule. The isoelectric pH values of the two redox forms are consistent with a basic protein. Kinetic studies of HiPIP oxidation, performed by monitoring the absorbance changes induced...... upon light excitation of the photosynthetic reaction center, give direct evidence of the role of the HiPIP in the photosynthetic electron transfer chain of Rf. fermentans....

  2. Hemi-hamate autograft arthroplasty for acute and chronic PIP joint fracture dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenblatt, N; Biraima, A; Tami, I; Giovanoli, P; Calcagni, M

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of fracture dislocations of the PIP joint represents a hand surgical challenge. In hemi-hamate arthroplasty, the palmar joint surface is reconstructed using an osteochondral graft from the hamate and the immediate stability permits early movement. We performed hemi-hamate reconstructions in 10 patients (mean age 34.9 years), who sustained fractures of the base of the middle phalanx of ≥50% surface and dorsal PIP dislocations. Outcomes were assessed by clinical exam and X-ray. Evaluation criteria were range of motion of PIP and DIP joints, grip strength, joint alignment, complications and donor site morbidity. Mean follow-up was 8.6 months (range 3-14). Fractures mostly involved the 4th and 5th fingers, all patients were male. Indications were subluxation and comminuition in acute cases of dislocations. It restores the comminuted articular surface in chronic injuries and in the acute injury it is a challenging but valuable alternative to extension block splinting. However, donor site morbidity and revision surgery have to be taken into account. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Structure and stability of the spinach aquaporin SoPIP2;1 in detergent micelles and lipid membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Plasencia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SoPIP2;1 constitutes one of the major integral proteins in spinach leaf plasma membranes and belongs to the aquaporin family. SoPIP2;1 is a highly permeable and selective water channel that has been successfully overexpressed and purified with high yields. In order to optimize reconstitution of the purified protein into biomimetic systems, we have here for the first time characterized the structural stability of SoPIP2;1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We have characterized the protein structural stability after purification and after reconstitution into detergent micelles and proteoliposomes using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The structure of SoPIP2;1 was analyzed either with the protein solubilized with octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OG or reconstituted into lipid membranes formed by E. coli lipids, diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC, or reconstituted into lipid membranes formed from mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPE, 1-palmitoyl-2oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylserine (POPS, and ergosterol. Generally, SoPIP2;1 secondary structure was found to be predominantly α-helical in accordance with crystallographic data. The protein has a high thermal structural stability in detergent solutions, with an irreversible thermal unfolding occurring at a melting temperature of 58°C. Incorporation of the protein into lipid membranes increases the structural stability as evidenced by an increased melting temperature of up to 70°C. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study provide insights into SoPIP2;1 stability in various host membranes and suggest suitable choices of detergent and lipid composition for reconstitution of SoPIP2;1 into biomimetic membranes for biotechnological applications.

  4. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  5. Personnel Exposure to Scattered Radiation During Radiography of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint in the Horse Using a Portable X-Ray Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šterc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography of the distal interphalangeal joints of two limbs of a cadaver of a horse weighing 550 kg was conducted in the present study. The examination was performed on lateromedial, palmaroproximal-palmarodistal views and on dorsoproximal-palmarodistal, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, dorsomedial-palmarolateral views of a raised limb placed on a navicular block, and of weight-bearing limbs. During the examination, doses of scattered radiation were measured at the sites of radiographer, assistant holding a film cassette and assistant positioning the examined limb or the opposite one. The lowest radiation dose was received by the assistant holding the cassette behind the examined region; a total equivalent dose of 183.6 - 201.7 nSv was received by his hands and genitals, and 110.8 - 113.3 nSv by his eye lens and neck during the examination of the distal interphalangeal joint. The radiographer was exposed to higher radiation; an equivalent dose of 846.6 - 854.1 nSv was received by his hands and genitals, and 271.8 - 328.2 nSv by the eye lens and the neck. The highest scattered radiation dose was received by the assistant positioning the examined limbs; equivalent doses were 7751 - 9354 nSv (hands, 1117.3 - 1119.5 nSv (genitals, and 880.6 - 1096.2 nSv (eye lens and neck. The equivalent dose values measured, received by the radiographer and the assistants during the examination of the distal interphalangeal joint seem to be very low relative to radiation exposure limits. However, it must be taken into account that the personnel involved in radiography is also exposed to scattered radiation during other examinations where radiation doses are often much higher. These results indicate the necessity to use protective lead aprons, gloves and collars during radiography of the distal interphalangeal joint.

  6. Increased Permeability of the Aquaporin SoPIP2;1 by Mercury and Mutations in Loop A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kirscht

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs also referred to as Major intrinsic proteins, regulate permeability of biological membranes for water and other uncharged small polar molecules. Plants encode more AQPs than other organisms and just one of the four AQP subfamilies in Arabidopsis thaliana, the water specific plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, has 13 isoforms, the same number as the total AQPs encoded by the entire human genome. The PIPs are more conserved than other plant AQPs and here we demonstrate that a cysteine residue, in loop A of SoPIP2;1 from Spinacia oleracea, is forming disulfide bridges. This is in agreement with studies on maize PIPs, but in contrast we also show an increased permeability of mutants with a substitution at this position. In accordance with earlier findings, we confirm that mercury increase water permeability of both wild type and mutant proteins. We report on the slow kinetics and reversibility of the activation, and on quenching of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence as a potential reporter of conformational changes associated with activation. Hence, previous studies in plants based on the assumption of mercury as a general aquaporin blocker have to be reevaluated, whereas mercury and fluorescence studies of isolated PIPs provide new means to follow structural changes dynamically.

  7. Pip6-PMO, A New Generation of Peptide-oligonucleotide Conjugates With Improved Cardiac Exon Skipping Activity for DMD Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Betts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs are currently the most promising therapeutic intervention for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. AOs modulate dystrophin pre-mRNA splicing, thereby specifically restoring the dystrophin reading frame and generating a truncated but semifunctional dystrophin protein. Challenges in the development of this approach are the relatively poor systemic AO delivery and inefficient dystrophin correction in affected non-skeletal muscle tissues, including the heart. We have previously reported impressive heart activity including high-splicing efficiency and dystrophin restoration following a single administration of an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (CPPs conjugated to a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO: Pip5e-PMO. However, the mechanisms underlying this activity are poorly understood. Here, we report studies involving single dose administration (12.5 mg/kg of derivatives of Pip5e-PMO, consecutively assigned as Pip6-PMOs. These peptide-PMOs comprise alterations to the central hydrophobic core of the Pip5e peptide and illustrate that certain changes to the peptide sequence improves its activity; however, partial deletions within the hydrophobic core abolish its efficiency. Our data indicate that the hydrophobic core of the Pip sequences is critical for PMO delivery to the heart and that specific modifications to this region can enhance activity further. The results have implications for therapeutic PMO development for DMD.

  8. RobPip el robot de limpieza de tuberías

    OpenAIRE

    Crsitian Tejero Espinosa

    2017-01-01

    El biofouling es la acumulación de microorganismos indeseables, como bacterias, hongos, diatomeas, algas, plantas o animales, que se adhieren a las superficies de los materiales sumergidos en el agua. Este es un problema que afecta a todo el área de la acuacultura destruyendo los cultivos o crianza de animales acuáticos. La empresa Fitoplancton Marino, la cual hace uso de tuberías para criar microalgas, sufre de este problema. Para solucionarlo, se ha desarrollado el prototipo RobPip, un robo...

  9. Evaluación e informe Programa de Información Profesional (PIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, Jaime; Meza, Gabriela

    2002-01-01

    Este informe presenta un estudio descriptivo del impacto que ha tenido el Programa de Información Profesional (PIP). Entre los objetivos establecidos del programa se encuentra garantizar a los estudiantes de la enseñanza diversificada el acceso a información completa sobre la oferta académica del ITCR. La evaluación muestra resultados positivos en relación con la logística y metodología. Los aspectos técnicos, organizativos, administrativo y capacitación deben ser mejorados. Nuevas metodologí...

  10. $\\Bz\\to\\pip\\pim\\piz$ Time Dependent Dalitz analysis at BaBar

    CERN Document Server

    Cavoto, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    I present here results of a time-dependent analysis of the Dalitz structure of neutral $B$ meson decays to $\\pip\\pim\\piz$ from a dataset of 346 million $B \\bar B$ pairs collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ center of mass energy by the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II $e^+e^-$ accelerator. No significant CP violation effects are observed and 68% confidence interval is derived on the weak angle $\\alpha$ to be [75$^o$,152$^o$

  11. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  12. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  13. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  14. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  15. PIP2 regulation of KCNQ channels: biophysical and molecular mechanisms for lipid modulation of voltage-dependent gating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Alan Zaydman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels contain voltage-sensing (VSD and pore-gate (PGD structural domains. During voltage-dependent gating, conformational changes in the two domains are coupled giving rise to voltage-dependent opening of the channel. In addition to membrane voltage, KCNQ (Kv7 channel opening requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Recent studies suggest that PIP2 serves as a cofactor to mediate VSD-PGD coupling in KCNQ1 channels. In this review, we put these findings in the context of the current understanding of voltage-dependent gating, lipid modulation of Kv channel activation, and PIP2-regulation of KCNQ channels. We suggest that lipid-mediated coupling of functional domains is a common mechanism among KCNQ channels that may be applicable to other Kv channels and membrane proteins.

  16. Evaluation of diffusion of triamcinolone acetonide from the distal interphalangeal joint into the navicular bursa in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mary; Malone, Erin D; Anderson, Lorraine B; Park, Seijin; Godden, Sandra M; Jenner, Florien; Trumble, Troy N

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses from the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) to the navicular bursa, diffusion is direct or systemic, and addition of sodium hyaluronan has an effect on diffusion in horses. 11 adult horses without forelimb lameness. 1 randomly chosen forelimb DIPJ of each horse received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 20 mg of sodium hyaluronan (group 1), and the contralateral forelimb DIPJ received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 2 mL of lactated Ringer's solution (group 2). Synovial fluid samples were taken from both forelimb navicular bursae and 1 hind limb navicular bursa (systemic control group) at 6 hours. Triamcinolone acetonide concentrations in synovial fluid were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography plus tandem mass spectrometry. Data were logarithmically transformed, and contrast analysis was performed on the 3 groups. Triamcinolone acetonide was detected in navicular bursal samples in all groups. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly greater concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide than the systemic control group. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. Triamcinolone acetonide diffused directly from the DIPJ into the navicular bursa in clinically normal horses, and diffusion was not affected by addition of hyaluronan. Injection into the DIPJ with triamcinolone acetonide or a triamcinolone acetonide-hyaluronan combination can potentially be used for treatment of navicular syndrome, but further studies are needed to determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses similarly in horses with navicular syndrome.

  17. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  18. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  19. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  20. Mechanisms of the reaction pi^-p --> a^0_0(980)n --> p-^0 eta n at high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Achasov, N. N.; Shestakov, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    The main dynamical mechanisms of the reaction $\\pi^-p \\rightarrow a^0_0 (980)n \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\eta n$ at high energies, currently investigated at Serpukhov and Brookhaven, are considered in detail. It is shown that the observed forward peak in its differential cross section can be explained within the framework of the Regge pole model only by the conspiring $\\rho_2$ Regge pole exchange. The tentative estimates of the absolute $\\pi^-p \\rightarrow a^0_0(980)n \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\eta n$ reaction...

  1. In silico Coding Sequence Analysis of Walnut GAI and PIP2 Genes and Comparison with Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mohseniazar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dwarfism is one of the important traits in breeding of crops and horticulture plants. A dwarfing rootstock will produce trees with 15-50% of standard trees size. In modern intensive fruit tree orchards, dwarfing rootstocks are commonly used to reduce trees size, enabling high-density planting and easy management, thus achieving higher yield. Trees on dwarfing rootstocks can also exhibit other economically important traits, such as precocious flowering, increased yield and increased disease resistance. Dwarf rootstocks have been extensively studied and released in stone and pome fruits, because of presence of genetic materials and the simplicity of budding methods. Control of tree size using genetically dwarf rootstocks for achievement to higher density and mechanized orchard systems is now very important for walnut production in the world especially in Iran. Many different genes can be involved in appear of this. Mutations in GAI and PIP2 genes cause dwarf trait by two different mechanisms in some plant species. In this case, we study in silico analysis of GAI and PIP2 genes consist of conserved sequences and domains, exon and intron number, function of their proteins, targeting, secondary and tertiary structure, and post translational modification. Materials and methods: The GAI and PIP2 mRNA and protein sequences (FASTA format belonging to 17 monocotyledon and dicotyledon were downloaded from NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov accessed, on September 2014. Several online web services and software were used for analysis of GAI and PIP2 mRNA and Proteins in plants. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses of PIP2 and GAI proteins were performed online at two websites NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nih.gov and EXPASY (http://expasy.org/tools. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA; version 4 program and CLUSTAL-W with default parameters were used for multiple alignments of sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of GAI and PIP2 protein was

  2. Cloning, Expression, and Chromosomal Stabilization of the Propionibacterium shermanii Proline Iminopeptidase Gene (pip) for Food-Grade Application in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, Kees; Bolhuis, Albert; Boot, Johan; Deutz, Inge; Toonen, Marjolein; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan; Ledeboer, Aat

    1998-01-01

    Proline iminopeptidase produced by Propionibacterium shermanii plays an essential role in the flavor development of Swiss-type cheeses. The enzyme (Pip) was purified and characterized, and the gene (pip) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, the latter species being an

  3. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  4. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  5. Synergistic modulation of KCNQ1/KCNE1 K(+) channels (IKs) by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and [ATP]i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, Marie-Cécile; Vladimirova, Dilyana

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels (IKs) are dependent on the concentration of membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and on cytosolic ATP by two distinct mechanisms. In this study we measured IKs and FRET between PH-PLCδ-based fluorescent PIP2 sensors in a stable KCNQ1/KCNE1 CHO cell line. Effects of activating either a muscarinic M3 receptor or the switchable phosphatase Ci-VSP on IKs were analyzed. Recovery of IKs from inhibition induced by muscarinic stimulation was incomplete despite full PIP2 resynthesis. Recovery of IKs was completely suppressed under ATP-free conditions, but partially restored by the ATP analog AMP-PCP, providing evidence that depletion of intracellular ATP inhibits IKs independent of PIP2-depletion. Simultaneous patch-clamp and FRET measurements in cells co-expressing Ci-VSP and the PIP2-FRET sensor revealed a component of IKs inhibition directly related to dynamic PIP2-depletion. A second component of inhibition was independent of acute changes in PIP2 and could be mimicked by ATP-free pipette solution, suggesting that it results from intracellular ATP-depletion. The reduction of intracellular ATP upon Ci-VSP activation appears to be independent of its activity as a phosphoinositide phosphatase. Our data demonstrate that ATP-depletion slowed IKs activation but had no short-term effect on PIP2 regeneration, suggesting that impaired PIP2-resynthesis cannot account for the rapid IKs inhibition by ATP-depletion. Furthermore, the second component of IKs inhibition by Ci-VSP was reduced by AMP-PCP in the pipette filling solution, indicating that direct binding of ATP to the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex is required for voltage activation of IKs. We suggest that fluctuations of the cellular metabolic state regulate IKs in parallel with Gq-coupled PLC activation and PIP2-depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, China: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Yao, Xiaoxun; Gu, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Mondelēz Hope Kitchen is a community program initiated jointly in 2009 by Mondelēz International and the China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF). In response to the urgent needs of students, parents, and teachers at primary and middle schools in poverty-stricken rural areas of China, the program addresses the complex and intertwined issues of undernutrition and obesity. By funding both kitchen equipment and teacher training in health and nutrition, the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program improves the capacity of schools to supply healthy meals, helping students to access safe and nutritious foods and, ultimately, to improve their nutritional status and health. In 2011, the Mondelēz International Foundation awarded CYDF a grant to formally assess the impact of the original program design. The Mondelēz International Foundation encouraged CYDF and six other healthy lifestyles-focused community partners around the world to participate in this program evaluation workshop. The goals of this study were to describe the logic model of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, summarize a recent evaluation of the Mondelēz Hope Kitchen Program, and conduct a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis to identify Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs) and a suite of impact indicators. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation. The authors developed the program's PIP diagram based on deliberations involving the program managers and Director and consulting the "Hope Kitchen Management Rules "and "Hope Kitchen Inspection and Acceptance Report". The PIP analyses identified three CCPs: buy-in from schools, kitchen infrastructure, and changes in teachers' knowledge of nutrition after training. In addition, changes in children's knowledge of nutrition will be added to the core suite of impact evaluation indicators that also includes children

  7. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigeos, Delphine; Buonamici, Anna; Belkadi, Laurent; Rymer, Paul; Boshier, David; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Scotti, Ivan

    2010-06-29

    Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  8. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Giovanni G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of p+-i-p+ type organic thin film transistors with electrodes of highly doped polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Daisuke; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Iino, Shohei; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Kimura, Yasuo; Rosenberg, Richard A.; Niwano, Michio

    2016-04-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been explored because of their advantageous features such as light-weight, flexible, and large-area. For more practical application of organic electronic devices, it is very important to realize OTFTs that are composed only of organic materials. In this paper, we have fabricated p+-i-p+ type of OTFTs in which an intrinsic (i) regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer is used as the active layer and highly doped p-type (p+) P3HT is used as the source and drain electrodes. The 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) was used as the p-type dopant. A fabricating method of p+-i-p+ OTFTs has been developed by using SiO2 and aluminum films as capping layers for micro-scaled patterning of the p+-P3HT electrodes. The characteristics of the OTFTs were examined using the photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We demonstrated that the fabricated p+-i-p+ OTFTs work with carrier injection through a built-in potential at p+/i interfaces. We found that the p+-i-p+ OTFTs exhibit better FET characteristics than the conventional P3HT-OTFT with metal (Au) electrodes, indicating that the influence of a carrier injection barrier at the interface between the electrode and the active layer was suppressed by replacing the metal electrodes with p+-P3HT layers.

  10. Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes in the wPip strain of Wolbachia from the Culex pipiens group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhill Julian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria maternally transmitted through the egg cytoplasm that are responsible for several reproductive disorders in their insect hosts, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI in infected mosquitoes. Species in the Culex pipiens complex display an unusually high number of Wolbachia-induced crossing types, and based on present data, only the wPip strain is present. Results The sequencing of the wPip strain of Wolbachia revealed the presence of 60 ankyrin repeat domain (ANK encoding genes and expression studies of these genes were carried out in adult mosquitoes. One of these ANK genes, pk2, is shown to be part of an operon of three prophage-associated genes with sex-specific expression, and is present in two identical copies in the genome. Another homolog of pk2 is also present that is differentially expressed in different Cx. pipiens group strains. A further two ANK genes showed sex-specific regulation in wPip-infected Cx. pipiens group adults. Conclusion The high number, variability and differential expression of ANK genes in wPip suggest an important role in Wolbachia biology, and the gene family provides both markers and promising candidates for the study of reproductive manipulation.

  11. Plant Aquaporin AtPIP1;4 Links Apoplastic H2O2 Induction to Disease Immunity Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shan; Wang, Xiaobing; Li, Ping; Wang, Hao; Ji, Hongtao; Xie, Junyi; Qiu, Qinglei; Shen, Dan; Dong, Hansong

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable component of reactive oxygen species, and its production in plants represents the successful recognition of pathogen infection and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This production of H2O2 is typically apoplastic but is subsequently associated with intracellular immunity pathways that regulate disease resistance, such as systemic acquired resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity. Here, we elucidate that an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) aquaporin (i.e. the plasma membrane intrinsic protein AtPIP1;4) acts to close the cytological distance between H2O2 production and functional performance. Expression of the AtPIP1;4 gene in plant leaves is inducible by a bacterial pathogen, and the expression accompanies H2O2 accumulation in the cytoplasm. Under de novo expression conditions, AtPIP1;4 is able to mediate the translocation of externally applied H2O2 into the cytoplasm of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. In plant cells treated with H2O2, AtPIP1;4 functions as an effective facilitator of H2O2 transport across plasma membranes and mediates the translocation of externally applied H2O2 from the apoplast to the cytoplasm. The H2O2-transport role of AtPIP1;4 is essentially required for the cytoplasmic import of apoplastic H2O2 induced by the bacterial pathogen and two typical PAMPs in the absence of induced production of intracellular H2O2 As a consequence, cytoplasmic H2O2 quantities increase substantially while systemic acquired resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity are activated to repress the bacterial pathogenicity. By contrast, loss-of-function mutation at the AtPIP1;4 gene locus not only nullifies the cytoplasmic import of pathogen- and PAMP-induced apoplastic H2O2 but also cancels the subsequent immune responses, suggesting a pivotal role of AtPIP1;4 in apocytoplastic signal transduction in immunity pathways. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  13. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, Alexander R.; Thurn, Jan; Zuber, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  14. PIP-II Cryogenic System and the evolution of Superfluid Helium Cryogenic Plant Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Anindya [Fermilab; Rane, Tejas [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab

    2017-07-06

    The PIP-II cryogenic system consists of a Superfluid Helium Cryogenic Plant (SHCP) and a Cryogenic Distribution System (CDS) connecting the SHCP to the Superconducting (SC) Linac consisting of 25 cryomodules. The dynamic heat load of the SC cavities for continuous wave (CW) as well as pulsed mode of operation has been listed out. The static heat loads of the cavities along with the CDS have also been discussed. Simulation study has been carried out to compute the supercritical helium (SHe) flow requirements for each cryomodule. Comparison between the flow requirements of the cryomodules for the CW and pulsed modes of operation have also been made. From the total computed heat load and pressure drop values in the CDS, the basic specifications for the SHCP, required for cooling the SC Linac, have evolved.

  15. Assessment of finger joint inflammation by diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Klose, Alexander D.; Scheel, Alexander K.; Backhaus, Marina; Netz, Uwe J.; Beuthan, Juergen

    2003-10-01

    Inflammatory processes as they occur during rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lead to changes in the optical properties of joint tissues and fluids. These changes occur early on in the disease process and can potentially be used as diagnostic parameter. In this work we report on in vivo studies involving 12 human subjects, which show the potential of diffuse optical tomographic techniques for the diagnosis of inflammatory processes in proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints.

  16. The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eSecchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%, which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm, suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress.

  17. The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress.

  18. Microanatomic studies to define predictive factors for the topography of periarticular erosion formation in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGonagle, Dennis; Tan, Ai Lyn; Møller Døhn, Uffe

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The microanatomic basis for formation of erosions in inflammatory arthritis is incompletely understood but is thought to be related to bare areas and the associated cartilage-synovium junction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that erosion-prone sites are associated...... with microdamage in macroscopically normal joints. METHODS: Histologic evaluation of erosion-prone sites was performed on 20 collateral ligaments (CLs) from the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of 5 normal cadavers. In addition, the MCP joints (n = 17) and PIP joints (n = 3...

  19. The Biphasic Increase of PIP2 in the Fertilized Eggs of Starfish: New Roles in Actin Polymerization and Ca2+ Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jong T.; Puppo, Agostina; Vasilev, Filip; Gragnaniello, Giovanni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2010-01-01

    Background Fertilization of echinoderm eggs is accompanied by dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton and by a drastic increase of cytosolic Ca2+. Since the plasma membrane-enriched phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) serves as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (InsP3) and also regulates actin-binding proteins, PIP2 might be involved in these two processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we have studied the roles of PIP2 at fertilization of starfish eggs by using fluorescently tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLC-δ1, which has specific binding affinity to PIP2, in combination with Ca2+ and F-actin imaging techniques and transmission electron microscopy. During fertilization, PIP2 increased at the plasma membrane in two phases rather than continually decreasing. The first increase was quickly followed by a decrease about 40 seconds after sperm-egg contact. However, these changes took place only after the Ca2+ wave had already initiated and propagated. The fertilized eggs then displayed a prolonged increase of PIP2 that was accompanied by the appearance of numerous spikes in the perivitelline space during the elevation of the fertilization envelope (FE). These spikes, protruding from the plasma membrane, were filled with microfilaments. Sequestration of PIP2 by RFP-PH at higher doses resulted in changes of subplasmalemmal actin networks which significantly delayed the intracellular Ca2+ signaling, impaired elevation of FE, and increased occurrences of polyspermic fertilization. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that PIP2 plays comprehensive roles in shaping Ca2+ waves and guiding structural and functional changes required for successful fertilization. We propose that the PIP2 increase and the subsequent formation of actin spikes not only provide the mechanical supports for the elevating FE, but also accommodate increased membrane surfaces during cortical granule exocytosis. PMID:21124897

  20. The biphasic increase of PIP2 in the fertilized eggs of starfish: new roles in actin polymerization and Ca2+ signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong T Chun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fertilization of echinoderm eggs is accompanied by dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton and by a drastic increase of cytosolic Ca(2+. Since the plasma membrane-enriched phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 serves as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (InsP(3 and also regulates actin-binding proteins, PIP2 might be involved in these two processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we have studied the roles of PIP2 at fertilization of starfish eggs by using fluorescently tagged pleckstrin homology (PH domain of PLC-δ1, which has specific binding affinity to PIP2, in combination with Ca(2+ and F-actin imaging techniques and transmission electron microscopy. During fertilization, PIP2 increased at the plasma membrane in two phases rather than continually decreasing. The first increase was quickly followed by a decrease about 40 seconds after sperm-egg contact. However, these changes took place only after the Ca(2+ wave had already initiated and propagated. The fertilized eggs then displayed a prolonged increase of PIP2 that was accompanied by the appearance of numerous spikes in the perivitelline space during the elevation of the fertilization envelope (FE. These spikes, protruding from the plasma membrane, were filled with microfilaments. Sequestration of PIP2 by RFP-PH at higher doses resulted in changes of subplasmalemmal actin networks which significantly delayed the intracellular Ca(2+ signaling, impaired elevation of FE, and increased occurrences of polyspermic fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that PIP2 plays comprehensive roles in shaping Ca(2+ waves and guiding structural and functional changes required for successful fertilization. We propose that the PIP2 increase and the subsequent formation of actin spikes not only provide the mechanical supports for the elevating FE, but also accommodate increased membrane surfaces during cortical granule

  1. A PIP1 Aquaporin Contributes to Hydrostatic Pressure-Induced Water Transport in Both the Root and Rosette of Arabidopsis1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postaire, Olivier; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Grondin, Alexandre; Boursiac, Yann; Morillon, Raphaël; Schäffner, Anton R.; Maurel, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Aquaporins are channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water across plant cell membranes. In this work, we used a combination of pharmacological and reverse genetic approaches to investigate the overall significance of aquaporins for tissue water conductivity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We addressed the function in roots and leaves of AtPIP1;2, one of the most abundantly expressed isoforms of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein family. At variance with the water transport phenotype previously described in AtPIP2;2 knockout mutants, disruption of AtPIP1;2 reduced by 20% to 30% the root hydrostatic hydraulic conductivity but did not modify osmotic root water transport. These results document qualitatively distinct functions of different PIP isoforms in root water uptake. The hydraulic conductivity of excised rosettes (Kros) was measured by a novel pressure chamber technique. Exposure of Arabidopsis plants to darkness increased Kros by up to 90%. Mercury and azide, two aquaporin inhibitors with distinct modes of action, were able to induce similar inhibition of Kros by approximately 13% and approximately 25% in rosettes from plants grown in the light or under prolonged (11–18 h) darkness, respectively. Prolonged darkness enhanced the transcript abundance of several PIP genes, including AtPIP1;2. Mutant analysis showed that, under prolonged darkness conditions, AtPIP1;2 can contribute to up to approximately 20% of Kros and to the osmotic water permeability of isolated mesophyll protoplasts. Therefore, AtPIP1;2 can account for a significant portion of aquaporin-mediated leaf water transport. The overall work shows that AtPIP1;2 represents a key component of whole-plant hydraulics. PMID:20034965

  2. Involvement of different risk factors in clinically severe large joint osteoarthritis according to the presence of hand interphalangeal nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Ana M; McWilliams, Daniel; Arden, Nigel K; Doherty, Sally A; Wheeler, Margaret; Muir, Kenneth R; Zhang, Weiya; Cooper, Cyrus; Maciewicz, Rose A; Doherty, Michael

    2010-09-01

    To quantify the differences in risk factors influencing total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) based on the presence versus absence of multiple interphalangeal nodes in 2 or more rays of the fingers of each hand in patients with large joint osteoarthritis (OA). A group of 3,800 patients with large joint OA who underwent total joint replacement (1,201 of whom had the nodal phenotype) and 1,906 control subjects from 2 case-control studies and a population-based cohort in the UK were studied. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the risk of total joint replacement in association with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), height, and prevalence of the T allele in the GDF5 rs143383 polymorphism. ORs for total joint replacement were compared between cases of nodal OA and cases of non-nodal OA and between patients who underwent TKR and those who underwent THR. Age, sex, and BMI had significantly higher ORs for an association with total joint replacement in nodal OA cases than in non-nodal OA cases. The GDF5 polymorphism was significantly associated with THR in cases of nodal OA, but not in cases of non-nodal OA, and increased height was a risk factor for THR in non-nodal OA cases only. Female sex was a protective risk factor for TKR in non-nodal OA cases (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.52-0.70) but was predisposing for TKR in the nodal form of OA (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.49-2.26). The nodal phenotype was associated with a significantly higher risk of undergoing both THR and TKR (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.94) and also a significantly higher risk of bilateral TKR (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.37-2.11), but, paradoxically, was associated with a lower risk of bilateral THR (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.91). Nodal and non-nodal forms of large joint OA have significantly different risk factors and outcomes, indicating a different etiology for the 2 forms of OA. With regard to the likelihood of undergoing THR, this appears to be, at least in part, genetically

  3. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  4. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  5. Evaluation of early rheumatic disorders in PIP joints using a cw-transillumination method: first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavat, Viravuth; Luhmann, Till; Krause, Andreas; Backhaus, Marina; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents first clinical results of an in vivo experimental study on the detection of early pathological changes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a near IR cw- transillumination method on finger joints (PIP). The inflammation of a joint system when caused by RA leads to changes in the synovial membrane and synovial. Measurements have shown that these rheumatic induced processes results in a variation in optical properties within the joint system. Using a cw system the PIP-joint is transilluminated with diode lasers at the articular cavity in order to use the entire scattered distribution of the transmitted radiation intensity for diagnostic purposes. The study includes results of in vivo measurements on 24 joints with known status and the evaluation of the feasibility of different distribution properties for detection of early RA.

  6. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five neotropical tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Audigeos, Delphine; Buonamici, Anna; Belkadi, Laurent; Rymer, Paul; Boshier, David; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Vendramini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespr...

  7. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Lerner, Stephen; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Yeselson, Yelena; Egbaria, Aiman; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2017-07-01

    Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1). Increased expression of AtHXK1, as well as the addition of its primary substrate, glucose (Glc), repressed the expression of 10 AQPs from the plasma membrane-intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily (PIP-AQPs) and induced the expression of two stress-related PIP-AQPs. The osmotic water permeability of mesophyll protoplasts of AtHXK1-expressing plants and the leaf hydraulic conductance of those plants were significantly reduced, in line with the decreased expression of PIP-AQPs. Conversely, hxk1 mutants demonstrated a higher level of hydraulic conductance, with increased water potential in their leaves. In addition, the presence of Glc reduced leaf water potential, as compared with an osmotic control, indicating that Glc reduces the movement of water from the xylem into the mesophyll. The production of sugars entails a significant loss of water and these results suggest that sugars and AtHXK1 affect the expression of AQP genes and reduce leaf water conductance, to coordinate sugar levels with the loss of water through transpiration. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Interaction entre membrane plasmique et cytosquelette : Approche biomimétique pour l'étude des interactions entre ezrine, PIP2 et actine

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane is composed of several different lipids and can interact directly with the actin cytoskeleton via specific lipids and linker proteins. Among these is the ERM (Ezrin, Radixin, Moesin) family of proteins, which is involved in the direct linkage of the membrane to the actin cytoskeleton via a phosphatidylinositol (4,5) biphosphate (PIP2) lipid binding site. Our aim is to understand the interactions between these proteins and PIP2 using in vitro simplifed biomimetic systems li...

  9. Kinetic analyses of plant water relocation using deuterium as tracer - reduced water flux of Arabidopsis pip2 aquaporin knockout mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ines, O; Graf, W; Franck, K I; Albert, A; Winkler, J B; Scherb, H; Stichler, W; Schäffner, A R

    2010-09-01

    Due to reduced evaporation and diffusion of water molecules containing heavier isotopes, leaf water possesses an elevated (18)O or (2)H steady-state content. This enrichment has been exploited in plant physiology and ecology to assess transpiration and leaf water relations. In contrast to these studies, in this work the (2)H content of the medium of hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana was artificially raised, and the kinetics of (2)H increase in the aerial parts recorded during a short phase of 6-8 h, until a new equilibrium at a higher level was reached. A basic version of the enrichment models was modified to establish an equation that could be fitted to measured leaf (2)H content during uptake kinetics. The fitting parameters allowed estimation of the relative water flux q(leaf) into the Arabidopsis rosette. This approach is quasi-non-invasive, since plants are not manipulated during the uptake process, and therefore, offers a new tool for integrated analysis of plant water relations. The deuterium tracer method was employed to assess water relocation in Arabidopsis pip2;1 and pip2;2 aquaporin knockout plants. In both cases, q(leaf) was significantly reduced by about 20%. The organ and cellular expression patterns of both genes imply that changes in root hydraulic conductivity, as previously demonstrated for pip2;2 mutants, and leaf water uptake and distribution contributed in an integrated fashion to this reduced flux in intact plants.

  10. Cavity Processing and Preparation of 650 MHz Elliptical Cell Cavities for PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Allan [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Melnychuk, Oleksandr [Fermilab; Merio, Margherita [Fermilab; Reid, Thomas [Argonne (main); Sergatskov, Dmitri [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The PIP-II project at Fermilab requires fifteen 650 MHz SRF cryomodules as part of the 800 MeV LINAC that will provide a high intensity proton beam to the Fermilab neutrino program. A total of fifty-seven high-performance SRF cavities will populate the cryomodules and will operate in both pulsed and continuous wave modes. These cavities will be processed and prepared for performance testing utilizing adapted cavity processing infrastructure already in place at Fermilab and Argonne. The processing recipes implemented for these structures will incorporate state-of-the art processing and cleaning techniques developed for 1.3 GHz SRF cavities for the ILC, XFEL, and LCLS-II projects. This paper describes the details of the processing recipes and associated chemistry, heat treatment, and cleanroom processes at the Fermilab and Argonne cavity processing facilities. This paper also presents single and multi-cell cavity test results with quality factors above 5·10¹⁰ and accelerating gradients above 30 MV/m.

  11. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  12. A single-cell model of PIP3 dynamics using chemical dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Stein, Frank; Feng, Suihan; Schultz, Carsten; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2015-06-15

    Most cellular processes are driven by simple biochemical mechanisms such as protein and lipid phosphorylation, but the sum of all these conversions is exceedingly complex. Hence, intuition alone is not enough to discern the underlying mechanisms in the light of experimental data. Toward this end, mathematical models provide a conceptual and numerical framework to formally evaluate the plausibility of biochemical processes. To illustrate the use of these models, here we built a mechanistic computational model of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) activity, to determine the kinetics of lipid metabolizing enzymes in single cells. The model is trained to data generated upon perturbation with a reversible small-molecule based chemical dimerization system that allows for the very rapid manipulation of the PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) signaling pathway, and monitored with live-cell microscopy. We find that the rapid relaxation system used in this work decreased the uncertainty of estimating kinetic parameters compared to methods based on in vitro assays. We also examined the use of Bayesian parameter inference and how the use of such a probabilistic method gives information on the kinetics of PI3K and PTEN activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. SIRT1 Regulates Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Release by Enhancing PIP5Kgamma Activity through Deacetylation of Specific Lysine Residues in Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Akieda-Asai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that SIRT1 is abundantly expressed in pituitary thyrotropes and regulates thyroid hormone secretion. Manipulation of SIRT1 level revealed that SIRT1 positively regulated the exocytosis of TSH-containing granules. Using LC/MS-based interactomics, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kgamma was identified as a SIRT1 binding partner and deacetylation substrate. SIRT1 deacetylated two specific lysine residues (K265/K268 in PIP5Kgamma and enhanced PIP5Kgamma enzyme activity. SIRT1-mediated TSH secretion was abolished by PIP5Kgamma knockdown. SIRT1 knockdown decreased the levels of deacetylated PIP5Kgamma, PI(4,5P(2, and reduced the secretion of TSH from pituitary cells. These results were also observed in SIRT1-knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicated that the control of TSH release by the SIRT1-PIP5Kgamma pathway is important for regulating the metabolism of the whole body.

  14. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.

  15. Proximal First Metatarsal Osteotomy and Mc Bride Procedure in Hallux Valgus: 5-years results of 25 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yeganeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More than 130 operations have been described for the treatment of hallux valgus, However, no evidence that any of these methods of treatment are superior to the others has been described, excepting studies in the long term. The aim of this study was to analyse a series of patients who had undergone Proximal osteotomy of first metatarsal and Mc Bride procedure and had been followed up for 5 years. In This prospective study During a 6 years period, (2005-2010, 25 feet in 24 cases with hallux valgus underwent Proximal first metatarsal osteotomy and MCbride procedure, With a mean follow-up of 3/5±1/5 years. The cases were evaluated by American Orthopaedics Foot & Ankle Society HalluxMetatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale (AOFAS/HMI. Pre and post hallux valgus angle (HVA, intermetatarsal angle (1-2IMA, and the correlation between the angles and patient satisfaction were statistically evaluated. The mean angular corrections for hallux valgus (HVA, and intermetatarsal angle (IMA were 28 and 10/6 degrees respectively. 13 Patients reported good to excellent results, while in 11 cases dissatisfaction were reported. Proximal first metatarsal osteotomy and Mc Bride procedure for hallux valgus is an acceptable procedure in Patients with hallux valgus deformity correction.Pain and first MTP joint contractures are two main side effects.

  16. Design and Development of a Bilateral Therapeutic Hand Device for Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaquor Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The major cause of disability is stroke. It is the second highest cause of death after coronary heart disease in Australia. In this paper, a post stroke therapeutic device has been designed and developed for hand motor function rehabilitation that a stroke survivor can use for bilateral movement practice. A prototype of the device was fabricated that can fully flex and extend metacarpophalangeal (MCP, proximal interphalangeal (PIP and distal interphalangeal (DIP joints of the fingers, and interphalangeal (IP, metacarpophalangeal (MCP and trapeziometacarpal (IM joints of the thumb of the left hand (impaired hand, based on movements of the right hand's (healthy hand fingers. Out of 21 degrees of freedom (DOFs of hand fingers, the prototype of the hand exoskeleton allowed fifteen degrees of freedom (DOFs, with three degrees of freedom (DOFs for each finger and three degrees of freedom (DOFs for the thumb. In addition, testing of the device on a healthy subject was conducted to validate the design requirements.

  17. Correction of Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus With an Osteotomy of the Distal End of the Proximal Phalanx (Distal Akin Osteotomy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Operative correction of a symptomatic hallux valgus interphalangeus (HVI) deformity is often achieved with an osteotomy at the proximal end of the proximal phalanx (Akin osteotomy). However, the apex of the typical HVI deformity (center of rotation angle) is at the interphalangeal joint of the hallux. This study was done to evaluate the results of performing a medial closing wedge osteotomy at the distal end of the proximal phalanx. Thirty-three patients (33 feet) underwent an osteotomy at the distal end of the proximal phalanx for correction of HVI. All of the patients had other forefoot deformities which were corrected at the same time. Eight of these were revision procedures of prior forefoot operations. The length of follow-up was determined by the associated procedures with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. The preoperative hallux valgus interphalangeus angle averaged 16 degrees of valgus (range 7-32 degrees) and was corrected to an average of 2 degrees of valgus (range 5 degrees valgus to 5 degrees varus). All of the patients were satisfied with the postoperative appearance and function of the first toe. Because of simultaneous correction of numerous other forefoot problems, it was not possible to specifically isolate or evaluate the effects and benefits of this osteotomy using outcomes measures. There was one intraoperative complication resulting in a fracture extending into the adjacent IP joint. Correction of an HVI deformity can be achieved with an osteotomy at the distal end of the proximal phalanx. This was a safe technique with few complications and with good results in terms of both correction and patient satisfaction. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  18. Reconstitution of CO2 Regulation of SLAC1 Anion Channel and Function of CO2-Permeable PIP2;1 Aquaporin as CARBONIC ANHYDRASE4 Interactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Brian; Xu, Danyun; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Dark respiration causes an increase in leaf CO2 concentration (Ci), and the continuing increases in atmospheric [CO2] further increases Ci. Elevated leaf CO2 concentration causes stomatal pores to close. Here, we demonstrate that high intracellular CO2/HCO3− enhances currents mediated by the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell S-type anion channel SLAC1 upon coexpression of any one of the Arabidopsis protein kinases OST1, CPK6, or CPK23 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Split-ubiquitin screening identified the PIP2;1 aquaporin as an interactor of the βCA4 carbonic anhydrase, which was confirmed in split luciferase, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. PIP2;1 exhibited CO2 permeability. Mutation of PIP2;1 in planta alone was insufficient to impair CO2- and abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing, likely due to redundancy. Interestingly, coexpression of βCA4 and PIP2;1 with OST1-SLAC1 or CPK6/23-SLAC1 in oocytes enabled extracellular CO2 enhancement of SLAC1 anion channel activity. An inactive PIP2;1 point mutation was identified that abrogated water and CO2 permeability and extracellular CO2 regulation of SLAC1 activity. These findings identify the CO2-permeable PIP2;1 as key interactor of βCA4 and demonstrate functional reconstitution of extracellular CO2 signaling to ion channel regulation upon coexpression of PIP2;1, βCA4, SLAC1, and protein kinases. These data further implicate SLAC1 as a bicarbonate-responsive protein contributing to CO2 regulation of S-type anion channels. PMID:26764375

  19. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  20. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  1. Is expression of aquaporins (plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2s, PIP2s) associated with thermonasty (leaf-curling) in Rhododendron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keting; Wang, Xiang; Fessehaie, Anania; Yin, Yanhai; Wang, Xiaolei; Arora, Rajeev

    2013-11-01

    It is postulated that leaf thermonasty (leaf curling) in rhododendrons under sub-freezing temperatures is caused by water redistribution due to extracellular freezing. We hypothesize that aquaporins (AQPs), the transmembrane water-channels, may be involved in regulating water redistribution and thus leaf curling. Our experimental system includes two Rhododendron species with contrasting leaf curling behavior whereby it was observed in R. catawbiense but not in R. ponticum. We compared leaf movements and the expression of two AQPs, i.e. R. catawbiense/ponticum plasma-membrane intrinsic protein 2 (Rc/RpPIP2;1 and Rc/RpPIP2;2), in the two species under freezing-rewarming and dehydration-rehydration cycles. To determine the relationship between extracellular freezing and leaf-curling, we monitored leaf-curling in R. catawbiense with or without controlled ice-nucleation. Our data indicate that extracellular freezing may be required for leaf curling. Moreover, in both species, PIP2s were up-regulated at temperatures that fell in ice-nucleation temperature range. Such up-regulation could be associated with the bulk-water efflux caused by extracellular freezing. When leaves were frozen beyond the ice-nucleation temperature range, PIP2s were continuously down-regulated in R. catawbiense along with the progressive leaf curling, as also observed for RcPIP2;2 in dehydrated leaves; as leaves uncurled during re-warming/rehydration, RcPIP2 expression was restored. On the other hand, R. ponticum, a non-curling species, exhibited substantial up-regulation of RpPIP2s during freezing/dehydration. Taken together, our data suggest that RcPIP2 down-regulation was associated with leaf curling. Moreover, the contrasting PIP2 expression patterns combined with leaf behavior of R. catawbiense and R. ponticum under these two cycles may reflect different strategies employed by these two species to tolerate/resist cellular dehydration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal stabilization of the Propionibacterium shermanii proline iminopeptidase gene (pip) for food-grade application in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, K; Bolhuis, A; Boot, J; Deutz, I; Toonen, M; Venema, G; Kok, J; Ledeboer, A

    1998-12-01

    Proline iminopeptidase produced by Propionibacterium shermanii plays an essential role in the flavor development of Swiss-type cheeses. The enzyme (Pip) was purified and characterized, and the gene (pip) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, the latter species being an extensively studied, primary cheese starter culture that is less fastidious in its growth condition requirements than P. shermanii. The levels of expression of the pip gene could be enhanced with a factor 3 to 5 by using a strong constitutive promoter in L. lactis or the inducible tac promoter in E. coli. Stable replication of the rolling-circle replicating (rcr) plasmid, used to express pip in L. lactis, could only be obtained by providing the repA gene in trans. Upon the integration of pip, clear gene dosage effects were observed and stable multicopy integrants could be maintained upon growth under the selective pressure of sucrose. The multicopy integrants demonstrated a high degree of stability in the presence of glucose. This study examines the possibilities to overexpress genes that play an important role in food fermentation processes and shows a variety of options to obtain stable food-grade expression of such genes in L. lactis.

  3. Genetic variations of PIP4K2A confer vulnerability to poor antipsychotic response in severely ill schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that disease severity and neurotransmitter signaling pathway genes can accurately identify antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients. However, putative role of signaling molecules has not been tested in schizophrenia patients based on severity of illness, despite its biological plausibility. In the present study we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms from five candidate genes RGS4, SLC6A3, PIP4K2A, BDNF, PI4KA with response to antipsychotic in variably ill schizophrenia patients. Thus in present study, a total 53 SNPs on the basis of previous reports and functional grounds were examined for their association with antipsychotic response in 423 schizophrenia patients segregated into low and high severity groups. Additionally, haplotype, diplotype, multivariate logistic regression and multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR analyses were performed. Furthermore, observed associations were investigated in atypical monotherapy (n = 355 and risperidone (n = 260 treated subgroups. All associations were estimated as odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI and test for multiple corrections was applied. Single locus analysis showed significant association of nine variants from SLC6A3, PIP4K2A and BDNF genes with incomplete antipsychotic response in schizophrenia patients with high severity. We identified significant association of six marker diplotype ATTGCT/ATTGCT (rs746203-rs10828317-rs7094131-rs2296624-rs11013052-rs1409396 of PIP4K2A gene in incomplete responders (corrected p-value = 0.001; adjusted-OR = 3.19, 95%-CI = 1.46-6.98 with high severity. These associations were further observed in atypical monotherapy and risperidone sub-groups. MDR approach identified gene-gene interaction among BDNF_rs7103411-BDNF_rs1491851-SLC6A3_rs40184 in severely ill incomplete responders (OR = 7.91, 95%-CI = 4.08-15.36. While RGS4_rs2842026-SLC6A3_rs2975226 interacted synergistically in

  4. Regulation of HbPIP2;3, a Latex-Abundant Water Transporter, Is Associated with Latex Dilution and Yield in the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feng; Zou, Zhi; Cai, Xiuqing; Wang, Jin; Rookes, James; Lin, Weifu; Cahill, David; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) latex, the source of natural rubber, is synthesised in the cytoplasm of laticifers. Efficient water inflow into laticifers is crucial for latex flow and production since it is the determinant of the total solid content of latex and its fluidity after tapping. As the mature laticifer vessel rings are devoid of plasmodesmata, water exchange between laticifers and surrounding cells is believed to be governed by plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs). To identify the most important PIP aquaporin in the water balance of laticifers, the transcriptional profiles of ten-latex-expressed PIPs were analysed. One of the most abundant transcripts, designated HbPIP2;3, was characterised in this study. When tested in Xenopus laevis oocytes HbPIP2;3 showed a high efficiency in increasing plasmalemma water conductance. Expression analysis indicated that the HbPIP2;3 gene was preferentially expressed in latex, and the transcripts were up-regulated by both wounding and exogenously applied Ethrel (a commonly-used ethylene releaser). Although regular tapping up-regulated the expression of HbPIP2;3 during the first few tappings of the virginal rubber trees, the transcriptional kinetics of HbPIP2;3 to Ethrel stimulation in the regularly tapped tree exhibited a similar pattern to that of the previously reported HbPIP2;1 in the virginal rubber trees. Furthermore, the mRNA level of HbPIP2;3 was associated with clonal yield potential and the Ethrel stimulation response. Together, these results have revealed the central regulatory role of HbPIP2;3 in laticifer water balance and ethylene stimulation of latex production in Hevea.

  5. Friction between human finger flexor tendons and pulleys at high loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, A; Frank, O; Ochsner, P E; Jacob, H A C

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to indirectly measure friction between the flexor tendons and pulleys of the middle and ring finger in vivo. An isokinetic movement device to determine maximum force of wrist flexion, interphalangeal joint flexion (rolling in and out) and isolated proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion was built. Eccentric and concentric maximum force of these three different movements where gliding of the flexor tendon sheath was involved differently (least in wrist flexion) was measured and compared. Fifty-one hands in 26 male subjects were evaluated. The greatest difference between eccentric and concentric maximum force (29.9%) was found in flexion of the PIP joint. Differences in the rolling in and out movement (26.8%) and in wrist flexion (14.5%) were significantly smaller. The force of friction between flexor tendons and pulleys can be determined by the greater difference between eccentric and concentric maximum force provided by the same muscles in overcoming an external force during flexion of the interphalangeal joints and suggests the presence of a non-muscular force, such as friction. It constitutes of 9% of the eccentric flexion force in the PIP joint and therefore questions the low friction hypothesis at high loads. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés

    2011-01-01

    of two aquaporins with high structural homology SoPIP2;1 and AqpZ using identical reconstitution conditions. Our CD results indicate that SDS, when added to membrane-reconstituted aquaporins in concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration (CMC, ~8mM), causes helical rearrangements of both...... aquaporins. However, we do not find compelling evidence for unfolding. In contrast when SDS is added to detergent stabilized aquaporins, SoPIP2;1 partly unfolds, while AqpZ secondary structure is unaffected. Using a fluorescent polarity sensitive probe (Badan) we show that SDS action on membrane...... reconstituted SoPIP2;1 as well as AqpZ is associated with initial increased hydrophobic interactions in protein transmembrane (TM) spanning regions up to a concentration of 0.1× CMC. At higher SDS concentrations TM hydrophobic interactions, as reported by Badan, decrease and reach a plateau from SDS CMC up...

  7. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  8. Plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx: do new implants cause less problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei-Thoma, Pascale; Vögelin, Esther; Franz, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    Limited range of finger motion is a frequent complication after plate fixation of phalangeal fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx using current low-profile mini-fragment-systems. From 2006 to 2012, 32 patients with 36 extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx of the triphalangeal fingers were treated with open reduction and plate fixation (ORPF) using 1.2 and 1.5 mm mini-fragment systems. Patients presenting with open fractures grade 2 and 3 or relevant laceration of adjacent structures were excluded from the study. We retrospectively evaluated the rate of mal-union or non-union after ORPF, the need for revision surgery, for plate removal, and for tenolysis. Data were analyzed for further complications with regard to infections or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). No infections were noted. Five patients developed transient symptoms of CRPS. Six weeks postoperatively, total active finger motion (TAM) averaged 183°, and all 32 patients underwent formal hand therapy. At the latest follow-up or at the time of plate removal, respectively, the mean TAM improved to 213°. Extension lag of proximal interphalangeal joints was found in 67 % of all fractured fingers. Secondary surgery was necessary in 14 of 32 patients (2 corrective osteotomies, 12 plate removals including 7 procedures explicitly because of reduced mobility). Despite of new implant designs significant problems persist. Adhesions of extensor tendons leading to limited range of finger motion are still the most frequent complications after ORPF of proximal phalangeal fractures, even in absence of significant soft-tissue damage. Therapeutic, Retrospective, Level IV.

  9. In vitro and in vivo analysis of transcription within the replication region of plasmid pIP501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantl, S; Nuez, B; Behnke, D

    1992-07-01

    Derivatives of the conjugative streptococcal plasmid pIP501 replicate stably in Bacillus subtilis. The region essential for replication of pIP501 has been narrowed down to a 2.2 kb DNA segment, the sequence of which has been determined. This region comprises two genes, copR and repR, proposed to be involved in copy control and replication. By in vitro and in vivo transcriptional analysis we characterized three active promoters, pI, pII and pIII within this region. A putative fourth promoter (pIV) was neither active in vitro nor in vivo. We showed that copR is transcribed from promoter pI while the repR gene is transcribed from promoter pII located just downstream of copR. The pII transcript encompasses a 329 nucleotide (nt) long leader sequence. A counter transcript that was complementary to a major part of this leader was found to originate from a third promoter pIII. The secondary structure of the counter transcript revealed several stem-loop regions. A regulatory function for this antisense RNA in the control of repR expression is proposed. Comparative analysis of the replication regions of pAM beta 1 and pSM19035 suggested a similar organization of transcriptional units, suggesting that an antisense RNA is produced by these plasmids also.

  10. Crystal structure of the shrimp proliferating cell nuclear antigen: structural complementarity with WSSV DNA polymerase PIP-box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Stojanoff, Vivian; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA). This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein). The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems.

  11. Crystal structure of the shrimp proliferating cell nuclear antigen: structural complementarity with WSSV DNA polymerase PIP-box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus S Carrasco-Miranda

    Full Text Available DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA. This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein. The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems.

  12. Identification of a conserved 8 aa insert in the PIP5K protein in the Saccharomycetaceae family of fungi and the molecular dynamics simulations and structural analysis to investigate its potential functional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Bijendra; Gupta, Radhey S

    2017-08-01

    Homologs of the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase (PIP5K), which controls a multitude of essential cellular functions, contain a 8 aa insert in a conserved region that is specific for the Saccharomycetaceae family of fungi. Using structures of human PIP4K proteins as templates, structural models were generated of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human PIP5K proteins. In the modeled S. cerevisiae PIP5K, the 8 aa insert forms a surface exposed loop, present on the same face of the protein as the activation loop of the kinase domain. Electrostatic potential analysis indicates that the residues from 8 aa conserved loop form a highly positively charged surface patch, which through electrostatic interaction with the anionic portions of phospholipid head groups, is expected to play a role in the membrane interaction of the yeast PIP5K. To unravel this prediction, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to examine the binding interaction of PIP5K, either containing or lacking the conserved signature insert, with two different membrane lipid bilayers. The results from MD studies provide insights concerning the mechanistic of interaction of PIP5K with lipid bilayer, and support the contention that the identified 8 aa conserved insert in fungal PIP5K plays an important role in the binding of this protein with membrane surface. Proteins 2017; 85:1454-1467. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  14. SALINE ARTHROGRAPHY OF THE DISTAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT FOR LOW-FIELD MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE EQUINE PODOTROCHLEAR BURSA: FEASIBILITY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Shannon L; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D; Schaeffer, David J; Hartman, Susan K; O'Brien, Robert T; Joslyn, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities of the deep digital flexor tendon, navicular bone, and collateral sesamoidean ligament can be difficult to visualize using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) if bursal fluid is absent. The use of saline podotrochlear bursography improves podotrochlear apparatus evaluation, however, the technique has disadvantages. The objective of this prospective feasibility study was to describe saline arthrography of the distal interphalangeal joint as an alternative technique for improving MRI visualization of the deep digital flexor tendon, navicular bone, collateral sesamoidean ligament, and podotrochlear bursa, and to compare this technique with saline podotrochlear bursography. Eight paired cadaver forelimbs were sampled. Saline podotrochlear bursography or saline arthrography techniques were randomly assigned to one limb, with the alternate technique performed on the contralateral limb. For precontrast and postcontrast studies using each technique, independent observers scored visualization of the dorsal aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon, palmar aspect of the navicular bone, collateral sesamoidean ligament, and podotrochlear bursa. Both contrast techniques improved visualization of structures over precontrast MR images and visualization scores for both techniques were similar. Findings from this study demonstrated that saline arthrography is feasible and comparable to saline podotrochlear bursography for producing podotrochlear bursa distension and separation of the structures of the podotrochlear apparatus on nonweight bearing limbs evaluated with low-field MRI. Clinical evaluation of saline arthrography on live animals is needed to determine if this technique is safe and effective as an alternative to saline podotrochlear bursography in horses with suspected pathology of the podotrochlear apparatus. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. The anatomy and function of Cleland's ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, R L; Werker, P M N; McGrouther, D A

    2014-06-01

    The cutaneous ligaments of the digits have been recognized by anatomists for several centuries, but the best known description is that of John Cleland. Subsequent varying descriptions of their morphology have resulted in the surgical community having an imprecise view of their structure and dynamic function. We micro-dissected 24 fresh frozen fingers to analyze the individual components of Cleland's ligamentous system. Arising from the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, proximal, and sometimes middle phalanx, we found strong ligaments that ran proximally (PIP-P) and distally (PIP-D). On each side of each finger there was a PIP-P ligament present, which passed obliquely from the lateral side of the proximal and sometimes middle phalanx towards its insertion into the skin at the level of the proximal phalanx. The distal (PIP-D) ligaments were found to pass obliquely distally on the radial and ulnar aspects of the digit towards cutaneous insertions around the middle phalanx. A similar arrangement exists more distally with fibres originating from the DIP joint and middle phalanx (the DIP-P pass obliquely proximally, and the DIP-D, distally). Each individual PIP ligament consisted of three different layers originating from fibres overlying the flexor tendon sheath, periosteum or joint capsule, and extensor expansion. Ligaments arising at the DIP joint had two layers equivalent to the anterior two layers of the proximal ligaments. Cleland's ligaments act as skin anchors maintaining the skin in a fixed relationship to the underlying skeleton during motion and functional tasks. They also prevent the skin from 'bagging', protect the neurovascular bundle, and create a gliding path for the lateral slips of the extensor tendon. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. First Principles Modeling of RFQ Cooling System and Resonant Frequency Responses for Fermilab's PIP-II Injector Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, J. P.; Edelen, A. L.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Steimel, J.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we develop an a priori method for simulating dynamic resonant frequency and temperature responses in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and its associated water-based cooling system respectively. Our model provides a computationally efficient means to evaluate the transient response of the RFQ over a large range of system parameters. The model was constructed prior to the delivery of the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ and was used to aid in the design of the water-based cooling system, data acquisition system, and resonance control system. Now that the model has been validated with experimental data, it can confidently be used to aid in the design of future RFQ resonance controllers and their associated water-based cooling systems. Without any empirical fitting, it has demonstrated the ability to predict absolute temperature and frequency changes to 11% accuracy on average, and relative changes to 7% accuracy.

  17. Parametric study for use of stainless steel as a material for thermal shield in PIP2IT transferline at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tejas; Chakravarty, Anindya; Klebaner, Arkadiy

    2017-12-01

    Transferline thermal shields are cooled by dedicated cooling lines welded/brazed to the shield at a single point along the circumference. Copper/Aluminium is widely used to fabricate thermal shields because of their higher thermal diffusivity. This causes uniformity of temperature along the surface of the shield thus reducing thermal stresses within allowable values. However, factors such as raw material price, the cost of fabrication depending on standard sizes of pipes/tubes, often drives up the final price of thermal shields. To reduce the cost by making use of easily available stock of standard pipe/tube, it is decided to use stainless steel as a material for thermal shields in the PIP2IT transferline. The present paper discusses the design approach, various factors affecting the conservative selection of thermal shield design.

  18. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  20. Open Dislocation of Fifth Digit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 17-year-old female presented with a chief complaint of right fifth finger pain. The patient reported that she was playing volleyball when she blocked an opponent’s shot and sustained an injury to her right fifth finger. Significant findings: Physical exam revealed an open dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP of the right fifth digit. X-ray confirmed dislocation and revealed no fractures. The patient received a tetanus booster, Cefazolin, and the dislocation was then washed out and reduced. Multiple reduction attempts were made and were only successful once the metacarpophalangeal joints were held in 90 degree flexion, which relaxed the lateral bands and enabled the finger to be reduced. Discussion: PIP dislocations result in more complications than those of distal interphalangeal joints (DIP.1 Dorsal dislocations of the PIP are more common than volar dislocations and usually cause injury to the volar plate and the collateral ligaments.2 Dislocations are typically reduced with hyper-extension of the middle phalanx followed by longitudinal traction of the distal portion of the finger, and then gentle flexion or palmar force.1,2 The finger is then splinted in 20-30 degrees of flexion. Open dislocations and fracture dislocations should be evaluated for hand surgery.1 If left untreated or incompletely reduced, dorsal dislocations of the PIP may lead to swan neck deformities.2

  1. A Kir6.2 pore mutation causes inactivation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by disrupting PIP2-dependent gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Bushman

    Full Text Available In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels exhibit spontaneous activity via a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2-dependent gating process. Previous studies show that stability of this activity requires subunit-subunit interactions in the cytoplasmic domain of Kir6.2; selective mutagenesis and disease mutations at the subunit interface result in time-dependent channel inactivation. Here, we report that mutation of the central glycine in the pore-lining second transmembrane segment (TM2 to proline in Kir6.2 causes KATP channel inactivation. Unlike C-type inactivation, a consequence of selectivity filter closure, in many K(+ channels, the rate of inactivation in G156P channels was insensitive to changes in extracellular ion concentrations or ion species fluxing through the pore. Instead, the rate of G156P inactivation decreased with exogenous application of PIP2 and increased when PIP2-channel interaction was inhibited with neomycin or poly-L-lysine. These findings indicate the G156P mutation reduces the ability of PIP2 to stabilize the open state of KATP channels, similar to mutations in the cytoplasmic domain that produce inactivation. Consistent with this notion, when PIP2-dependent open state stability was substantially increased by addition of a second gain-of-function mutation, G156P inactivation was abolished. Importantly, bath application and removal of Mg(2+-free ATP or a nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP, which binds to the cytoplasmic domain of Kir6.2 and causes channel closure, recover G156P channel from inactivation, indicating crosstalk between cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. The G156P mutation provides mechanistic insight into the structural and functional interactions between the pore and cytoplasmic domains of Kir6.2 during gating.

  2. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons

  3. A fruit-specific plasma membrane aquaporin subtype PIP1;1 is regulated during strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut, Paula; Bustamante, Claudia; Martínez, Gustavo; Alleva, Karina; Sutka, Moira; Civello, Marcos; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2008-04-01

    Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit ripening, the role and contribution of water pathways are still barely considered. Our aim was therefore to characterize aquaporins, proteins that render the molecular basis for putative regulatory mechanisms in water transport. We focused our work on strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) fruit, a non-climacteric fruit of special interest because of its forced brief commercial shelf life. A full-length cDNA was isolated with high homology with plasma membrane (PM) intrinsic proteins (named FaPIP1;1), showing a profile with high expression in fruit, less in ovaries and no detection at all in other parts. Its cellular localization was confirmed at the PM. As reported in other plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 (PIP1s), when expressing the protein in Xenopus leavis oocytes, FaPIP1;1 shows low water permeability values that only increased when it is coexpressed with a plasma membrane intrinsic protein subtype 2. Northern blotting using total RNA shows that its expression increases during fruit ripening. Moreover, functional characterization of isolated PM vesicles from red stage fruit unequivocally demonstrates the presence of active water channels, i.e. high water permeability values and a low Arrhenius activation energy, both evidences of water transport mediated by proteins. Interestingly, as many ripening-related strawberry genes, the expression pattern of FaPIP1;1 was also repressed by the presence of auxins. We therefore report a fruit specific PIP1 aquaporin with an accumulation pattern tightly associated to auxins and to the ripening process that might be responsible for increasing water permeability at the level of the PM in ripe fruit.

  4. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  5. Frequency of Penetration of the Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath and Distal Interphalangeal Joint Using a Direct Endoscopic Approach to the Navicular Bursa in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane-Smyth, Justine; Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth; García, Eugenio Cillán; Reardon, Richard J M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency of inadvertent penetration of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) when using a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, and to evaluate an alternate direct approach to the navicular bursa. Cadaveric study. Equine cadaver limbs (n = 40 for direct; n = 12 for alternate approach). Four surgeons performed the direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa on 10 limbs each. Frequencies of inadvertent synovial penetration and iatrogenic damage were compared between surgeons. Use of an alternate direct approach, adopting a straight parasagittal trajectory, was evaluated by 2 surgeons. Inadvertent synovial penetration occurred in 45% of limbs (DFTS 37.5%; DIPJ 17.5%; and both structures 10%). Successful bursa entry was achieved on the first attempt in 45% of limbs. Significant variation in frequency of inadvertent synovial penetration was observed between surgeons (range 10-80%). Inadvertent synovial penetration did not occur when using the alternate direct technique. Iatrogenic damage to navicular bone fibrocartilage and/or deep digital flexor tendon occurred in 55% of limbs using the direct endoscopic approach and in 0% of limbs using the alternate direct approach. Because of the considerable risk of inadvertent penetration of the DFTS and/or the DIPJ when making a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, it is advisable to investigate for inadvertent penetration when treating navicular bursa sepsis using a direct approach. The alternate direct technique may reduce the risk of inadvertent penetration; however, the view within the bursa may be restricted. © 2016 The Authors. Veterinary Surgery published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Tumour necrosis factor blockade for the treatment of erosive osteoarthritis of the interphalangeal finger joints: a double blind, randomised trial on structure modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Gust; Wittoek, Ruth; Vander Cruyssen, Bert; Elewaut, Dirk

    2012-06-01

    Adalimumab blocks the action of tumor necrosis factor-α and reduces disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. The effects of adalimumab in controlling progression of structural damage in erosive hand osteoarthritis (HOA) were assessed. Sixty patients with erosive HOA on radiology received 40 mg adalimumab or placebo subcutaneously every two weeks during a 12-month randomized double-blind trial. Response was defined as the reduction in progression of structural damage according to the categorical anatomic phase scoring system. Furthermore, subchondral bone, bone plate erosion, and joint-space narrowing were scored according to the continuous Ghent University Score System (GUSSTM). The disease appeared to be active since 40.0% and 26,7% of patients out of the placebo and adalimumab group, respectively, showed at least one new interphalangeal (IP) joint that became erosive during the 12 months follow-up. These differences were not significant and the overall results showed no effect of adalimumab. Risk factors for progression were then identified and the presence of palpable soft tissue swelling at baseline was recognized as the strongest predictor for erosive progression. In this subpopulation at risk, statistically significant less erosive evolution on the radiological image (3.7%) was seen in the adalimumab treated group compared to the placebo group (14.5%) (P = 0.009). GUSSTM scoring confirmed a less rapid rate of mean increase in the erosion scores during the first 6 months of treatment in patients in adalimumab-treated patients. Palpable soft tissue swelling in IP joints in patients with erosive HOA is a strong predictor for erosive progression. In these joints adalimumab significantly halted the progression of joint damage compared to placebo.

  7. Tumour necrosis factor blockade for the treatment of erosive osteoarthritis of the interphalangeal finger joints: a double blind, randomised trial on structure modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Gust; Wittoek, Ruth; Cruyssen, Bert Vander; Elewaut, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background Adalimumab blocks the action of tumor necrosis factor-α and reduces disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. The effects of adalimumab in controlling progression of structural damage in erosive hand osteoarthritis (HOA) were assessed. Methods Sixty patients with erosive HOA on radiology received 40 mg adalimumab or placebo subcutaneously every two weeks during a 12-month randomized double-blind trial. Response was defined as the reduction in progression of structural damage according to the categorical anatomic phase scoring system. Furthermore, subchondral bone, bone plate erosion, and joint-space narrowing were scored according to the continuous Ghent University Score System (GUSSTM). Results The disease appeared to be active since 40.0% and 26,7% of patients out of the placebo and adalimumab group, respectively, showed at least one new interphalangeal (IP) joint that became erosive during the 12 months follow-up. These differences were not significant and the overall results showed no effect of adalimumab. Risk factors for progression were then identified and the presence of palpable soft tissue swelling at baseline was recognized as the strongest predictor for erosive progression. In this subpopulation at risk, statistically significant less erosive evolution on the radiological image (3.7%) was seen in the adalimumab treated group compared to the placebo group (14.5%) (P = 0.009). GUSSTM scoring confirmed a less rapid rate of mean increase in the erosion scores during the first 6 months of treatment in patients in adalimumab-treated patients. Conclusion Palpable soft tissue swelling in IP joints in patients with erosive HOA is a strong predictor for erosive progression. In these joints adalimumab significantly halted the progression of joint damage compared to placebo. PMID:22128078

  8. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  9. Gold Finger: Metal Jewellery as a Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Therapy!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hlaing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyarticular psoriatic arthritis is a chronic, progressive and disabling auto-immune disease often affecting the small joints of the hands in a symmetrical fashion. The disease can progress rapidly causing joint swelling and damaging cartilage and bone around the joints resulting in severe deformities. We report a very unusual case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with polyarticular psoriatic arthritis affecting all proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints of both hands except the left ring finger PIP joint. On clinical examination there was no evidence of arthritis in the left ring finger PIP joint. We confirmed the paucity of joint damage in the PIP joint of the left ring finger using more modern imaging modalities such as musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI scan of the small joints of the hands. All other PIP joints in both hands demonstrated advanced degrees of joint damage secondary to chronic psoriatic inflammatory arthritis. We postulated that wearing a gold wedding ring has helped protecting the PIP joint of the left ring finger from the damaging effect of inflammatory arthritis. The possible mechanisms by which metal jewellery (gold ring confer protection to adjacent joints was discussed.

  10. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Opposite effects of the S4-S5 linker and PIP2 on voltage-gated channel function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and other channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank S Choveau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1-S6, with each S1-S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD and the four S5-S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4-S5 linker (S4S5L and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6T in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5L is acting like a ligand binding to S6T to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5L, the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2, stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated require PIP2 to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel co-factor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP2 leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP2 and S4-S5L, and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles.

  12. Crystal Structure of the Mammalian GIRK2 K[superscript +] Channel and Gating Regulation by G Proteins, PIP[subscript 2], and Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, Matthew R.; MacKinnon, Roderick (Rockefeller)

    2011-11-17

    G protein-gated K{sup +} channels (Kir3.1-Kir3.4) control electrical excitability in many different cells. Among their functions relevant to human physiology and disease, they regulate the heart rate and govern a wide range of neuronal activities. Here, we present the first crystal structures of a G protein-gated K{sup +} channel. By comparing the wild-type structure to that of a constitutively active mutant, we identify a global conformational change through which G proteins could open a G loop gate in the cytoplasmic domain. The structures of both channels in the absence and presence of PIP{sub 2} suggest that G proteins open only the G loop gate in the absence of PIP{sub 2}, but in the presence of PIP{sub 2} the G loop gate and a second inner helix gate become coupled, so that both gates open. We also identify a strategically located Na{sup +} ion-binding site, which would allow intracellular Na{sup +} to modulate GIRK channel activity. These data provide a structural basis for understanding multiligand regulation of GIRK channel gating.

  13. Binaural interaction in human auditory brainstem response compared for tone-pips and rectangular clicks under conditions of auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) represents the discrepancy between the binaural waveform and the sum of monaural ones. A typical ABR binaural interaction in humans is a reduction of the binaural amplitude compared to the monaural sum at the wave-V latency, i.e., the DN1 component. It has been considered that the DN1 is mainly elicited by high frequency components of stimuli whereas some studies have shown the contribution of low-to-middle frequency components to the DN1. To examine this issue, the present study compared the ABR binaural interaction elicited by tone pips (1 kHz, 10-ms duration) with the one by clicks (a rectangular wave, 0.1-ms duration) presented at 80 dB peak equivalent SPL and a fixed stimulus onset interval (180 ms). The DN1 due to tone pips was vulnerable compared to the click-evoked DN1. The pip-evoked DN1 was significantly detected under auditory attention whereas it failed to reach significance under visual attention. The click-evoked DN1 was robustly present for the two attention conditions. The current results might confirm the high frequency sound contribution to the DN1 elicitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Creep/Stress Rupture Behavior and Failure Mechanisms of Full CVI and Full PIP SiC/SiC Composites at Elevated Temperatures in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Kiser, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    SiC/SiC composites fabricated by melt infiltration are being considered as potential candidate materials for next generation turbine components. However these materials are limited to 2400 F application because of the presence of residual silicon in the SiC matrix. Currently there is an increasing interest in developing and using silicon free SiC/SiC composites for structural aerospace applications above 2400 F. Full PIP or full CVI or CVI + PIP hybrid SiC/SiC composites can be fabricated without excess silicon, but the upper temperature stress capabilities of these materials are not fully known. In this study, the on-axis creep and rupture properties of the state-of-the-art full CVI and full PIP SiC/SiC composites with Sylramic-iBN fibers were measured at temperatures to 2700 F in air and their failure modes examined. In this presentation creep rupture properties, failure mechanisms and upper temperature capabilities of these two systems will be discussed and compared with the literature data.

  15. [Radiological trap and oncological precautions in a patient who has undergone a permanent withdrawal of PIP breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsomanis, A; Bruant-Rodier, C; Roedlich, M-N; Bretz-Grenier, M-F; Perrot, P; Bodin, F

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old patient who presented radiological images similar to ruptured breast implants one year after the supposed withdrawal of the latter. This woman had benefited for the first time from cosmetic PIP breast implants in 2000. Early in 2014, she requested the removal of the implants without renewal because she was feeling pain and functional discomfort. A few months after the operation, she consulted for breast swelling in the upper pole of the breast. Radiological assessment showed liquid formations compatible with the presence of implants. At our request, the rereading of the MRI by the radiologist definitively concluded on a bilateral seroma within the persistent fibrous capsule. In the absence of symptoms, clinical monitoring had been decided. But at the recrudescence of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases associated with breast implants, a cytological sampling was intended. In case of cytological abnormality or recurrence of the seroma, a surgical procedure should be performed. In conclusion, the removal of a breast implant without capsulectomy may result in the formation of a seroma whose images resemble those of an implant. It is always worthwhile to provide precise clinical data to the radiologist in order to help him to make informed interpretations. Every serous effusion in a breast lodge having contained a silicone implant must evoke the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  17. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Uptake of advanced glycation end products by proximal tubule epithelial cells via macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, Marisa A; Bach, Leon A

    2013-12-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia during diabetes leads to non-enzymatic glycation of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that contribute to nephropathy. We describe AGE uptake in LLC-PK1 and HK2 proximal tubule cell lines by macropinocytosis, a non-specific, endocytic mechanism. AGE-BSA induced dorsal circular actin ruffles and amiloride-sensitive dextran-TRITC uptake, significantly increased AGE-BSA-FITC uptake (167±20% vs BSA control, pmacropinocytosis. PAK1 and PIP5Kγ siRNA significantly decreased AGE-BSA-FITC uptake (81±6% and 64±7%, respectively, pmacropinocytosis inhibitors and a neutralising TGF-β antibody, reversed the AGE-induced decrease in surface Na(+)K(+)ATPase, suggesting AGE uptake by macropinocytosis may contribute to diabetic kidney fibrosis and/or EMT by modulating this pump. Understanding methods of cellular uptake and signalling by AGEs may lead to novel therapies for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  20. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  2. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  3. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  4. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  5. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  7. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  8. Root canals decontamination by coherent photons initiated photoacustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants: an ex-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E.; Genovese, C.; Scolaro, C.; Cutroneo, M.; Tempera, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of coherent photon initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants using an Er:YAG laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered, tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals. One hundred-forty-eight single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a rotary abrasive instrument providing a root channel with a suitable size. The samples were sterilized and all teeth except ten (negative control group) were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in a CO2 chamber at 37°C for 15 days in Eppendorff tubes filled with trypticase soy broth medium changed every 2 days. Infected teeth were then randomly divided into 4 test groups (n=32 for each): pulsed erbium:YAG laser at non-ablative settings for 30 seconds with sterile bi-distilled water (Group A) or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group B); without laser activated sterile bi-distilled water irrigation for 30 seconds (Group C) or 5% NaOCl irrigation for 30 seconds (Group D); the positive control group received no treatment in infected teeth (n=10). Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted from bacteriologic samples taken before (S1) and after treatment (S2). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests. CFU counts were significantly lower in groups B and D than in group C (P0.05). None of the four groups predictably generated negative samples. Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, statistically significant difference wasn't found in planktonic bacteria reduction between the laser and NaOCl or NaOCl alone groups.

  9. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  10. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  11. ARID5B, CEBPE and PIP4K2A Germline Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Patients: A MIGICCL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Torres Escalante, José Luis; Alvarez-Olmos, Enrique; González-Montalvoc, Pablo Miguel; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Sansón, Aurora Medina; Leal, Yelda A; Ramos-Cervantes, María Teresa; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Ortiz-Maganda, Mónica Patricia; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Pérez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Velazquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Amador-Sanchez, Raquel; Solis-Labastida, Karina Anastacia; Rámirez-Bello, Julian; Fragoso, José Manuel; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of childhood cancer-related deaths worldwide. Multiples studies have shown that ALL seems to be originated by an interaction between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors. The ARID5B polymorphisms are among the most reproducible ALL associated-risk alleles in different populations. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of ARID5B, CEBPE, and PIP4K2 risk alleles for the development of ALL in children from Mexico City and Yucatan, Mexico. A study was conducted with a total of 761 unrelated subjects. Two hundred eighty five ALL cases (111 from Yucatan and 174 from Mexico City) and 476 healthy subjects. Genotyping included the rs7088318 (PIP4K2A), rs10821936 (ARID5B), rs7089424 (ARID5B) and rs2239633 (CEBPE) polymorphisms. Associations between ALL and rs10821936 and rs7089424 ARID5B SNPs were found (OR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.5-2.4) and OR = 2.0, 95% CI (1.6-2.5), respectively). Moreover, a higher risk was observed in the homozygous risk genotypes of carriers from Mexico City (OR = 3.1, 95% CI (2.0-4.9) and OR 3.1, CI 95% (2.0-4.8), respectively). Otherwise, the rs7088318 (PIP4K2A) and rs2239633 (CEBPE) polymorphisms were not associated with ALL risk. Our analysis suggests that ARID5B confers risk for childhood ALL in a Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Complementary biomarker-based methods for characterising Arctic sea ice conditions: A case study comparison between multivariate analysis and the PIP25 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Denizcan; Belt, Simon T.; Smik, Lukas; Yao, Haoyi; Panieri, Giuliana; Knies, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    The discovery of IP25 as a qualitative biomarker proxy for Arctic sea ice and subsequent introduction of the so-called PIP25 index for semi-quantitative descriptions of sea ice conditions has significantly advanced our understanding of long-term paleo Arctic sea ice conditions over the past decade. We investigated the potential for classification tree (CT) models to provide a further approach to paleo Arctic sea ice reconstruction through analysis of a suite of highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers in ca. 200 surface sediments from the Barents Sea. Four CT models constructed using different HBI assemblages revealed IP25 and an HBI triene as the most appropriate classifiers of sea ice conditions, achieving a >90% cross-validated classification rate. Additionally, lower model performance for locations in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) highlighted difficulties in characterisation of this climatically-sensitive region. CT model classification and semi-quantitative PIP25-derived estimates of spring sea ice concentration (SpSIC) for four downcore records from the region were consistent, although agreement between proxy and satellite/observational records was weaker for a core from the west Svalbard margin, likely due to the highly variable sea ice conditions. The automatic selection of appropriate biomarkers for description of sea ice conditions, quantitative model assessment, and insensitivity to the c-factor used in the calculation of the PIP25 index are key attributes of the CT approach, and we provide an initial comparative assessment between these potentially complementary methods. The CT model should be capable of generating longer-term temporal shifts in sea ice conditions for the climatically sensitive Barents Sea.

  13. Changes in Air CO2 Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1 gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO2 concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm, inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO2 concentration ([CO2] affected net photosynthesis (Pn and leaf substomatal [CO2] (Ci. Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO2; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO2] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E, and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm– and in 0 ppm–treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO2] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO2], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO2 transport, positively responds to CO2 scarcity in the air in the whole range 0–800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO2 transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure.

  14. Changes in Air CO2 Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Francesca; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1) and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1) gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO2 concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm), inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO2 concentration ([CO2]) affected net photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf substomatal [CO2] (Ci). Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO2; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO2] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E), and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm– and in 0 ppm–treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO2] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO2], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO2 transport, positively responds to CO2 scarcity in the air in the whole range 0–800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO2 transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. PMID:27089333

  15. Herbivory of maize by southern corn rootworm induces expression of the major intrinsic protein ZmNIP1;1 and leads to the discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2;8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Susan D; Novak, Nicole G; Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K

    2013-08-01

    Aquaporins channel water and other neutral molecules through cell membranes. Aquaporin gene expression is subject to transcriptional control and can be modulated by factors affecting water balance such as salt, abscisic acid and drought. During infestation of maize by southern corn rootworm (SCR), an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, three maize aquaporins were differentially expressed upon prolonged infestation. Using a brief infestation of maize roots ZmNIP1;1 transcript abundance again increased under infestation while expression of a new aquaporin, ZmPIP2;8 and ZmTIP2;2 expression did not change. Since ZmPIP2;8 has not been described previously, the deduced protein sequence was analyzed in silico and found to contain the hallmarks of plant aquaporins, with a predicted protein structure similar to other functionally characterized PIP2s. NIPs characterized to date have been implicated in facilitating the movement of a variety of small molecules, while TIPs and PIPs often have the capacity to facilitate trans-membrane movement of water. Functional assays (using heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes) of ZmTIP2;2 and ZmPIP2;8 confirmed that these aquaporins demonstrate water channel capacity.

  16. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  17. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  18. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  19. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  1. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  2. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  3. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  4. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  5. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  6. A pilot study assessing the effectiveness of postoperative splinting after limited fasciectomy for Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, M A; Houpt, P; van der Horst, C M A M

    2012-10-01

    Before surgery for Dupuytren's contracture, 54 patients with a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion contractures of at least 30° were randomized to receive either a 3-month splinting protocol together with hand therapy under the direct supervision of hand therapists, or the same hand therapy alone. Extension deficit of the PIP joint (primary outcome measure), global perceived effect, pain intensity, comfort and complications were assessed at baseline and 1 year after surgery. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the group assigned to splint-plus-hand therapy had a mean reduction of 21° in flexion contracture after 1 year, compared with 29° in the group receiving hand therapy alone (p = 0.1). There was no difference between the groups regarding other parameters. After operative release of a Dupuytren's contracture, a postoperative protocol using a splint and hand therapy was no better than hand therapy alone in minimizing postoperative flexion contractures.

  7. Pachydermodactyly - a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuber, Zbigniew; Dyduch, Grzegorz; Jaworek, Andrzej; Turowska-Heydel, Dorota; Sobczyk, Małgorzata; Banach-Górnicka, Marta; Rusnak, Katarzyna; Górecki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Pachydermodactyly (PDD) is a rare and benign form of digital soft tissues fibromatosis, which affects the skin of the fingers. The disorder is characterized by asymptomatic, symmetric, progressive soft tissue swelling of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers. The etiology of disease remains unknown. It is usually acquired, even though there are some publications that document family cases. It affects mainly adolescent men. We report two boys with the bilateral swelling of the of the PIP joints of the fingers and skin and subcutaneous tissue thickening. Based on clinical manifestations, radiological study and histopathological examination, pachydermodactyly was diagnosed. PDD is a rare and benign disorder, although it is important to consider other diseases, especially rheumatic conditions, in the differential diagnosis in order to avoid unnecessary additional tests and treatments.

  8. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  9. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  10. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  11. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  12. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J

    2016-01-01

    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  13. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  14. A comparison of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy, both with lateral soft-tissue release, for moderate to severe hallux valgus in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K B; Cho, N Y; Park, H W; Seon, J K; Lee, S H

    2015-02-01

    Moderate to severe hallux valgus is conventionally treated by proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Several recent studies have shown that the indications for distal metatarsal osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure could be extended to include moderate to severe hallux valgus. The purpose of this prospective randomised controlled trial was to compare the outcome of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. The original study cohort consisted of 50 female patients (100 feet). Of these, four (8 feet) were excluded for lack of adequate follow-up, leaving 46 female patients (92 feet) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 53.8 years (30.1 to 62.1) and the mean duration of follow-up 40.2 months (24.1 to 80.5). After randomisation, patients underwent a proximal Chevron osteotomy on one foot and a distal Chevron osteotomy on the other. At follow-up, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal (MTP-IP) score, patient satisfaction, post-operative complications, hallux valgus angle, first-second intermetatarsal angle, and tibial sesamoid position were similar in each group. Both procedures gave similar good clinical and radiological outcomes. This study suggests that distal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure is as effective and reliable a means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus as proximal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  15. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  16. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  17. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  18. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  19. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  20. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  1. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  2. DEPRESSIONARY EFFECT OF PROXIMITY OF RESIDENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  3. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S

    2018-02-06

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  5. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  7. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  8. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  9. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2004-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  10. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  11. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  12. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  13. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  14. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  15. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  16. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  17. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  19. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M

    2014-05-01

    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  20. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  1. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  2. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  3. Validation of a Spanish version of the psychological inflexibility in pain scale (PIPS) and an evaluation of its relation with acceptance of pain and mindfulness in sample of persons with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, Baltasar; Pereira, Joao Paulo; Pérez-Yus, Maria Cruz; Casanueva, Benigno; Serrano-Blanco, Antonio; Rodrigues da Cunha Ribeiro, Maria J; Luciano, Juan V; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-04-18

    Psychological flexibility has been suggested as a fundamental process in health. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) is one of the scales employed for assessing psychological inflexibility in pain patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the PIPS and secondly, to compare it to two other psychological constructs, the acceptance of pain and mindfulness scales. The PIPS was translated into Spanish by two bilingual linguistic experts, and then, back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Spanish version was administered along with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, to 250 Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Face validity, construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and convergent validity were tested. Also a multiple regression analysis was carried out.The usual guidelines have been followed for cross-cultural adaptations. Data were very similar to the ones obtained in the original PIPS version. The construct validity confirmed the original two-components solution which explained 61.6% of the variance. The Spanish PIPS had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.90). The Spanish PIPS' score correlated significantly with worse global functioning (r = 0.55), anxiety (r = 0.54), depression (r = 0.66), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62), pain acceptance (r = -0.72) and mindfulness (r = -0.47), as well as correlating modestly with pain intensity (r = 0.12). The multiple regression analyses showed that psychological inflexibility, acceptance and mindfulness are not overlapped. The Spanish PIPS scale appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of psychological inflexibility among a sample of fibromyalgia

  4. Activation of Cdc42 is necessary for sustained oscillations of Ca2+ and PIP2 stimulated by antigen in RBL mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus M. Wilkes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antigen stimulation of mast cells via FcεRI, the high-affinity receptor for IgE, triggers a signaling cascade that requires Ca2+ mobilization for exocytosis of secretory granules during the allergic response. To characterize the role of Rho GTPases in FcεRI signaling, we utilized a mutant RBL cell line, B6A4C1, that is deficient in antigen-stimulated Cdc42 activation important for these processes. Recently the importance of stimulated intracellular oscillations has emerged, and we find that B6A4C1 cells exhibit severely attenuated Ca2+ oscillations in response to antigen, which are restored to wild-type RBL-2H3 levels by expression of constitutively active Cdc42 G12V or by a GEF for Cdc42, DOCK7, but not when the C-terminal di-arginine motif of active Cdc42 is mutated to di-glutamine. We found that antigen-stimulated FcεRI endocytosis, which occurs independently of Ca2+ mobilization, is also defective in B6A4C1 cells, and Cdc42 G12V reconstitutes this response as well. Thus, activation of Cdc42 occurs prior to and is critical for antigen-stimulated pathways leading separately to both Ca2+ mobilization and receptor endocytosis. Accounting for these downstream functional consequences, we show that Cdc42 G12V reconstitutes antigen-stimulated oscillations of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 at the plasma membrane in mutant B6A4C1 cells, pointing to Cdc42 participation in the regulation of stimulated PIP2 synthesis.

  5. Passive exposure of adult cats to moderate-level tone pip ensembles differentially decreases AI and AII responsiveness in the exposure frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Eggermont, Jos J

    2010-09-01

    Passive exposure of adult animals to a random ensemble of tone pips band limited between 4 and 20 kHz has been shown to suppress neural activity in primary auditory cortex (AI) to sounds in the exposure frequency range. In the long-term (>3 months), the suppressed neurons can be reactivated by frequencies above and below the exposure range, i.e., tonotopic map reorganization occurs. The suppression can be at least partially reversed after a long period of quiet recovery, as the moderate-level exposure does not impair peripheral hearing. Here we exposed adult cats, for 7-13 weeks without interruption, to two different moderate-level tone pip ensembles, in separate experiments. One exposure stimulus consisted of an octave-wide 2-4 kHz band, which overlaps substantially with the cat vocalization range; the other consisted of a pair of third-octave bands centered at 4 and 16 kHz. We again report a decrease in AI responsiveness in the exposure frequency range, irrespective of the exposure stimulus bandwidth or center frequency, and a slow, partial recovery over a 12-week post-exposure window. In contrast to our previous studies, the suppression in both of the present experiments extended well beyond the exposure frequency range. In particular, following the 4 and 16 kHz experimental acoustic environment, AI activity was strongly suppressed not only in response to frequencies close to the two exposure bands, but also in response to frequencies between the bands, i.e., the results resembled those to a single broadband stimulus spanning the 3-18 kHz range. On the other hand, responses in secondary auditory cortex (AII) were suppressed predominantly around 4 and 16 kHz, with little or no suppression in between. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi

    2009-09-01

    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  7. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  8. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C

    2013-04-01

    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  9. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  10. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  11. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  12. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  13. Cleland's ligaments and Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewring, D J; Rethnam, U

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Cleland's ligaments are affected by Dupuytren's disease and assess their contribution to the flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. Twenty patients with Dupuytren's disease undergoing fasciectomy for a PIP joint contracture > 40° (mean 61°, range 45°-100°) were included. After excision of all other identifiable digital disease, Cleland's ligaments were assessed. If they appeared to be macroscopically affected by Dupuytren's disease they were excised, sent for histological analysis, and any further improvement of PIP joint contracture was recorded. There were 14 males and six females with a mean age of 62 (range 40-79) years. Excision of Cleland's ligaments resulted in a mean further correction of 7° (range 0°-15°). Histological analysis indicated that Cleland's ligament was clearly involved with Dupuytren's disease in 12 patients, indicating that Cleland's ligaments can be affected by Dupuytren's disease. In the remaining specimens the histological findings were equivocal. As these structures are situated dorsal to the neurovascular bundles, a specific dissection has to be undertaken to identify them. Excision of Cleland's ligaments at digital fasciectomy further avoids leaving residual disease and may yield a worthwhile further correction of PIP joint flexion contracture. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  15. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  16. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  17. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  18. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  19. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  20. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  1. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  3. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  5. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  6. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  7. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  8. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  9. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  10. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  11. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai

    2013-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  12. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  13. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2017-05-10

    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  14. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  15. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  16. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-09-01

    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  17. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  18. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  19. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    QUIGLEY, RAYMOND; LISEC, AMBER; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  20. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  1. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  2. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V

    2015-11-23

    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M

    2002-02-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  4. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  5. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  6. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  7. "They Called me Matilda, and I Came to be Known as Matilda ". A study of the Concept of Identity in Lloyd Jones' Mr. Pip and Andrew Adamson's Film Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Lorente, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the role that Great Expectations and its main character Pip play in shaping Matilda's and Mr. Watts' identities. Taking Matilda as the representation of the Melanesian culture and Mr. Watts and Great Expectations of the Western's, the postcolonial discourse is set. Firstly, this paper aims to demonstrate that Matilda and Mr. Watts cross-cultural relations have an effect on both characters' identities which become hybridized. Secondly, through a deep analysis of Jones' nov...

  8. Redefining Zone II: Anatomy of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke T; Hill, Jeffrey R; McKnight, Braden; Heckmann, Nathanael; Stevanovic, Milan; Ghiassi, Alidad

    2017-10-01

    Flexor zone II is defined as the region spanning the proximal aspect of the A1 pulley to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon. Descriptions of the FDS insertion are inconsistent in the literature, but zones of injury are frequently determined with reference to superficial landmarks. The purpose of this study was to describe the footprint of the FDS insertion and define its relationship to the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) skin crease. The FDS insertion on the index, middle, ring, and small fingers was dissected in 6 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric hands. A Kirschner wire was used to mark the level of the PIP skin crease on bone before measurements of the FDS footprint and its position relative to the PIP skin crease were made using digital calipers. The radial and ulnar FDS slips inserted a mean distance of 3.22 mm from the distal aspect of the PIP skin crease and varied by digit. The mean distal extent of the FDS insertion was 8.29 mm. The mean length of the insertion of each FDS slip was 5.15 mm and the mean width was 1.9 mm. The radial and ulnar FDS slips insert on average 3.22 mm distal to the PIP skin crease and vary by digit. Knowledge of the FDS insertion is clinically relevant when differentiating between flexor zone I and zone II injuries, planning surgical approaches to the finger, and in guiding patient expectations for surgery given the variability in outcome based on zone of injury.

  9. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A

    2010-05-01

    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  10. A STUDY OF THE ENERGY DEPENDENCE OF RADIATION DAMAGE IN SUPERCONDUCTING COILS FOR A NEXT GENERATION MU2E AT PIP - II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronskikh, V. [Fermilab; Glenzinski, D. [Fermilab; Knoepfel, K. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. [Fermilab; Tschirhart, Tschirhart [Fermilab

    2016-04-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is being designed to study the coherent neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a nucleus. This process has an extremely low probability in the Standard Model, and its observation would provide unambiguous evidence for beyond the standard model physics. The Mu2e design aims to reach a single-event-sensitivity of about 2.5 x $10^{-17}$ and will probe effective new physics mass scales in the $10^{3}-10^{4}$ TeV range, well beyond the reach of the LHC. This work will examine the maximum beam power that can be tolerated for beam energies in the 0.5-8 GeV range. This has implications for how the sensitivity might be further improved with a second generation experiment using an upgraded proton beam from the PIP-II project, which will be capable of providing MW beams to Fermilab experiments later in the next decade.

  11. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  12. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  13. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  14. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  15. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  16. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-06-27

    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  17. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  18. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  19. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  20. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET

    2015-01-01

    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  1. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  2. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  3. SU-F-T-493: An Investigation Into the Feasibility of Using PipsPro Software with Film for Linac QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, R [Radiation Oncology Services, Inc, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using radiochromic and radiographic film with Pipspro software for quality assurance of linear accelerators with no on-board imaging. Methods: The linear accelerator being used is a Varian Clinac 21EX. All IGRT is performed using the BrainLab ExacTrac system. Because of the lack of on board imaging, certain monthly and annual TG-142 quality assurance tests are more difficult to perform and analyze to a high degree of accuracy. Pipspro was not designed to be used with hard film, and to our knowledge its use with film had not been investigated. The film used will be GafChromic EBT3 film and Kodak EDR2 film, scanned with an Epson V700 scanner. The following routine tests will be attempted: MLC picket fence, light vs. radiation field coincidence, starshots, and MLC transmission. Results: The only tests that gave accurate and reliable results were the couch, gantry, and collimator starshots. Typical MV and kV images are acquired with a much higher level of contrast between the irradiated and non-irradiated areas when compared to film. Pipspro relies on this level of contrast to be able to automatically detect the fiducial points from its phantom devices, leaf edges for picket fence and transmission tests, and jaw edges for light vs. radiation field tests. Because of this, certain tests gave erroneous results and others were not able to be performed in the software at all, with either type of film. The number of monitor units delivered to the film, the experimental setup, and the scan settings was not able to rectify the problem. Conclusion: For linear accelerators with no on-board imaging, it is not recommended to use hard film with PipsPro to perform TG-142 quality assurance tests. Other software or methods should instead be investigated.

  4. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  5. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  6. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-02-16

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  9. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  10. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  11. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2008-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  12. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  13. Altruism by age and social proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  14. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  15. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  16. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  17. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  18. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  19. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng

    1983-09-01

    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  20. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  1. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  2. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  3. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  4. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  5. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  6. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  7. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian

    2017-08-11

    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  8. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J

    1996-10-01

    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  9. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür

    2017-09-29

    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  10. Potential of optical spectral transmission measurements for joint inflammation measurements in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, A. J. Louise; Rensen, Wouter H. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; de Nijs, Ron N. J.

    2012-08-01

    Frequent monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients enables timely treatment adjustments and improved outcomes. Currently this is not feasible due to a shortage of rheumatologists. An optical spectral transmission device is presented for objective assessment of joint inflammation in RA patients, while improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical workflow. A cross-sectional, nonrandomized observational study was performed with this device. In the study, 77 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 67 patients have been analyzed. Inflammation of these PIP joints was also assessed by a rheumatologist with a score varying from 1 (not inflamed) to 5 (severely inflamed). Out of 77 measurements, 27 were performed in moderate to strongly inflamed PIP joints. Comparison between the clinical assessment and an optical measurement showed a correlation coefficient r=0.63, p<0.001, 95% CI [0.47, 0.75], and a ROC curve (AUC=0.88) that shows a relative good specificity and sensitivity. Optical spectral transmission measurements in a single joint correlate with clinical assessment of joint inflammation, and therefore might be useful in monitoring joint inflammation in RA patients.

  11. Needle aponeurotomy for Dupuytren contracture: Effectiveness of postoperative night extension splinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Louisa; Chung, Yin-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Night extension splinting has been used to treat patients with Dupuytren contracture to improve active range of motion (AROM) of the hand. A published case study demonstrated the benefit of splinting following needle aponeurotomy; however, no larger studies have evaluated the impact of postoperative splinting. To compare the impact of night extension splinting on AROM, specifically extension, following needle aponeurotomy for Dupuytren contracture. A retrospective chart review was conducted in which the charts of 53 patients who underwent needle aponeurotomy for Dupuytren contracture between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. The control group consisted of patients who underwent needle aponeurotomy only, whereas the treatment group was also referred for fabrication of custom night extension splints after surgery. Comparisons in pre- and postoperative AROM measurements for the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints were made between both groups of patients. The degrees of change in AROM for each joint were categorized in terms of levels of change: mild (0° to 29°); moderate (30° to 60°); and significant (≥61°). All patients exhibited increased AROM after surgery for both MCP and PIP joints. Both groups had a greater increase in AROM in the MCP joint. Twelve joints from the control group had moderate changes and two from the treatment group had significant changes. When both groups were compared, the levels of change of AROM between both groups did not vary significantly. Night extension splinting following needle aponeurotomy may not improve AROM of the MCP or PIP joints.

  12. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane

    2010-01-01

    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  13. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  14. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  15. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  16. Proximity to urban parks and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  17. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  18. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel De la Sen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  19. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  20. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can range from mild to severe. In particular, vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) ... Some affected individuals have an unusually large head size ( macrocephaly ). People with proximal 18q deletion syndrome often ...

  2. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  3. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  4. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  5. [A case of proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the perineum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Takaya; Kamibeppu, Toyoharu; Hiromasa, Tukino; Mukai, Syoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Epithelioid sarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms which occur more often in young people. They tend to relapse, metastatize and show poor prognosis. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcomas arise from the more proximal part of body and are more malignant than distal-type epithelioid sarcomas. We present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma which occurred in the perineum. A 24-year-old male visited our hospital with the chief complaint of pain in the perineum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor 30×23×17 mm in diameter in the perineal region. The tumor was excised regionally and the pathological examination with immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. The patient is free of recurrence and metastasis one year after local excision.

  6. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  7. TETRAPOLIS - an exercise in building the complexities of proximity space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Blidariu; Diana Giurea

    2017-01-01

    ... student’s intuitive ways for understanding these vicinities, their physical and symbolic proximities, through participatory tactics and certain poetic/architectural tools required in the phenomenological build-up of space...

  8. The McCash technique for Dupuytren's disease: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubos, Aristides B; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Babis, George C; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the clinical outcomes of 35 hands with Dupuytren's Disease treated with the McCash technique between 1990 and 2009. Of the 31 patients (28 males and three females, mean age 53 yrs), four patients had bilateral involvement (12.9%). Thirty hands had no previous medical or surgical treatment for the disease, while the remaining five hands had been operated on at least once. The mean contracture of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint improved from 42.14° to 1.83°, while that of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint improved from 62.60° to 7.09°. All wounds healed within a mean 9.8 weeks. Sensory evaluation revealed no permanent numbness. With realistic expectations, clear documentation, meticulous surgical technique and implementation of a demanding post-operative rehabilitation program, an acceptable outcome may be achieved with the McCash technique for Dupuytren's disease.

  9. Diagnostic utility of musculoskeletal ultrasound in patients with suspected arthritis--a probabilistic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Hamed; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; af Klint, Erik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the utility of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in patients with joint symptoms using a probabilistic approach. METHODS: One hundred and three patients without prior rheumatologic diagnosis and referred to our clinic for evaluation of inflammatory arthritis...... by the responsible rheumatologist where the probability of a) any inflammatory arthritis and b) rheumatoid arthritis was given on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 to 20% up to 80 to 100% probability. Subsequently, an ultrasound examination of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints...... for presence/absence of inflammatory arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis was increased significantly following ultrasound performance. The proportion of patient for whom diagnostic certainty for inflammatory arthritis was maximal was 33.0% before and 71.8% after musculoskeletal ultrasound (P

  10. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and clinical assessment of inflammatory and destructive changes in fingers and toes of patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiell, Charlotte; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Hasselquist, Maria

    2007-01-01

    (x-ray), and clinical findings. Fifteen patients with PsA, 5 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 5 healthy control persons were examined by means of US, contrast-enhanced MRI, x-ray, and clinical assessment. Each joint of the 2nd-5th finger (metacarpophalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal [PIP...... tendons of the fingers were assessed for the presence of insertional changes and tenosynovitis. One hand was assessed by means of MRI for the aforementioned changes. X-rays of both hands and feet were assessed for bone erosions and proliferations. US was repeated in 8 persons by another ultrasonographer....... US and MRI were more sensitive to inflammatory and destructive changes than x-ray and clinical examination, and US showed a good interobserver agreement for bone changes (median 96% absolute agreement) and lower interobserver agreement for inflammatory changes (median 92% absolute agreement). A high...

  11. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  12. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D

    2016-01-01

    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  13. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...

  14. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  15. Partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome: a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucaro, A; Faedda, A; Cao, A; Boccone, L

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of partial proximal trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) performed with whole chromosome 10 specific painting and specific yac clones. The phenotypic findings, compared to those found in other published cases with the same karyotype, support the recognition of a distinctive partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome (10q11-->q22).

  16. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  17. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  18. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitatio...

  19. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-02-01

    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  20. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas

    1994-12-01

    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  2. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  3. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  4. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: the role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  6. Modeling the finger joint moments in a hand at the maximal isometric grip: the effects of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, John Z; Dong, Ren G; McDowell, Thomas W; Welcome, Daniel E

    2009-12-01

    The interaction between the handle and operator's hand affects the comfort and safety of tool and machine operations. In most of the previous studies, the investigators considered only the normal contact forces. The effect of friction on the joint moments in fingers has not been analyzed. Furthermore, the observed contact forces have not been linked to the internal musculoskeletal loading in the previous experimental studies. In the current study, we proposed a universal model of a hand to evaluate the joint moments in the fingers during grasping tasks. The hand model was developed on the platform of the commercial software package AnyBody. Only four fingers (index, long, ring, and little finger) were included in the model. The anatomical structure of each finger is comprised of four phalanges (distal, middle, proximal, and metacarpal phalange). The simulations were performed using an inverse dynamics technique. The joint angles and the normal contact forces on each finger section reported by previous researchers were used as inputs, while the joint moments of each finger were predicted. The predicted trends of the dependence of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint moments on the cylinder diameter agree with those of the contact forces on the fingers observed in the previous experimental study. Our results show that the DIP and PIP joint moments reach their maximums at a cylinder diameter of about 31mm, which is consistent with the trend of the finger contact forces measured in the experiments. The proposed approach will be useful for simulating musculoskeletal loading in the hand for occupational activities, thereby optimizing tool-handle design.

  7. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Paul Aarne; Fang, Christian; Lau, Tak Wing; Leung, Frankie; Cheung, Nigel W K

    2015-08-01

    To report the outcome after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) through the deltoid-splitting approach for proximal humeral fractures. 10 men and 30 women aged 37 to 88 years underwent MIPO through the deltoid-splitting approach using the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System or the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate for 2-part (n=18), 3-part (n=20), and 4-part (n=2) proximal humeral fractures. The rehabilitation protocol was standardised. All 40 patients were followed up at 3 months, 34 (85%) at 6 months, 30 (75%) at one year, and 13 (33%) at 2 years. Two patients had malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis, infection, nerve palsy, or nonunion. The mean Constant score at one year and 2 years was 75 and 87.5, respectively. The Constant score at 6 months correlated to that at one year (r=0.926, pfracture grade, or hand dominance. MIPO for fixation of proximal humeral fractures using a locking plate is safe and effective in enabling an early return of shoulder function.

  8. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  9. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  10. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction.

  11. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF PHILOS PLATE FIXATION FOR PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  12. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  13. Results of the proximal humerus endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Mikailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection, compare the functional results with the results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with extensive damage of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin. Material and methods. Between 2001 and 2013 38 proximal humeral reconstructions were performed in our clinic: using monopolar endoprostheses - 26 (68% and modular systems with reversible head -12 (32%. The control group included 46 patients with extensive lesions of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin, operated in our clinic in the period from 2006 to 2012. Term follow-up of patients ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Assessment of functional results was carried out in a period from six months to one year. Results. The seven-year survival according the Kaplan - Meier method for patients with primary malignant tumors of the proximal humerus (25 patients was 77%. In the study group the average value of functional outcome MSTS score was 77.7%. Unipolar prosthesis showed a bad result, both in the control (61,3% MSTS, 60,7 Neer and in the main (67,7% MSTS, 61,1 Neer study groups. Conclusion. Currently the method of choice which doesn’t impair the oncologic component of treatment patients with shoulder neoplastic lesions is its replacement with modular reversible systems in combination with additional soft tissue fixation.

  14. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H

    2013-02-01

    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  15. The Proximity Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Brown, G; Cragg, D; Crook, M; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlowska, A H; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; ten Kate, H H J; Rochford, J; Sole, D

    2002-01-01

    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  16. The proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroidal magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; ten Kate, H.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, G.; Cragg, D.; Crook, M.; Orlowska, A. H.; Rochford, J.; Sole, D.; Mayri, C.

    2002-05-01

    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  17. How to improve outcome in surgery for Proximal Hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the role of subdartos fascial tissue as watertight layer in improving outcome for 2-stage proximal hypospadias surgery. The experimental study was conducted at the Department of Urology, Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised an audit of patients with proximal hypospadias who underwent surgery from July 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011. The initial two-stage repair of proximal hypospadias led to a high rate of urethrocutanous fistula formation (Group A), and, thus, a modification was introduced and subdartos facial double layer was applied over the urethral suture line (Group B). The results were compared regarding age, type of hypospadias, graft failure and urethrocutanous fistula in these patients. There were 27 patients in Group A and 16(59.3%) of them ended up having urethrocutanous fistula. Group B had 25 patients and only 2(8%) had fistula formation. The application of dartos facial flap waterproofing layer reduced fistula rate.

  18. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  19. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  20. One-stage surgical correction of proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, V T

    2003-01-01

    Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.

  1. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  2. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical...... work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity....

  3. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal

    2014-09-25

    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  4. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  5. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events.

  6. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  7. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  8. Arthroscopic-assisted removal of proximal tibia locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gille Justus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a new technique to remove plates from the proximal tibia arthroscopic-assisted with all advantages of the minimally invasive surgery and the possibility to treat concomitant intraarticular pathologies. The initial results (n = 7 are promising with an increase of the Lysholm score in all cases studied [preop. median 78 (range 32–100, postop. median 89 (range 60–100]. In conclusion, arthroscopic-assisted hardware removal at the proximal tibia is feasible and may provide patients with all the benefits of minimal-invasive hardware removal. The described technique can be recommended for all surgeons familiar with arthroscopic surgery.

  9. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Uchida, K; Shiomi, Y; Qiu, Z; Hou, D; Tian, D; Nakayama, H; Jin, X-F; Saitoh, E

    2013-02-08

    This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

  10. Proximal focal humeral deficiency in a large breed dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalff, S; Gemmill, T

    2012-01-01

    A 26-week-old female Boerboel was referred for evaluation of progressive left thoracic limb lameness. Computed tomography and radiographic evaluation revealed radiolucency of the caudal region of the proximal humeral metaphysis, absence of the humeral head, and gross distortion of the glenoid. Given the severe glenohumeral deformation, arthrodesis of the left shoulder was performed using orthogonal locking bone plates, lag screw fixation, and bone grafting. Despite late implant failure, arthrodesis was successful in this case, and satisfactory limb function was restored. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a case of a focal developmental deficiency of the proximal humerus reported in a dog.

  11. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  12. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo

    2015-03-01

    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement

  13. Sea urchin spine arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takuro; Soma, Tamotsu; Gaman, Keiko; Usui, Masamichi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2008-03-01

    Although rare, hand injury caused by puncture with the sea urchin spine can result in serious complications. To emphasize its clinical significance, this article describes a group of patients who sustained chronic granulomatous arthritis induced by puncture with sea urchin spine (designated sea urchin spine arthritis). Five patients who developed sea urchin spine arthritis of the hand after puncture with sea urchin spine were treated at our hospitals. All lesions involved the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (4 index fingers and 1 middle finger). Patients experienced pain, swelling, and discomfort around the site of puncture immediately after the injury. These initial symptoms subsided within a few days, and secondary symptoms including fusiform swelling, limited motion, and mild pain of the PIP joint appeared from 1 to 2 months later. Laboratory tests of inflammation and blood cell counts were negative. Plain radiographs showed soft tissue swelling and osteolysis but no visible spine. Thorough synovectomy of the PIP joint was performed, and the granulation tissue around the joint was also removed. No microorganism was identified from tissue culture or polymerase chain reaction in any of the 5 patients. At a mean follow-up of 21 months, 2 patients exhibited essentially normal active motion of the affected PIP joint, whereas the remaining 3 patients had diminished range of motion. Diagnosis of sea urchin spine arthritis can be made by history of sea urchin spine injury, a symptom-free period before the development of synovitis, and the absence of laboratory test abnormalities. Neither antibiotics nor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are effective. Undertaken early enough, thorough synovectomy might avoid complications and obtain favorable results. Therapeutic IV.

  14. Monitoring changes in skin temperature associated with exercise in horses on a water treadmill by use of infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Fleming, Jennifer; Stratton, Tim D; Brassington, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess surface temperature change as an indirect measure of muscle activity and exercise associated changes in blood flow in the working hind limb muscles of horses (n=7) undergoing water treadmill exercise. Three treatments were investigated including the treadmill ran dry (TD), water at the height of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and water at the height of the carpus (CP). Maximum skin surface temperature was recorded from the region of the semitendinosus muscle during exercise at each water height. There was a significant difference in surface hind limb temperature between exercise on the water treadmill ran dry and with water at the height of the PIP and CP (P<0.0001) with hotter temperatures recorded during the TD treatment. There was a greater increase in surface temperature of the hind limbs from pre exercise to maximum temperature during the PIP and CP treatments when compared to the TD treatment, however, this was not significant (P=0.58). There was no significant difference in surface hind limb temperature found between exercise in water at the height of the PIP and water at the height of the CP. The findings from this study suggest that IRT is able to non-invasively detect muscle activity and associated changes in blood flow whilst horses are exercised on a water treadmill. IRT could potentially be used as an alternative method to assess muscle activity and temperature change in an aquatic environment where existing methods present methodological challenges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste Disposal Sites in Nigeria. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  16. PROXIMAL RADIUS RECONSTRUCTION BY METATARSAL OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTO GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  17. outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through decreased bone mineral density, disruption of bone micro-architecture and reduction in non- collagenous proteins. Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to manage, particularly in the osteoporotic bone, where the fracture is usually .... is followed by pendulum shoulder exercises which gradually graduate to active ...

  18. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  19. Case report of LCP pediatric hip osteosynthesis of a proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report demonstrating the experience of the department of pediatric orthopaedics of the University Orthopedic Hospital at Sofia Medical University in the treatment of an intertrochanteric proximal femoral fracture in a child with osteopetrosis. We performed open fracture reduction with stable 120° LCP ...

  20. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  1. Noncycling mappings and best proximity pair results in Hilbert and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new class of noncyclic mappings, called generalized noncyclic relatively nonexpansive, is introduced and used to study the existence of best proximity pairs in the setting of uniformly convex Banach spaces. We also obtain a weak convergence theorem for noncyclic relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of ...

  2. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    It decreases the rate of fistula formation; disruption; stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Index Word: proximal hypospadias, two stages repair. ... Second procedure: a) formation of the neo-urethra, b) skin closure, c) dressing. Complete degloving of the penile shaft was performed till its base. Then artificial ...

  3. Fractures of the proximal humerus in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Raj Joshi, Dr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most children proximal humeral fractures are treated non-operatively with generally good results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of closed/open reduction in children with severely displaced proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The charts of 15 patients (8 girls and 7 boys; mean age: 9.4 years with proximal humeral fractures who were managed at our institution were reviewed from October 2011 to December 2013. Results: There were 7 metaphyseal fractures and 8 physeal injuries which were angulated according to Neer-Horowitz score as grade II (n=2, grade III(n=4 and grade IV(n=9. Associated lesions comprised open fracture with head trauma in a 2 year old female child which was operated on primarily and the 14 others by secondary intention. All patients were treated surgically with either closed (n = 5 or open (n=10 reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wire or titanium elastic nails (TENs. They were assessed for clinical and radiological healing at a mean follow up of 1.25 years ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 years. Conclusion: Surgical option is indicated for severely displaced and unstable fractures in older children and adolescents. In addition to the periosteum , long head of the biceps, deltoid muscle, and bone fragments in combination can prevent fracture reduction. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture, Children, Open reduction, Operative.

  4. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  5. Proximate composition of traditional local sorghum beer “dolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dolo is a local beer manufactured from malted sorghum grains. It is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage in Burkina Faso (60% of population). Thirty (30) samples of dolo were collected from local markets in Ouagadougou and analyzed with respect to their proximate compositions and pH values using ...

  6. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect(s) of cooking fresh fish (Lake Malawi tilapia) by boiling, roasting, pan frying and, using a locally made fireless cooker) on its proximate (protein, fat, ash and moisture) and mineral (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus) composition. Highest and lowest values for crude protein were ...

  7. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of five agricultural wastes were determined and latter subjected to low temperature conversion process in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere.These agricultural wastes are Cocos nucifera husk,Theobroma cacao pod, Kola nitida pods and Plantago major peels(ripe and unripe peels). All the ...

  8. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-06-09

    Jun 9, 2011 ... The major problems are limb length inequality and variable inadequacy of the proximal femoral musculature and hip joint. Treatment is indicated and ranges from amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation to limb salvage, lengthening, and hip re- construction. Until the early 1960s, treatment for PFFD at the St.

  9. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  10. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  11. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  12. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  13. Oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: a mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1987-01-01

    This study presents a dynamic continuous time model of the regulation of the renal proximal intratubular pressure in the rat. The model integrates a functional model of the glomerulus, a tubular model, a feedback model, and an afferent arteriolar model. The model has one equilibrium solution for ...

  14. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    and child health services in Ethiopia were one of the main aims of the health extension program. The impediment of ... Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A ... its link to the success of reproductive health programs and policies ...

  15. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  16. Seasonal variations in the proximate compositions of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania were determined using standard methods and procedures of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. Samples of Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea, Limnothrissa miodon ...

  17. Two stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 700 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Two stages procedure using the principles of Byar's technique is a versatile operation that can be used for 2 two-stage procedures the proximal hypospadias. It decreases the rate of fistula formation, disruption, and stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance.

  18. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  19. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  20. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  1. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  2. 7383 EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHOD ON THE PROXIMATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tilahun

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products. Boiling and fermentation processing techniques are widely used in the country, especially ...

  3. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day ...

  4. Proximal femoral nail: a minimally invasive treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: In our study patients who presented to department of orthopaedics, Katuri Medical College between January 2013 and December 2014, with intertrochanteric fractures were included and treated with Proximal Femoral Nail. Total of 82 patients were included in the study. Medically unfit patients and ...

  5. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  6. Do Proximate Micro-Swimmers Synchronize their Gait?

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M; Bau, Haim H

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we show that low Reynolds number swimmers, such as Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans, synchronize their gait when swimming in close proximity to maximize utilization of space. Synchronization most likely results from steric hindrance and enhances the propulsive speed only marginally.

  7. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  8. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  9. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  10. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  11. Proximate and elemental composition of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at investigating the proximate contents, concentrations of some micro/macroelements and anions of the stem bark and leaves of B. rufescens with the view of validating its used as forage and medicinally by man in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and in wound healing. The stem bark and leaves of ...

  12. Bridging Pedagogies: Drama, Multiliteracies, and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how one educator embraced Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) while using drama to scaffold learning about Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" for first-grade students. This learning event is interpreted with reference to the ZPD and the New London Group's pedagogy of multiliteracies. The author asserts…

  13. Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit) ... It was concluded that the pulp of Adansonia digitata is an important source of vitamin C, while the seed is a potential source of edible oil, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Keywords: Baobab, Adansonia ...

  14. Effect Of Processing On The Proximate, Mineral, And Pasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Processing On The Proximate, Mineral, And Pasting Properties Of Whole Flour Made From Some New Plantain And Banana Hybrids Pulp And Peel ... Whole plantain and banana flour may constitute an important feeding stuff for livestock, which may eventually provide protein in human diet from consumption of ...

  15. Proximate and mineral composition of six commercially important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016 on the proximate and mineral composition of six species of fish from Obueyinomo River in Edo State, Nigeria. The six (6) species are M. electricus, C. gariepinus, T. zilli, A. monkei, P. obscura, P. africana. Biochemical assay of moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, ...

  16. Rate of water absorption and proximate analysis of different varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water absorption and proximate composition of four varieties of maize; sweet corn, pop corn, white corn and yellow corn soaked at different temperatures and time duration were determined. Absorption increased with increase in temperatures and time but generally low at 45°C. The total average rate of hydration at different ...

  17. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  18. The Grammaticalization of the Proximative in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses grammaticalization of "laik" in Tok Pisin, meaning "want/like/desire" (from English "like") and "klostu," meaning "near" (from English "close to") as markers of proximative. Shows although "klostu" was more generally a feature of Pacific Pidgin English and began to…

  19. Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral contents of Leaves and Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, proximate and mineral contents of Ficus capensis (leaves & bark) were analyzed, using Trease and Evans and Harboure procedure, the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Flame Photometry respectively. This study is aimed at ...

  20. Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Tona

    and well-being of the populace. There is regular supply of different kinds of animal protein sources. The keeping of sheep and goats in rural communities is an age long practice in Nigeria. The West ... the amount of methane produced as reported by Fievezet al. (2005). .... negatively to global warming. Table 2: Proximate ...