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Sample records for proximal hamstring muscle-tendon-bone

  1. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  2. Proximal hamstring lengthening in the sitting cerebral palsy patient.

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    Elmer, E B; Wenger, D R; Mubarak, S J; Sutherland, D H

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 62 nonambulatory children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy who underwent proximal hamstring lengthening to improve hip and spine positioning. Preoperatively, all had hamstring contracture, with difficulty sitting due to hip extensor thrust and increased kyphosis. Thirty-five patients with follow-up greater than or equal to 2 years were studied using a modified Reimer scale to assess sitting ability. Sitting ability improved significantly (p less than 0.01) postoperatively, along with popliteal angle (p less than 0.001) and straight leg raising (p less than 0.001). Proximal hamstring lengthening is effective in treating severe hamstring contractures in the wheelchair-bound child with cerebral palsy.

  3. Gross anatomical and dimensional characteristics of the proximal hamstring origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Matthias J; Plath, Johannes E; Seppel, Gernot; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U

    2015-09-01

    The current study was undertaken to better define the gross anatomical and dimensional characteristics of the proximal hamstring origin. Twelve paired whole-lower extremities from six embalmed cadavers were dissected. The gross anatomy of the proximal hamstrings was studied. With the tendons attached to the ischial tuberosity, the width and thickness of each tendon was measured 1 cm distally to their origin, and the distance from the most proximal border of the common origin of the semitendinosus (ST) and long head of the biceps (LB) to their distal junction was assessed. After removal of the hamstring group, the shape, orientation, and dimension of the tendon footprints were determined. One cadaver demonstrated unique anatomy, which was considered as an anatomic variant and was therefore excluded from the study group. The ST and LB had a common origin on the posterolateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity (ST/LB), whereas the semimembranosus (SM) had a separated origin at the anterolateral aspect. The mean distance from the most proximal border of the ST/LB origin to the distal junction was 10.0 ± 1.3 cm. The shape of both footprints was longitudinal-oval, with the longitudinal axes of the SM and ST/LB footprints parallel aligned. Mean tendon width was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm for the common ST/LB complex and 4.2 ± 0.9 cm for the SM (p = 0.009). The corresponding values for tendon thickness were 1.0 ± 0.3 cm (ST/LB) and 0.8 ± 0.2 cm (SM), respectively (n.s.). Mean footprint length was 3.9 ± 0.4 cm for ST/LB and 4.5 ± 0.5 cm for SM (p = 0.002). The corresponding values for footprint height were 1.4 ± 0.5 cm (ST/LB) and 1.2 ± 0.3 cm (SM), respectively (n.s.). The ST and LB had a common origin, whereas the SM originated separately. The site of origin of both tendons was the lateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity, with the SM footprint lying directly anterior to the footprint of the ST/LB complex. The footprint of the SM was significantly wider than the footprint of

  4. The Masticatory Contractile Load Induced Expression and Activation of Akt1/PKBα in Muscle Fibers at the Myotendinous Junction within Muscle-Tendon-Bone Unit

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    Yüksel Korkmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBα at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBα was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBα is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBα as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit.

  5. Anatomic Description of the Origin of the Proximal Hamstring.

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    Neuschwander, Timothy B; Benke, Michael T; Gerhardt, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    To define the topographic anatomy of the footprint of the hamstrings origin on the ischium. Dissection of the hamstrings origin in 6 cadaveric pelvises was performed. The hamstrings origin was isolated with sharp dissection, and it was noted whether the semimembranosus had a separate attachment or whether there was one confluent tendon attached at the footprint. The common hamstrings tendon was then sharply dissected from the ischium, and the footprint was outlined with surgical marker followed by radiopaque paint. Paint was prepared by mixing 0.25 g Daler-Rowney acrylic artists ink scarlet no. 567 (Daler-Rowney, Bracknell, England) per gram of EZ-HD 98% v/w barium sulfate (E-Z-EM Inc, Lake Success, NY). The paint was then applied to the area of the footprint, and the specimen underwent a 0.5-mm-slice computed tomographic (CT) scan of the pelvis with 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. Vitrea (Vital Images, Minnetonka, MN) software was used to determine the surface area of the ligament footprint as well as the distance from the ischial tuberosity to the center of the footprint. The thickness of the bone underlying the footprint was measured. Data are presented as means ± standard error. Five of 6 specimens had a common hamstrings tendon, whereas one had a separate attachment for the semimembranosus. The semimembranosus joined the common hamstrings tendon 2.33 ± 0.61 cm distal to the footprint. The average surface area of the hamstrings footprint measured 10.19 ± 0.75 cm(2). The distance from the tip of the ischial tuberosity to the center of the hamstrings footprint measured 3.73 ± 0.22 cm. The average thickness of the bone deep to the footprint was 3.77 ± 0.9 cm. This study provides a topographic description of the origin of the hamstrings footprint and may assist surgeons in performing anatomic reattachment of this tendon. Our data will assist surgeons in performing anatomic repair of proximal hamstrings avulsions. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association

  6. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

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    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rehabilitation of proximal hamstring tendinopathy utilizing eccentric training, lumbopelvic stabilization, and trigger point dry needling: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Moats, Nick; Ricardo, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is a relatively uncommon overuse injury seen in runners. In contrast to the significant amount of literature guiding the evaluation and treatment of hamstring strains, there is little literature about the physical therapy management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, other than the general recommendations to increase strength and flexibility. Two runners were treated in physical therapy for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Each presented with buttock pain with running and sitting, as well as tenderness to palpation at the ischial tuberosity. Each patient was prescribed a specific exercise program focusing on eccentric loading of the hamstrings and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Trigger point dry needling was also used with both runners to facilitate improved joint motion and to decrease pain. Both patients were treated in 8 to 9 visits over 8 to 10 weeks. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, tenderness, and function in each case. Each patient returned to running and sitting without symptoms. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy can be difficult to treat. In these 2 runners, eccentric loading of the hamstrings, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and trigger point dry needling provided short- and long-term pain reduction and functional benefits. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this cluster of interventions for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  8. Shockwave therapy for the treatment of chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy in professional athletes.

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    Cacchio, Angelo; Rompe, Jan D; Furia, John P; Susi, Piero; Santilli, Valter; De Paulis, Fosco

    2011-01-01

    Chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy is an overuse syndrome that is usually managed by nonoperative methods. Shockwave therapy has proved to be effective in many tendinopathies. Shockwave therapy may be more effective than other nonoperative treatments for chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Randomized controlled clinical study; Level of evidence, 1. Forty professional athletes with chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy were enrolled between February 1, 2004, and September 30, 2006. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either shockwave therapy, consisting of 2500 impulses per session at a 0.18 mJ/mm² energy flux density without anesthesia, for 4 weeks (SWT group, n = 20), or traditional conservative treatment consisting of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, and an exercise program for hamstring muscles (TCT group, n = 20). Patients were evaluated before treatment, and 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after the end of treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and Nirschl phase rating scale (NPRS) were used as primary outcome measures. The patients were observed for a mean of 10.7 months (range, 1-12 months). Six patients were lost to follow-up because they underwent a surgical intervention: 3 (all in TCT group) were lost at 3 months; 2 (1 in each group), at 6 months; and 1 (in the TCT group), at 12 months. Primary follow-up was at 3 months after the beginning of treatment. The VAS scores in the SWT and TCT groups were 7 points before treatment (P = .84), and 2 points and 5 points, respectively, 3 months after treatment (P < .001). The NPRS scores in the SWT and TCT groups were 5 points in either group before treatment (P = .48), and 2 points and 6 points, respectively, 3 months after treatment (P < .001). At 3 months after treatment, 17 of the 20 patients (85%) in the SWT group and 2 of the 20 patients (10%) in the TCT group achieved a reduction of at least 50% in pain (P < .001). There were no serious complications in

  9. The proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit: A review of the normal anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology

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    Beltran, Luis, E-mail: luisbeltran@mac.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU, New York, NY (United States); Ghazikhanian, Varand, E-mail: varandg@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Padron, Mario, E-mail: mario.padron@cemtro.es [Clinica CEMTRO, Avenida del Ventisquero de la Condesa 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Beltran, Javier, E-mail: Jbeltran46@msn.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Proximal hamstring injuries occur during eccentric contraction with the hip and the knee on extension; hence they are relatively frequent lesions in specific sports such as water skiing and hurdle jumping. Additionally, the trend toward increasing activity and fitness training in the general population has resulted in similar injuries. Myotendinous strains are more frequent than avulsion injuries. Discrimination between the two types of lesions is relevant for patient management, since the former is treated conservatively and the latter surgically. MRI and Ultrasonography are both well suited techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of hamstring tendon injuries. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit and the varied imaging appearances of hamstring injury, which is vital for optimizing patient care. This will enable the musculoskeletal radiologist to contribute accurate and useful information in the treatment of athletes at all levels of participation.

  10. Proximal Neuromuscular Control Protects Against Hamstring Injuries in Male Soccer Players: A Prospective Study With Electromyography Time-Series Analysis During Maximal Sprinting.

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    Schuermans, Joke; Danneels, Lieven; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-05-01

    With their unremittingly high incidence rate and detrimental functional repercussions, hamstring injuries remain a substantial problem in male soccer. Proximal neuromuscular control ("core stability") is considered to be of key importance in primary and secondary hamstring injury prevention, although scientific evidence and insights on the exact nature of the core-hamstring association are nonexistent at present. The muscle activation pattern throughout the running cycle would not differ between participants based on injury occurrence during follow-up. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty amateur soccer players participated in a multimuscle surface electromyography (sEMG) assessment during maximal acceleration to full-speed sprinting. Subsequently, hamstring injury occurrence was registered during a 1.5-season follow-up period. Hamstring, gluteal, and trunk muscle activity time series during the airborne and stance phases of acceleration were evaluated and statistically explored for a possible causal association with injury occurrence and absence from sport during follow-up. Players who did not experience a hamstring injury during follow-up had significantly higher amounts of gluteal muscle activity during the front swing phase ( P = .027) and higher amounts of trunk muscle activity during the backswing phase of sprinting ( P = .042). In particular, the risk of sustaining a hamstring injury during follow-up lowered by 20% and 6%, with a 10% increment in normalized muscle activity of the gluteus maximus during the front swing and the trunk muscles during the backswing, respectively ( P < .024). Muscle activity of the core unit during explosive running appeared to be associated with hamstring injury occurrence in male soccer players. Higher amounts of gluteal and trunk muscle activity during the airborne phases of sprinting were associated with a lower risk of hamstring injuries during follow-up. Hence, the present results provide a basis for improved

  11. Magnetic resonance neurography evaluation of chronic extraspinal sciatica after remote proximal hamstring injury: a preliminary retrospective analysis.

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    Bucknor, Matthew D; Steinbach, Lynne S; Saloner, David; Chin, Cynthia T

    2014-08-01

    Extraspinal sciatica can present unique challenges in clinical diagnosis and management. In this study, the authors evaluated qualitative and quantitative patterns of sciatica-related pathology at the ischial tuberosity on MR neurography (MRN) studies performed for chronic extraspinal sciatica. Lumbosacral MRN studies obtained in 14 patients at the University of California, San Francisco between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had been referred by neurosurgeons or neurologists for chronic unilateral sciatica (≥ 3 months), and the MRN reports described asymmetrical increased T2 signal within the sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity. MRN studies were also performed prospectively in 6 healthy volunteers. Sciatic nerve T2 signal intensity (SI) and cross-sectional area at the ischial tuberosity were calculated and compared between the 2 sides in all 20 subjects. The same measurements were also performed at the sciatic notch as an internal reference. Adjacent musculoskeletal pathology was compared between the 2 sides in all subjects. Seven of the 9 patients for whom detailed histories were available had a specific history of injury or trauma near the proximal hamstring preceding the onset of sciatica. Eight of the 14 patients also demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities adjacent to the proximal hamstring origin. The remaining 6 had normal muscles, tendons, and marrow in the region of the ischial tuberosity. There was a significant difference in sciatic nerve SI and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides at the level of the ischial tuberosity, with a mean adjusted SI of 1.38 compared with 1.00 (p sciatica remains a diagnosis of exclusion, this distinct category of patients has not been described in the radiographic literature and merits special attention from clinicians and radiologists in the management of extraspinal sciatica. Magnetic resonance neurography is useful for evaluating chronic sciatic neuropathy both

  12. Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport.

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    Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Saartok, Tönu; Thorstensson, Alf

    2008-09-01

    Hamstring strains can be of at least 2 types, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions in which the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths, as documented for sprinters and dancers. Hamstring strains in different sports, with similar injury situations to dancers, also show similarities in symptoms, injury location, and recovery time. Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. Thirty subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to or finished their sport activity. All injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were located proximally in the posterior thigh, close to the ischial tuberosity. The injuries were often complex, but 83% involved the semimembranosus and its proximal free tendon. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sports activity. For the remaining 16 subjects, the median time for return to sport was 31 weeks (range, 9-104). There were no significant correlations between specific clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to sport. In different sports, an injury situation in which the hamstring muscles reach extensive length causes a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh, earlier described in dancers. Because of the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis, based on history and palpation, and adequate information to the subject are essential.

  13. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided "Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis" application.

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    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE.

  14. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided “Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis” application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Methods Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. Results US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. Conclusion US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE. PMID:27900300

  15. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not seem to be healing as expected. Alternative Names Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring References Ali K, Leland JM. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med . 2012;31(2):263-272. PMID: 22341016 ...

  16. Hamstring injuries: update article

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    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  17. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  18. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xianglin Wan; Feng Qu; William E. Garrett; Hui Liu; Bing Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effect of hamstring flexibility on the peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting, until now, remained unknown, which limited our understanding of risk factors of hamstring muscle strain injury (hamstring injury...

  19. The effect of hamstring flexibility on peak hamstring muscle strain in sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Wan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: A potential for hamstring injury exists during the late swing phase of sprinting. Peak hamstring muscle strains in sprinting are negatively correlated to hamstring flexibility across individuals. The magnitude of peak muscle strains is different among hamstring muscles in sprinting, which may explain the different injury rate among hamstring muscles.

  20. No Relationship Between Hamstring Flexibility and Hamstring Injuries in Male Amateur Soccer Players: A Prospective Study.

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    van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2017-01-01

    In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24.5 years). Hamstring flexibility was measured by performing the sit-and-reach test (SRT). The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the occurrence of hamstring injuries in the following year, while adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age and previous hamstring injuries, was determined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 450 soccer players, 21.8% reported a hamstring injury in the previous year. The mean (±SD) baseline score for the SRT was 21.2 ± 9.2 cm. During the 1-year follow-up period, 23 participants (5.1%) suffered a hamstring injury. In the multivariate analysis, while adjusting for age and previous injuries, no significant relationship was found between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries ( P = .493). In this group of soccer players, hamstring flexibility (measured with the SRT) was not related to hamstring injuries. Age and previous hamstring injuries as possible confounders did not appear to influence this relationship. Other etiological factors need to be examined to further elucidate the mechanism of hamstring injuries.

  1. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

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    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.

  2. Validation of hamstrings musculoskeletal modeling by calculating peak hamstrings length at different hip angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krogt, M.M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of hamstrings lengths are useful, for example, to facilitate planning for surgical lengthening of the hamstrings in patients with cerebral palsy. In this study, three models used to estimate hamstrings length (M1: Delp, M2: Klein Horsman, M3: Hawkins and Hull) were evaluated. This

  3. MRI-Based Regional Muscle Use during Hamstring Strengthening Exercises in Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodas, Gil; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per; Linnehan, Richard; Kreider, Richard; Di Salvo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined site-specific hamstring muscles use with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elite soccer players during strength training. Thirty-six players were randomized into four groups, each performing either Nordic hamstring, flywheel leg-curl, Russian belt or the hip-extension conic-pulley exercise. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-MRI were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. T2 values increased substantially after flywheel leg-curl in all regions of the BFl (from 9±8 to 16±8%), BFs (41±6–71±11%), and ST (60±1–69±7%). Nordic hamstring induced a substantial T2 increase in all regions of the BFs (13±8–16±5%) and ST (15±7–17±5%). T2 values after the Russian belt deadlift substantially increased in all regions of the BFl (6±4–7±5%), ST (8±3–11±2%), SM (6±4–10±4%), and proximal and distal regions of BFs (6±6–8±5%). T2 values substantially increased after hip-extension conic-pulley only in proximal and middle regions of BFl (11±5–7±5%) and ST (7±3–12±4%). The relevance of such MRI-based inter- and intra-muscle use in designing more effective resistance training for improving hamstring function and preventing hamstring injuries in elite soccer players should be explored with more mechanistic studies. PMID:27583444

  4. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Descriptive epidemiology study. The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training.

  5. The adductor magnus ''mini-hamstring'': MRI appearance and potential pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broski, Stephen M.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Collins, Mark S. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Krych, Aaron J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Obey, Mitchel R. [Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing ''hamstring protocol'' MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm{sup 2} (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  6. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; L Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-12-01

    Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP.

  7. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969

  8. A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Neurodynamic Sliders on Hamstring Responses in Footballers with Hamstring Tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Oatyimprai, Ketsarakon; Pathumb, Saranchana

    2016-11-01

    Neurodynamics intervention is known to increase apparent muscle extensibility, but information regarding hamstring responses after a neurodynamic sliders (NS) technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NS on apparent hamstring extensibility and activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. Forty eligible healthy male footballers with hamstring tightness were each randomly allocated to either a 4-week NS technique or a control group (CG) receiving placebo shortwave intervention. Knee extension angles were measured with the passive knee extension test, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of hamstrings was measured by a surface electromyography at baseline and after intervention sessions. The results showed that NS produced a statistically and clinically significant increase in knee extension angle compared to CG (P technique improved apparent hamstring extensibility but did not change the hamstring activity in footballers with hamstring tightness.

  9. The Preventive Effect of the Nordic Hamstring Exercise on Hamstring Injuries in Amateur Soccer Players : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Backx, Frank J. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE).

  10. MR observations of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silder, Amy [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Heiderscheit, Bryan C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); Thelen, Darryl G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (US). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Department of Radiology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk. (orig.)

  11. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Moen (Maaike); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes); M. Maas (Mario); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple

  12. Predicting return to play after hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M. H.; Reurink, G.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Maas, M.; Goudswaard, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the prognostic value of clinical and MRI parameters for the time to return to play (TTRTP) in acute hamstring injuries showed only limited to moderate evidence for the various investigated parameters. Some studies had multiple methodological limitations, including retrospective

  13. Change in muscle thickness under contracting conditions following return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain injury—A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the change in hamstring muscle thickness between contracting and relaxing conditions following a return to sports after a hamstring muscle strain and thereby evaluate muscle function. Six male track and field sprinters participated in this study. All had experienced a prior hamstring strain injury that required a minimum of 2 weeks away from sport participation. Transverse plane scans were performed at the following four points on the affected and unaffected sides under contracting and relaxing conditions: proximal biceps femoris long head, proximal semitendinosus, middle biceps femoris long head, and middle semitendinosus. The results demonstrated an increase in the thickness of the middle biceps femoris long head and middle semitendinosus regions on the unaffected side with contraction, whereas the affected side did not show a significant increase. The proximal semitendinosus muscle thickness was increased with contraction on both the unaffected and the affected sides. By contrast, the proximal biceps femoris muscle thickness did not show a significant increase on both sides. The results of this study show that evaluation of muscle thickness during contraction may be useful for assessing the change in muscle function after a hamstring muscle strain injury.

  14. Angle-specific eccentric hamstring fatigue after simulated soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel D; Zhao, Bingnan; Okwera, Brian; Matthews, Martyn J; Delextrat, Anne

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon). The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.

  15. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Castellote-Caballero; Valenza, Maríe C.; Puentedura, Emilio J.; César Fernández-de-las-Peñas; Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blind...

  16. Acute hamstring injury in football players: Association between anatomical location and extent of injury-A large single-center MRI report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Michel D; Guermazi, Ali; Tol, Johannes L; Niu, Jingbo; Hamilton, Bruce; Roemer, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    To describe in detail the anatomic distribution of acute hamstring injuries in football players, and to assess the relationship between location and extent of edema and tears, all based on findings from MRI. Retrospective observational study. We included 275 consecutive male football players who had sustained acute hamstring injuries and had positive findings on MRI. For each subject, lesions were recorded at specific locations of the hamstring muscles, which were divided into proximal or distal: free tendon, myotendinous junction, muscle belly, and myofascial junction locations. For each lesion, we assessed the largest cross-sectional area of edema and/or tears. We calculated the prevalence of injuries by location. The relationships between locations and extent of edema and tears were assessed using a one-sample t-test, with significance set at pmuscles (pmuscle had larger tears than proximal locations (pmuscles) and proximal locations (LHBF muscle) are more commonly affected and are associated with a greater extent of edema in acute hamstring muscle injury. Distal locations (ST muscle), however, seem to be more commonly associated with larger tears. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hamstring Tendon Regeneration After Harvesting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A M; Reijman, Max; Lodewijks, Susanne J M; Punt, Jorien; Meuffels, Duncan E

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring tendons are often used as autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, no systematic review has been performed describing consequences such as hamstring tendon regeneration rate and determinants of hamstring tendon regeneration. To summarize the current literature regarding hamstring tendon rate regeneration, the time course of regeneration, and determinants of hamstring regeneration. Systematic review. A search was performed in the Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases up to June 2014 to identify relevant articles. A study was eligible if it met the following inclusion criteria: tendons were harvested, regeneration at harvest site was assessed, population size was at least 10 human subjects, full-text article was available, and the study design was either a randomized controlled trial, prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, or case control study. A risk of bias assessment of the eligible articles was determined. Data describing hamstring tendon regeneration rates were pooled per time period. A total of 18 publications met the inclusion criteria. The mean regeneration rate for the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was, in all cases, 70% or higher. More than 1 year after harvesting, 79% (median [IQR], 80 [75.5-90]) of the semitendinosus tendons and 72% (median [IQR], 80 [61-88.5]) of the gracilis tendons were regenerated. No significant differences in regeneration rate could be found considering patient sex, age, height, weight, or duration of immobilization. Results did not clearly show whether absence of regeneration disadvantages the subsequent hamstring function. Five studies measured the regeneration rate at different moments in time. Hamstring tendons regenerated in the majority of patients after ACL reconstruction. The majority of the hamstring tendon regeneration was found to occur between 1 month and 1 year after harvest. No significant determinants for

  18. Hamstring Injuries--An Examination of Possible Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Wendell

    On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)

  19. A Comparative Outcome Study of Hamstring Versus Tibialis Anterior and Synthetic Grafts for Deltoid to Triceps Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer A; Mohammed, Khalid D; Beadel, Gordon P; Rothwell, Alastair G; Simcock, Jeremy W

    2017-10-01

    To assess elbow extension strength and complications after deltoid-triceps transfers using hamstring tendon graft compared with tibialis anterior and synthetic tendon grafts. A retrospective review of deltoid-triceps transfers in patients with tetraplegia performed between 1983 and 2014. Seventy-five people (136 arms) had surgery performed, with the majority undergoing simultaneous bilateral surgery (n = 61; 81%). Tibialis anterior tendon grafts were used in 68 arms, synthetic grafts in 23 arms, and hamstring tendon grafts in 45 arms. The average age at surgery was 31 years. Sixty-three arms (46%) were assessed between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Seventy percent of the group (n = 54) were able to extend their elbow against gravity (grade 3 of 5 or greater) following surgery. Seventy-nine percent of those with hamstring grafts achieved grade 3 of 5 or more compared with 77% with tibialis anterior and 33% with synthetic grafts. There was a statistically significant difference in postsurgery elbow extension between the tibialis anterior group and the synthetic graft group and the hamstring and the synthetic graft group but not between the tibialis anterior and the hamstring group. Complications occurred in 19 arms (14%), the majority occurring immediately after surgery and associated with the wounds. The remaining complications were with the synthetic graft group in which dehiscence of the proximal attachment occurred in 30% of the arms. Autologous tendon grafting is associated with achievement of antigravity elbow extension in a greater proportion of individuals than with prosthetic grafting. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  1. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Castellote-Caballero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS. Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject’s dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR range of motion (ROM before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3×2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  2. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  3. Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Erickson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

  4. Quadriceps and hamstrings coactivation during common therapeutic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begalle, Rebecca L; Distefano, Lindsay J; Blackburn, Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2012-01-01

    Anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading. Muscle coactivation of the quadriceps and hamstrings influences anterior tibial shear force and knee valgus moment, thus potentially influencing ACL loading and injury risk. Therefore, identifying exercises that facilitate balanced activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings might be beneficial in ACL injury rehabilitation and prevention. To quantify and compare quadriceps with hamstrings coactivation electromyographic (EMG) ratios during commonly used closed kinetic chain exercises. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Twenty-seven healthy, physically active volunteers (12 men, 15 women; age = 22.1 ± 3.1 years, height = 171.4 ± 10 cm, mass = 72.4 ± 16.7 kg). Participants completed 9 separate closed chain therapeutic exercises in a randomized order. Surface electromyography quantified the activity level of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (MH), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. The quadriceps-to-hamstrings (Q:H) coactivation ratio was computed as the sum of average quadriceps (VM, VL) EMG amplitude divided by the sum of average hamstrings (MH, BF) EMG amplitude for each trial. We used repeated-measures analyses of variance to compare Q:H ratios and individual muscle contributions across exercises (α = .05), then used post hoc Tukey analyses. We observed a main effect for exercise (F(3,79) = 22.6, Pprevention programs. They also could be used in postinjury rehabilitation programs in a safe and progressive manner.

  5. Association between maximal hamstring muscle strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M. K.; Sorensen, R. S.; Thorborg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reduced hamstring pre-activity during sidecutting increases the risk for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part ofACLinjury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as sidecutting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... and maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Methods: Eighty-five female athletes (17+/-1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static dynamometer...

  6. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... and maximal isometric hamstring muscle strength. Material and Methods Eighty-five female athletes (17 ± 1 yrs) were screened for neuromuscular pre-activity in medial (ST) and lateral (BF) hamstring muscle during a sidecutting maneuver. Maximal hamstring muscle strength [N/kg BW] (MVC) was measured in a static...

  7. Acute hamstring injuries in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers: a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing two rehabilitation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Tarassova, Olga; Thorstensson, Alf

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern. To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process. Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols. Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return. Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol. A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.

  8. The preventive effect of the nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). The effectiveness of the NHE on hamstring injury prevention has never been investigated in amateur soccer. To investigate the preventive effect of the NHE on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Male amateur soccer players (age, mean ± SD, 24.5 ± 3.8 years) from 40 teams were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 20 teams, 292 players) or control group (n = 20 teams, 287 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform 25 sessions of NHE in a 13-week period. Both the intervention and control groups performed regular soccer training and were followed for hamstring injury incidence and severity during the 2013 calendar year. At baseline, personal characteristics (eg, age, injury history, field position) were gathered from all participants via a questionnaire. Primary outcome was injury incidence. Secondary outcomes were injury severity and compliance with the intervention protocol. A total of 38 hamstring injuries were recorded, affecting 36 of 579 players (6.2%). The overall injury incidence rate was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per 1000 player hours, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25-0.46) in training, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.82-1.94) in matches. Injury incidence rates were significantly different between the intervention (0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.35) and control groups (0.8; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15), χ(2)(1, n = 579) = 7.865; P = .005. The risk for hamstring injuries was reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group (odds ratio, 0.282; 95% CI, 0.110-0.721) and was statistically significant (P = .005). No statistically significant differences were identified between the intervention and

  9. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football.......The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football....

  10. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weir, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of

  11. Effects of an eccentric training programme on hamstring strain injuries in women football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Ama Espinosa Gurutze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength.

  12. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THERAPUTIC TECHINQUES ON HAMSTRING FLEXBILITY IN NORMAL ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa I. Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hamstring muscles involve a rate of intense musculoskeletal injuries. Hamstring flexibility, shorting, and exhaustion are hazard variables connected with hamstring strain. Enhanced flexibility has for quite some time been viewed as an imperative part in anticipation of musculotendinous strain. Expanding hamstring flexibility can assume a vital part in counteracting lower furthest point injuries. In any case, few research has been performed on the best technique. This study was con...

  13. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  14. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  15. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in male soccer players: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, L.G.L. van de; Vereijken, A.J.; Backx, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are common injuries in soccer players. In view of the high incidence and the serious consequences, identifying risk factors related to hamstring injuries is essential. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify risk factors for hamstring injuries in male adult

  16. Hamstring transfer for quadriceps paralysis in post polio residual paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish J Patwa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: H to Q transfer in the presence of quadriceps paralysis with good power in hamstring is a better alternative than supracondylar osteotomy because it is a dynamic correction and it produces some degree of recurvatum with increasing stability of knee in extension while walking. While inserting hamstring over patella the periosteum is not cut in an I-shaped fashion to create a flap which gives additional strength to new insertion and also patella act as a fulcrum during the extension of knee by producing the bowstring effect.

  17. A comparison of acute effects between Kinesio tape and electrical muscle elongation in hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Antúnez, L; López-Miñarro, P A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; Castillo-Lozano, R; Domínguez-Vera, P; Maya-Martín, J; Albornoz-Cabello, M

    2015-01-01

    To improve hamstring extensibility some methods have been analyzed and compared for determining their acute and chronic effectiveness. To compare the immediate effect of electrical muscle elongation (EME) versus Kinesio tape (KT) in hamstring muscle extensibility. One hundred and twenty adult amateur athletes with hamstring shortness (straight leg raise test angle Kinesio tape are effective techniques in the short-term in amateur athletes with decreased hamstring extensibility. The higher increase of hamstring extensibility, with a better clinical effect was achieved with the application of electrical muscle elongation. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of both techniques.

  18. The preventive effect of the Nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G

    2014-08-01

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in male amateur soccer players and have a high rate of recurrence, often despite extensive treatment and long rehabilitation periods. Eccentric strength and flexibility are recognised as important modifiable risk factors, which have led to the development of eccentric hamstring exercises, such as the Nordic hamstring exercise. As the effectiveness of the Nordic hamstring exercise in reducing hamstring injuries has never been investigated in amateur soccer players, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this exercise on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. An additional aim is to determine whether flexibility is associated with hamstring injuries. Cluster-randomised controlled trial with soccer teams as the unit of cluster. Dutch male amateur soccer players, aged 18-40 years, were allocated to an intervention or control group. Both study groups continued regular soccer training during 2013, but the intervention group additionally performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (25 sessions over 13 weeks). Primary outcomes are the incidence of initial and recurrent hamstring injury and injury severity. Secondary outcomes are hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility and compliance. Compliance to the intervention protocol was also monitored. Eccentric hamstring strength exercises are hypothesised to reduce the incidence of hamstring injury among male amateur soccer players by 70%. The prevention of such injuries will be beneficial to soccer players, clubs, football associations, health insurance companies and society. NTR3664. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength profiles of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a descriptive study assessing the isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and endurance in 28 elite, male, South African football players. Muscle strength was tested at 60./s over 5 repetitions concentrically and eccentrically. Muscle endurance was tested at 180./s over 15 repetitions. Peak torque to ...

  20. inflammatory drugs fail to enhance healing of acute hamstring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (NSAIDs), meclofenamate and diclofenac, in combination with physiotherapy modalities on the rate of healing of acute hamstring muscle tears were studied in a double- blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-four of the 75 patients with this injury recruited were assessed ...

  1. Isotonic Quadriceps-Hamstring Strength Ratios of Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Femi Olaleye

    A pillow was placed under the knees, to prevent compression of the patella between the femur and the plinth. The trunk and thighs were also strapped to the plinth to prevent extraneous movements of other parts of the body during hamstring strength testing. A Delorme boot was strapped to the foot of the affected limb of the.

  2. Sport stretching : Effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; vanBolhuis, AI; Goeken, LNH

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of one 10-minute stretch on muscle stiffness in subjects with short hamstrings. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Laboratory for human movement sciences in the department of rehabilitation of a university hospital. Subjects: Sixteen students from the

  3. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) training of the hamstrings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) training on hamstring muscle strength. The study utilised a quantitative experimental research design. The intervention was assessed using a Humac Norm 7000 Dynamometer. A Chattanooga Intelect Mobile Combo muscle stimulator ...

  4. Therapeutic interventions for acute hamstring injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); J.L. Tol (Johannes); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam); M.H. Moen (Maaike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Despite the high rate of hamstring injuries, there is no consensus on their management, with a large number of different interventions being used. Recently several new injection therapies have been introduced. Objective To systematically review the literature on the

  5. The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P 35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis.

  6. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  7. Influence of hip-flexion angle on hamstrings isokinetic activity in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny; Gojanovic, Boris; Millet, Grégoire P

    2012-01-01

    Hamstrings strains are common and debilitating injuries in many sports. Most hamstrings exercises are performed at an inadequately low hip-flexion angle because this angle surpasses 70° at the end of the sprinting leg's swing phase, when most injuries occur. To evaluate the influence of various hip-flexion angles on peak torques of knee flexors in isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions and on the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Ten national-level sprinters (5 men, 5 women; age = 21.2 ± 3.6 years, height = 175 ± 6 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 9.9 kg). For each hip position (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion), participants used the right leg to perform (1) 5 seconds of maximal isometric hamstrings contraction at 45° of knee flexion, (2) 5 maximal concentric knee flexion-extensions at 60° per second, (3) 5 maximal eccentric knee flexion-extensions at 60° per second, and (4) 5 maximal eccentric knee flexionextensions at 150° per second. Hamstrings and quadriceps peak torque, hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio, lateral and medial hamstrings root mean square. We found no difference in quadriceps peak torque for any condition across all hip-flexion angles, whereas hamstrings peak torque was lower at 0° of hip flexion than at any other angle (P .05). Hip-flexion angle influenced hamstrings peak torque in all muscular contraction types; as hip flexion increased, hamstrings peak torque increased. Researchers should investigate further whether an eccentric resistance training program at sprint-specific hip-flexion angles (70° to 80°) could help prevent hamstrings injuries in sprinters. Moreover, hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio assessment should be standardized at 80° of hip flexion.

  8. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  9. Rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amorim Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring injuries are among the most frequent in sports. The high relapse rate is a challenge for sports medicine and has a great impact on athletes and sport teams. The treatment goal is to provide the athlete the same functional level as before the injury. Thus, functional rehabilitation is very important to the success of the treatment. Currently, several physical therapy modalities are used, according to the stage of the lesion, such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, therapeutic exercise, and manual therapy. However, the evidence of the effectiveness of these modalities in muscle injuries is not fully established due to the little scientific research on the topic. This article presents an overview of the physiotherapy approach in the rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries.

  10. The Effects of Cupping on Hamstring Flexibility in Collegiate Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey G; Gard, Hannah I; Gregory, Jeana M; Gibson, Amy; Austin, Jennifer

    2018-01-24

    Collegiate soccer players suffer hamstring injuries due to inflexibility and repetitive motions involving intense hamstring lengthening and contraction during sport. Although a popular intervention for muscular injury, there exists limited evidence of the effects of therapeutic cupping on hamstring flexibility. To determine the effect of cupping therapy on hamstring flexibility in collegiate soccer players. Cohort design. Athletic training clinic. Twenty-five, asymptomatic, NCAA Division III soccer players (10 males, 15 females) (age = 19.4 ± 1.30 years, height = 175.1 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 69.5 ± 6.6 kg). A 7-minute therapeutic cupping treatment was delivered to the treatment group. Four 2-inch cups were fixed atop trigger point locations within the hamstring muscle bellies of participants' dominant legs. Control group participants received no intervention between pre- and post-test measurements. Pretest and posttest measurements of hamstring flexibility, using a Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR), were performed on both groups. PSLR measurements were conducted by blinded examiners using a digital inclinometer. An independent samples t-test was used to analyze changes in hamstring flexibility from pre- to post-treatment with p-values set a priori at 0.05. An independent samples t-test demonstrated no significant difference in change in hamstring flexibility between participants in the treatment group and those in the control group (t23 = -.961, p = .35). The findings of this study demonstrated no statistically significant changes in hamstring flexibility following a cupping treatment.

  11. Successful management of hamstring injuries in Australian Rules footballers: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent injury in Australian Rules football. There is a lack of evidence based literature on the treatment, prevention and management of hamstring injuries, although it is agreed that the etiology is complicated and multi-factorial. We present two cases of hamstring injury that had full resolution after spinal manipulation and correction of lumbar-pelvic biomechanics. There was no recurrence through preventative treatment over a twelve and sixteen week period. The use of spinal manipulation for treatment or prevention of hamstring injury has not been documented in sports medicine literature and should be further investigated in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  12. Acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football: a 12-month prospective registration study among 374 players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring...... injuries among 374 elite football players were registered prospectively during a 12-month period. A total of 46 first-time and eight recurrent hamstring injuries were registered. The incidence rates for incurring a first-time hamstring injury showed a significantly (P28 days from injury to injury free...

  13. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  14. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  15. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2017-05-24

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHEBEF ; n=10) or after (NHEAFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s(-1) . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHEBEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHEAFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHEAFT vs CON and NHEBEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHEBEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHEAFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Geometric and architectural contributions to hamstring musculotendinous stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J Troy; Pamukoff, Derek N

    2014-01-01

    Greater hamstring musculotendinous stiffness is associated with lesser anterior cruciate ligament loading mechanisms during both controlled joint perturbations and dynamic tasks, suggesting a potential protective mechanism. Additionally, lesser hamstring stiffness has been reported in females, potentially contributing to their greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. However, the factors which contribute to high vs. low stiffness are unclear. Muscle geometry and architecture influence force production and may, therefore, influence stiffness. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the contributions of geometric and architectural muscle characteristics to hamstring stiffness. Thirty healthy individuals (15 males, 15 females) volunteered for participation. Biceps femoris long head cross-sectional area, pennation angle, fiber length, tendon stiffness, and posterior thigh fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound imaging, and strength was measured via isometric contraction. Stiffness was assessed via the damped oscillatory technique. Following normalization to anthropometric factors, only strength (r=0.535) and posterior thigh fat thickness (Spearman ρ=-0.305) were correlated with stiffness. Normalized tendon stiffness (0.06 vs. 0.10N/m·kg(-1)) and strength (7.1 vs. 10.0N·kg(-1)) were greater in males, while posterior thigh fat thickness (10.4 vs. 5.0mm) was greater in females. Greater posterior thigh fat thickness may influence stiffness by contributing to greater intramuscular fat and shank segment mass, and lesser muscle per unit mass in the thigh segment. These findings suggest that training designed to increase hamstring strength and decrease fat mass may be beneficial for anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention. © 2013.

  17. The Foam Roll as a Tool to Improve Hamstring Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Daniel H; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2015-12-01

    Although foam rolling is a common myofascial therapy used to increase range of motion (ROM), research is limited on the effectiveness of foam rolling on soft tissue extensibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 4-week training period of the foam roll method on hamstring flexibility. Furthermore, the study was designed to compare the effectiveness of the foam roll myofascial release with a conventional contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching method and a control group. Forty healthy males (age: 17-47 years) were randomly assigned to a foam roll group (FOAM, n = 13), a contract-relax PNF stretching group (CRPNF, n = 14), or a control group (CG, n = 13). The FOAM group massaged their hamstring muscles with the foam roll 3 times per week for 4 weeks (12 training sessions). The CRPNF group was assigned to 12 sessions of contract-relax PNF stretching. The CG underwent no intervention. Hamstring flexibility (ROM) was measured by a stand-and-reach test before and after the intervention period. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant global time effect (p stretching method.

  18. Diagnosis and prognosis of acute hamstring injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; van Es, Nick; Wieldraaijer, Thijs; Sierevelt, Inger N; Ekstrand, Jan; van Dijk, C Niek

    2013-02-01

    Identification of the most relevant diagnostic and prognostic factors of physical examination and imaging of hamstring injuries in (elite) athletes. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles between 1950 and April 2011. A survey was distributed among the members of the European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy, which focused on physical examination, prognosis, imaging and laboratory tests of hamstring injuries in (elite) athletes. Medical history, inspection and palpation of the muscle bellies and imaging are most valuable at the initial assessment according to the literature. Experts considered medical history, posture and gait inspection, inspection and palpation of muscle bellies, range of motion tests, manual muscle testing, referred pain tests and imaging to be most important in the initial assessment of hamstring injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred over ultrasonography and should take place within 3 days post-trauma. Important prognostic factors are injury grade, length of the muscle tear on MR images, MRI-negative injuries and trauma mechanism. Posture and gait inspection, inspection and palpation of muscle bellies, range of motion tests, manual muscle testing and referred pain tests within 2 days post-trauma were identified as the most relevant diagnostic factors. Literature review and expert opinion, Level V.

  19. [Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons preserved tibial insertion and an implant fixation technique of hamstring tendon knot and bone bolt press-fit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-hu

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of hamstring autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons insertion on tibia preserved and an implant fixation technique of hamstring tendons knot and bone bolt press-fit. Twenty cases of injured anterior cruciate ligament were reconstructed. There were 15 males and 5 females with the average age of 22 years old. Ten left knees and 10 right knees were involved. Hamstring tendons were taken, and pretension was performed. Tibial tunnel and femoral tunnel were prepared,and the femoral tunnel was a frame of narrow inside and wide outside. The hamstring tendons knot and bone bolt were pulled inside of femoral tunnel. The tendons distal of tendons knot were brought to pass the femoral tunnel, joint capsule and another tibial tunnel. Then, the tendons distal of tendons knot were tightened together with the part of hamstring tendons of which the insertion were on tibia. After the operation, the knee was fixed at a flexion of 45 degrees by brace. The patients were followed up for 8 to 24 months. The function of troubled knees was evaluated by Lysholm knee functional scale. The average knee score were 61.5 +/- 4.6 and 92.5 +/- 3.7 respectively before and after operation, and the difference was statistically significant (P anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring. The advantage of this method was avoidance of using high cost material for fixation,which lessened spending for the patients. And it was also benefit for tendon-bone healing.

  20. TEMPORAL PATTERN OF KINESIOLOGY TAPE EFFICACY ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, a potential modifiable risk factor for injury, over time. The epidemiology and etiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility over a five day period. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 20.0 ± 1.55 years; height 179.3 ± 4.94 cm; mass 76.9 ± 7.57 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1min, + 30mins, + 3days and +5days days after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. Hamstring ROM with KT application at +3days was significantly greater than baseline (129.18 ± 15.46%, p = 0.01), SS (106.99 ± 9.84%, p = 0.03) and PNF (107.42 ± 136.13%, p = 0.03) interventions. The temporal pattern of changes in ROM for SS and PNF were best modelled by a negative linear function, although the strength of the correlation was weak in each case. In contrast, the KT data was optimised using a quadratic polynomial function (r(2) = 0.60), which yielded an optimum time of 2.76 days, eliciting a predicted ROM of 129.6% relative to baseline. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. SS was best suited to immediate improvements, and PNF to +30 minutes in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a longer duration, peaking at 2.76 days. These findings have implications for the

  1. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L.; Roemer, Frank W.; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Crema, Michel D.; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    To assess and compare the intra-and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI <= 5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two

  2. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in Australian male professional cricket players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Orchard

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fast bowlers suffer more hamstring injuries than other playing roles in cricket, particularly in First Class (multi-day cricket. Batsmen are more likely to get injured in 50-over (one day cricket. Playing in Australia (compared to overseas venues leads to increased risk of hamstring injury.

  3. Hamstrings and iliotibial band forces affect knee kinematics and contact pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, S. D.; Ahmad, C. S.; Gardner, T. R.; Grelsamer, R. P.; Henry, J. H.; Blankevoort, L.; Ateshian, G. A.; Mow, V. C.

    2000-01-01

    Many clinical studies have emphasized the role of the hamstrings and the iliotibial band on knee mechanics, although few biomechanical studies have investigated it. This study therefore examined two hypotheses: (a) with loading of the hamstrings, the tibia translates posteriorly and rotates

  4. The prognostic value of MRI in determining reinjury risk following acute hamstring injury: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L.; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring

  5. Acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football: a 12-month prospective registration study among 374 players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the incidence rates of acute hamstring injuries in Danish elite football sustained during training or match play. Furthermore, it was our intention to document details about the recurrence, severity and the injury seasonal distribution. Hamstring...... injuries among 374 elite football players were registered prospectively during a 12-month period. A total of 46 first-time and eight recurrent hamstring injuries were registered. The incidence rates for incurring a first-time hamstring injury showed a significantly (P28 days from injury to injury free......). Each team sustained a mean of 3.4 hamstring injuries per season, with a mean of 21.5 days missed per injury (range 3-136; median 16 days per injury). The seasonal distribution showed an accumulation of injuries in the first 2 months after a 3.5-month mid-season winter break....

  6. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Ultrasonography in Soccer Players With Acute Hamstring Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An injury to the hamstring muscle complex is the most common injury in soccer. Ultrasound of acute hamstring injuries is often used as a clinical tool for diagnosing hamstring injuries and guiding players in when they can return to play. PURPOSE: To (1) investigate the characteristic...... sonographic findings of acute hamstring injuries in soccer players, (2) compare the mean injury severity (time to return to play) in injured players with and without sonographically verified abnormalities, and (3) correlate the length of the injured area and absence from soccer play (time to return to play...... with acute hamstring injuries, 51 underwent ultrasonographic examination of the injured thigh and were included in this study. RESULTS: Ultrasonographic examinations were performed 1 to 10 days after injury (mean, 5.2 ± 3.0 days), and sonographic findings were present in 31 of 51 cases (61%). Two thirds...

  7. Can We Predict ACL Hamstring Graft Sizes in the Asian Male? A Clinical Relationship Study of Anthropometric Features and 4-Strand Hamstring Graft Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    WL Loo; BYE Liu; YHD Lee; YHM Soon

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to investigate if such anthropometric measurements (i.e., height, weight and body mass index) can be used to predict graft diameters in 4 strand semitendinosus and gracilis hamstring autografts. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 89 consecutive male patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis autografts. Intraoperative measurements of the fashioned quadrupled hamstring graft were performed using sizing...

  8. Knee flexor strength recovery following hamstring tendon harvest for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Ardern

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hamstring tendons are an increasingly popular graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction due to preservation of quadriceps function and the absence of anterior knee pain post-operatively. Two commonly used hamstring grafts are a quadruple strand semitendinosus graft (4ST and a double strand semitendinosus-double strand gracilis graft (2ST-2G. It has been suggested that concurrent harvest of the semitendinsous and gracilis tendons may result in sub-optimal hamstring strength recovery as the gracilis may play a role in reinforcing the semitendinosus particularly in deep knee flexion angles. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the findings of available literature and determine whether semitendinosus and gracilis harvest lead to post-operative hamstring strength deficits when compared to semitendinosus harvest alone. Seven studies were identified which compared hamstring strength outcomes between the common hamstring graft types. The methodological quality of each paper was assessed, and where possible effect sizes were calculated to allow comparison of results across studies. No differences were reported between the groups in isokinetic hamstring strength. Deficits in hamstring strength were reported in the 2ST-2G groups when compared to the 4ST groups in isometric strength testing at knee flexion angles ≥70°, and in the standing knee flexion angle. Preliminary evidence exists to support the hypothesis that harvesting the semitendinosus tendon alone is preferable to harvesting in combination with the gracilis tendon for minimizing post-operative hamstring strength deficits at knee flexion angles greater than 70°. However, due to the paucity of research comparing strength outcomes between the common hamstring graft types, further investigation is warranted to fully elucidate the implications for graft harvest.

  9. The preventive effect of the bounding exercise programme on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players : The design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Hoef, S.; Huisstede, B. M. A.; Brink, M. S.; de Vries, N.; Goedhart, E. A.; Backx, F. J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these

  10. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingLing- Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and there is lack of evidence of the satisfaction of PRP treatment in muscle injuries. Purposes: The study aimed to investigate the patient satisfaction in the administration of PRP treatment and rehabilitation program for acute hamstring strain injury. Methods: Participants (competitive, semi-competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring strain injury (Grade II were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into either the PRP treatment or rehabilitation program. Participants were required to attend weekly follow up assessment for recovery evaluation. All the participants were required to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18 at the end of study.  The questionnaire is divided into seven sub-scales: general satisfaction, technical quality, interpersonal manner, communication, financial aspect, time spent with doctor, accessibility and convenience. Results: Participants were 22.35 ± 3.41 years. Duration from injury to first presentation in clinic ranged from two to ten days. Mean duration of recovery was 5.64 weeks. No statistically significant difference in the patient satisfaction sub-scales score between the two groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that PRP treatment is as satisfactory as conventional rehabilitation program in managing acute hamstring strain injury. Both  modalities are correspondingly safe and have high degree of satisfaction. Given the acceptable outcomes, patients are likely to

  11. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required. PMID:25506583

  12. Can application of a pelvic belt change injured hamstring muscle activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2012-02-01

    Hamstring injuries are commonly reported in various sports involving sprinting, high-velocity running and kicking. Aberrant biomechanics and neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic and thigh segments have been reported to play a significant role in hamstring injury incidence and recurrence. Recent evidence suggests that external pelvic compression (EPC) applied with a pelvic belt can augment the stability of the pelvic joints, and alter neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic and thigh muscles in individuals with and without (somatic) lumbopelvic and groin dysfunction. However, the effects of EPC on neuromotor control of injured hamstring muscles remain unknown. We have explored the putative neuromotor link between the lumbopelvic segment and hamstring muscles, and generated hypotheses based on plausible mechanisms through which EPC could affect injured hamstring muscle strength and recruitment. Recent guidelines argue that rehabilitation of hamstring injuries should follow a multi-modal approach and include strategies to improve stability and neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic segment. Further investigations exploring these hypotheses would confirm whether EPC could be recommended as an assessment, intervention and rehabilitation tool for hamstring injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two stretching treatments for the hamstrings: proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus kinesio taping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Hsiu; Huang, Tsun-Shun; Chai, Huei-Ming; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Jiu-Jenq

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the static stretch (SS) may adversely affect leg-muscle performance. The authors examined the short-term effects of 2 stretching exercises on hamstrings muscle before and after exercise. Crossover. Laboratory. 9 healthy, physically active men. There were 3 protocols in a randomized order with a 7-d interval: nonstretching (CON protocol), hamstrings static stretching (SS) with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), and SS with kinesio-taping application on the hamstrings. Outcome measures included first-felt and maximum tolerant-felt range of motion (FROM and TROM), maximal knee-flexion peak torque (PT) at 180°/s, and hamstrings muscle stiffness. Groups were not different at prestretching in terms of hamstrings flexibility, PT, and muscle stiffness. At poststretching, both stretching protocols showed significant increases in FROM and TROM (P .05). The stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, but after exercise hamstrings peak torque is diminished in the SS+PNF but not in the SS+Taping group. This means that SS+Taping can prevent negative results from exercise, which may prevent muscle injury.

  14. Comparing Dimensions of Four-Strand Hamstring Tendon Grafts with Native Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether or not there was any incompatibility between four-strand hamstring tendons taken from the same knee and the dimensions of the ACL and PCL. Methods. 15 fresh frozen cadaver hamstrings were prepared as four-strand grafts and measurements made of the ACL and PCL circumferences in the midsection were made in the narrowest part of the midsection. The cross-section areas and diameters were calculated with geometric calculations used to measure the cross-sectional area of cylinders. Accepting that the geometric insertions were elliptical, the length, width, and area were calculated for entry areas. Results. A significant relationship at 96.2% was determined between the ACL mid and the hamstring diameter. A significant relationship at 96.7% was determined between the ACL and the hamstring mid area. A significant relationship at 96.4% was determined between the PCL mid and the hamstring diameter. A significant relationship at 95.7% was determined between the PCL and the hamstring mid area. Conclusion. For the reconstruction of ACL and PCL, it was determined that there is less incompatibility between the four-strand hamstring tendons taken from the same knee and the dimensions of the midsection PCL compared to the ACL dimensions.

  15. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT(60)). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s(-1)) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT(60). Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT(60) segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  16. Clinical Effects of Dry Needling Among Asymptomatic Individuals With Hamstring Tightness: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kathleen; Bradley, Claire; Hofman, Alan; Koester, Rob; Roche, Fenella; Shields, Annalise; Frierson, Elizabeth; Rossi, Ainsley; Johanson, Marie

    2016-11-11

    Randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dry needling on hamstring extensibility and functional performance tests among asymptomatic individuals with hamstring muscle tightness. Dry needling has been shown to increase range of motion in the upper quarter and may have similar effects in the lower quarter. Twenty-seven subjects with hamstring extensibility deficits were randomly assigned to side of treatment (dominant or non-dominant) and group (blunt needling or dry needling). The first session included measurement of hamstring extensibility and performance on four unilateral hop tests, instruction in home hamstring stretching exercises and needling distal to the ischial tuberosity and mid-bellies of the medial and lateral hamstrings. A second session, 3-5 days following the first session included outcome measures and a second needling intervention, and a third session, 4-6 weeks following the first session included outcome measures only. A 2x3x2 ANOVA was used to statistically analyze the data. Hamstring extensibility showed a significant side x time interaction (pdry needling results in increased extensibility beyond that of stretching alone in asymptomatic individuals. Our study findings suggest that dry needling may improve certain dimensions of functional performance, although no clear conclusion can be made. Intervention, level 2b.

  17. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  18. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm 2 , p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  19. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; van de Hoef, Sander; Reurink, Gustaaf; Huisstede, Bionka; Backx, Frank

    2016-06-01

    More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to determine when a person can start playing again. These criteria need to be critically evaluated, in an attempt to reduce recurrence rates and optimize RTP. To carry out a systematic review of the literature on (1) definitions of RTP used in hamstring research and (2) criteria for RTP after hamstring injuries. Systematic review. Seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, Scopus) were searched for articles that provided a definition of, or criteria for, RTP after hamstring injury. There were no limitations on the methodological design or quality of articles. Content analysis was used to record and analyze definitions and criteria for RTP after hamstring injury. Twenty-five papers fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 13 provided a definition of RTP and 23 described criteria to support the RTP decision. "Reaching the athlete's pre-injury level" and "being able to perform full sport activities" were the primary content categories used to define RTP. "Absence of pain", "similar strength", "similar flexibility", "medical staff clearance", and "functional performance" were core themes to describe criteria to support the RTP decision after hamstring injury. Only half of the included studies provided some definition of RTP after hamstring injury, of which reaching the athlete's pre-injury level and being able to perform full sport activities were the most important. A wide variety of criteria are used to support the RTP decision, none of which have been validated. More research is needed to reach a consensus on the definition of RTP and to provide validated RTP criteria to facilitate hamstring injury management and reduce hamstring injury recurrence. PROSPERO

  20. Effect of deep stripping massage alone or with eccentric resistance on hamstring length and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jeffrey; Geertsen, Lisbeth; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effects of different interventions on hamstring length. However, little research has been conducted on the effects of deep stripping massage strokes (DSMS) alone, or combined with eccentric resistance, on hamstring length and strength. To determine: 1) if DSMS have an effect on hamstring length and strength and 2) if the effects on hamstring length and strength are any different when DSMS are combined with eccentric exercise. 89 Community College students and community members between the ages of 18 and 62 volunteered for the study. Of these, 64 demonstrated tight hamstrings on either one or both sides as defined by supine, passive terminal knee extension of ≤75° and participated in the study. Strength was assessed by pressing the posterior calcaneus into a strain gauge for approximately 5 s while seated with the knee flexed to 90°. On their tighter side, participants were administered longitudinal DSMS during 15, 10-s bouts of eccentric resistance with an elastic resistance band. On their other hamstring, participants were administered 15, 10-s longitudinal DSMS while lying passive. All massage strokes were performed at a depth of 7 out of 10 on a verbal pressure scale index. Afterwards, the hamstring flexibility and strength tests were repeated. Both DSMS with eccentric resistance (10.7%) and DSMS alone (6.3%) resulted in improved (p affected by either treatment. These results suggest that DSMS increases hamstring length in less than 3 min but has no affect on strength. Furthermore, combining DSMS with eccentric resistance produces more hamstring flexibility gains than DSMS alone and does not affect strength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  2. BET 2: LASER THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE HAMSTRING MUSCLE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tom; Callaghan, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Local laser therapy has been suggested as a promising treatment for acute hamstring muscle tears. We carried out a shortcut systematic review to establish whether therapeutic lasers are beneficial for patients with acute hamstring tears. Despite a comprehensive literature search, no studies that were directly relevant to the question could be identified. The clinical bottom line is therefore that there is currently no evidence for the use of any form of laser therapy in the treatment of acute hamstring muscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC....../Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING, DYNAMIC RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES AND STATIC STRETCHING ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE AMONG FOOTBALL PLAYERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar P.V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring stretch is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examine the effect of eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion(DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility this study compares the effect of eccentric training and static stretching in improving hamstring flexibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Eccentric training, Static stretching and Dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility and the second objective is find which technique is more effective in improving hamstring flexibility when compared with a control group. Study design is Experimental pre-test post-test design. Methods: 88 male subjects with limited hamstring flexibility were recruited for this study were assigned to four group. Group1 received eccentric training, group2 received dynamic range of motion exercise, group3 received static stretching and group4 was served as control group. Hamstring length was measured pre intervention and post intervention using a self-monitored active knee extension test. Results: Eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion exercise showed a significant increase in hamstring length between pre and post intervention. Following a between group analysis done by independent t test revealed a significant difference between group1 group2 and group3 Conclusion: It is concluded that eccentric training, dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise and static stretching groups improved hamstring flexibility.

  5. Endoscopic-assisted achilles tendon reconstruction with free hamstring tendon autograft for chronic rupture of achilles tendon: clinical and isokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, Ossama; Abou El Soud, Maged M; El Mikkawy, Dalia M E; El Ganzoury, Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Ayman Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical and functional outcome of endoscopic-assisted reconstruction of chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon using free hamstring tendon autograft. We present a case series of 15 patients who had chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon (>6 weeks earlier) and underwent endoscopic-assisted reconstruction with a free hamstring autograft. The graft loop was passed through and fixed to the proximal stump of the tendon. The graft was then passed through suture to the distal stump and finally inserted into a tunnel in the anterior calcaneus to the Achilles tendon insertion and fixed with an bioabsorbable interference screw. The mean follow-up period was 27 months (SD, 3 months; range, 24 to 33 months). All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at follow-up 2 years postoperatively. All patients were functionally evaluated with the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score for the hindfoot preoperatively and postoperatively. Calf muscle power was evaluated by isokinetic strength testing at 2 years' follow-up. The mean size of the gap on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was 49 mm (SD, 9 mm). The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 32.6 (SD, 7.5). There was a statistically significant improvement in the postoperative AOFAS score after 2 years to 90.8 (SD, 3.54) (P Achilles tendon reconstruction with free hamstring tendon autograft for chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon showed good to excellent results in all patients. Isokinetic testing showed a nonsignificant deficit between the involved and uninvolved sides at 2 years' follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic cases series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in ...... extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.......Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic...

  7. Monitoring the effect of football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of competitive football match congestion on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility. DESIGN: Repeated measures. SETTING: Elite male youth football. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen male elite youth football players from the national football association centre of ...

  8. A comparison between clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Warren, Price; Connell, David A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians evaluating hamstring strains in professional football players are increasingly turning to magnetic resonance imaging to support the clinical diagnosis and management of the injury. However, little information is available to assess how magnetic resonance imaging compares with

  9. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE OF THE HAMSTRING/QUADRICEPS RATIO FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MUSCLE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Garbutt

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Isokinetic moment ratios of the hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q muscle groups, and their implication in muscle imbalance, have been investigated for more than three decades. The conventional concentric H/Q ratio with its normative value of 0.6 has been at the forefront of the discussion. This does not account for the joint angle at which moment occurs and the type of muscle action involved. Advances towards more functional analyses have occurred such that previous protocols are being re-examined raising questions about their ability to demonstrate a relationship between thigh muscle imbalance and increased incidence or risk of knee injury. This article addresses the function of the hamstring-quadriceps ratio in the interpretation of this relationship using the ratios Hecc/Qcon (ratio of eccentric hamstring strength to concentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee extension and Hcon/Qecc (ratio of concentric hamstring strength to eccentric quadriceps strength, representative of isolated knee flexion.

  10. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draper, David O; Castro, Jennifer L; Feland, Brent; Schulthies, Shane; Eggett, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, counterbalanced 2x3x5 repeated-measures design. To compare changes in hamstring flexibility after treatments of pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretch, sham diathermy and prolonged stretch, and control...

  11. Extensibility and stiffness of the hamstrings in patients with nonspecific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Goeken, LNH; Hof, AL; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    Objective: To investigate the extensibility and stiffness of the hamstrings in patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: An experimental design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation medicine. Participants: Forty subjects, a

  12. Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Hamstring Tightness in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Na Young; Kwon, Jun Beom; Lee, Sang Chul

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for healthy participants with hamstring tightness. This study was performed at a university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty nine healthy adults with hamstring tightness were enrolled and randomly allocated into four groups (ESWT, stretching exercise, ESWT with stretching exercise, and control). The effects of individual treatments were compared by the finger-to-floor test and popliteal angle. The ESWT group, stretching exercise group and ESWT with stretching exercise group had decreased finger-to-floor distances and right popliteal angles immediately after intervention, compared with the control group (pstretching exercise group showed a significant improvement, compared with the control group (p=0.008 and 0.023). While ESWT and stretching both reduced hamstring tightness immediately after interventions, only ESWT with stretching exercise maintained the significantly improved relief of hamstring tightness significantly after 4 weeks.

  13. Static stretching of the hamstring muscle for injury prevention in football codes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane’s ‘risk of ...

  14. The Effect of Pilates Method in Scholar's Trunk Strength and Hamstring Flexibility: Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia González-Gálvez; María Carrasco Poyatos; Pablo Jorge Marcos Pardo; Yuri Feito

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries in school children could be reduced improving trunk strength and hamstring flexibility. Low levels of trunk muscle strength and hamstring flexibility may result in acute and musculoskeletal chronic diseases. The Pilates Method can be appropriate to improve these physical condition attributes and has been rarely employed by this social group. On the other hand, it has been shown that trunk strength and flexibility are different between genders, but...

  15. Immediate effect of stretching and ultrasound on hamstring flexibility and proprioception

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This research explored the positive effects of self-myofascial release on hamstring muscular flexibility and proprioception and investigated the effectiveness of the stretch combined with therapeutic ultrasound. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 healthy university students with no history of pain in the Achilles tendon or hamstring within the recent 6 months. Each participant completed two experiments. In the first experiment (MS), they completed self-myofascial stretchi...

  16. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  17. Hamstring myoelectrical activity during three different kettlebell swing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monte, Michael J; Opar, David A; Timmins, Ryan G; Ross, James; Keogh, Justin Wl; Lorenzen, Christian

    2017-09-11

    Kettlebell exercises have become an increasingly popular form of resistance training and component of lower body rehabilitative training programs; despite a lack of scientific literature illustrating internal mechanisms and effectiveness of these approaches. Participants (n=14) performed three different styles of kettlebell swings (hip hinge, squat and double knee extension) and were assessed for medial hamstrings (MH) and biceps femoris (BF) myoelectrical activity via surface electromyography (sEMG). Bipolar pre-gelled Ag/AgCl surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes (10mm diameter, 20mm inter-electrode distance) were placed on the participant's dominant limb after correct skin preparation.There was a main effect for swing type (p = 0.004), where the hip hinge swing elicited a greater overall MH and BF sEMG in comparison to the squat swing (mean difference = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.53 to 6.32; p = 0.002) and the double knee extension swing (mean difference = 5.32; 95% CI = 0.80 to 9.83; p = 0.020). Across all swing types, normalised percentage of MH sEMG was significantly higher compared to the BF (mean difference = 9.93; 95% CI = 1.67 to 18.19; p = 0.022). The hip hinge kettlebell swing produced the greatest amount of hamstring sEMG for the three styles of kettlebell swings assessed. These findings have implications for the application of kettlebell swing exercises in strength and conditioning, injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.

  18. [THE EFFECTS OF THE PILATES METHOD ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY, PELVIC TILT AND TRUNK FLEXION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Pilates includes a high volume of hamstring stretching and maximal trunk flexion with knees extended exercises. to perform a systematic review about Pilates practice effects and a detraining period on hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and trunk flexion in maximal trunk flexion with knees extended. it was analysed all the experimental or quasi-experimental designs written in English, Spanish or Portuguese and included in the following databases: Pubmed, Sports Discus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Dialnet and Research Gate. twenty-one papers were analysed. Most of them used a pre-test-post-test design with control group. The intervention programs applied were heterogeneous. Samples were composed mainly of women, both young and old. It was found that the Pilates practice, with different volume, significantly increased hamstring muscle extensibility and pelvic tilt in maximal trunk flexion. At least three training sessions peer week during six weeks were necessary in order to obtain a high trunk inclination. Studies which involved athletes showed contradictory results. By inducing a detraining period it was noticed a decrease in hamstring extensibility and trunk flexion from the second week. there is a moderate evidence that Pilates is an effective method to increase hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and the degree of trunk flexion in maximal flexion positions in sedentary and recreational active people and also to increase hamstring extensibility in athletes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Does wearing a functional knee brace affect hamstring reflex time in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during muscle fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Rita Y; Ng, Gabriel Y; Chien, Eric P

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of wearing a functional knee brace and muscle fatigue on hamstring reflex time in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Repeated-measures clinical trial. Outpatient physical therapy department. Sixteen subjects with ACL deficiency. Subjects tested with and without a functional knee brace before and after an exercise protocol designed to fatigue the knee muscles. Latency of hamstring reflex muscle activity after sudden perturbation of the knee. Wearing a knee brace shortened the hamstring reflex latency regardless of fatigue (F(1,15)=20.62, Pknee brace facilitated hamstring muscle reflex, but muscle fatigue lengthened the hamstring reflex latency. Subjects with ACL deficiency should not rely on the knee brace to facilitate hamstring reflex for joint protection during prolonged sporting activities when muscles are fatigued. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  20. Successful treatment of a fracture of a huge Achilles tendon ossification with autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Hisatoshi; Fukui, Naoshi; Takamure, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Satoru; Iwasawa, Mitsuyasu; Takagi, Kentaro; Horita, Ayako; Saito, Ikuo; Mori, Toshihito

    2015-11-24

    Fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon is a rare entity, and no standard treatment has been established. This is the first report to describe the use of a hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap for Achilles tendon reconstruction. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon. She presented to our clinic with acute right hindfoot pain, which started suddenly while going up the stairs. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive ossification on the right Achilles tendon extending over 14 cm in length; the ossification was fractured at 5 cm proximal to the calcaneus insertion. Surgical treatment included removal of the ossified tendon and reconstruction with an autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap. One year after surgery, she was able to walk with little pain or discomfort and to stand on her right tiptoe. Our novel surgical procedure may be useful in the treatment of fractured ossified Achilles tendons and large Achilles tendon defects.

  1. The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Ceallaigh Brian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34% reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p 0.05 using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.

  2. Influence on Strength and Flexibility of a Swing Phase-Specific Hamstring Eccentric Program in Sprinters' General Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Kenny J; Lugrin, Véronique; Borloz, Stéphane; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-02-01

    Hamstring injuries are common in sprinters and mainly occur during the terminal swing phase. Eccentric training has been shown to reduce hamstring injury rate by improving several risk factors. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an additional swing phase-specific hamstring eccentric training in well-trained sprinters performed at the commencement of the winter preparation is more efficient to improve strength, ratio, optimum angle, and flexibility than a similar program without hamstring eccentric exercises. Twenty sprinters were randomly allocated to an eccentric (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). Both groups performed their usual track and field training throughout the study period. Sprinters in the eccentric group performed an additional 6-week hamstring eccentric program, which was specific to the swing phase of the running cycle (eccentric high-load open-chain kinetic movements covering the whole hamstring length-tension relationship preformed at slow to moderate velocity). Isokinetic and flexibility measurements were performed before and after the intervention. The eccentric group increased hamstring peak torques in concentric at 60° · s(-1) by 16% (p training in sprinters seems to be crucial to address different risk factors for hamstring strain injuries, such as eccentric and concentric strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio ratio, and flexibility.

  3. Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Chesterton, Paul; Vogt, Stefan; Eaves, Daniel Lloyd

    2017-03-21

    Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control). Eccentric hamstring strength gains were assessed using ANOVAs, and magnitude-based inference (MBI) analyses determined the likelihood of clinical/practical benefits for the interventions. Hamstring strength only increased significantly following AO + MI training. This effect was lateralized to the right leg, potentially reflecting a left-hemispheric dominance in motor simulation. MBIs: The right leg within-group treatment effect size for AO + MI was moderate and likely beneficial (d = 0.36), and only small and possibly beneficial for pure MI (0.23). Relative to pure MI-control, effects were possibly beneficial and moderate for AO + MI (0.72), although small for pure MI (0.39). Since hamstring strength predicts injury prevalence, our findings point to the advantage of combined AO + MI interventions, over and above pure MI, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation While hamstring strains are the most common injury across the many sports involving sprinting and jumping, Nordic hamstring exercises are among the most effective methods for building eccentric hamstring strength, for injury prevention and rehabilitation. In the acute injury phase it is crucial not to overload damaged soft tissues, and so non-physical rehabilitation techniques are well suited to this phase. Rehabilitation professionals typically use either motor imagery or action observation techniques to safely improve physical

  4. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos E; Massey, Garry J; Ferguson, Richard A; Wheeler, Patrick C; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions. BFlh exhibited a balanced MHC distribution [mean ± SD (min-max); 47.1 ± 9.1% (32.6-71.0%) MHC-I, 35.5 ± 8.5% (21.5-60.0%) MHC-IIA, 17.4 ± 9.1% (0.0-30.9%) MHC-IIX]. Muscle volume was correlated with knee flexor maximal strength at all velocities and contraction modes (r = 0.62-0.76, P composition was not related to any maximal or explosive strength measure. BFlh MHC composition was not found to be "fast", and therefore composition does not appear to explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injury. Hamstrings muscle volume explained 38-58% of the inter-individual differences in knee flexor maximum strength at a range of velocities and contraction modes, while BFlh muscle composition was not associated with maximal or explosive strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THERAPUTIC TECHINQUES ON HAMSTRING FLEXBILITY IN NORMAL ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa I. Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring muscles involve a rate of intense musculoskeletal injuries. Hamstring flexibility, shorting, and exhaustion are hazard variables connected with hamstring strain. Enhanced flexibility has for quite some time been viewed as an imperative part in anticipation of musculotendinous strain. Expanding hamstring flexibility can assume a vital part in counteracting lower furthest point injuries. In any case, few research has been performed on the best technique. This study was conducted to correlate the effect of different therapeutic techniques (active release, muscle energy and Mulligan on increasing hamstring flexibility. Methods: Fifty seven normal healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were assigned randomly to one of the four study groups: Group (113subjects received active release technique. Group (215subjects received muscle energy technique. Group (3 12subjects received Mulligan’s technique. Group (417subjects did not get any intercession. Popliteal angle (active knee extension test and sit-reach flexibility test were measured pre and post the intervention period. Results: MANOVA test for active knee extension test and sit-reach test among the four groups for post intervention values there was no significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in the post values of AKE with both groups showed significant increases than Group 3. Group 1 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 3.5-11.8; Group 2 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 4.6-12.8. Conclusion: It can be reasoned that both active release and muscle energy techniques have similar impact in enhancing hamstring flexibility than Mulligan technique in normal male adults.

  6. Can We Predict ACL Hamstring Graft Sizes in the Asian Male? A Clinical Relationship Study of Anthropometric Features and 4-Strand Hamstring Graft Sizes

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    WL Loo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to investigate if such anthropometric measurements (i.e., height, weight and body mass index can be used to predict graft diameters in 4 strand semitendinosus and gracilis hamstring autografts. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 89 consecutive male patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis autografts. Intraoperative measurements of the fashioned quadrupled hamstring graft were performed using sizing tubes calibrated to 0.5mm. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r analysis was used to determine the relationship between hamstring graft diameter and predictor variables: gender, height, mass, and body mass index. RESULTS: The mean hamstring graft diameter, 7.90mm, was comparable with previously published studies. Weight (r=0.18 and body mass index (r=0.19 correlated positively with graft diameter. There was no correlation between graft diameter and height (r=0.01. CONCLUSION: In Asian male patients, height, weight and BMI cannot be used for preoperative identification of graft size.

  7. Epidemiology of Hamstring Strains in 25 NCAA Sports in the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Sara L; Kerr, Zachary Y; Dompier, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    The epidemiology of hamstring strains among student-athletes has been extensively researched. However, there is a paucity of recent data describing patterns of hamstring strains. To describe the epidemiology of hamstring strains in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Hamstring strains data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years. Hamstring strain injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% CIs. During the study period, 1142 hamstring strains were reported, leading to an injury rate of 3.05 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Most hamstring strains occurred during practices (68.2%). However, the competition rate (5.24 per 10,000 AEs) was larger than the practice rate (2.56 per 10,000 AEs; RR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.81-2.32). A slight majority occurred during the regular season (52.9%). However, the preseason rate (5.00 per 10,000 AEs) was larger than the regular season/postseason rate (2.34 per 10,000 AEs; RR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.90-2.40). Men's football, men's soccer, and women's soccer contributed the greatest proportion of hamstring strains (35.3%, 9.9%, and 8.3%, respectively). Most hamstring strains were due to noncontact (72.3%). Of all hamstring strains, 12.6% were recurrent, 37.7% resulted in a time loss of 3 weeks. Variations in hamstring strain patterns existed by sport. The hamstring strain rate was larger in men than in women in soccer (RR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.22-2.11), baseball/softball (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.07-2.59), and indoor track (RR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.26-2.78). In addition, proportions of hamstring strains that were recurrent were higher among men in most sex-comparable sports, but this difference was not significant. Hamstring strain rates were higher in the preseason and in competition. Student-athletes should be acclimatized to the rigors of preseason participation. Meanwhile, further

  8. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001 and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001 lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001. Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  9. Decrease in eccentric quadriceps and hamstring strength in recreational alpine skiers after prolonged skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Arnold; Fuchs, Birgit; Leichtfried, Veronika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background To effectively prevent injury in recreational alpine skiing, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted through exercise and training. Fatigue is a potential risk factor in recreational skiing, but no investigations have evaluated concentric/eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue in recreational skiers. We tested the hypothesis that recreational skiing is associated with more pronounced eccentric as compared with concentric muscle fatigue. Methods Twenty-four healthy and fit recreational skiers (14 male and 10 female) performed an isokinetic muscle test 1 day before, 1 h after, and 24 h after a 4 h skiing session. The testing protocol consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring contractions for both legs. Results Eccentric peak hamstring torque (both thighs) and eccentric peak quadriceps torque (left thigh) were reduced in male and female participants (pskiing session. There were no other significant findings. Summary Recreational skiing is associated with prolonged (at least 24 h) eccentric quadriceps (left thigh) and hamstring (both thighs) fatigue in men and women. Eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue may be a potential injury risk factor in male and female recreational skiers. This provides some justification for judicious use of additional eccentric training modalities for alpine skiing. PMID:27900115

  10. Immediate effect of stretching and ultrasound on hamstring flexibility and proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This research explored the positive effects of self-myofascial release on hamstring muscular flexibility and proprioception and investigated the effectiveness of the stretch combined with therapeutic ultrasound. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 healthy university students with no history of pain in the Achilles tendon or hamstring within the recent 6 months. Each participant completed two experiments. In the first experiment (MS), they completed self-myofascial stretching using a foam roller for 7 days. In the second experiment (MSU), the same participants performed the self-myofascial stretching after the 15-minute application of ultrasound. This study involved a pre- and post-test on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. [Results] The use of self-myofascial stretching in the MS experiment had a significant effect on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. However, the addition of ultrasound in the MSU experiment had no additive effect. [Conclusion] Self-myofascial stretching immediately increased hamstring muscle flexibility and improved hip joint proprioception, but the addition of pre-stretch ultra sound provided no further benefit.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF STATIC STRETCH AND HOLD RELAX TECHNIQUES OVER HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vamsidhar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility is important in prevention of injury, muscular and postural imbalance more over the Hamstring flexibility has a lion share in sports performances and preventing DOMS. Stretching procedures increases the ROM by embarking on biomechanics and Neurologic and molecular mechanics. Hamstrings, the two joint muscle plays a crucial role in two joints integrity and also spine as they are in closed kinematic chain. The hamstring muscles represent the primary flexors of Knee. Hamstrings tightness results in Limits Knee extension when hip is flexed, Posterior Pelvic tilt, and flatten the lumbar spine. Methods: The subjects selected randomly and divided into two groups (Experimental group and control group.30 samples in One group applied with Static Stretch once a day for 3 repetitions 5 days a week for six weeks and 30 samples in other group applied with Hold relax technique once a day for 4 repetitions 5 days a week for six weeks. The knee joint range of motion was measured at the end of every week with Universal goniometer. Results: By comparing the means of Group – I, given Static Stretch and Group – II, given Hold relax Technique for six weeks implied that there is improvement of flexibility in Group – II and the ‘P’ value < 0.01 shows the difference is highly significant. Conclusion: This study concludes that the hold relax Technique method has proved to be better technique then the static stretch for improving hamstring flexibility.

  12. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2016-06-01

    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Pinjury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Active release technique in hamstrings strain: Rehabilitation and return to play – a case study

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    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring injuries and its rehabilitation in competitive events such as football targets safe and early return to play. This is because hamstring injuries are more related to prolonged recovery time and high rate of re-injury. In this case study, Zakeer Mundampara, 26-year-old footballer of Chennaiyin FC team (Indian super league tournament, who was rehabilitated for Grade 2 hamstring strain was briefed. To describe the importance of conservative rehabilitation in hamstring injuries and report on player's rehabilitation program and clinical outcome. Zakeer Mundampara was conservatively treated with active release technique for 2 weeks duration. Data collected includes passive knee extension test range of motion and verbal rating score. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, Zakeer Mundampara had nearly full range of pain-free movement, normal gait and trained to run safely. By the 3rd week, he started to perform all sports specific drills. He was rehabilitated and set fit to play after 4 weeks from the date of injury. Active release technique is effective in hamstring injuries. In this case study, rehabilitation program with an emphasis on active release technique is found to be effective in returning the footballer back to play.

  14. FUNCTIONAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR CHANGES IN THE HAMSTRINGS AFTER DROP JUMPS AND LEG CURLS

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    Nejc Sarabon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production, kinaesthesia (active torque tracking and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles

  15. Effects of a pilates school program on hamstrings flexibility of adolescents

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    Noelia González-Gálvez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Low levels of hamstring flexibility may trigger certain acute and chronic pathologies and injuries. Poor flexibility is observed among teenagers and several authors have recommended the use of specific programs in this population to improve flexibility levels. The Pilates Method (PM may be an appropriate intervention to achieve this purpose and has rarely been used with this population. Objective: Study was to assess changes in the flexibility of hamstrings after running a didactic PM unit for high-school students.METHODS: This research was developed through a quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 66 high-school students divided into experimental group (EG=39 and control group (CG=27. The intervention was carried out 2 times a week for six weeks. Each session lasted 55 minutes divided into three parts: warm-up, main part and cool down. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using the toe-touch test. Paired Student t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied. The size of the effect (d was determined.RESULTS: The EG showed significant provident in hamstring flexibility (+3.54±3.9cm. The effect size was low (d>d>0,2d>0.21.15 which means that a large proportion of participants improved their results.CONCLUSION: This study showed that six-weeks of Pilates training in Physical Education classes has significantly improved the hamstrings flexibility among adolescents.

  16. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. Methods We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI

  17. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Magalh?es, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold?s Tyson de Sousa; Moreira dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the ...

  18. Sprint and jump performance in elite male soccer players following a 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, K; Petersen, J; Nielsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump...

  19. The effect of walking speed on hamstrings length and lengthening velocity in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krogt, van der M.M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    0.001). These data are important as a reference for valid interpretation of hamstrings length and velocity data in gait analyses at different walking speeds. The results indicate that the presence of spasticity is associated with reduced hamstrings length and lengthening velocity during gait, even

  20. A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, S S; Suen, A M Y; Yeung, E W

    2009-08-01

    Hamstring injuries are common in sprinters. Identifying preseason risk factors is essential to target injury-prone athletes and develop injury preventive measures. To investigate the incidence of hamstring muscle injury in sprinters over an athletic season and to explore the preseason predictor of this injury. Prospective cohort study. 44 sprinters from the Hong Kong Sports Institute, the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association and intercollegiate athletic teams were recruited. Preseason assessment of hamstring flexibility, concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque and peak torque angle were obtained at the beginning of an athletic season. The athletes were followed over 12 months and were asked to report all injuries resulting from training and competition. Eight athletes sustained hamstring injuries over the season. The injury rate was 0.87 per 1000 h of exposure. The incidence of injuries was higher at the beginning of the season, with 58.3% injuries occurring in the first 100 h of exposure. Cox regression analysis revealed that athletes with a decrease in the hamstring : quadriceps peak torque ratio of less than 0.60 at an angular velocity of 180 degrees/s have a 17-fold increased risk of hamstring injury. Performing preseason hamstring : quadriceps peak torque ratio assessments may be useful to identify sprinters susceptible to hamstring injury.

  1. Hamstring muscle extensibility influences the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Rodríguez-García, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hamstring muscle extensibility on the hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests. Two hundred forty young adults (mean age: 22.9 +/- 3.6 years) participated in this study. Three trials of straight leg raise (SLR) (left and right), SR, and TT tests were performed in a random order. The subjects were dichotomized into group A (subjects with an SLR angle /= 75 degrees ). The correlation values between SLR angle and SR and TT scores were calculated and compared between both groups. Group B elicited higher mean SR and TT scores than group A (p criterion-related validity of the SR and TT tests is influenced by hamstring muscle extensibility. From the results of this investigation, we find that the SR and TT tests are not valid measures of hamstring extensibility for subjects with reduced hamstring muscle extensibility.

  2. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.

  3. The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Michelle; Kolt, Gregory; McConville, Janet; Bate, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the Feldenkrais method in Australia (Wildman 1990b), little research is available investigating its efficacy. The current study investigated the effects of the Feldenkrais method on hamstring length. Forty-eight healthy undergraduate participants were randomly allocated into either Feldenkrais, relaxation, or control groups. All subjects had their right hamstring measured using a modified active knee extension test prior to the first session, prior to the fourth (final) session, and after the final session of intervention. Two-way analysis of variance with time of measurement repeated revealed no significant differences between the groups. The findings are discussed in relation to apparent ineffectiveness of the Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement lessons used on hamstring length, exposure time to the technique, and attitudes towards the Feldenkrais method.

  4. Effects of a 2-hour cheerleading practice on dynamic postural stability, knee laxity, and hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A; Wright, S; Nyland, J; Caborn, D N; Kling, R

    1999-08-01

    One group; pretest, posttest design. To assess the effect of a 2-hour cheerleading practice on the anterior knee laxity, hamstring extensibility, and dynamic postural stability (preferred stance leg during vision-denied unilateral stance) of 17 nonimpaired members of a college cheerleading team (8 females, 9 males; 18-25 years old). Anterior knee laxity and hamstring extensibility increase following exercise. The relationship between exercise induced anterior knee laxity, hamstring extensibility, and dynamic postural stability, however, has not been examined. Pre- and postpractice measurements were compared using paired t tests and Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons. A 3 x 2 analysis of variance (force level applied to the arthrometer by condition) and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc test were used to evaluate specific arthrometer force level by condition effects (P cheerleading practice suggests a relationship between subtalar joint position and anterior cruciate ligament strain.

  5. Hamstrings stiffness and landing biomechanics linked to anterior cruciate ligament loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J Troy; Norcross, Marc F; Cannon, Lindsey N; Zinder, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    Greater hamstrings stiffness is associated with less anterior tibial translation during controlled perturbations. However, it is unclear how hamstrings stiffness influences anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading mechanisms during dynamic tasks. To evaluate the influence of hamstrings stiffness on landing biomechanics related to ACL injury. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. A total of 36 healthy, physically active volunteers (18 men, 18 women; age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 73.1 ± 16.6 kg). Hamstrings stiffness was quantified via the damped oscillatory technique. Three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were captured during a double-legged jump-landing task via a 3-dimensional motion-capture system interfaced with a force plate. Landing biomechanics were compared between groups displaying high and low hamstrings stiffness via independent-samples t tests. Hamstrings stiffness was normalized to body mass (N/m·kg(-1)). Peak knee-flexion and -valgus angles, vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, anterior tibial shear force, internal knee-extension and -varus moments, and knee-flexion angles at the instants of each peak kinetic variable were identified during the landing task. Forces were normalized to body weight, whereas moments were normalized to the product of weight and height. Internal knee-varus moment was 3.6 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 2.221, P = .02). A trend in the data also indicated that peak anterior tibial shear force was 1.1 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 1.537, P = .07). The high-stiffness group also demonstrated greater knee flexion at the instants of peak anterior tibial shear force and internal knee-extension and -varus moments (t22 range = 1.729-2.224, P prevention programs.

  6. Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p stretching, respectively. This difference was significant (p stretch is a useful active-static stretching technique to efficiently increase flexibility of tight hamstrings.

  7. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  8. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  9. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  10. Hamstring Strength Asymmetry at 3 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alters Knee Mechanics During Gait and Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourezk, Matthew N; Ithurburn, Matthew P; McNally, Michael P; Thoma, Louise M; Briggs, Matthew S; Hewett, Timothy E; Spindler, Kurt P; Kaeding, Christopher C; Schmitt, Laura C

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using a hamstring tendon autograft often results in hamstring muscle strength asymmetry. However, the effect of hamstring muscle strength asymmetry on knee mechanics has not been reported. Participants with hamstring strength asymmetry would demonstrate altered involved limb knee mechanics during walking and jogging compared with those with more symmetric hamstring strength at least 2 years after ACLR with a hamstring tendon autograft. Controlled laboratory study. There were a total of 45 participants at least 2 years after ACLR (22 male, 23 female; mean time after ACLR, 34.6 months). A limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated for isometric hamstring strength to subdivide the sample into symmetric hamstring (SH) (LSI ≥90%; n = 18) and asymmetric hamstring (AH) (LSI data were collected using 3-dimensional motion analysis during gait and jogging. Peak sagittal-, frontal-, and transverse-plane knee angles and sagittal-plane knee moments and knee powers were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and analyses of covariance were used to compare involved knee kinematic and kinetic variables between the groups. There were no differences in sagittal- and frontal-plane knee angles between the groups ( P > .05 for all). The AH group demonstrated decreased tibial internal rotation during weight acceptance during gait ( P = .01) and increased tibial external rotation during jogging at initial contact ( P = .03) and during weight acceptance ( P = .02) compared with the SH group. In addition, the AH group demonstrated decreased peak negative knee power during midstance ( P = .01) during gait compared with the SH group, after controlling for gait speed, which differed between groups. Participants with hamstring strength asymmetry showed altered involved knee mechanics in the sagittal plane during gait and in the transverse plane during gait and jogging compared with those with more symmetric hamstring strength. Hamstring

  11. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  12. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  13. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  14. Immediate effect of passive and active stretching on hamstrings flexibility: a single-blinded randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yuichi; Aizawa, Junya; Kanemura, Naohiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hosomi, Naohisa; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the efficacy of passive and active stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility. [Subjects] Fifty-four healthy young subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (2 treatment groups and 1 control group). [Methods] Subjects in the passive stretching group had their knees extended by an examiner while lying supine 90° of hip flexion. In the same position, subjects in the active stretching group extended their knees. The groups performed 3 sets of the assigned stretch, with each stretch held for 10 seconds at the point where tightness in the hamstring muscles was felt. Subjects in the control group did not perform stretching. Before and immediately after stretching, hamstring flexibility was assessed by a blinded assessor, using the active knee-extension test. [Results] After stretching, there was a significant improvement in the hamstring flexibilities of the active and passive stretching groups compared with the control group. Furthermore, the passive stretching group showed significantly greater improvement in hamstring flexibility than the active stretching group. [Conclusion] Improvement in hamstring flexibility measured by the active knee-extension test was achieved by both stretching techniques; however, passive stretching was more effective than active stretching at achieving an immediate increase in hamstring flexibility.

  15. Agreement Between Face-to-Face and Free Software Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Muñoz, José A; Esteban-Moreno, Bernabé; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cobo, Manuel J; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement between face-to-face hamstring flexibility measurements and free software video analysis in adolescents. Reduced hamstring flexibility is common in adolescents (75% of boys and 35% of girls aged 10). The length of the hamstring muscle has an important role in both the effectiveness and the efficiency of basic human movements, and reduced hamstring flexibility is related to various musculoskeletal conditions. There are various approaches to measuring hamstring flexibility with high reliability; the most commonly used approaches in the scientific literature are the sit-and-reach test, hip joint angle (HJA), and active knee extension. The assessment of hamstring flexibility using video analysis could help with adolescent flexibility follow-up. Fifty-four adolescents from a local school participated in a descriptive study of repeated measures using a crossover design. Active knee extension and HJA were measured with an inclinometer and were simultaneously recorded with a video camera. Each video was downloaded to a computer and subsequently analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15, a free software application for movement analysis. All outcome measures showed reliability estimates with α > 0.90. The lowest reliability was obtained for HJA (α = 0.91). The preliminary findings support the use of a free software tool for assessing hamstring flexibility, offering health professionals a useful tool for adolescent flexibility follow-up.

  16. The effects of a closed-chain, eccentric training program on hamstring injuries of a professional football cheerleading team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Jay S; Bishop, Barton N; Edward, Jean S; Topp, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a common occurrence among professional football cheerleaders. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention on hamstring injury-associated pain during the course of the football season among professional football cheerleaders. Forty-three female cheerleaders participated in an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention protocol provided by doctors of chiropractic that incorporated loops of elastic-band or Thera-Band Loops (Hygenic Corporation, Akron, OH) during practice and at home during the regular football season. Hamstring injury-related pain was assessed in June, during team selection; in September, at the start of the season; and in December, at the end of season. No intervention was applied between June and September, although the sample participated in 4 hours of practice 2 to 3 times per week. The intervention was applied to the entire sample regardless of hamstring injury-related pain during the regular football season between September and December. The interventions included 2 exercises and were completed bilaterally 2 times per week at each biweekly practice and were encouraged to be done at least 3 additional times per week at home on nonpractice days. Among the subsample who reported hamstring-related injury pain between June and September, the exercise intervention significantly decreased (P cheerleaders. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility in male amateur soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Nick Van Der; Priesterbach, Annique; Backx, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039; Smits, Dirk-Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207320462

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility (HLBF) of male adult amateur soccer players, using the sit-and-reach test (SRT), with a view to obtaining population-based reference values and to determining whether SRT scores are associated with player characteristics.

  18. The treatment effect of hamstring stretching and nerve mobilization for patients with radicular lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] In this paper, hamstring stretching and nerve mobilization are conducted on patients with radicular lower back pain, and changes to pain levels, pressure thresholds, angles of knee joint extension, and disorder levels of lower back pain were studied. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: one group conducted hamstring stretches and was comprised of 6 male and 5 female subjects, and the other group received nerve mobilization treatment and was comprised of 5 male and 6 female subjects. [Results] Pain level and the disorder index of lower back pain were significantly alleviated after the intervention in both groups. Pressure threshold and angles of knee extension were significantly increased after the intervention in both groups. Comparing the two groups, the alleviation of pain was more significant in the nerve mobilization group. [Conclusion] Patients with radicular lower back pain showed significant differences in pain level, pressure threshold, knee extension angle, and disorder index of lower back pain for both the hamstring stretching group and nerve mobilization group after the treatment. Hamstring stretching and nerve mobilization can be usefully applied for the therapy of patients with radicular lower back pain.

  19. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. RESULTS: For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre...

  20. Is application of Kinesio tape to treat hyperlordosis more effective on abdominal muscles or hamstrings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Sara Abolahrari; Haghighi, Farzaneh Moslemi; Alavi, Seyedeh Mahshid; Nezhad, Fahimeh Freiydoon; Emami, Farahnaz

    2018-01-01

    Hyperlordosis is defined as an abnormal increase in the lumbar arch of >40°. This study compared two taping techniques include abdominal muscles and hamstrings taping for the treatment of lumbar hyperlordosis. The randomized clinical trial was performed in Shiraz, Iran, during June and September 2014. Thirty women aged 20-45 years old with at least 40° lumbar lordosis participated. The women were randomized into two groups ( n = 15). Abdominal muscles taping was performed for the first group, whereas the other group underwent hamstrings taping with 30% tension. Lumbar lordosis was measured before, immediately after, and 24 h after taping. The two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the two groups for lumbar lordosis angle. No significant differences were detected between the lumbar lordosis angles before and immediately after taping in the two groups ( P > 0.05). However, a significant reduction was observed in lordosis angle in the abdominal group and the hamstring group 24 h after taping relative to before intervention ( P < 0.01). Taping of the abdominal and hamstring muscles was not effective immediately, whereas it decreased lordosis after 24 h.

  1. Can the hamstring muscles protect the anterior cruciate ligament during a side-cutting maneuver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, E B; Magnusson, S P; Bencke, J; Naesborg, H; Havkrog, M; Ebstrup, J F; Sørensen, H

    2000-04-01

    Because anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in European handball the present study assessed knee joint shear forces to estimate ACL loading in six elite female handball players during a side-cutting maneuver. A pilot investigation in three dimensions showed that peak moments occurred in the sagittal plane at a high velocity. Therefore, analysis of the movement was performed in two dimensions using high-speed cinematography, ground reaction forces, and electromyography (EMG). Film and force plate data allowed for calculation of net joint moments (inverse dynamics), estimates of instantaneous muscle-tendon lengths, contraction velocities, and peak loading of the ACL. During the breaking phase of the maneuver the peak knee joint moment was 239 Nm (99-309), which yielded an ACL-load of 520 N (215-673). The corresponding peak EMG amplitudes for the hamstring muscles were 34-39% of maximum EMG. During the breaking phase the quadriceps muscle contracted eccentrically with a velocity of 216-253% fiber length/s. In contrast, the hamstring muscles contracted concentrically with a velocity of 222-427% fiber length/s. These results suggest that a side-cutting maneuver produces loads that are insufficient to rupture the ACL. Furthermore, the rapid concentric hamstring contraction suggests that even during maximal activation, the ability of the hamstrings to reduce the ACL load is marginal.

  2. Tensile strength comparison between peroneus longus and hamstring tendons: A biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The tensile strength of the peroneus longus tendon, which is similar to that of hamstring, gives information that both have the same biomechanic properties. Peroneus longus should not be used as a first option in ACL reconstruction, but may be used as an alternative donor in cases involving multiple instability that require more tendon donors in the reconstruction.

  3. Knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar or hamstring tendon: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Liang; Yao, Zhen-Jun

    2011-12-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the best graft type for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of patellar and hamstring tendon grafts on long-term knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. This meta-analysis was conducted according to the methodological guidelines outlined by the Cochrane Collaboration. An electronic search of the literature was performed and all trials published between January 1966 and August 2011 comparing knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon grafts with knee function after reconstruction with hamstring tendon grafts were pooled. Six studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendon grafts resulted in greater pain upon kneeling than reconstruction using patellar tendon grafts (P = 0.001). However, both grafts resulted in similar levels of anterior tibial translation, and similar results regarding isokinetic extension/flexion tests, Lysholm scores, and the stair-hop test (P > 0.05). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar or hamstring tendon grafts results in similar long-term knee function.

  4. Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connell, David A.; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Malara, Frank; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Koulouris, George; Burke, Frank; Bass, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared sonography and MRI for assessing hamstring injuries in professional football players (Australian football) 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after an injury and identified imaging characteristics at baseline that may be useful in predicting the time needed for return to

  5. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17...

  6. Repeated passive stretching : Acute effect on the passive muscle moment and extensibility of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Mulder, [No Value; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, WH; Mulder, I.; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To examine the response of short hamstring muscles to repeated passive stretching. Design: A repeated measures design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation. Subjects: Students (7 men, 10 women) from the Department of Human Movement

  7. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm were assessed for hamstring flexibility. All participants had both legs tested under threedifferent randomly ordered conditions (kinesio tape, sham tape and control using the Passive Straight Leg RaiseTest. All measurements were made during the same testing session. Participants performed three sets of tests,each set measured twice, to determine hamstring extensibility in both legs. There was a 12 minute rest periodbetween each set and a one minute break between each repetition.Results: An analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements showed no statistically significantdifferences either in the right (p=0.503 or the left leg (p=0.948 between the three study conditions.Conclusions: The application of kinesio taping does not seem to acutely increase hip flexion range of motion inhealthy subjects.

  8. The effect of kinesio tape application on hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbroso, Dedi; Ziv, Elad; Vered, Elisha; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Scarce evidence exists about effectiveness and mechanisms of action of Kinesio tape (KT) application. To evaluate the effect of KT application over the gastrocnemius or hamstring on range of motion and peak force. Thirty-six physical therapy students participated (18 per group). KT was applied with 30% tension for 48 h to: Group 1 - the gastrocnemius; Group 2 - the hamstrings. The straight leg raise (SLR), knee extension angle (KEA), weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion, gastrocnemius, quadriceps and hamstrings peak forces were evaluated prior to application, 15 min and 48 h after. A significant increase of peak force in the gastrocnemius group appeared immediately and two days later; no immediate change of peak force in the hamstrings group, however, two days later, peak force significantly increased. SLR and ankle dorsiflexion increased immediately in the gastrocnemius group; KEA improved significantly only after two days. It is possible that certain muscles react differently when KT is applied, and the effect may be subsequently detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can clinical evaluation predict return to sport after acute hamstring injuries? : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Lotte; Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Maaskant, Jolanda; Tol, Johannes L.; Bahr, Roald; Moen, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current literature on the value of clinical evaluation for predicting time to return to sport (RTS) after acute hamstring injuries has not been systematically summarised. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of clinical

  10. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries : A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Nick; van de Hoef, Sander; Reurink, Gustaaf; Huisstede, Bionka; Backx, Frank

    BACKGROUND: More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to determine when

  11. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Horst (Nick); S. van de Hoef (Sander); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); B.M.A. Huisstede (Bionka); F.J.G. Backx (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to

  12. STRETCHING EXERCISES - EFFECT ON PASSIVE EXTENSIBILITY AND STIFFNESS IN SHORT HAMSTRINGS OF HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBERTSMA, JPK; GOEKEN, LNH

    Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles

  13. Hamstrings co-activation in ACL-deficient subjects during isometric whole-leg extensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbersberg, S.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient subjects increase the level of hamstrings activation and this has been interpreted as a means to cope with increased anterior tibial laxity in the knee. This study aimed to establish to what extent co-activation strategies in

  14. Decrease in eccentric quadriceps and hamstring strength in recreational alpine skiers after prolonged skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Arnold; Fuchs, Birgit; Leichtfried, Veronika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively prevent injury in recreational alpine skiing, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors that can be targeted through exercise and training. Fatigue is a potential risk factor in recreational skiing, but no investigations have evaluated concentric/eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue in recreational skiers. We tested the hypothesis that recreational skiing is associated with more pronounced eccentric as compared with concentric muscle fatigue. Twenty-four healthy and fit recreational skiers (14 male and 10 female) performed an isokinetic muscle test 1 day before, 1 h after, and 24 h after a 4 h skiing session. The testing protocol consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring contractions for both legs. Eccentric peak hamstring torque (both thighs) and eccentric peak quadriceps torque (left thigh) were reduced in male and female participants (pfatigue in men and women. Eccentric quadriceps and hamstring fatigue may be a potential injury risk factor in male and female recreational skiers. This provides some justification for judicious use of additional eccentric training modalities for alpine skiing.

  15. Effects of Stretching by P.N.F and Harmonic Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shakeri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improving of muscle flexibility is an important issue in physiotherapy and sport sciences. There are many methods for increasing muscle length and decreasing muscle stiffness. In research findings, PNF method has been found to be better than static and ballistic methods. There is another method named Harmonic technique (introduced by E. Lederman 1997 that has been claimed to be more effective, but there is not enough documentation about this claim. Aim of this study was to compare effects of stretching by PNF and harmonic techniques on hamstring flexibility. Materials & Methods: This research is a RCT study in that 45 colledge students aged 18-35 years were arranged in three groups (Harmonic, P.N.F, and control. Subjects haven’t had any painful pathology in low-back and lower extremities for last six months. Subjects had limited hamstring length (20 degrees deficiency in Active-Knee-Extension test and hadn’t professional sport activities. Dependent variablies were muscle stiffness and hamstring length which popliteal angle in AKE test was its indirect index. In pilot study, reliability of measurement of these variables were approved. Then hamstring muscle of subjects in harmonic and PNF groups were stretched by harmonic and PNF methods for six weeks, 5 minute per day and 3d/wks, whereas control group hadn’t any exercise. Results: Findings of this study showed that in both used techniques, changes of hamstring length were significant (P=0.000, but in control group there wasn’t significant change. There wasn’t significant differences between changes of hamstring length in PNF and Harmonic groups. Only in harmonic group, muscle stiffness had significant changes (P<0.03. Conclusion: According to findings of this research, both harmonic and PNF methods equally increased length of hamstring, and harmonic technique can be used as an alternative stretching method for other techniques. Maybe harmonic technique is better than PNF

  16. The Carry-Over Effects of Diathermy and Stretching in Developing Hamstring Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O.; Miner, Lisa; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of low-load, short-duration stretching with or without high-intensity, pulsed short-wave diathermy on hamstring flexibility. Design and Setting: We used a single-blind, repeated-measures design (pretest and posttest for all treatments) that included a placebo. The 3 independent variables were treatment mode, pretest and posttest measurements, and day. Treatment mode had 3 levels: diathermy and stretching, stretching alone, and control. The dependent variable was range of motion. Subjects were randomly assigned to the diathermy and stretching, stretching-only, or control group. Subjects were treated and tested each day (at approximately the same time) for 5 days, with a follow-up test administered 72 hours later. Hamstring flexibility was tested using a sit-and-reach box before and after each treatment. Diathermy and stretching subjects received a 15-minute diathermy treatment on the right hamstring at a setting of 7000 pulses per second, with an average pulse width of 95 μsec. Stretching-only subjects received a 15-minute sham diathermy treatment. Both diathermy and stretching and stretching-only subjects then performed three 30-second stretches (short duration) before being retested. Control subjects lay prone for 15 minutes before being retested. Subjects: Thirty-seven healthy college students (11 men, 26 women, age = 20.46 ± 1.74 years) volunteered. Measurements: Hamstring flexibility was measured using a sit-and-reach box before and after each treatment. Results: The average increases in hamstring flexibility over the 5 treatment days for the diathermy and stretching, stretching-only, and control groups were 6.06 cm (19.6%), 5.27 cm (19.7%), and 3.38 cm (10.4%), respectively. Three days later (after no treatment), the values for the diathermy and stretching, stretching-only, and control groups were 8.27 cm (26.7%), 6.83 cm (25.3%), and 4.15 cm (14.2%), respectively. No significant differences in hamstring flexibility were

  17. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key PointsOverall sit

  18. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key Points Overall sit

  19. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  20. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  1. The prognostic value of MRI in determining reinjury risk following acute hamstring injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf

    2017-09-01

    A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring re-injuries. Databases of PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library were searched until 20 June 2016. Studies evaluating MRI as a prognostic tool for determining the risk of re-injury for athletes with acute hamstring injuries were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently screened the search results and assessed risk of bias using standardised criteria from a consensus statement. A best-evidence synthesis was used to identify the level of evidence. Post hoc analysis included correction for insufficient sample size. Of the 11 studies included, 7 had a low and 4 had a high risk of bias. No strong evidence for any MRI finding as a risk factor for hamstring re-injury was found. There was moderate evidence that intratendinous injuries were associated with increased re-injury risk. Post hoc analysis showed moderate evidence that injury to the biceps femoris was a moderate to strong risk factor for re-injury. There is currently no strong evidence for any MRI finding in predicting hamstring re-injury risk. Intratendinous injuries and biceps femoris injuries showed moderate evidence for association with a higher re-injury risk. Registration in the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews was performed prior to study initiation (registration number CRD42015024620). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelan .K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school over the children health.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two sitting postures (crossed leg sitting and bench sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Aim of the Study to observe the influence of bench sitting and crossed-leg sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Methods: 200 school children (105 boys and 95 girls from private schools (those who are bench sitting and 200 school children (109 boys and 91 girls from government schools (those who are crossed leg sitting aged 6-10 years were included in this study. Active Knee Extension (AKE test with the aid of a simple and economically cheap stabilizing apparatus was used to determine hamstring flexibility. Measurements were taken for both right and left knee. Results: The mean Active Knee Extension (AKE score for bench sitting children was 132.4 and for crossed leg sitting children was 130.1. The difference observed in knee extension range of motion between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility was greater in bench sitting children as compared to crossed leg sitting children.

  3. Pain level after ACL reconstruction: A comparative study between free quadriceps tendon and hamstring tendons autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescu, Cristian Tudor; Onutu, Adela Hilda; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald; Todor, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels and analgesic consumption after single bundle ACL reconstruction with free quadriceps tendon autograft versus hamstring tendon autograft. A total of 48 patients scheduled for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction were randomized into two groups: the free quadriceps tendon autograft group (24 patients) and the hamstring tendons autograft group (24 patients). A basic multimodal analgesic postoperative program was used for all patients and rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol, at pain scores over 30 on the Visual Analog Scale. The time to the first rescue analgesic, the number of doses of tramadol and pain scores were recorded. The results within the same group were compared with the Wilcoxon signed test. Supplementary analgesic drug administration proved significantly higher in the group of subjects with hamstring grafts, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1.3) dose, compared to the group of subjects treated with a quadriceps graft, median = 0.5 (0.1.25) (p = 0.009). A significantly higher number of subjects with a quadriceps graft did not require any supplementary analgesic drug (50%) as compared with subjects with hamstring graft (13%; Z-statistics = 3.01, p = 0.002). The percentage of subjects who required a supplementary analgesic drug was 38% higher in the HT group compared with the FQT group. The use of the free quadriceps tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction leads to less pain and analgesic consumption in the immediate postoperative period compared with the use of hamstrings autograft. Level I Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Days to Return to Participation After a Hamstrings Strain Among American Collegiate Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kevin M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Conaway, Mark; Gurka, Kelly K.; Hertel, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Context Among US collegiate soccer players, the incidence rate and the event characteristics of hamstrings strains differ between sexes, but comparisons in the return-to-participation (RTP) time have not been reported. Objective To compare the RTP time between male and female collegiate soccer players and analyze the influence of event characteristics on the RTP time for each sex. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Data were collected from collegiate teams that voluntarily participated in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System. Patients or Other Participants Collegiate soccer athletes who sustained 507 hamstrings strains (306 men, 201 women) during the 2004 through 2009 fall seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s) Nonparametric statistics were used to evaluate RTP time differences between sexes and among categories of each event characteristic (ie, time of season, practice or competition, player position). Negative binomial regression was used to model the RTP time for each sex. All analyses were performed separately for first-time and recurrent strains. Results We found no differences in the RTP time between sexes for first-time (median: men = 7.0 days, women = 6.0 days; P = .07) or recurrent (median: men = 11 days, women = 5.5 days; P = .06) hamstrings strains. For male players with first-time strains, RTP time was increased when the strain occurred during competition or the in-season/postseason and varied depending on the division of play. Among female players with first-time strains, we found no differences in RTP time within characteristics. For male players with recurrent hamstrings strains, the RTP time was longer when the injury occurred during the in-season/postseason. Among female players with recurrent strains, RTP time was longer for forwards than for midfielders or defenders. Conclusions Although we found no differences in the RTP time after hamstrings strains in male and female collegiate soccer players, each sex

  5. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  6. Medial and lateral hamstrings and quadriceps co-activation affects knee joint kinematics and ACL elongation: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Pickering, Mark R; Ball, Nick B; Newman, Phillip; Perriman, Diana; Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Many injury prevention and rehabilitation programs aim to train hamstring and quadriceps co-activation to constrain excessive anterior tibial translation and protect the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) from injury...

  7. Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.

  8. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-01-01

    ... during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities...

  9. Major and Minor League Baseball Hamstring Injuries: Epidemiologic Findings From the Major League Baseball Injury Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Dick, Randall W; Snell, Edward; Kenney, Nick D; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia; Albright, John P; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2014-06-01

    Hamstring strains are a recognized cause of disability for athletes in many sports, but no study exists that reports the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in professional baseball. Professional baseball players have a high incidence of hamstring strains, and these injuries are influenced by multiple factors including history of hamstring injury, time period within the season, and activity of base running. Descriptive epidemiologic study. For the 2011 season, injury data were prospectively collected for every Major League Baseball (MLB) major and minor league team and recorded in the MLB's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected for this study included date of injury, activity in which the player was engaged at the time of injury, and time loss. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). Athlete-exposures were defined as the average number of players on a team who were participating in a game multiplied by the number of games. In the major leagues, 50 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 24 days missed. In the minor leagues, 218 hamstring strains were reported for an IR of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 27 days missed. Base running, specifically running to first base, was the top activity for sustaining a hamstring strain in both major and minor leagues, associated with almost two-thirds of hamstring strains. Approximately two-thirds of these injuries in both the major and minor leagues resulted in more than 7 days of time loss. Approximately 25% of these injuries kept the player out for 1 month or longer. History of a previous hamstring strain in the prior year, 2010, was found in 20% of the major league players and 8% of the minor league players. In the major leagues, the month of May had a statistically significant higher frequency of hamstring injuries than any other month in the season (P = .0153). Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in

  10. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measure...

  11. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF NEURODYNAMIC SLIDING TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN ASYMPTOMATIC INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Babu. K; Akshata Akalwadi; Sai Kumar. N; Unadkat Mona Mahendrabhai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurodynamics sliding technique (NDST) and Mulligan bent leg raise technique (MBLR) both have been individually advocated for increasing hamstring flexibility but comparison of these techniques have not been found in studies. The purpose of the study was to find immediate effect of neurodynamic sliding technique versus mulligan bent leg raise technique on hamstring flexibility in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: An Experimental study designs, with two group 80 asymptomatic no...

  12. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  13. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp, unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error, was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67, but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35. Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility.

  14. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O; Castro, Jennifer L; Feland, Brent; Schulthies, Shane; Eggett, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, counterbalanced 2x3x5 repeated-measures design. To compare changes in hamstring flexibility after treatments of pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretch, sham diathermy and prolonged stretch, and control. Heat and stretch techniques have been touted for years. To date, the effect of shortwave diathermy and hamstring stretching has not been studied. Because diathermy heats a large area and penetrates deep into the muscle, use of this device prior to or during hamstring stretching may increase flexibility. Thirty college-age students (mean age, 21.5 years) with tight hamstrings (inability to achieve greater than 160 degrees knee extension at 90 degrees hip flexion) participated. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: diathermy and stretch, sham diathermy and stretch, and control). Range of motion was recorded before and after each treatment for 5 days and on day 8. A straight leg-raise stretch was performed using a mechanical apparatus. Subjects in the diathermy-and-stretch group received 10 minutes of diathermy (distal hamstrings) followed by 5 minutes of simultaneous diathermy and stretch, followed by 5 minutes of stretching only. Subjects in the sham-diathermy-and-stretch group followed the same protocol, but with the diathermy unit turned off. Subjects in the control group lay on the table for 20 minutes. Data were analyzed using an ANOVA and post hoc t tests. Mean (+/- pooled SE) increases in knee extension after 5 days were 15.8 degrees 2.2 degrees for the diathermy-and-stretch group, 5.2 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees for the sham-diathermy-and-stretch group, and -0.3 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees for the control group. Seventy-two hours after the last treatment, the diathermy-and-stretch group lost 1.9 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees, the sham-diathermy-and-stretch group lost 3.0 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees, and the control group changed -0.4 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees. These results suggest that hamstring flexibility can be greatly improved when shortwave

  15. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Malfait

    Full Text Available The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ.Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM,vastus lateralis(VL}, {vastus medialis(VM,hamstring medialis(HM}, {hamstring medialis(HM,hamstring lateralis(HL} and the {vastus lateralis(VL,hamstring lateralis(HL}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping.The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05. Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001. The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05. Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001. Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001.This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an increased medial and posterior

  16. Acute Effects and Perceptions of Deep Oscillation Therapy for Improving Hamstring Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Zachary K; Roberts, Ethan J; Games, Kenneth E

    2017-07-17

    Hamstring inflexibility is typically treated using therapeutic massage, stretching, and soft tissue mobilization. An alternative intervention is deep oscillation therapy (DOT). Currently, there is a lack of evidence to support DOT's effectiveness to improve flexibility. To explore the effectiveness of DOT to improve hamstring flexibility. Randomized single-cohort. Research laboratory. Twenty-nine healthy (males=14, females=15; height=172.9±9.7 cm; mass=76.4±14.5 kg; age=22.9±2.3 years), physically-active individuals (self-reported activity of a minimum 200 minutes per week). All participants received a single session of DOT with randomization of the participant's leg for the intervention. The DOT intervention parameters included a 1:1 mode and 70-80% dosage at various frequencies for 28 minutes. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive straight leg raise (PSLR) for hip flexion using a digital inclinometer. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated using the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) and the Global Rating of Change (GRoC). The independent variable was time (pre and post). The dependent variables included PSLR (mean degrees), the GRoC (points), and the participant's perceptions of the intervention (points). Statistical analyses included a dependent t-test and a Pearson correlation. Participants reported no issues with sport, daily living or quality of life prior to beginning the intervention study on the HAGOS. PSLR significantly improved post-DOT (95% CI: 4.48-7.85°, p < 0.001) with a mean difference of 6.17±4.42° (pre-DOT = 75.43±21.82° and post-DOT = 81.60±23.17°). Participants noted feeling between "somewhat" to "moderately better" (3.17±1.56) post-DOT on the GRoC. A significant moderate positive correlation was identified (r=0.439, p=0.017) amongst all participants between the GRoC and the mean change score of hamstring flexibility. Participants believed that the intervention improved their hamstring flexibility (5.41±1

  17. The effects of therapeutic application of heat or cold followed by static stretch on hamstring muscle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B F; Waring, C A; Brashear, T A

    1995-05-01

    Hamstring stretching is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examined the use of superficial thermal modalities in conjunction with hamstring stretching. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of a superficial heating or cooling modality, followed by static stretch, increased the efficacy of static stretching of the hamstring muscles. This study examined 12 male and 12 female subjects, ages 18-38. All subjects received each of the following treatments: heat followed by static stretch, cold followed by static stretch, and static stretch alone. Each treatment was separated by at least 1 week. Pre- and post-treatment measurements of hamstring length were obtained using the Active-Knee-Extension (AKE) test. The data were analyzed via a 2 x 3 analysis of variance experimental design. Results indicated that there was an increase in hamstring length regardless of stretch treatment used, with F(1,23) = 35.49, p stretch treatments, F stretching can occur without the use of a superficial thermal modality.

  18. A comprehensive strength testing protocol offers no clinical value in predicting risk of hamstring injury: a prospective cohort study of 413 professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Burnett, Angus F; Whiteley, Rod; Bakken, Arnhild; Mosler, Andrea; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Hamstring injuries remain prevalent across a number of professional sports. In football, the incidence has even increased by 4% per year at the Champions League level over the last decade. The role of muscle strength or strength ratios and their association with risk of hamstring injury remain restricted by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for hamstring injury in professional football players in an adequately powered, prospective cohort study. Using both established (isokinetic) and novel (eccentric hamstring test device) measures of muscle strength, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these strength characteristics over the entire range of motion with risk of hamstring injury. All teams (n=18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their annual periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Variables included isokinetic strength, Nordic hamstring exercise strength and dynamic hamstring: quadriceps ratios. Of the 413 players included (68.2% of all league players), 66 suffered a hamstring injury over the two seasons. Only isokinetic quadriceps concentric at 300°/s (adjusted for bodyweight) was associated with risk of hamstring injury when considered categorically. Age, body mass and playing position were also associated with risk of hamstring injury. None of the other 23 strength variables examined were found to be associated with hamstring injury. The clinical value of isolated strength testing is limited, and its use in musculoskeletal screening to predict future hamstring injury is unfounded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Effects on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility, Muscle Activity, and Balance of Different Stretching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

  20. BONE TUNNEL WIDENING AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT AUTOPLASTY WITH HAMSTRINGS (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Slastinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Such a phenomenon as bone tunnel widening after anterior cruciate ligament autoplasty with hamstrings has been known for 30 years. Despite the long history of this issue, the etiology is still not fully understood. The process of expansion of the bone tunnels is influenced by many factors such as graft fixation technique, surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, as well as various biological factors. It is believed that this phenomenon has no influence on a functional result, but may create serious problems in revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Given the growing interest in the use of hamstring tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, increasing number of these operations and as a result, of revision procedures, the search for methods of bone tunnel widening prevention is becoming more urgent.

  1. Effectiveness of passive stretching versus hold relax technique in flexibility of hamstring muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of passive stretching and hold relax technique in the flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: A total of 80 normal healthy female subjects between age group 20-30 years referred to the department of physiotherapy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, sampling method being convenient sampling. The subjects were randomly divided in two groups i.e. passive stretching group (n=40 and PNF group (n=40 and given passive stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique respectively. Active knee extension range was measured before and after the intervention by goniometer. Results: t test showed a highly significant (p=0.000 increase in range of motion in PNF group. Conclusion: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique is more effective in increasing hamstring flexibility than the passive stretching.

  2. Static Stretching of the Hamstring Muscle for Injury Prevention in Football Codes: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Wüst, Dirk; Schwitter, Thomas; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hamstring injuries are common among football players. There is still disagreement regarding prevention. The aim of this review is to determine whether static stretching reduces hamstring injuries in football codes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the online databases PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bisp and Clinical Trial register. Study results were presented descriptively and the quality of the studies assessed were based on Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Results The review identified 35 studies, including four analysis studies. These studies show deficiencies in the quality of study designs. Conclusion The study protocols are varied in terms of the length of intervention and follow-up. No RCT studies are available, however, RCT studies should be conducted in the near future. PMID:23785569

  3. Eccentric training for prevention of hamstring injuries may depend on intervention compliance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Adam P; Reiman, Michael P; Harris, Lloyd; DeLisa, Lucia; Kauffman, Aaron; Beltramo, David; Poole, Charles; Ledbetter, Leila; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-03-01

    Hamstring injury is a prevalent muscle injury in sports. Inconclusive evidence exists for eccentric hamstring strengthening to prevent hamstring injuries. One reason for this discrepancy may be the influence intervention non-compliance has on individual study estimates, and therefore pooled estimates. This systematic review aims to determine the effect of eccentric hamstring strengthening on the risk of hamstring injury and quantitatively explores the impact of intervention non-compliance on the precision, heterogeneity and strength of pooled estimates. A computer-assisted literature search of Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, AMED, SportDiscus and PEDro databases was conducted with keywords related to eccentric strengthening and hamstring injury. The search was conducted from the end of a previous comprehensive review forward (1 December 2008 to 31 December 2013). Random-effects models were used for both main effects and a sensitivity analysis. Pooled estimate precision was measured with a confidence limit ratio (confidence limit ratio (CLR); upper limit divided by the lower limit) and heterogeneity was assessed with I(2), Cochrane's-Q and τ(2). A protocol was not registered for this review. Four out of 349 studies met the inclusion criteria. In main effects analysis, eccentric hamstring training did not reduce the risk of hamstring injury (risk ratio [RR]=0.59 ((95% CI 0.24 to 1.44)). This estimate was imprecise (CLR=6.0) with significant heterogeneity (p value 0.02, 69.6% variation and t(2)=0.57). Subjects compliant with eccentric strengthening had a significant (RR=0.35 ((95% CI 0.23 to 0.55)) reduction in hamstring injuries. This estimate was precise (CLR=2.4) and homogenous (p value=0.38, 2.8% variation and t(2)=0.007). The null-biased effect in using intent-to-treat methods from intervention non-compliance has a substantial impact on the precision, heterogeneity and the direction and strength of pooled estimates. Eccentric strengthening, with good

  4. The effect of static stretch and warm-up exercise on hamstring length over the course of 24 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weijer, Volkert C; Gorniak, Gerard C; Shamus, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Experimental pretest-posttest control design. The purpose of the study was twofold: (1) to determine the lasting effect of static stretch on hamstring length for up to 24 hours and (2) to compare the efficacy of static stretch with and without warm-up exercise on hamstring length. Research is limited on the lasting effects of static stretching and is controversial on the combined effects of warm-up activities and static stretching on muscle lengthening. Fifty-six volunteer subjects (ages 18-42 years) with limited bilateral hamstring length were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) warm-up and static stretch, (2) static stretch only, (3) warm-up only, and (4) control. The warm-up was 10 minutes of stair climbing at 70% of maximum heart rate. Static stretch consisted of a single session of three 30-second passive stretches of the hamstring. Hamstring length was measured preintervention and at several intervals postintervention (immediately and then at 15 minutes, 60 minutes, 4 hours, and 24 hours) using the active knee extension (AKE) test. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model analysis of variance. The warm-up-and-static-stretch group and the static-stretch-only group showed a significant increase in hamstring length between preintervention and all postintervention measurements. At 24 hours poststretch, the warm-up-and-static-stretch group had a mean increase of 10.3 degrees (95% confidence interval, 7.7-12.9) and the static-stretch-only group had a mean increase of 7.7 degrees (95% confidence interval, 4.7-10.7) in AKE range of motion (ROM). Both of these groups did show significant decrease (2.9 degrees and 4.0 degrees, respectively) in hamstring muscle length (AKE ROM) at 15 minutes poststretch when compared to immediate poststretch values. The static-stretch-only and the warm-up-and-static-stretch groups did not differ significantly from each other. Control and warm-up-only groups showed no significant increase in hamstring length between preintervention and any of

  5. Relationship between muscle volume and muscle torque of the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Oda, Toshiaki; Tsukazaki, Satoshi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors other than morphological muscle strength factors that affect injured and uninjured sides of knee flexors with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions. The study population consisted of 22 patients with ACL lesions. Their hamstring muscle volume was measured on MRI, and muscle torque per muscle volume was calculated as the peak torque of knee flexion divided by hamstring muscle volume. The mean muscle torque per unit volume of hamstrings in patients with ACL rupture was 0.09 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.01 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s on the injured side, and 0.11 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.01 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s on the uninjured side. The mean muscle torque per unit volume of hamstrings in control subjects was 0.11 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.03 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s. One-factor ANOVA analysis found no significant differences between the three groups at either flexion velocity. Neurological dysfunction does not appear to exist in knee flexor muscles after ACL injury, unlike the quadriceps. Since the mechanism of muscle weakness will differ depending on the muscle, it is important for clinicians to take this discrepancy into consideration. II.

  6. A study to compare the effect of spinal manipulation versus mobilization on hamstring muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech. (Chiropractic) Purpose: This study aims to compare the effects of spinal manipulation versus mobilization of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints on the contractile strength of the hamstring muscle group with regards to strength and flexibility. Method: This study consisted of 2 groups of 15 participants between the ages of 18 and 50 years of age. Males and females were first separated to ensure equal male to female ratios within each group. The potential participants were e...

  7. MRI of broken bioabsorbable crosspin fixation in hamstring graft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhru, Prashant [Department of Radiology Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Park, Brian [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Umans, Hilary [Department of Radiology Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, P.C., New York, NY (United States); DiFelice, Gregory S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Tobin, Keith [Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, P.C., New York, NY (United States)

    2011-06-15

    To report seven cases of broken bioabsorbable femoral crosspins identified by MRI in evaluation of hamstring grafts of the anterior cruciate ligament. Seven cases of broken bioabsorbable crosspins utilized in femoral fixation of ACL hamstring grafts were identified prospectively and retrospectively from our PACs database during a period from 9/1/08 to 8/31/09. All imaging was performed using 1.5 or 3.0 Tesla MRI and were evaluated for T2 signal within and surrounding the crosspin, osteolysis surrounding the fragments, displacement of fragments, and graft integrity. Time from surgery was also recorded. Seven cases of hamstring grafts with broken bioabsorbable crosspins were imaged 4 months to 3 years following grafting. There was osteolysis surrounding the crosspin in all but one case in which the graft was intact but a pin fragment was displaced into the joint. One graft failed due to aseptic foreign-body reaction to the fixation with aggressive osteolysis at 9 months post surgery. In the remaining five, the ACL graft was either completely torn, partially torn, lax, or degenerative and frayed. Of these, the crosspins were broken and angulated with osteolysis surrounding the apex of the angulated fragment or demonstrated lateral extrusion of the peripheral fragment. Bioabsorbable crosspins utilized in femoral fixation of hamstring graft reconstruction of the ACL may become fractured. While the natural history of osteo-integration of these devices as demonstrated by MRI has not been defined, osteolysis surrounding the fragments, extrusion or displacement of the fragments, and graft laxity or failure would suggest that these are abnormal findings that should be reported. (orig.)

  8. Effects of cryotherapy and thermotherapy associated with static stretching on the flexibility of hamstring muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Alves da Silva; Denílson José de Oliveira; Márcio José Nunes Jaques; Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of cryotherapy and muscular warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles associated with three minutes of static stretching. Forty young male and female volunteers were randomly included in one of four groups: Group 1 – Control group, Group 2 – Three minutes of static stretching, Group 3 – Stretching preceded by warming using shortwave diathermy (20 minutes), and Group 4 – Stretching preceded by applying cryotherapy (20 minut...

  9. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Vadivelan .K; Priyaraj .B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school ov...

  10. Effects of static stretching on the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and electromyographic amplitude in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P B; Ryan, E D; Herda, T J; Defreitas, J M; Beck, T W; Cramer, J T

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of posterior thigh and leg stretching on leg flexion peak torque (PT), leg extension PT, the hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the hamstrings and quadriceps in recreationally-active men. Fifteen men (mean age + or - SD = 22.0 + or - 4.4 years; body mass = 82.7 + or - 16.1 kg; height = 173.1 + or - 6.8 cm) performed three maximal voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extension and flexion muscle actions at three randomly ordered angular velocities (60, 180, and 300 degrees x s(-1)) before and after hamstring and calf static stretching. The stretching protocol consisted of 1 unassisted and 3 assisted static stretching exercises designed to stretch the posterior muscles of the thigh and leg. Four repetitions of each stretch were held for 30 s with 20-s rest between repetitions. These findings indicated no significant (P>0.05) stretching-induced changes in leg flexion PT, leg extension PT, or EMG amplitude at 60, 180, or 300 degrees .s-1. However, the non-significant (P>0.05) 2-4% increases in leg extension PT combined with the non-significant (P>0.05) 1-2% decreases in leg flexion PT resulted in the significant (P stretching for all three velocities. These findings suggested that static stretching of the hamstrings and calf muscles may decrease the H:Q ratio. These results may be useful for athletic trainers, physical therapists, and other allied health professionals who may use the H:Q ratio as a clinical assessment.

  11. Hamstring muscle strains in professional football players: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D

    2011-04-01

    Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.

  12. Velocity-specific and time-dependent adaptations following a standardized Nordic Hamstring Exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T; Nodler, Y T; Severin, J; Knicker, A J; Strüder, H K

    2017-03-01

    The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) is effective for selective hamstring strengthening to improve muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. The purpose of this study (within subject design of repeated measures) was to determine the effects of a standardized 4-week NHE training on thigh strength and muscle balance with concomitant kinetic and kinematic monitoring. Sixteen male sprinters (22 years, 181 cm, 76 kg) performed a standardized 4-week NHE training consisting of three sessions per week (each 3×3 repetitions). Six rope-assisted and six unassisted sessions were performed targeting at a constant knee extension angular velocity of ~15°/s across a ~90-100° knee joint range of motion. Kinetic (peak and mean moment, impulse) and kinematic parameters (eg, ROM to downward acceleration, ROMDWA ) were recorded during selected sessions. Unilateral isokinetic tests of concentric and eccentric knee flexors and extensors quantified muscle group-, contraction mode-, and velocity-specific training adaptations. Peak moments and contractional work demonstrated strong interactions of time with muscle group, contraction modes, and angular velocities (η²>.150). NHE training increased eccentric hamstring strength by 6%-14% as well as thigh muscle balance with biggest adaptations at 150°/s 2 weeks after NHE training. Throughout the training period significant increases (P.05). A 4-week NHE training significantly strengthened the hamstrings and improved muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. Despite the slow training velocity, biggest adaptations emerged at the highest velocity 2 weeks after training ended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  14. Effects of hamstring stretching on passive muscle stiffness vary between hip flexion and knee extension maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N; Hirata, K; Kanehisa, H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the effects of hamstring stretching on the passive stiffness of each of the long head of the biceps femoris (BFl), semitendinosus (ST), and semimembranosus (SM) vary between passive knee extension and hip flexion stretching maneuvers. In 12 male subjects, before and after five sets of 90 s static stretching, passive lengthening measurements where knee or hip joint was passively rotated to the maximal range of motion (ROM) were performed. During the passive lengthening, shear modulus of each muscle was measured by ultrasound shear wave elastography. Both stretching maneuvers significantly increased maximal ROM and decreased passive torque at a given joint angle. Passive knee extension stretching maneuver significantly reduced shear modulus at a given knee joint angle in all of BFl, ST, and SM. In contrast, the stretching effect by passive hip flexion maneuver was significant only in ST and SM. The present findings indicate that the effects of hamstring stretching on individual passive muscles' stiffness vary between passive knee extension and hip flexion stretching maneuvers. In terms of reducing the muscle stiffness of BFl, stretching of the hamstring should be performed by passive knee extension rather than hip flexion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Self-Myofascial Release: No Improvement of Functional Outcomes in 'Tight' Hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert W; Oikawa, Sara Y; Phillips, Stuart M; Devries, Michaela C; Mitchell, Cameron J

    2016-07-01

    Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a common exercise and therapeutic modality shown to induce acute improvements in joint range of motion (ROM) and recovery; however, no long-term studies have been conducted. Static stretching (SS) is the most common method used to increase joint ROM and decrease muscle stiffness. It was hypothesized that SMR paired with SS (SMR+SS) compared with SS alone over a 4-wk intervention would yield greater improvement in knee-extension ROM and hamstring stiffness. 19 men (22 ± 3 y) with bilateral reduced hamstring ROM had each of their legs randomly assigned to either an SMR+SS or an SS-only group. The intervention consisted of 4 repetitions of SS each for 45 s or the identical amount of SS preceded by 4 repetitions of SMR each for 60 s and was performed on the respective leg twice daily for 4 wk. Passive ROM, hamstring stiffness, rate of torque development (RTD), and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were assessed pre- and postintervention. Passive ROM (P stretch tolerance.

  16. The role of the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in closed chain lower limb extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel J; Southgate, Dominic F L; Bull, Anthony M J

    2015-01-21

    The role of the biarticular muscles is a topic that has received considerable attention however their function is not well understood. In this paper, we argue that an analysis that is based upon considering the effect of the biarticular muscles on the segments that they span (rather than their effect on joint rotations) can be illuminating. We demonstrate that this understanding is predicated on a consideration of the relative sizes of the moment arms of a biarticular muscle about the two joints that it crosses. The weight of the previous literature suggests that the moment arms of both the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are smaller at the knee than at the hip or ankle, (respectively). This in turn leads to the conclusion that both biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are extensors of the lower limb. We show that the existence of these biarticular structures lends a degree of flexibility to the motor control strategies available for lower limb extension. In particular, the role of the gastrocnemius and biarticular hamstrings in permitting a large involvement of the quadriceps musculature in closed chain lower limb extension may be more important than is typically portrayed. Finally, the analysis presented in this paper demonstrates the importance of considering the effects of muscles on the body as a whole, not just on the joints they span. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid hamstring/quadriceps force capacity in male vs. female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L; Ellingsgaard, Helga; Aagaard, Per

    2011-07-01

    Knee joint injuries are a serious issue in soccer. The ability to protect the knee from injury depends largely on the strength of the hamstring relatively to the quadriceps, that is, a low hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratio is suggested as a risk factor. Although maximal muscle strength (MVC) has often been used to evaluate the H/Q ratio, the ability to rapidly develop force (rate of force development [RFD]) is more relevant in relation to fast dynamic movements. The aim of this study was to introduce and investigate a rapid RFD H/Q strength ratio compared with the traditional MVC H/Q strength ratio in elite soccer players. Twenty-three elite soccer players (11 women, 12 men) performed maximal voluntary static contraction for the hamstring and quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer, from which the maximal muscles strength (MVC) and RFD were extracted. Test-retest reliability for the RFD H/Q ratio was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.664-0.933). The initial contraction phase up to 50 milliseconds from the onset of contraction showed a low RFD H/Q ratio compared to the MVC H/Q ratio (p MVC H/Q ratio, compared with the group mean-sustained ACL rupture at a later occasion. The high reliability of the new RFD H/Q strength ratio indicates that the method is a relevant tool in standardized clinical evaluation of the knee joint agonist-antagonist relationship.

  18. Effect of massage of the hamstring muscle group on performance of the sit and reach test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A; Clarke, R; Johnson, N; Seabourne, B; Thomas, D; Gal, J

    2004-06-01

    To investigate if a single massage of the hamstring muscle group would alter the performance of the sit and reach test. Before treatment, each of 11 male subjects performed the sit and reach test. The treatment consisted of either massage of the hamstring muscle group (both legs, total time about 15 minutes) or supine rest with no massage. Performance of the sit and reach test was repeated after treatment. Each subject returned the subsequent week to perform the tests again, receiving the alternative treatment relative to their initial visit. Mean percentage changes in sit and reach scores after treatment were calculated for the massage and no massage treatments, and analysed using Student's t tests. Mean (SD) percentage changes in sit and reach scores after massage and no massage were small (6.0 (4.3)% and 4.6 (4.8)% respectively) and not significantly different for subjects with relatively high (15 cm and above) values before treatment. Mean percentage changes in sit and reach scores for subjects with relatively low values before treatment (below 15 cm) were large (18.2 (8.2)% and 15.5 (16.2)% respectively), but no significant differences were found between the massage and no massage groups. A single massage of the hamstring muscle group was not associated with any significant increase in sit and reach performance immediately after treatment in physically active young men.

  19. Effect of cessation and resumption of static hamstring muscle stretching on joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, R W; Kyle, B A; Moore, S A; Chleboun, G S

    2001-03-01

    Single group repeated measures. To determine the effects of cessation and resumption of a hamstring muscle stretching protocol on knee range of motion (ROM). It is generally accepted that stretching exercises result in an increase in ROM. The ability to maintain ROM once stretching has ceased and the ability to regain ROM after resumption of the stretching exercise is not well-known. Evaluated the effect of 6 weeks of static hamstring stretching, 4 weeks with cessation from stretching, and 6 weeks with resumption of stretching on knee ROM in 18 inactive college students (12 men, 6 women, mean age 21.0 years). The hamstring stretching consisted of 2 30-second stretches per day, 5 days per week. Knee ROM was measured before and after each of the above phases with an active knee extension test. Mean knee ROM increased after the initial stretching period (143+/-11 to 152+/-9 degrees), decreased to baseline following the cessation period (145+/-8 degrees) and again increased following the resumption of stretching but was not different from the initial gains (154+/-10 degrees). Unlike the stretch limb, the control limb ROM did not change over the 4 measurement times. There was no retention of knee ROM 4 weeks following a 6-week stretching protocol and a subsequent stretching period did not enhance the gain of knee ROM over the initial stretching period.

  20. Strength and endurance training reduces the loss of eccentric hamstring torque observed after soccer specific fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Martyn J; Heron, Kate; Todd, Stefanie; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jones, Paul; Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel D

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of two hamstring training protocols on eccentric peak torque before and after soccer specific fatigue. Twenty-two university male soccer players. Isokinetic strength tests were performed at 60°/s pre and post fatigue, before and after 2 different training interventions. A 45-min soccer specific fatigue modified BEAST protocol (M-BEAST) was used to induce fatigue. Players were randomly assigned to a 4 week hamstrings conditioning intervention with either a maximum strength (STR) or a muscle endurance (END) emphasis. The following parameters were evaluated: Eccentric peak torque (EccPT), angle of peak torque (APT), and angle specific torques at knee joint angles of 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80° and 90°. There was a significant effect of the M-BEAST on the Eccentric torque angle profile before training as well as significant improvements in post-fatigue torque angle profile following the effects of both strength and muscle endurance interventions. Forty-five minutes of simulated soccer activity leads to reduced eccentric hamstring torque at longer muscle lengths. Short-term conditioning programs (4-weeks) with either a maximum strength or a muscular endurance emphasis can equally reduce fatigue induced loss of strength over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term effects of proximal femoral derotation osteotomy on kinematics in ambulatory patients with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dae Gyu; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Tae Won; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the short-term effects of proximal femoral derotation osteotomy (FDO) on gait in 53 ambulatory patients with spastic diplegia controlling all confounding procedures. All patients showed a jump gait pattern and had undergone bilateral rectus femoris transfer, distal hamstring lengthening, and tendo-Achilles lengthening as a single-event multilevel surgery. Of these, additional bilateral proximal FDOs were included in 25 patients, defined as the FDO group; the other 28 patients were defined as the no-FDO group. Kinematic variables, such as pelvic tilt, minimal hip flexion in stance, hip rotation, and foot progression angle, were compared between the two groups at postoperative 1 year. Hip extension, hip rotation, and hip adduction improved significantly after surgery in the FDO group (Pdiplegia showing a jump gait.

  2. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Tsaklis,1,2 Nikos Malliaropoulos,3–5,10 Jurdan Mendiguchia,6 Vasileios Korakakis,7–9 Kyriakos Tsapralis,11 Debasish Pyne,5 Peter Malliaras101Department of Physiotherapy, Laboratory of Biomechanics and Ergonomics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3National Track and Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of SEGAS, 4Thessaloniki Sports Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Rheumatology Department, Sports Medicine Clinic, Mile End Hospital, London, UK; 6Department of Physical Therapy, Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center, Pamplona, Spain; 7Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 8Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 9Hellenic Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy Diploma, Athens, Greece; 10Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK; 11K Tsapralis Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises.Methods: Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each

  3. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  4. Self-Mobilization Using a Foam Roller Versus a Roller Massager: Which Is More Effective for Increasing Hamstrings Flexibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyne, Danielle M; Dewhurst, Marina M; Fischer, Katelyn M; Wojtanowski, Michael S; Durall, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Scenario: Increasing the length of the muscle-tendon unit may prevent musculotendinous injury. Various methods have been proposed to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, including self-mobilization using foam rollers or roller massagers, although the effectiveness of these devices is uncertain. This review was conducted to determine if the use of foam rollers or roller massagers to improve hamstrings flexibility is supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence. Are foam rollers or roller massagers effective for increasing hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies on the effects of using foam rollers or roller massagers to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults. Four randomized controlled trials were included; 2 studies provided level 2 or 3 evidence regarding foam rollers and 2 studies provided level 2 or 3 evidence regarding roller massagers. Both roller-massager studies reported increases in hamstrings flexibility after treatment. Data from the foam-roller studies did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in hamstrings flexibility, but 1 study did demonstrate a strong effect size. Clinical Bottom Line: The reviewed moderate-quality studies support the use of roller massagers but provide limited evidence on the effectiveness of foam rolling to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults. Flexibility gains may be improved by a longer duration of treatment and administration by a trained therapist. Gains appear to decline rapidly postrolling. Neither device has been shown to confer a therapeutic benefit superior to static stretching, and the effectiveness of these devices for preventing injury is unknown. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence supports the use of roller massagers to increase hamstrings flexibility in asymptomatic physically active adults.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  6. Temporal efficacy of kinesiology tape vs. Traditional stretching methods on hamstring extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and aetiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, with potential implications for injury prevention. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 21.0 ± 0.1 years; height 180 ± 6 cm; mass 79.4 ± 6.9 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions of equal time duration were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1, +10 and +30 mins after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension (AKE) was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. With baseline scores not statistically different between groups, and baseline AKE set at 100%, PNF showed a significant improvement immediately post-intervention (PNF+1 = 107.7 ± 8.2%, p = .01). Thereafter, only KT showed significant improvements in active knee extension (KT+10 = 106.0 ± 7.1%, p = .05; KT+30 = 106.9 ± 5.0%, p = .02). The temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension after intervention was best modelled as a positive quadratic for KT, with a predicted peak of 108.8% baseline score achieved at 24.2 mins. SS was best modelled as a negative linear function, and PNF as a negative logarithmic function, reflecting a rapid decrease in active knee extension after an immediate positive effect. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. PNF was best suited to affect immediate improvements in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a

  7. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Robert-Jan; Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Tol, Johannes L

    2014-09-01

    Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI findings) of athletes who sustained an acute hamstring injury within 5 days of initial injury. We also collected data of standardised clinical tests within 7 days after return to play (RTP). The number of re-injuries was recorded within 12 months. We analysed the association between the possible predictive variables and re-injuries with a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression model. Eighty patients were included at baseline and 64 patients could be included in the final analysis because data after RTP were not available in 16 cases. There were 17 re-injuries (27%). None of the baseline MRI findings were univariately associated with re-injury. A higher number of previous hamstring injuries (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.33; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61), more degrees of active knee extension deficit after RTP (AOR 1.13; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.25), isometric knee flexion force deficit at 15° after RTP (AOR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07) and presence of localised discomfort on hamstring palpation after RTP (AOR 3.95; 95% CI 1.38 to 11.37) were significant independent predictors of re-injury. Athletes with localised discomfort on hamstring palpation just after RTP were consequently almost four times more likely to sustain a re-injury. The number of previous hamstring injuries, active knee extension deficit, isometric knee flexion force deficit at 15° and presence of localised discomfort on palpation just after RTP are associated with a higher hamstring re-injury rate. None of the baseline MRI parameters was a predictor of hamstring re-injury. ClinicalTrial.gov number NCT01812564. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The effect of fatigue and velocity on the relative timing of hamstring activation in relation to quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro; Talebian, Saeed; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    Inter-muscular coordination has an important role in proper function and prevention of injuries in the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of velocity and fatigue on the relative activation onset of hamstring to quadriceps muscles during knee extension. Thirty one healthy and non-athletic volunteers (24 women, 7 men) were recruited for the study. The onset time of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial and lateral hamstring were measured during maximum voluntary extension of the knee joint at velocities of 45° /s, 150° /s & 300° /s before and after fatigue and the mean delay onset of all pairs of H-Q were measured. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare across the mean delayed onset of hamstring related to quadriceps muscles at various velocities. Hamstring muscle showed a delayed activation related to quadriceps and increasing the velocity of shortening has a prominent effect on the inter-muscular coordination with early activation of hamstring related to quadriceps muscles (F = 6.7, p muscles to over strain and possible injuries. The main effect of fatigue condition and its interaction with velocity however, showed statistically nonsignificant result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  10. EFFECT OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING AND CALF MUSCLES AND SPRINTING PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad Naik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle energy technique is used for restoring normal tone in hypertonic muscles, strengthening weak muscles, preparing muscle for subsequent stretching, one of the main uses of this method is to normalize joint range which may help in increase flexibility and performance in sprinters. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy technique on flexibility of hamstrings and calf muscles and sprinting performance in sprinters. The objective of the study is to determine the muscle energy technique on hamstrings and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance in sprinters by using goniometer and timing of sprinting performance. Method: The study design is an experimental study in which 30 male sprinters were recruited in this study. The study sample included all male healthy sprinters, aged between 15 -30 years. All subjects received warm up, muscle energy technique and cool down exercises daily for a period of 6weeks.The outcome measures are 90°-90°popliteal angle for assessing hamstring flexibility and ROM of ankle joint for calf muscles by universal goniometer and sprinting performance time by using stopwatch. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test are used to analyse the data. A significant difference was found between pre and post values of hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance after the analysis in this study. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a significant effect of MET on hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance.

  11. Effects of stretching and heat treatment on hamstring extensibility in children with severe mental retardation and hypertonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Glory Ps; Ng, Gabriel Yf

    2008-09-01

    To examine the effect of heat and duration of stretching on the extensibility of hamstring muscles and their electromyographic responses to passive stretch in children with hypertonia and severe mental retardation. Randomized cross-over trial. Developmental disability unit in a local hospital. Twenty-nine subjects (9 females) with ages ranged from 4 to 13 years with spastic and/or dystonic hypertonia and hamstring tightness. Subjects received four treatment sessions in random order with each consisting of five repetitions of stretching: (A) 10-second stretching, (B) 30-second stretching, (C) hot pack followed by 10-second stretching, and (D) hot pack followed by 30-second stretching. Each treatment session comprised five repetitions of stretch and successive treatments were separated by at least 24 hours. The distance between greater trochanter and lateral malleolus and hamstring electromyographic (EMG) activity during passive knee extension stretching. Two-way ANOVA showed a larger increase in hamstring extensibility in conditions C and D (1.3 +/- 1.1 cm) than conditions A and B (0.7 +/- 0.9 cm) (Pstretching could result in greater increase in extensibility than stretching alone in children with hypertonia and severe mental retardation. Stretching could promote relaxation of the hamstring muscles regardless of prior heat treatment. Stretching sustained for 30 seconds led to greater relaxation than that for 10 seconds.

  12. The preventive effect of the bounding exercise programme on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: the design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Hoef, S; Huisstede, B M A; Brink, M S; de Vries, N; Goedhart, E A; Backx, F J G

    2017-08-22

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these injuries has not decreased despite there being effective injury prevention programmes focusing on improving eccentric hamstring strength. As this might be because of poor compliance, a more functional injury prevention exercise programme that focuses on the stretch-shortening cycle might facilitate compliance. In this study, a bounding exercise programme consisting of functional plyometric exercises is being evaluated. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Male amateur soccer teams (players aged 18-45 years) have been randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Both groups are continuing regular soccer training and the intervention group is additionally performing a 12-week bounding exercise programme (BEP), consisting of a gradual build up and maintenance programme for the entire soccer season. The primary outcome is hamstring injury incidence. Secondary outcome is compliance with the BEP during the soccer season and 3 months thereafter. Despite effective hamstring injury prevention programmes, the incidence of these injuries remains high in soccer. As poor compliance with these programmes may be an issue, a new plyometric exercise programme may encourage long-term compliance and is expected to enhance sprinting and jumping performance besides preventing hamstring injuries. NTR6129 . Retrospectively registered on 1 November 2016.

  13. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald; Silbernagel, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up...

  14. Is the modified Tardieu scale in semi-standing position better associated with knee extension and hamstring activity in terminal swing than the supine Tardieu?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nienhuis, B.; Rijs, N.P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Duysens, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with

  15. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  16. The effect of hip rotation on shear elastic modulus of the medial and lateral hamstrings during stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Kobayashi, Takuya; Fujita, Kosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-02-01

    Regarding hamstring stretching methods, many studies have investigated the effect of stretching duration or frequency on muscle stiffness. However, the most effective stretching positions for hamstrings are unclear because it is impossible to quantify muscle elongation directly and noninvasively in vivo. Recently, a new ultrasound technology, ultrasonic shear wave elastography, has permitted noninvasive and reliable measurement of muscle shear elastic modulus, which has a strong linear relationship to the amount of muscle elongation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hip internal and external rotation on shear elastic modulus of the lateral and medial hamstrings, respectively, during stretching in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Twenty-three healthy men (age, 23.0 ± 2.1 years) were recruited for this study. To investigate the effect of hip rotation on the elongation of the medial and lateral hamstrings, shear elastic modulus of the biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) was measured at rest (a supine position with 90° knee flexion, 90° hip flexion, and hip neutral rotation) and in seven stretching positions (with 45° knee flexion and hip internal, external, and neutral rotation) using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. In both BF and ST, the shear elastic modulus in the rest position was significantly lower than that in all stretching positions. However, no significant differences were seen among stretching positions. Our results suggest that adding hip rotation at a stretching position for the hamstrings may not have a significant effect on muscle elongation of the medial and lateral hamstrings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-10-18

    To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines.

  18. Using pre-operative MRI to predict intraoperative hamstring graft size for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff; Elkurbo, Mohamed; McRae, Sheila; Chiu, James; Froese, Warren; MacDonald, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Large variation in tendon size between individuals makes hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction unpredictable. Inadequate graft diameter may necessitate an alternative source of tissue requiring pre-operative planning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance image (MRI) measurements and clinical anthropometric data are predictive of hamstring tendon graft diameter. Data from 109 patients having ACL reconstruction with semitendinosus-gracilis (STGT) autograft were retrospectively evaluated. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the gracilis tendon (GT) and semitendinosus tendon (ST) were determined from pre-operative MRI scans. Variables included pre-operative height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and gender; and intra-operative graft diameter. Correlations between anthropometric variables, hamstring tendons CSA and intra-operative graft diameter were calculated. Multiple stepwise regression was performed to assess the predictive value of these variables to graft diameter. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to evaluate the utility of MRI CSA measurements in accurately identifying inadequate graft diameter (<8 mm). All anthropometric variables were positively correlated with intraoperative graft diameter (p < 0.01). Semitendinosus-gracilis tendon CSA (p < 0.001) and STGT CSA and weight (p < 0.001) were significantly predictive models of graft diameter. Sensitivity and specificity were 79 and 74 %, respectively. The strongest indicators of a four-stranded STGT graft for primary ACL reconstruction were STGT CSA on MRI plus weight. Measurement of graft diameter can be performed pre-operatively via MRI to identify tendons that may be of inadequate size for ACL reconstruction. This can assist with surgical planning to determine the most appropriate graft choice. III.

  19. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  20. Changes in quadriceps and hamstring cocontraction following landing instruction in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Audrey R C; Hammill, Curt D; Mizner, Ryan L

    2015-04-01

    Pretest/posttest controlled laboratory study. To determine changes in the neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings following instructions aimed at improving knee flexion during a single-limb landing task in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Clinicians advise patients who have undergone ACLR to increase knee flexion during landing tasks to improve impact attenuation. Another long-standing construct underlying such instruction involves increasing cocontraction of the hamstrings with the quadriceps to limit anterior shear of the tibia on the femur. The current study examined whether cocontraction of the knee musculature changes following instruction to increase knee flexion during landing. Thirty-four physically active subjects with unilateral ACLR participated in a 1-time testing session. The kinetics and kinematics of single-leg landing on the surgical limb were analyzed before and after instruction to increase knee flexion and reduce the impact of landing. Vastus lateralis and biceps femoris activities were analyzed using surface electromyography and normalized to a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Cocontraction indices were integrated over the weight-acceptance phase of landing. Following instruction, peak knee flexion increased (preinstruction mean ± SD, 56° ± 11°; postinstruction, 77° ± 12°; Pfollowing instruction (preinstruction, 30.88% ± 17.68% MVIC; postinstruction, 23.74% ± 15.39% MVIC; Pinstruction produced both a statistically and clinically significant change in landing mechanics in persons post-ACLR. Conscious improvement of the absorptive power of the surgical limb was marked by decreased hamstring activity and cocontraction during single-limb landing.

  1. The acute effect of match play on hamstring strength and lower limb flexibility in elite youth football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, M; Thorborg, K; Pizzari, T

    2017-01-01

    and flexion range of motion were evaluated immediately post-match and at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h post-match. Strength significantly reduced post-match (P ... scores significantly increased at the post-match (P range of motion measures....... Competitive football match play has a significant acute and transient effect on isometric hamstring strength and associated pain levels during resisted knee flexion in male international youth players. Range of motion measures appear to remain relatively unaffected by match play. Isometric hamstring strength...

  2. Relationship between functional hamstring: quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Oyvind H; Gorelick, Mark L S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE), functional hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratios (f-H:Q), and flexibility among female runners. Seven highly trained (HT) female runners (age: 25.7 ± 4.7 years, VO2peak of 62.0 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) and 11 recreational female runners (age of 28.8 ± 5.6 years, VO2peak of 49.2 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) were measured for maximal aerobic power (VO2peak), RE, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, f-H:Q (Hecc:Qcon and Hcon:Qecc), and sit-and-reach hamstring/trunk flexibility. On 2 separate days, RE was measured on a treadmill at 1% grade at 2 velocities (160.9 and 201.2 m·min-1) for 6 minutes each, and isokinetic knee strength was measured at 3 angular velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s-1) for both concentric and eccentric muscle actions. The unpaired t-tests showed a consistent trend toward higher f-H:Q ratios at all angular velocities among the HT runners. Highly trained runners had significantly higher Hecc:Qcon at 120°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05) and 180°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05). Whole group correlations demonstrated a significant correlation between Hcon:Qecc at 180°·s-1 and RE (ml·kg-1·km-1) at 201.2 m·min-1 (R = -0.48, p ≤ 0.05). No significant relationships were found between flexibility, or hamstring and quadriceps peak torque (N·m) and RE (p > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis suggests that higher f-H:Q torque ratios, and not muscle strength per se, are associated with a lower metabolic cost of running. Therefore, runners should consider implementing hamstring exercises to improve their f-H:Q ratios.

  3. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  4. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  5. Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Anelize; de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Souza; Lima, Claudia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several factors are associated with the presence of chronic low back pain; one of them is the flexibility of the hamstring muscles that influences the posture of the pelvic spine. Investigate the influence of two different time periods of passive static stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring. Forty-six physiotherapy students were divided into two groups performing stretching exercises: 30 s and 60 s duration. The collections consisted of: (1) pre-test: evaluation of the flexibility of the hip and knee, using a manual goniometer by means of the following tests: Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR), Passive Hip Flexion Test (PHFT) and Modified Knee Extension Test (MKET), (2) intervention: stretching with different runtimes, (3) post-test: reappraisal of flexibility, conducted immediately after the intervention. Significant difference was observed intra groups, group that did stretching exercises lasting 30 seconds (G30) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.003 and MKET p = 0.000) and group that did stretching exercises lasting 60 seconds (G60) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.001 and MKET p = 0.002). Comparing the groups, no significant difference was found (SLR p = 0.307; PHFT p = 0.904; MKET p = 0.132). Thus it can be inferred that 30 seconds are sufficient for increased flexibility of young women. Therefore the time-treatment sessions can be optimized. Only the acute effect of stretching was observed; further investigation of the long-term effect is required.

  6. Case reports: the influence of selective voluntary motor control on gait after hamstring lengthening surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Evan J; Fowler, Eileen G; Oppenheim, William L

    2012-05-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests selective voluntary motor control (SVMC), defined as performance of isolated voluntary joint movement on request, may be an important factor affecting functional movement tasks. Individuals with poor SVMC are unable to dissociate hip and knee synergistic movement during the swing phase of gait and have difficulty extending their knee while the hip is flexing during terminal swing regardless of hamstring length. This pattern may limit their ability to take advantage of hamstring-lengthening surgery (HLS) and may explain a lack of improved stride length postoperatively. Provide a preliminary clinical and conceptual framework for using SVMC to predict swing phase parameters of gait after HLS. We contrasted two patients with spastic diplegia of similar age, gross motor function, and spasticity but with different SVMC scores using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE). The patients underwent bilateral HLS. Popliteal angles, joint kinematics, step length, stride length, and walking velocity were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Popliteal angles, terminal knee extension, and knee range of motion improved for both patients. However, only the patient with higher SCALE scores improved stride length postoperatively. Although preliminary, the data suggest that SVMC, as measured by SCALE, may be a prognostic factor for improved stride length after HLS in patients with spastic diplegia. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produces Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, J M; Zabala, M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to analyse the influence of training in road cycling or cross-country mountain biking on sagittal spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and trunk inclination in cyclists of both cycling modalities; 2) to evaluate the specific spinal posture and pelvic tilt adopted on the road bicycle and cross-country mountain bike; and 3) to compare the spinal sagittal capacity of flexion and pelvic tilt mobility as well as hamstring muscle extensibility among road cyclists, cross-country mountain bikers and non-cyclists. Thirty matched road cyclists, 30 mountain bikers and 30 non-cyclists participated in this study. The road cyclists showed significantly greater thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination than did the mountain bikers and non-cyclists in a standing posture. On the bicycle, the road bicycling posture was characterised by greater lumbar flexion and more significant anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination compared with the mountain biking posture. The thoracic spine was more flexed in mountain biking than in road cycling. Road cyclists had significantly greater hamstring muscle extensibility in the active knee extension test, and showed greater anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination capacity in the sit-and-reach test, compared with mountain bikers and non-cyclists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Hamstrings functional properties in athletes with high musculo-skeletal flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltubakk, M M; Eriksrud, O; Paulsen, G; Seynnes, O R; Bojsen-Møller, J

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes with highly flexible hamstring muscle-tendon units display different passive and contractile mechanical properties compared with controls. Flexibility, passive, and active torque-angle properties were assessed in 21 female elite rhythmic gymnasts and 16 female age-matched athletes. Passive resistance to stretch was measured during knee extension with the hip fixed at 100° of flexion. Concentric isokinetic maximal voluntary knee flexion and extension torques were measured at 60°/s in the same position. Tests of flexibility and passive resistance to stretch indicated a greater flexibility in the gymnasts. Despite no differences between groups in knee flexion and extension peak torque, gymnasts reached knee flexion peak torque at more extended positions (longer muscle lengths) and displayed significantly different torque-angle relations. When active torque was corrected for passive resistance to stretch, differences increased, gymnasts producing more work, and maintaining ≥ 70% of peak torque over a larger range of joint excursion. In conclusion, individuals with a higher flexibility of the hamstrings MTU present a different torque-angle profile, favoring the production of flexion torque toward extended knee positions, displaying larger functional range of motion and a higher mechanical work output during knee flexion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiple extensor tendons reconstruction with hamstring tendon grafts and flap coverage for severe dorsal hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaydar, M; Orman, O; Ozel, O; Altan, E

    2017-10-10

    Treatment of patients with traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons on the dorsum of the hand is a challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after reconstruction of soft tissues and multiple extensor tendons in patients who suffered traumatic loss of skin and multiple extensor tendons. Ten patients were enrolled in the study. These patients underwent single-stage reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon grafts for multiple extensor tendon defects and fasciocutaneous flaps for coverage of dorsal hand defects. In total, 25 tendons (2 tendons in 5 patients and 3 tendons in 5 patients) were reconstructed. The semitendinosus tendon was used in all patients and the gracilis tendon was added in five patients for tendon reconstruction. Total tendon length requiring reconstruction was between 9cm and 31cm. Free anterolateral thigh flaps were used in six patients and reverse pedicled forearm flaps were used in four patients. According to Miller's scoring system, 8 fingers had excellent results, 12 fingers had good results and 5 fingers had fair results at the final follow-up. Hamstring tendons can be used satisfactorily for primary reconstruction of multiple digital extensor tendons due to their availability and compatibility, with a fasciocutaneous flap. IV. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sprint acceleration mechanics: the major role of hamstrings in horizontal force production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Benoit eMORIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024 between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability.

  11. Effects of Acute Fatigue of the Hip Flexor Muscles on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyor José M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of acute fatigue of the hip flexor muscles on scores attained in tests frequently used in literature to measure hamstring muscle extensibility, namely the passive straight leg raise (PSLR, active straight leg raise (ASLR, passive knee extension (PKE, active knee extension (AKE, sit-and-reach (SR and toe-touch (TT tests. A total of seventy-five healthy and recreationally active adults voluntarily participated in this study. To reach fatigue, the participants actively lifted their legs alternately as many times as possible. In the passive tests, the results were 7.10 ± 5.21° and 5.68 ± 4.54° higher (p 0.05. Moderate (r = 0.40 to high (r = 0.97 correlation coefficients were found, which were statistically significant among all the measured flexibility tests both pre- and post-fatigue. In conclusion, the active implication of the hip flexor muscles until reaching fatigue had acute influences on the results of the PSLR, PKE and ASLR tests, but not on the results of the AKE, SR and TT tests. It is recommended to use the AKE test to assess hamstring muscle extensibility in situations where athletes show fatigue in their hip flexor muscles.

  12. Effects of Acute Fatigue of the Hip Flexor Muscles on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; Arrabal-Campos, Francisco M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of acute fatigue of the hip flexor muscles on scores attained in tests frequently used in literature to measure hamstring muscle extensibility, namely the passive straight leg raise (PSLR), active straight leg raise (ASLR), passive knee extension (PKE), active knee extension (AKE), sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests. A total of seventy-five healthy and recreationally active adults voluntarily participated in this study. To reach fatigue, the participants actively lifted their legs alternately as many times as possible. In the passive tests, the results were 7.10 ± 5.21° and 5.68 ± 4.54° higher (p fatigue. However, in the ASLR test, the results were lower post-fatigue than pre-fatigue (mean difference = -5.30° ± 9.51°; p fatigue (p > 0.05). Moderate (r = 0.40) to high (r = 0.97) correlation coefficients were found, which were statistically significant among all the measured flexibility tests both pre- and post-fatigue. In conclusion, the active implication of the hip flexor muscles until reaching fatigue had acute influences on the results of the PSLR, PKE and ASLR tests, but not on the results of the AKE, SR and TT tests. It is recommended to use the AKE test to assess hamstring muscle extensibility in situations where athletes show fatigue in their hip flexor muscles.

  13. Electromyographic analysis of gluteus maximus and hamstring activity during the supine resisted hip extension exercise versus supine unilateral bridge to neutral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Hartman, James P; Murphy, Brooke A; Rundle, Ashley M; Ugorowski, Jenna M; Hollman, John H

    2017-02-01

    Hip extension strengthening exercises which maximize gluteus maximus contributions and minimize hamstring influences may be beneficial for persons with hip pain. This study's aim was to compare muscle activation of the gluteus maximus and hamstrings from healthy subjects during a supine resisted hip extension exercise versus supine unilateral bridge to neutral. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were obtained from the right gluteus maximus and hamstrings in 13 healthy male and 13 healthy female subjects. Maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) were collected to normalize data and permit meaningful comparisons across muscles. Peak median activation of the gluteus maximus was 33.8% MVIC for the bridge and 34.7% MVIC for the hip extension exercise, whereas peak median recruitment for hamstrings was 28.4% MVIC for the bridge and 51% MVIC for the hip extension exercise. The gluteus maximus to hamstrings ratio was compared between the two exercises using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (α = 0.05). The ratio (p = 0.014) was greater in the supine unilateral bridge (median = 111.3%) than supine hip extension exercise (median = 59.2%), suggesting a reduction of hamstring recruitment in the unilateral bridge to neutral compared to the supine resisted hip extension exercise. The supine hip extension exercise demonstrated higher EMG activity of hamstrings in comparison with supine unilateral bridge and, therefore, may be less appropriate in subjects who need to increase gluteus maximus activation.

  14. Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? Part II: Implications for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooren, Bas; Bosch, Frans

    2017-12-01

    We have previously argued that there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstring muscle fibres during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this we suggested that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running. In this review we argue that some of the presumed beneficial adaptations following eccentric training may actually not be related to the eccentric muscle fibre action, but to other factors such as exercise intensity. Furthermore, we discuss several disadvantages associated with commonly used eccentric hamstring exercises. Subsequently, we argue that high-intensity isometric exercises in which the series elastic element stretches and recoils may be equally or even more effective at conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running, since they also avoid some of the negative side effects associated with eccentric training. We provide several criteria that exercises should fulfil to effectively condition the hamstrings for high-speed running. Adherence to these criteria will guarantee specificity with regards to hamstrings functioning during running. Practical examples of isometric exercises that likely meet several criteria are provided.

  15. METODE ACTIVE ISOLATED STRETCHING (AIS DAN METODE HOLD RELAX STRETCHING (HRS SAMA EFEKTIF DALAM MENINGKATKAN FLEKSIBILITAS OTOT HAMSTRING PADA MAHASISWA AKADEMI FISIOTERAPI WIDYA HUSADA SEMARANG YANG MENGALAMI HAMSTRING MUSCLE TIGHTNESS (HMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad alfajri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students with Hamstring Muscle Tightness (HMTs will be at risk of Anterior Crusiatum Ligament (ACL, Low Back Pain (LBP and also Plantar Faciitis. One of the efforts to reduce tightness and improve hamstring muscle flexibility is stretching. Active Isolated Stretching (AIS and Hold Relax Stretching (HRS are the methods of influential stretching to improve muscle flexibility. The goal of the research is to prove that AIS method is equally effective with the HRS method to improve hamstring muscle flexibility to the HMTs patients. The research method was true experimental with pre and post test group design. The research was conducted for 3 weeks and the samples are 23 students in range of 18-25 years old students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang which divided into 2 groups; AIS group (n= 12 and HRS group (n= 11. The research used Sit and Reach Test (SRT as the measurement instrument. The result of the research was the average result of AIS group used SRT before treatment was 1.75 cm, SB= 4.309 and after treatment was 10. 58 cm, SB = 8. 005 within p= 0.000 (p 0.05. Those explain that the improvement of hamstring muscle flexibility to the two groups does not show any significant difference. Conclusion from this study was active isolated stretching method and hold relax stretching method are equally effective to improving muscle flexibility of hamstring muscle tightness students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang.

  16. Criterion-related validity of four clinical tests used to measure hamstring flexibility in professional futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sainz de Baranda, P; De Ste Croix, M; Santonja, F

    2011-11-01

    To examine the criterion related validity of the sit-and-reach test (SR), toe touch test (TT), modified sit-and-reach test (MSR) and back-saver sit-and-reach test (BSSR) for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR) in professional futsal players. Correlation laboratory study. Controlled laboratory environment. One hundred and three futsal players (55 males age 26 ± 4 years, 48 females age 23 ± 5 years). Two trials of SR, TT, MSR, BSSR (left and right) and PSLR right and left (hamstring criterion measure) in a randomized order. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association of SR, TT, MSR and BSSR with PSLR in both males and females separately. In males, only MSR test had moderate association criterion with PSLR (R(2) = 0.57). In females, SR (R(2) = 0.86), TT (R(2) = 0.85), MSR (R(2) = 0.53) and average BSSR (R(2) = 0.82) were associated with PSLR. SR, TT, MSR and BSSR had moderate criterion related validity for estimating hamstring flexibility in female but not male professional futsal players. The authors recommend that researchers, clinicians, and physical therapists adopt one angular test as a measure of hamstring muscle length in futsal players. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF NEURODYNAMIC SLIDING TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN ASYMPTOMATIC INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu .K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurodynamics sliding technique (NDST and Mulligan bent leg raise technique (MBLR both have been individually advocated for increasing hamstring flexibility but comparison of these techniques have not been found in studies. The purpose of the study was to find immediate effect of neurodynamic sliding technique versus mulligan bent leg raise technique on hamstring flexibility in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: An Experimental study designs, with two group 80 asymptomatic normal subjects were randomized 40 subjects into each NDST group and MBLR group. NDST group received Neurodynamic sliding technique and MBLR group received Mulligan bent leg raise technique; passive straight leg raise was taken as outcome measure pre and post intervention. Results: When means of post intervention were compared there is statistically significant difference in means of passive SLR ROM within the groups but there is no statistically significant difference in post intervention means between the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that both NDST and MBLR technique are effective on improving hamstring flexibility for asymptomatic individuals with limited SLR ROM. However there is no significant difference in improvement in hamstring flexibility between the groups.

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament- and hamstring tendon- derived cells: in vitro differential properties of cells involved in ACL reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghebes, C.A.; Kelder, C.; Schot, T.; Renard, A.J.S.; Pakvis, D.F.M.; Fernandes, H.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves the replacement of the torn ligament with a new graft, often a hamstring tendon (HT). Described as similar, the ACL and HT have intrinsic differences related to their distinct anatomical locations. From a cellular perspective, identifying

  19. Effect of stretch positions on hamstring muscle length, lumbar flexion range of motion, and lumbar curvature in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Nicole P; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Smith, Susan S

    2011-02-01

    Hamstring stretching is a common practice in physical therapy to change not only hamstring muscle length (HML), but also lumbar flexion range of motion (LROM) or lumbar curvature (LC). Yet limited published research compares the effectiveness of two commonly used hamstring stretch positions, sitting and standing. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of (1) stretch position on HML; and 2) HML on LROM and LC. Thirty-six participants (M=44.8 years, SD=17.1) with short HML (i.e., with shortness for men ≥45° and for women ≥ 24° of active knee flexion with 90° hip flexion) were measured for HML, LROM, and LC; randomly allocated to one of three groups: (1) hamstring stretching in sitting (SI); (2) standing (ST); or (3) no stretching (control); and remeasured after 4 weeks. Participants in the stretching groups performed two 30-second static stretches 4 days per week for 4 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed significance between the stretching groups and nonstretching group for HML only. Nonsignificance was shown for HML between the stretch positions (i.e., SI-active knee extension (AKE) and ST-AKE), indicating that both were equally effective for increasing HML. However, there was no change in LROM or in LC even though HML increased.

  20. Comparison of nonballistic active knee extension in neural slump position and static stretch techniques on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webright, W G; Randolph, B J; Perrin, D H

    1997-07-01

    Nonballistic, active range of motion exercises have been advocated as more effective than static stretching for increasing range of motion, yet no published data exist to support this claim. This study compared the effect of nonballistic, repetitive active knee extension movements performed in a neural slump sitting position with static stretching technique on hamstring flexibility. Forty healthy, adult volunteer subjects with limited right hamstring flexibility (i.e., minimum of 15 degrees loss of active knee extension measured with femur held at 90 degrees of hip flexion) were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 (static stretch) performed a 30-second stretch twice daily. Group 2 (active stretch) performed 30 repetitions of active knee extension while sitting in a neural slump position twice daily. Group 3 served as a control. Hamstring flexibility was determined by an active knee extension test before and after 6 weeks of stretching. Goniometric measurement of knee joint flexion angle was obtained from videotape recording of the active knee extension test. A 3 (group) x 2 (test) repeated measures analysis of variance and subsequent Tukey post hoc testing revealed no significant difference in knee joint range of motion gains between the static (mean = 8.9 degrees) and active stretch (mean = 10.2 degrees). Both stretch groups' knee joint range of motion improved significantly (p active knee extensions (30 repetitions, twice daily) performed in a neural slump sitting position improves hamstring flexibility in uninjured subjects, but is no different compared with static stretching (30 seconds, twice daily).

  1. Effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on gait in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on the swing phase of gait. Materials and Methods. Five subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with spasticity were included. Two electrical stimulation methods were investigated, i.e.,

  2. Effects of a neurodynamic sliding technique on hamstring flexibility in healthy male soccer players. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Martín-Martín, Lydia; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2013-08-01

    To compare the short-term effects of a neurodynamic sliding technique versus control condition on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic male soccer players. Twenty-eight young male soccer players from Palencia, Spain (mean age 20.7 yrs ± 1.0, range 19-22) with decreased hamstring muscle flexibility. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: neurodynamic sliding intervention or no intervention control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) pre- and post-intervention. Subjects received interventions as per group allocation over a 1 week period. Data were analyzed with a 2 (intervention: neurodynamic and control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(1,26) = 159.187, p sliding technique can increase hamstring flexibility in healthy, male soccer players. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  4. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity.

  5. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  7. Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking on Pelvic Anterior Tilt Angle, Hamstring Muscle Length, and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Seated Workers with Flat-back Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of inclined treadmill walking on pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance of seated workers with flat-back syndrome. [Subjects...

  8. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction...... (ACL-R). METHODS: Uninjured (n=13 males; n=8 females) and ACL-R (n=3 males; n=5 females; 25.0±11.3 months post-op) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150 and 0-200 ms. MVC...... to uninjured controls (Pski racing, our results suggest the importance of including HAM and QUAD...

  9. Hamstring-and-Lower-Back Flexibility in Male Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Priesterbach, Annique; Backx, Frank; Smits, Dirk-Wouter

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility (HLBF) of male adult amateur soccer players, using the sit-and-reach test (SRT), with a view to obtaining population-based reference values and to determining whether SRT scores are associated with player characteristics. Cross-sectional cohort study. Teams from high-level Dutch amateur soccer competitions were recruited for participation. Dutch male high-level amateur field soccer players (n = 449) of age 18 to 40 years. Players with a hamstring injury at the moment of SRT-measurement or any other injury that prevented them from following the SRT protocol were excluded. Sit-and-reach test scores were measured and then population-based reference values were calculated as follows: >2SD below mean (defining "very low" HLBF), 1SD-2SD below mean ("low" HLBF), 1SD below mean to 1SD above mean ("normal" HLBF), 1SD-2SD above mean ("high" HLBF), and >2SD above mean ("very high" HLBF). Whether SRT scores were correlated with player characteristics was determined using a Pearson correlation coefficient or Spearman rho. Sit-and-reach test scores ranged from 0 to 43.5 cm (mean 22.0 cm, SD 9.2). The cutoff points for population-based reference values were 40.5 cm for "very high". Sit-and-reach test scores were significantly associated with players' height (ρ = -0.132, P = 0.005), body mass index (r = 0.114, P = 0.016), and history of anterior cruciate ligament surgery (P amateur soccer players. The SRT reference values with cutoff points may facilitate evidence-based decision making regarding HLBF, and the SRT might be a useful tool to assess injury risk, performance, or for diagnostic purposes.

  10. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Our Schools Educators at Mayo Clinic train tomorrow’s leaders to deliver compassionate, high-value, safe patient ... Practices Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  11. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  12. The effects of surgical lengthening of hamstring muscles in children with cerebral palsy--the consequences of pre-operative muscle length measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracca, Ettore; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Roberts, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Children with cerebral palsy often undergo multiple orthopaedic surgical procedures in a single episode. Evidence of the effectiveness of individual components within the overall package is sparse. The introduction of musculoskeletal modelling in Oswestry has led to a more conservative management approach being taken with hamstring muscles for children walking in a degree of crouch. Muscles which were shown to be of at least normal length at initial contact were not surgically lengthened, as would have been the case previously. A retrospective review of 30 such patients was therefore possible, comparing 15 patients treated before the policy change who had their hamstrings lengthened with 15 treated after who did not. All patients had pre and post operative gait assessments and significant changes were observed for each group separately and for the two groups when compared. The comparison revealed that preserving the hamstrings does tend to reduce, and therefore normalize, the dynamic muscle length. Examination of the two patient groups separately, however, reveals a more complex picture with more global gait improvements seen when the hamstrings were lengthened. No absolute recommendation can be made to inform the clinical management of all children with normal to long hamstring muscles during gait. The final decision of whether to include a hamstring lengthening will need to take into account the characteristics of the individual child. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  15. Rationale, secondary outcome scores and 1-year follow-up of a randomised trial of platelet-rich plasma injections in acute hamstring muscle injury: the Dutch Hamstring Injection Therapy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Maas, Mario; Tol, Johannes L

    2015-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are an experimental treatment for acute muscle injuries. We examined whether PRP injections would accelerate return to play after hamstring injury. The methods and the primary outcome measure were published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) as 'Platelet-rich plasma injections in acute muscle injury' (2014). This article shares information not available in the NEJM letter or online supplement, especially the rationale behind the study and the secondary outcome measures including 1 year re-injury data. We performed a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring muscle injuries. Details can be found in the NEJM (http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1402340). The primary outcome measure was the time needed to return to play during 6 months of follow-up. Not previously reported secondary outcome scores included re-injury at 1 year, alteration in clinical and MRI parameters, subjective patient satisfaction and the hamstring outcome score. In the earlier NEJM publication, we reported that PRP did not accelerate return to play; nor did we find a difference in the 2-month re-injury rate. We report no significant between-group difference in the 1-year re-injury rate (HR=0.89; 95% CI, 0.38 to 2.13; p=0.80) or any other secondary outcome measure. At 1-year postinjection, we found no benefit of intramuscular PRP compared with placebo injections in patients with acute hamstring injuries in the time to return to play, re-injury rate and alterations of subjective, clinical or MRI measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold’s Tyson de Sousa; Moreira dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  17. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold's Tyson de Sousa; Moreira Dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care.

  18. Sprint and jump performance in elite male soccer players following a 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, K; Petersen, J; Nielsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump...... split times) and countermovement jump (CMJ height) was measured before the mid-seasonal break and again after 10 weeks of performing the NHP at the end of pre-season. Dropouts were due to transfers and injuries unrelated to performing NHP (NHP = 0, CG = 5). Sprint performance on the short split...... to negatively affect sprint and vertical jump performance outcomes in the present study, while in fact showing some promise for the more explosive characteristics such as the short 5 and 10 m split-times and maximal CMJ height, which all are highly relevant performance parameters in elite football....

  19. Paradoxical tunnel enlargement after ACL reconstruction with hamstring autografts when using β-TCP containing interference screws for tibial aperture fixation- prospectively comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joon Ho; Lee, Eun Su; Lee, Byung Hoon

    2017-09-16

    Tibial aperture fixation with a bioabsorbable interference screw is a popular fixation method in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). An interference screw containing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to improve bony integration and biocompatibility was recently introduced. This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes and radiological results of tunnel enlargement effect between the 2 bioabsorbable fixative devices of pure poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws and β-TCP-containing screws, for tibial interference fixation in ACLR using hamstring autografts. Eighty consecutive patients who had undergone double-bundle ACLR between 2011 to 2012 were prospectively reviewed and randomly divided into two groups based on the type of tibial interference screw: 28 were assigned to the pure PLLA screw group (Group A), while the other 29 were assigned to the β-TCP-containing screw fixation group (Group B). Clinical evaluations and radiological analyses were conducted in both groups with a minimum 2- year follow-up. There was no significant difference in subjective or objective clinical outcome between the 2 groups. In radiological analyses, the use of a β-TCP-containing screw reduced tunnel widening in the portion of the tunnel with screw engagement compared to the pure PLLA screw, while the use of a β-TCP-containing screw resulted in greater tunnel enlargement in the proximal portion of the tunnel without screw engagement than use of a pure PLLA screw. Use of a β-TCP-containing interference screw in tibial aperture fixation reduced tunnel enlargement in the vicinity of the screw, whereas greater enlargement occurred proximal to the screw end relative to use of a pure PLLA interference screw. These paradoxical enlargements in use of β-TCP containing screws suggest that for reducing tunnel enlargement, the length of the interference screw should be as fit as possible with tunnel length in terms of using soft grafts. II, Prospectively comparative

  20. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  1. Outcome of hamstring ligament harvest for Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction with allograft versus autograft: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moghtadaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate, functional capacity of the knee in flexion and internal rotation after hamstring ligament harvest for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL reconstruction.Methods: Fifty patients (male and 18-45 years old with isolated ACL injury, randomly allocated in two equal groups (in one group, ACL reconstruction was performed with Tibialis Posterior allograft and in another group with quadruple hamstring ligament auto graft and before and 6 months after surgery in both groups isokinetic flexion strength and isometric internal rotation strength of knee evaluated with Biodex System 4 dynamometer and rotational torque recorder, in order. Isokinetic flexion strength evaluated in sitting and prone position; the later position was performed for deep flexion strength evaluation. Also subjective and objective assessment of all patients pre operatively and 6 months post operatively was documented with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC questionnaire. In this study for first time, rotational torque strength of knee was recorded with new design measure, from isometric aspect and not isokinetic.Results: Although significant improvements in IKDC scores, flexion and internal rotation capacity of the knee were observed in both groups, post operatively in respect to pre operatively; there was no significant difference between 2 groups. (P<0.05 or more than 95% confidence Interval of the differenceConclusion: This study demonstrates that ACL reconstruction surgery, improves knee performance in flexion and internal rotation, regardless of hamstring tendon harvesting. Considering potential complications of allograft (for example: transfer of harmful diseases from donor to recipient, it is logical to use hamstring auto graft ligament for ACL reconstruction surgery. Because result of this study is not longstanding follow up and limited to male sex, for more worthfull conclusion, we suggest future study in both sex

  2. Traumatic tibialis anterior tendon rupture: treatment with a two-stage silicone tube and an interposition hamstring tendons graft protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgakos, Vasileios; Koutalos, Antonios; Hantes, Michael; Manoudis, Gregory; Badras, Leonidas; Malizos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A novel technique for managing ruptured tibialis anterior tendon complicated by infection and tendon substance loss in a young adult is described. A two-stage reconstruction technique with a silicon tube and tendon autograft was performed. At first, after local control of the infection, scar excision and placement of a silicone tube was performed. Ten weeks later, ipsilateral hamstrings tendons were harvested and bridged the 7 cm tendon gap. Eighteen months later, the patient has excellent clinical and functional outcome.

  3. Effect of gender and maturity on quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio and anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Clark, A Martin; Heilmann, Niels; Schoeb, J Scott; Gardner, Thomas R; Levine, William N

    2006-03-01

    Exercise programs have been introduced to reduce the ACL injury risk in female athletes. The most effective age at which to start these programs is not known. Age and gender affect ligament laxity and quadriceps-to-hamstring strength ratio. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-three female and 70 male recreational soccer players, 10 to 18 years of age, were studied with physical examination, KT-1000 arthrometry, and manual maximum quadriceps and hamstring strength using a handheld dynamometer. The subjects were separated into 4 groups to examine maturity-related intergender differences: group G1, premenarchal girls (n = 24); group B1, boys 13 years and younger (n = 38); group G2, girls 2 or more years after menarche (n = 29); and group B2, boys 14 years and older (n = 32). Both knees of 123 soccer players were evaluated. The mean ages for groups G1, B1, G2, and B2 were 11.50 +/- 1.69, 10.63 +/- 1.85, 15.5 +/- 1.43, and 15.59 +/- 1.24 years, respectively, and the mean laxity measurements were 8.84 +/- 2.12, 8.51 +/- 1.61, 8.85 +/- 1.86, and 7.33 +/- 1.27 mm, respectively. Laxity was significantly less for the mature boys (P = .0015) than for the immature boys, mature girls, and immature girls. With increasing maturity, significant increases in both quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength were observed for both boys and girls (P ligament injury. Anterior cruciate ligament-prevention programs based on improving dynamic control of the knee by emphasizing hamstring strengthening should be instituted for girls after menarche.

  4. Effect of fatigue on hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Behrens

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture ranks among the most common injuries in sports. The incidence of ACL injuries is considerably higher in females than in males and the underlying mechanisms are still under debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for ACL injuries. We investigated gender differences in hamstring reflex responses and posterior-anterior tibial translation (TT before and after fatiguing exercise. We assessed the isolated movement of the tibia relative to the femur in the sagittal plane as a consequence of mechanically induced TT in standing subjects. The muscle activity of the hamstrings was evaluated. Furthermore, isometric maximum voluntary torque (iMVT and rate of torque development (RTD of the hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q were measured and the MVT H/Q as well as the RTD H/Q ratios were calculated. After fatigue, reflex onset latencies were enhanced in women. A reduction of reflex responses associated with an increased TT was observed in females. Men showed no differences in these parameters. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between parameters for TT and MVT H/Q as well as RTD H/Q. The results of the present study revealed that the fatigue protocol used in this study altered the latency and magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstrings as well as TT in women. These changes were not found in men. Based on our results, it is conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease in neuromuscular function with a corresponding increase in TT probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women.

  5. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  6. [CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY OF SIT-AND-REACH TEST AS A MEASURE OF HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY IN OLDER WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Muyor, José María; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis

    2015-07-01

    lumbo-sacral posture and the sit-andreach score have been proposed as measures of hamstring extensibility. However, the validity is influenced by sample characteristics. to determine the validity of lumbo-horizontal angle and score in the sit-and-reach test as measures of hamstring extensibility in older women. a hundred and twenty older women performed the straight leg raise test with both leg, and the sit-and-reach test (SR) in a random order. For the sitand- reach test, the score and the lumbo-sacral posture in bending (lumbo-horizontal angle, L-Hfx) were measured. the mean values of straight leg raise in left and right leg were 81.70 ± 13.83º and 82.10 ± 14.36º, respectively. The mean value of EPR of both legs was 81.90 ± 12.70º. The mean values of SR score and L-Hfx were -1.54 ± 8.09 cm and 91.08º ± 9.32º, respectively. The correlation values between the mean straight leg raise test with respect to lumbo-sacral posture and SR score were moderate (L-Hfx: r = -0.72, p validity of lumbo-sacral posture in bending as measure of hamstring muscle extensibility on older women is moderate, with similar values than SR score. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Immediate effects of hamstring muscle stretching on pressure pain sensitivity and active mouth opening in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretischwerdt, Cristina; Rivas-Cano, Luis; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the immediate effect of hamstring muscle stretching on pressure pain sensitivity over the masseter and the upper trapezius muscles and maximum active mouth opening in healthy subjects. One hundred twenty volunteers, 70 males and 50 females, between the ages of 22 and 47, were randomly divided into 3 groups: group 1 (control group) that did not receive any intervention, group 2 where a unilateral hamstring muscle stretching was applied, and group 3 where a bilateral stretching was applied. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally assessed over the masseter and upper trapezius muscles pre- and 5 minutes posttreatment by an assessor blinded to group assignment. Maximum mouth opening was also assessed pre- and 5 minutes posttreatment. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the effects of the intervention. The primary analysis was the group x time interaction. The ANOVA revealed significant group x time interaction for changes in PPTs over the upper trapezius (F = 4.5; P = .01) and masseter (F = 6.3; P = .002) muscles. Pre-post effect sizes were moderate (0.5 >d > 0.7) for both stretching groups and negative (d 0.7) for both stretching groups and negative (d stretching of the hamstring musculature produced an immediate increase in PPTs over both masseter and upper trapezius muscles in healthy subjects. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

  9. COMPARISON BETWEEN POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION AND RECIPROCAL INHIBITION MANUEVERS ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

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    Agrawal Sonal S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Variations in the application of muscle energy technique (MET for increasing the extensibility of muscles have been advocated, but little evidence exists to support the relative merit of a particular approach. This study investigated two types of muscle energy techniques that have been advocated in the osteopathic literature that differ primarily in the muscle group targeted. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR and Reciprocal Inhibition (RI on hamstring length in young healthy adults Methodology: Randomized clinical trial 100 college students aged between 18-25 years were included. The subjects were randomly assigned to PIR and RI group. Each group consisted of 50 subjects (25 male, 25 female. Knee extension limitation was measured by using active knee extension test (AKET pre & post-intervention, i.e. after 3 weeks of stretching regimen, with the help of universal full circle goniometer. Results: There was significant improvement in hamstrings flexibility (p=0.000 in both PIR and RI groups. Statistical comparison of the results of both the technique showed that PIR group had greater improvement than the RI group (p=0.000 Conclusion: PIR and RI were both found to be effective in improving hamstring flexibility but, PIR is more effective therapeutic maneuver.

  10. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  11. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  12. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DRY NEEDLING AND STRETCHING VS. STRETCHING ALONE ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE PAIN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

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    Mason, John S; Crowell, Michael; Dolbeer, Jeffery; Morris, Jamie; Terry, Aspen; Koppenhaver, Shane; Goss, Donald Lee

    2016-10-01

    Recently, dry needling has emerged as a popular treatment for muscular pain and impairments. While there are numerous studies detailing the benefits of dry needling for pain, few studies exist examining the effects on soft tissue mobility. The purpose of this study was to determine if the addition of hamstring dry needling to a standard stretching program results in greater improvements in hamstring flexibility compared to sham dry needling and stretching in subjects with atraumatic knee pain. Additionally, squat range of motion, knee pain, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale were compared between the two groups. Double blinded randomized controlled trial. Thirty-nine subjects were randomized to receive either dry needling (n = 20) or sham (n = 19) dry needling in addition to hamstring stretching, to all detected hamstring trigger points on two visits. All dependent variables were measured at baseline, immediately post intervention, and 1, 3, and 7 days after the initial treatment. Each subject also performed hamstring stretching three times daily for one week. Significant improvements in hamstring range of motion and all other dependent variables were observed across time regardless of treatment group. However, the lack of significant time by group interactions indicated the improvements were not different between dry needling and sham dry needling groups. The results of the current randomized controlled trial suggest that two sessions of dry needling did not improve hamstring range of motion or other knee pain-related impairments more than sham dry needling in a young active population with atraumatic knee pain. Therapy, Level 2.

  14. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  15. HAMSTRING ARCHITECTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS FOLLOWING LONG VS. SHORT MUSCLE LENGTH ECCENTRIC TRAINING

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    Kenny Guex

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML versus short muscle length (SML. Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5x8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p<0.01, medium effect size in the SML and by 9.3% (p<0.001, large effect size in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p=0.83 in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p=0.09, small effect size in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p=0.09, medium effect size in the SML and by 17.3° (p<0.01, large effect size in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p=0.19, small effect size in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p=0.06, medium effect size in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p=0.37 and the LML (p=0.23 groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p<0.01, small effect size and 17.9% (p<0.001, small effect size in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r=-0.57, p<0.01. These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and functional adaptations. However

  16. Intratunnel versus extratunnel fixation of hamstring autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dave Lee Yee; Nyland, John; Kendzior, Matthew; Nawab, Akbar; Caborn, David N M

    2012-10-01

    To determine which is more effective: intratunnel or extratunnel anterior cruciate ligament soft-tissue graft fixation. A secondary purpose was to determine whether groups displayed differing relations between objective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) grade and the timing of full weight bearing (FWB), jogging/running, and return to sports. The study hypotheses were that intratunnel fixation would display a greater percentage of normal or nearly normal objective IKDC grades and enable earlier FWB, return to jogging/running, and return to sports. We performed a systematic review of prospective, Studies with Level I or II evidence published from 2000 to 2011 with at least 2 years' follow-up that used interference screw hamstring autograft fixation (intratunnel group) or button, staple, or post hamstring autograft fixation (extratunnel group) for primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We also compared IKDC grades; Tegner and Lysholm scores; instrumented anterior laxity and pivot-shift test findings; timing of FWB, jogging/running, and return to sports; and modified Coleman Methodology Scores. The groups showed comparable modified Coleman Methodology Scores, objective IKDC grades, Lysholm and Tegner scores, instrumented anterior laxity and pivot-shift test findings, and return-to-sports timing. The intratunnel group displayed earlier FWB and jogging/running; however, return-to-sports timing did not differ between groups. Early FWB and the percentage of patients with normal or nearly normal objective IKDC grades were directly related for the extratunnel group. Patients who received intratunnel fixation were released earlier to FWB and jogging/running, supporting the study hypotheses. Groups did not differ in return-to-sports timing or objective IKDC grades, not supporting the study hypotheses. Early FWB in the extratunnel group was related to a greater percentage of patients having normal or nearly normal objective IKDC grades. Return

  17. Hamstring Graft Incorporation According to the Length of the Graft Inside Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Marot, Vincent; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Murgier, Jérôme; Accadbled, Franck; Berard, Emilie; Chiron, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with a quadrupled semitendinosus (ST4) graft is an evolution of the standard technique with 2 hamstring tendons (semitendinosus + gracilis [STG]). However, there is no published comparison of how well these 2 types of hamstring grafts are incorporated into the bone tunnels. Because the ST4 graft is shorter, there is less graft material inside the tunnels. To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare graft incorporation in the tibial bone tunnels 1 year after ACL reconstruction with either an STG graft or ST4 graft. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-two patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were enrolled prospectively: 31 with an ST4 graft and 31 with an STG graft. The same surgical technique, fixation method, and postoperative protocol were used in both groups. Graft incorporation and ligamentization were evaluated with MRI after 1 year of follow-up. The following parameters were evaluated: signal-to-noise quotient (SNQ), tibial tunnel enlargement, signal intensity at the bone-graft interface, and graft signal according to the Howell scale. The number of participants needed to show that the mean SNQ did not differ between the 2 techniques was 31 in each group (with a 1-sided alpha of 2.5% and a 1-sided beta of 10.0%). The Student t test was used to compare the distribution of continuous secondary endpoints. The mean SNQ was 5.2 ± 4.5 for the STG group and 5.9 ± 3.7 for the ST4 group ( P = .5100). The mean tibial tunnel widening was 93.7% ± 51.7% for the STG group versus 80.0% ± 42.9% for the ST4 group ( P = .2605). The groups did not differ in signal intensity at the bone-graft interface ( P = .7502) or in graft signal according to the Howell scale ( P = .4544). At the 1-year postoperative follow-up, incorporation and ligamentization of the STG and ST4 grafts were the same based on MRI analysis. The results were at least as good with the ST4 technique as with the standard STG technique in terms

  18. Effects of a Stretching Development and Maintenance Program on Hamstring Extensibility in Schoolchildren: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Manzano-Lagunas, Jorge; Blanco, Humberto; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based stretching development and maintenance program on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren. A sample of 150 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old from a primary school participated in the present study (140 participants were finally included). The six classes balanced by grade were cluster randomly assigned to the experimental group 1 (n = 51), experimental group 2 (n = 51) or control group (n = 49) (i.e., a cluster randomized controlled trial design was used). During the physical education classes, the students from the experimental groups 1 and 2 performed a four-minute stretching program twice a week for nine weeks (first semester). Then, after a five-week period of detraining coinciding with the Christmas holidays, the students from the experimental groups 1 and 2 completed another stretching program twice a week for eleven weeks (second semester). The students from the experimental group 1 continued performing the stretching program for four minutes while those from the experimental group 2 completed a flexibility maintenance program for only one minute. The results of the two-way analysis of variance showed that the physical education-based stretching development program significantly improved the students' hamstring extensibility (p stretching maintenance program (p 0.05). After a short-term stretching development program, a physical education-based stretching maintenance program of only one-minute sessions twice a week is effective in maintaining hamstring extensibility among schoolchildren. This knowledge could help and guide teachers to design programs that allow a feasible and effective development and maintenance of students' flexibility in the physical education setting. Key pointsA physical education-based stretching maintenance program of only one-minute sessions twice a week is effective in maintaining hamstring extensibility among schoolchildren.A four

  19. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity during cycling as measured with intramuscular electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Julio Cézar Lima; Tarassova, O; Ekblom, M M; Andersson, E; Rönquist, G; Arndt, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe thigh muscle activation during cycling using intramuscular electromyographic recordings of eight thigh muscles, including the biceps femoris short head (BFS) and the vastus intermedius (Vint). Nine experienced cyclists performed an incremental test (start at 170 W and increased by 20 W every 2 min) on a bicycle ergometer either for a maximum of 20 min or to fatigue. Intramuscular electromyography (EMG) of eight muscles and kinematic data of the right lower limb were recorded during the last 20 s in the second workload (190 W). EMG data were normalized to the peak activity occurring during this workload. Statistical significance was assumed at p ≤ 0.05. The vastii showed a greater activation during the 1st quadrant compared to other quadrants. The rectus femoris (RF) showed a similar activation, but with two bursts in the 1st and 4th quadrants in three subjects. This behavior may be explained by the bi-articular function during the cycling movement. Both the BFS and Vint were activated longer than, but in synergy with their respective agonistic superficial muscles. Intramuscular EMG was used to verify muscle activation during cycling. The activation pattern of deep muscles (Vint and BFS) could, therefore, be described and compared to that of the more superficial muscles. The complex coordination of quadriceps and hamstring muscles during cycling was described in detail.

  20. Rapid hamstrings/quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Because of the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength were assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Uninjured (n = 13 males, n = 8 females) and ACL-R (n = 3 males, n = 5 females, 25.0 ± 11.3 months after operation) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150, and 0-200 ms. MVC and RTD (per kilogram body mass) were calculated for the uninjured group to compare between sexes and to compare the control group with the ACL-R limb and unaffected limb of the ACL-R skiers. HAM/QUAD MVC and RTD strength ratios (H/Q ratios) were also compared. The ACL-R limb demonstrated significant HAM and QUAD deficits compared with the contralateral limb for MVC and late-phase RTD (P ski racing, our results suggest the importance of including HAM and QUAD strength assessments in the physical evaluation of uninjured skiers. Furthermore, HAM and QUAD strength should be assessed over a long-term period after surgery to identify chronic strength deficits in ACL-R ski racers.

  1. Factors affecting knee laxity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a hamstring tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Shinya; Kimura, Masashi; Hagiwara, Keiichi; Ogoshi, Atsuko; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Shiozawa, Hiroyuki; Ohsawa, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the pre-operative and intraoperative factors that predict postoperative knee laxity following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a hamstring tendon. The subjects included 108 patients (male, n=49; female, n=59) with ACL-deficient knees who had undergone double-bundle reconstruction. The median time between injury and surgery (TBIS) was 27.5weeks (range one to 504). The patients were divided into two groups according to the side-to-side difference (SSD) in anterior translation on a stress radiograph one year after undergoing the operation (Group A: SSD of ligament, meniscus, and articular cartilage injury. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with knee laxity. The postoperative SSD values after one year were correlated with the TBIS (r=0.28; P<0.01). Eighty-one and 27 knees were classified into Groups A and B, respectively, based on the SSD at one year after surgery. The TBIS in Group B (60.2weeks) was significantly longer than that in Group A (16.6weeks; P<0.01). A logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant association between the TBIS and postoperative knee laxity (P<0.01; odds ratio 1.013; 95% CI 1.002-1.023). Increased knee laxity was associated with the time between injury and surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Static tensioning promotes hamstring tendons force relaxation more reliably than cycling tensioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Sérgio Rocha; Dal Fabbro, Inácio Maria; Mischan, Martha Maria; Piedade, Cezar; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    Graft elongation might be a major reason for increased anterior laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study analyzed the force relaxation values and their stabilization when single strands of the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons underwent cyclic and static tensioning at 2.5% strain level, and compared the efficiency of static and cyclic tensioning in promoting force relaxation. Eighteen gracilis tendons and 18 semitendinosus tendons from nine male cadavers (mean age: 22.44years) were subjected to 10 in vitro cyclic loads at 2.5% strain level, or to a static load at 2.5% strain level. During cyclic loading, the reduction in force values tended to stabilize after the sixth cyclic load, while, in the case of static loading, this stabilization occurred by the second minute. Comparing static and cyclic loading, the gracilis tendon had similar mechanical responses in both conditions, while the semitendinosus tendon showed greater force relaxation in static compared with cyclic loading. Considering that the semitendinosus tendon is the main component of the hamstring graft, its biomechanical response to loading should guide the tensioning protocol. Therefore, static tensioning seems more effective for promoting force relaxation of the semitendinosus tendon than cyclic tensioning. The gracilis tendon showed a similar mechanical response to either tensioning protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of cryotherapy and thermotherapy associated with static stretching on the flexibility of hamstring muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alves da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of cryotherapy and muscular warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles associated with three minutes of static stretching. Forty young male and female volunteers were randomly included in one of four groups: Group 1 – Control group, Group 2 – Three minutes of static stretching, Group 3 – Stretching preceded by warming using shortwave diathermy (20 minutes, and Group 4 – Stretching preceded by applying cryotherapy (20 minutes to the posterior thigh region. The program consisted of three series of stretching during five consecutive days and flexibility was assessed by goniometric evaluations of the extensor angle of the knee at the beginning of the protocol, at the end of the day and at the end of the protocol. The intergroup comparison was made through ANOVA post-hoc Tukey and the intragroup by paired t test, all with 5% level of significance. The three experimental groups significantly increased their range of motion in relation to the control group. However, differences were not observed among groups submitted to the different stretching programs. In conclusion, increases in flexibility were due to stretching and did not depend on previous application of hyperthermia and/or hypothermia.

  4. Effects of cryotherapy and thermotherapy associated with static stretching on the flexibility of hamstring muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of cryotherapy and muscular warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles associated with three minutes of static stretching. Forty young male and female volunteers were randomly included in one of four groups: Group 1 – Control group, Group 2 – Three minutes of static stretching, Group 3 – Stretching preceded by warming using shortwave diathermy (20 minutes, and Group 4 – Stretching preceded by applying cryotherapy (20 minutes to the posterior thigh region. The program consisted of three series of stretching during five consecutive days and flexibility was assessed by goniometric evaluations of the extensor angle of the knee at the beginning of the protocol, at the end of the day and at the end of the protocol. The intergroup comparison was made through ANOVA post-hoc Tukey and the intragroup by paired t test, all with 5% level of significance. The three experimental groups significantly increased their range of motion in relation to the control group. However, differences were not observed among groups submitted to the different stretching programs. In conclusion, increases in flexibility were due to stretching and did not depend on previous application of hyperthermia and/or hypothermia.

  5. Short-duration massage at the hamstrings musculotendinous junction induces greater range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stacey Y; Di Santo, Mario; Wadden, Katie P; Cappa, Dario F; Alkanani, Thamir; Behm, David G

    2010-07-01

    Massage for the purpose of health dates back to early civilization and more recently has been used in the management and prevention of sport injuries. Massage has also been used as part of a warm-up to help increase acute flexibility. However, the physiological benefits and mechanisms of massage are not well known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of 3 massage conditions on hip flexion range of motion (ROM). This experimentation involved a novel massage technique, which focused the massage on the musculotendinous junction for a short duration. Ten recreationally active women ranging from 21 to 36 years in age participated in this study. Participants were subjected to 3 massage conditions (no massage, 10-second massage, and 30-second massage) in a random order on separate days. Hip flexion angle, passive leg tension, and electromyography (EMG) were measured thrice before and within 10 seconds after the intervention. A main effect for conditions was found with the 30-second massage providing a 7.2% increase in hip flexion ROM that was significantly greater than the control condition (p stretch perception, increased stretch tolerance, or increased compliance of the hamstrings. Musculotendinous massage may be used as an alternative or a complement to static stretching for increasing ROM.

  6. Effect of Knee Joint Angle and Contraction Intensity on Hamstrings Coactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine M; DE Vito, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of knee joint angle and contraction intensity on the coactivation of the hamstring muscles (when acting as antagonists to the quadriceps) in young and older individuals of both sexes. A total of 25 young (24 ± 2.6 yr) and 26 older (70 ± 2.5 yr) healthy men and women participated. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the knee extensors and flexors was assessed at two knee joint angles (90° and 60°, 0° = full extension). At each angle, participants performed submaximal contractions of the knee extensors (20%, 50%, and 80% maximal voluntary isometric contraction), whereas surface EMG was simultaneously acquired from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles to assess the level (EMG root-mean-square) of agonist activation and antagonist coactivation. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in the areas corresponding to surface EMG electrode placements was measured via ultrasonography. The contractions performed at 90° knee flexion demonstrated higher levels of antagonist coactivation (all P knee flexion. Furthermore, after controlling for subcutaneous adipose tissue, older participants exhibited a higher level of antagonist coactivation at 60° knee flexion compared with young participants (P knee joint angle and contraction intensity and 2) subcutaneous adipose tissue may affect the measured coactivation level likely because of a cross-talk effect. Antagonist coactivation may play a protective role in stabilizing the knee joint and maintaining constant motor output.

  7. A new approach to assess the spasticity in hamstrings muscles using mechanomyography antagonist muscular group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Eddy; Scheeren, Eduardo M; Nogueira-Neto, Guilherme N; Button, Vera Lúcia da S N; Nohama, Percy

    2012-01-01

    Several pathologies can cause muscle spasticity. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS) can rank spasticity, however its results depend on the physician subjective evaluation. This study aims to show a new approach to spasticity assessment by means of MMG analysis of hamstrings antagonist muscle group (quadriceps muscle). Four subjects participated in the study, divided into two groups regarding MAS (MAS0 and MAS1). MMG sensors were positioned over the muscle belly of rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. The range of movement was acquired with an electrogoniometer placed laterally to the knee. The system was based on a LabVIEW acquisition program and the MMG sensors were built with triaxial accelerometers. The subjects were submitted to stretching reflexes and the integral of the MMG (MMG(INT)) signal was calculated to analysis. The results showed that the MMG(INT) was greater to MAS1 than to MAS0 [muscle RF (p = 0.004), VL (p = 0.001) and VM (p = 0.007)]. The results showed that MMG was viable to detect a muscular tonus increase in antagonist muscular group (quadriceps femoris) of spinal cord injured volunteers.

  8. The comparison of the immediate effects of application of the suboccipital muscle inhibition and self-myofascial release techniques in the suboccipital region on short hamstring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to research the effect of performing the suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) and self-myofascial release (SMFR) techniques in the suboccipital area on the flexibility of the hamstring. [Subjects] Fifty persons with short hamstrings participated in this research. According to the results of the finger-floor distance (FFD) test, the subjects were allocated to SMI and SMFR groups of 25 subjects each. [Methods] The SMI and SMFR techniques were applied to the groups. For the analysis, we used the FFD test and the straight leg raise (SLR) test for the flexibility of hamstring. The evaluator was blindfolded. [Results] In the SMI group, FFD, SLR, and PA were significantly changed after the intervention, and in the SMFR group, there was a significant change in SLR after the intervention. In a comparison between the groups, FED was found to be significantly increased in the SMI group. [Conclusion] Application of the SMI and SMFR to persons with short hamstrings resulted in immediate increases in flexibility of the hamstring. However, we could see that the SMI technique was more effective.

  9. A comparative study of dynamic soft tissue mobilization vs. passive stretching technique to improve the flexibility of hamstrings in cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohsin; Bashir, Muhammad Salman; Noor, Rabiya

    2017-05-01

    Different therapies are available for correcting the tightness of hamstring muscles. Objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Dynamic Soft Tissue Mobilization DSTM technique and Passive Stretching PS to improve the flexibility of tight hamstrings in cricket players. A total of 120 cricket players having tightness of hamstrings were enrolled and randomized into two groups A and B using lottery method. Group-A was treated with DSTM and group-B with PS to improve the flexibility of hamstrings. Active Knee Extension Angle AKEA test was used to measure the hamstring tightness as it is a gold standard test for this purpose. The mean value of AKEA, pre-treatment score deficient to 180 degrees for DSTM was 25.66 ± 6.90, and that of PS was 25.46 ± 6.89, while the post-treatment score was 10.81 ± 4.30, and 18.63 ± 7.06 respectively. Post-treatment score for DSTM was statistically lower than PS. (p-value < 0.05). So it was concluded that it is better to use DSTM for acquiring better results.

  10. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  12. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  13. The role of altered proximal femoral geometry in impaired pelvis stability and hip control during CP gait: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Lode; Jansen, Karen; Wesseling, Mariska; Molenaers, Guy; Scheys, Lennart; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-02-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often present aberrant hip geometry, more specifically increased femoral anteversion and neck-shaft angle. Furthermore, altered gait patterns are present within this population. This study analyzed the effect of aberrant femoral geometry, as present in subjects with CP, on the ability of muscles to control hip and knee joint kinematics. Given the specific gait deficits observed during crouch gait, increased ability to abduct, externally rotate the hip and extend the knee and hip were denoted as beneficial effects. We ran dynamic simulations of CP and normal gait using two musculoskeletal models, one reflecting normal femoral geometry and one reflecting proximal femoral deformities. The results show that the combination of aberrant bone geometry and CP-specific gait characteristics beneficially increased the ability of gluteus medius and maximus to extend the hip and knee. In contrast, the potentials of the hamstrings to extend the hip decreased whereas the potentials to flex the knee increased. These changes closely followed the observed changes in the muscle moment arm lengths. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the concomitant effect of the presence of proximal femoral deformity and CP gait characteristics on the muscle control of hip and knee joint kinematics during single stance. Not accounting for subject-specific geometry will affect the calculated muscles' potential during gait. Therefore, the use of generic models to assess muscle function in the presence of femoral deformity and CP gait should be treated with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of stretching program in an industrial workplace on hamstring flexibility and sagittal spinal posture of adult women workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Casimiro, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a stretching program performed in the workplace on the hamstring muscle extensibility and sagittal spinal posture of adult women. Fifty-eight adult women volunteers (mean age of 44.23 ± 8.87 years) from a private fruit and vegetable company were randomly assigned to experimental (n=27) or control (n=31) groups. The experimental group performed three exercises of hamstrings stretching of 20 seconds per exercise, three sessions a week for a period of 12 weeks. The control group did not participate in any hamstring stretching program. Hamstring flexibility was evaluated through the passive straight leg raise test and toe-touch test, performed both before and after the stretching program. Thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic inclination were measured in relaxed standing and toe-touch test with a Spinal Mouse. Significant increases (p < 0.01) in toe-touch score and straight leg raise angle (in both legs) were found in the experimental group during post-test, while the control group showed a non-significant decrease for both toe-touch score and straight leg raise test. A significant decrease in thoracic curve and significant increase in pelvic inclination were found in the toe-touch test for the experimental group (p <0.05). However, no significant changes were found in standing posture for any group. Hamstring stretching exercises performed in the working place are effective for increasing hamstring muscle extensibility. This increase generates a more aligned thoracic curve and more anterior pelvic inclination when maximal trunk flexion is performed.

  15. Clinical benefit of the FIFA 11 programme for the prevention of hamstring and lateral ankle ligament injuries among amateur soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouni-Garcia, Rauf; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana; Asensio-Garcia, María Rosario; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F

    2017-06-22

    To analyse the relationship between the implementation of 'the 11' protocol during the regular season in a men's amateur soccer team and the rate of hamstring and lateral ankle ligament (LAL) injuries, and to estimate the clinical benefit of the programme according to the type of injury and the position field. This cohort study was conducted in two different men's amateur soccer teams. During two seasons, the exposed group (43 players) performed 'the 11' protocol twice a week, and the unexposed group (43 players) performed the regular training programme. All players trained three times per week for 1.5 hours per day. Data collection was performed for every 1000 hours of play. 18 hamstring injuries (injury rate (IR) of 2.26 injuries/1000 training+competition hours) and 15 LAL injuries (IR of 1.88 injuries/1000) were registered in the exposed group. In the unexposed group, there were 25 LAL injuries (IR of 3.14 injuries/1000) and 35 hamstring injuries (IR of 4.39 injuries/1000). The number needed to treat to prevent one new case was 3.9 in LAL injuries, 3.31 in biceps femoris injuries and 10.7 in recurrent hamstring injuries. 'The 11' programme reduced the incidence of hamstring and LAL injuries in amateur players. According to the field position, the programme was effective for defenders and midfielders. In accordance with the type of injury, the exposed group had a lower risk of LAL, biceps femoris and hamstring injuries compared with those in the unexposed group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. RAPID HAMSTRINGS/QUADRICEPS STRENGTH CAPACITY IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS WITH DIFFERENT CONVENTIONAL ISOKINETIC MUSCLE STRENGTH RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C. Greco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength imbalance can be an important factor in hamstrings muscle strain. A hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q strength ratio based on concentric peak torque values (Hcon:Qcon has traditionally been used to describe the potential for knee-joint destabilization. Because certain standard actions in soccer are explosive, the analysis of the H/Q strength ratio based on the rate of torque development (Hrtd:Qrtd might also be useful in the evaluation of joint stability. The objective of this study was to compare the Hrtd:Qrtd between professional soccer players with heterogeneous values of Hcon:Qcon. Thirty-nine professional soccer players took part in the following procedures on different days: 1 Familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, and 2 Two maximal isometric actions and five maximal concentric actions at 60°·s-1 for hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q. Participants were ranked according to their Hcon:Qcon ratio. The median third was excluded to form a high torque group (HTG, and a low torque group (LTG. Peak isometric (H and concentric (H and Q torques and rate of torque development (H were significantly greater in the HTG group. Similarly, Hcon:Qcon (0.68 ± 0.02 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03 and Hrtd:Qrtd (0.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.43 ± 0.16 were significantly greater in the HTG group than in the LTG group. There was no significant correlation between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd. It can be concluded that Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms. Thus, the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd to an athlete's individual evaluation might be different

  17. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  18. Hamstring-to-quadriceps fatigue ratio offers new and different muscle function information than the conventional non-fatigued ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M D; Blazevich, A J; Andersen, L L; Mil-Homens, P; Pinto, R S

    2017-04-04

    Commonly used injury risk prediction tests such as the hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio appear to be poor predictors of non-contact injury. However, these tests are typically performed in a non-fatigued state, despite accumulated fatigue being an important risk factor for both hamstring strain (HS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in professional soccer players. After the effect of different H:Q calculation methods were compared and contrasted, the influence of neuromuscular fatigue on the H:Q strength ratio and the association between fatigued and non-fatigued ratio scores were examined. Thirty-five professional soccer players performed a 30-repetition isokinetic fatigue test protocol. Peak knee joint moments were computed for each repetition, and the H:Q conventional ratio (H:QCR ) was calculated using several different, previously published, methods. Knee extensor and flexor moments were statistically decreased by the sixth repetition and continued to decrease until the end of the protocol. However, the H:Q ratio was statistically decreased at the end of the test due to a significant reduction in knee flexor moment (correlation between change in knee flexor moment and change in H:Q, r≈.80; Pdifferent (rs =0.25, P=.15). The present data suggest that H:Q ratio measurement during a fatiguing test (H:QFatigue ) provides different outcomes to the traditional H:QCR . The observed significant hamstring fatigue and the difference, and weak correlation, between H:QCR and H:QFatigue indicate that useful information might be obtained with respect to the prediction of HS and ACL injury risk. The potential predictive value of H:QFatigue warrants validation in future prospective trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical and Morphological Changes Following 2 Rehabilitation Programs for Acute Hamstring Strain Injuries: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILDER, AMY; SHERRY, MARC A.; SANFILIPPO, JENNIFER; TUITE, MICHAEL J.; HETZEL, SCOTT J.; HEIDERSCHEIT, BRYAN C.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. OBJECTIVES To assess differences between a progressive agility and trunk stabilization rehabilitation program and a progressive running and eccentric strengthening rehabilitation program in recovery characteristics following an acute hamstring injury, as measured via physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND Determining the type of rehabilitation program that most effectively promotes muscle and functional recovery is essential to minimize reinjury risk and to optimize athlete performance. METHODS Individuals who sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1) progressive agility and trunk stabilization or (2) progressive running and eccentric strengthening. MRI and physical examinations were conducted before and after completion of rehabilitation. RESULTS Thirty-one subjects were enrolled, 29 began rehabilitation, and 25 completed rehabilitation. There were few differences in clinical or morphological outcome measures between rehabilitation groups across time, and reinjury rates were low for both rehabilitation groups after return to sport (4 of 29 subjects had reinjuries). Greater craniocaudal length of injury, as measured on MRI before the start of rehabilitation, was positively correlated with longer return-to-sport time. At the time of return to sport, although all subjects showed a near-complete resolution of pain and return of muscle strength, no subject showed complete resolution of injury as assessed on MRI. CONCLUSION The 2 rehabilitation programs employed in this study yielded similar results with respect to hamstring muscle recovery and function at the time of return to sport. Evidence of continuing muscular healing is present after completion of rehabilitation, despite the appearance of normal physical strength and function on clinical examination. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 1b–. J Orthop

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACL RECONSTRUCTION WITH ANATOMICAL POSITIONING OF THE TUNNELS USING THE PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS HAMSTRING TENDON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Vitor Barion Castro; Maldonado, Hilário; Vilela, Júlio César Rodrigues; Provenza, Alexandre Ribeira; Monteiro, Cleverson; de Oliveira Neto, Heleno Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    To compare ACL reconstruction with anatomical positioning of the tunnels using the hamstring or patellar tendons. We prospectively evaluated 52 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using the Chambat's technique, with anatomical positioning of the tunnels drilled outside in. They were divided into group A, with 27 patients, using the patellar tendon as a graft, and group B, with 25 patients, using the hamstring. In group A 26 patients were very satisfied or satisfied and 1 unhappy, in group B. 25 patients were very satisfied or satisfied with the procedure (p = 0.990). According to the Lysholm scale, group A had a mean score of 96.11 and group B, 95.32 (p=0.594). In relation to preoperative IKDC, 100% of the patients in group A and 92% of those in group B were IKDC C or D (p = 0.221); in the assessment with a minimum of two-year follow-up, 96% of group A and 92% of group B were IKDC A or B (p = 0.256). The Lachman test, pivot shift, return to sports activities, and the comparative difference in anterior translation (Rolimeter(TM)) also showed no statistically significant difference. In group A, 5 patients (18.5%) were unable to kneel on a hard surface, whereas no patient in group B had this complaint. The anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction presents similar results using the hamstring or patellar tendon with anatomical positioning of the tunnels. Drilling the femoral tunnel outside in is a reproducible and accurate option in the correct placement the femoral tunnel.

  1. Clinical and morphological changes following 2 rehabilitation programs for acute hamstring strain injuries: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Sherry, Marc A; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Tuite, Michael J; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2013-05-01

    Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. To assess differences between a progressive agility and trunk stabilization rehabilitation program and a progressive running and eccentric strengthening rehabilitation program in recovery characteristics following an acute hamstring injury, as measured via physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Determining the type of rehabilitation program that most effectively promotes muscle and functional recovery is essential to minimize reinjury risk and to optimize athlete performance. Individuals who sustained a recent hamstring strain injury were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 rehabilitation programs: (1) progressive agility and trunk stabilization or (2) progressive running and eccentric strengthening. MRI and physical examinations were conducted before and after completion of rehabilitation. Thirty-one subjects were enrolled, 29 began rehabilitation, and 25 completed rehabilitation. There were few differences in clinical or morphological outcome measures between rehabilitation groups across time, and reinjury rates were low for both rehabilitation groups after return to sport (4 of 29 subjects had reinjuries). Greater craniocaudal length of injury, as measured on MRI before the start of rehabilitation, was positively correlated with longer return-to-sport time. At the time of return to sport, although all subjects showed a near-complete resolution of pain and return of muscle strength, no subject showed complete resolution of injury as assessed on MRI. The 2 rehabilitation programs employed in this study yielded similar results with respect to hamstring muscle recovery and function at the time of return to sport. Evidence of continuing muscular healing is present after completion of rehabilitation, despite the appearance of normal physical strength and function on clinical examination. Therapy, level 1b-.

  2. Ropivacaine alters the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons: In vitro controlled mechanical testing of tendons from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, M; Sbihi, J; Sbihi, A; Pithioux, M; Parratte, S; Argenson, J-N

    2017-11-01

    Intraarticular or periarticular injection of ropivacaine (RI) is an element of current knee surgery practices. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RI on the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons. We hypothesized that RI would have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of periarticular soft tissues METHODS: A tensile test to failure was performed on 120 hamstring tendon segments harvested during ACL reconstruction surgery in 120 patients. Two sets of tensile tests were done. The first evaluated the effect of RI itself on the mechanical properties of tendons: 30 samples were soaked for 1hour in a 2% RI solution and compared to 30 samples soaked in a saline solution (control group). The second evaluated the effect of RI concentration on the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons: 30 samples were soaked for 1hour in a 2% RI solution and 30 samples were soaked in a 7.5% RI solution. In the first test, 29 samples from each group were analyzed as two samples (one in each group) failed at the grip interface. The specimens exposed to 2% RI had lower ultimate tensile strength (Δ=4.4MPa, P=0.001), strain energy (Δ=13MPa, P=0.001) and Young's modulus (Δ=1.6MPa, P=0.02) than the specimens in the control group. There was no significant difference in the strain at failure between groups (Δ=5%, P=0.3). In the second test, one specimen from the 7.5% RI group failed during the preloading and was excluded. There was no significant difference in terms of the load at failure and ultimate tensile stress (Δ=0.45MPa, P=0.6) and strain energy (Δ=0.49MPa, P=0.49) between the two groups. There were significant differences in terms of elongation at failure (Δ=28%, P=0.0003) and Young's modulus (Δ=2.6MPa, P=0.005), with the specimens exposed to 7.5% RI undergoing greater deformation and having a lower Young's modulus. While local RI injections are widely performed in clinical practice, the results of this in vitro study point to short

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon: a prospective comparative study with 9-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Donner, Stefanie; Zechmann, Christian M; Springer, Jan; Siebold, Rainer; Paessler, Hans Heinrich

    2011-05-01

    To analyze the long-term evaluation of clinical, functional, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results after implant-free press-fit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon (BPT) versus quadrupled hamstring tendon (HT) grafts. Sixty-two ACL-insufficient patients were included in a prospective, randomized study (31 BPT and 31 HT). Both surgical procedures were performed without any implants by a press-fit technique by the senior author. The femoral tunnel was drilled through the anteromedial portal for anatomic placement. At 8.8 years after reconstruction, 53 patients (28 BPT and 25 HT) were examined by different clinical and functional tests. Bilateral MRI scans were performed and interpreted by an independent radiologist. On follow-up, the score on the International Knee Documentation Committee evaluation form was significantly better in the HT group. The clinical examination including range of motion, KT-1000 test (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA), and pivot-shift test showed no significant differences. On isokinetic testing, the mean quadriceps strength was close to normal (96%) in both groups, but the hamstring strength was lower in the HT group (100.3%/95.1%). Kneeling (1.5/1.1, P = .002), knee walking (1.72/1.14, P = .002), and single-leg hop test (95.8%/99.1%, P = .057) were better in the HT group. The MRI findings about the mean degree of cartilage lesion (International Cartilage Repair Society protocol) of the operated (2.1/2.1) and nonoperated (1.4/1.8) knee showed no significant differences. No significant difference was found in the grade of medial or lateral meniscal lesion or the number of patients having meniscal lesions when the operated and nonoperated knees were compared. Tunnel measurements, Caton-Deschamps Index, and the sagittal ACL angle were similar. The implant-free press-fit technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by use of bone-patellar tendon and hamstring grafts with anatomic graft placement is

  4. Transportal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadrupled hamstring tendon graft: A prospective outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has been one of the most commonly performed procedures throughout the world. Unsatisfactory outcome with conventional ACL reconstruction has been attributed to nonanatomic graft placement. Researchers have advised placing the graft in the native footprint of ACL to avoid nonanatomic graft placement. The goal of this study was to analyze the outcome of anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction using transportal technique. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective outcome study conducted on 85 consecutive patients of ACL reconstruction of which 62 patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analyzed for final results. All the patients underwent ACL reconstruction by quadrupled hamstring tendon graft using transportal technique and the accessory anteromedial (AAM portal for femoral tunnel creation. The graft was fixed with endobutton on femoral side and bioabsorbable screw on the tibial side. Patients were evaluated for range of motion, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score, and Lysholm scores at a minimum followup period of 2 years. The mean pre- and postoperative scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: The mean Lysholm and IKDC scores improved significantly (P < 0.0001 from preoperative value. According to IKDC score, 90.3% (n = 56 were either normal or near normal at final followup. According to Lysholm score, 75.8% of patients had excellent and 13.3% had good results. Preoperatively, pivot shift was present in 85.5% (n = 53 of patients which reduced to 4.8% (n = 3 postoperatively. Infection and knee stiffness occurred in two patients, and femoral tunnel blowout and graft re-rupture occurred in one patient each. Conclusion: Anatomic ACL reconstruction by AAM portal is a reproducible technique which gives good clinical outcome at short-term followup.

  5. COMBINED FEMORAL FIXATION TECNIQUE IN HAMSTRING TENDON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION: ASESSMENT OF TUNNEL WIDENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to assess the influence of combined femoral fixation technique during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction on the femoral tunnel widening at long term follow-up.Material and methods. 99 patients with primary hamstring tendon (HT ACL reconstruction performed in 2007-2008 were analyzed. In the study group (42 patients on the femoral side a combined cortical suspension (Endobutton CL, Smith & Nephew and transverse (Rigid Fix, Depuy Mitek fixation of graft was used. In control group, isolated cortical suspension fixation (Endobutton CL, Smith & Nephew was used. On the tibial side for graft fixation a biodegradable screw (Biointrafix, DePuy Mitek was used in all cases. Tunnel widening was calculated in percentage against primary tunnel diameter created during the surgery. MRI data were exported to eFilm (Merge Healthcare software, measurement of femoral tunnel diameters was performed on T1 sequences in coronal and sagittal planes on three different levels.Results. The mean age at the last follow up in the study group was 38.9±1.4, in control group – 38,6±1,08. The median time from surgery to follow up was 9 years and 4 months in the study group and 8 years 7 months in the controls. The incidence of graft failure in the study group was reported as 14.3%, while in the control group as 17,5%. The median femoral tunnel widening was larger in the control group at the joint aperture and midsection levels both in coronal and sagittal plane, although there was no statistically significant differences (p>0,05.Conclusion. The combination of cortical suspension and transverse HT femoral graft fixation technique is likely to reduce tunnel enlargement at the long term follow-up. However further research and larger sample groups are required. 

  6. The financial cost of hamstring strain injuries in the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jack; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) have remained the most prevalent injury in the Australian Football League (AFL) over the past 21 regular seasons. The effect of HSIs in sports is often expressed as regular season games missed due to injury. However, the financial cost of athletes missing games due to injury has not been investigated. The aim of this report is to estimate the financial cost of games missed due to HSIs in the AFL. Data were collected using publicly available information from the AFL's injury report and the official AFL annual report for the past 10 competitive AFL seasons. Average athlete salary and injury epidemiology data were used to determine the average yearly financial cost of HSIs for AFL clubs and the average financial cost of a single HSI over this time period. Across the observed period, average yearly financial cost of HSIs per club increased by 71% compared with a 43% increase in average yearly athlete salary. Over the same time period the average financial cost of a single HSI increased by 56% from $A25,603 in 2003 to $A40,021 in 2012, despite little change in the HSI rates during the period. The observed increased financial cost of HSIs was ultimately explained by the failure of teams to decrease HSI rates, but coupled with increases in athlete salaries over the past 10 season. The information presented in this report highlights the financial cost of HSIs and other sporting injuries, raising greater awareness and the need for further funding for research into injury prevention strategies to maximise economical return for investment in athletes.

  7. Hamstring Tendon Regeneration After Harvest for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; D'Adamio, Stefano; Diaz Balzani, Lorenzo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    To assess whether the portions of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons harvested for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have the potential to regenerate and, if so, to evaluate the histologic properties and actual function of this newly formed tissue. We performed a comprehensive search of CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and SPORTDiscus from inception of the databases to July 2014, using various combinations of keywords. Studies focusing on hamstring tendon and muscle regeneration through imaging and histology, as well as on the related functional outcomes, were selected. We included studies assessing evidence of tissue regeneration with imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional computed tomography, ultrasonography) or with histologic examination of biopsy samples (or a combination thereof). Nineteen articles were included in this review, with a total of 400 patients observed. The overall rate of tissue regeneration was 86.0%, with similar values shown in most studies regardless of the methodology of the assessment. Biopsy confirmed that the tissue found at the site in 74% of the cases showed typical histologic features of the tendon. The mean modified Coleman Methodology Score of the studies included was 52.7 points, showing a modest methodologic quality for the studies published to date. In over 85% of the cases analyzed, regeneration signs of the harvested tendon were found through different imaging and histologic methodologies. A torque deficit in deep knee flexion is always present postoperatively, but the cause for this is still unclear. There is a need for better-designed trials featuring a higher level of evidence to further investigate this matter, and the effects of postoperative care and the surgical approach used on the regeneration process should be analyzed in the future. Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV

  8. Return to play criteria after hamstring muscle injury in professional football: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambaldi, Mattia; Beasley, Ian; Rushton, Alison

    2017-08-01

    Hamstring muscle injury (HMI) is the most common injury in professional football and has a high re-injury rate. Despite this, there are no validated criteria to support return to play (RTP) decisions. To use the Delphi method to reach expert consensus on RTP criteria after HMI in professional football. All professional football clubs in England (n=92) were invited to participate in a 3-round Delphi study. Round 1 requested a list of criteria used for RTP decisions after HMI. Responses were independently collated by 2 researchers under univocal definitions of RTP criteria. In round 2 participants rated their agreement for each RTP criterion on a 1-5 Likert Scale. In round 3 participants re-rated the criteria that had reached consensus in round 2. Descriptive statistics and Kendall's coefficient of concordance enabled interpretation of consensus. Participation rate was limited at 21.7% (n=20), while retention rate was high throughout the 3 rounds (90.0%, 85.0%, 90.0%). Round 1 identified 108 entries with varying definitions that were collated into a list of 14 RTP criteria. Rounds 2 and 3 identified 13 and 12 criteria reaching consensus, respectively. Five domains of RTP assessment were identified: functional performance, strength, flexibility, pain and player's confidence. The highest-rated criteria were in the functional performance domain, with particular importance given to sprint ability. This study defined a list of consensually agreed RTP criteria for HMI in professional football. Further work is now required to determine the validity of the identified criteria. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  10. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  11. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  12. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  13. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  14. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  15. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  16. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  17. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  18. The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Tarik; Yagmur Gunes, Gokce; Dogan, Hanife; Ucar, Ilyas; Willems, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n = 15), static stretching (n = 16), KT (n = 17), and control (n = 17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p > .05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p = .04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p  .05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of hamstring tendon autograft and tibialis anterior allograft in arthroscopic transtibial single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Jia-Shi; He, Ming; Wang, Guang-Bin; Shen, Peng; Bai, Lun-Hao

    2015-10-01

    To compare the outcomes between hamstring tendon autograft and tibialis anterior allograft in arthroscopic transtibial single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. Thirty-seven patients undergoing isolated single-bundle PCL reconstruction were enrolled in this study, and their data were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into group A [4-strand hamstring tendon autograft (4SHG), n = 18] and group B [2-strand tibialis anterior allograft (2STAG), n = 19] and followed up for 2 years at least. Several parameters including the International Knee Documentation Committee score, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity rating and knee laxity arthrometer were evaluated, and physical examination was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and postoperative complications were also observed in all patients. Meanwhile, the postoperative posterior instability was compared between the affected knee and the contra-lateral knee. Compared with preoperative knee laxity and function, both groups had significant improvement postoperatively (P reconstruction. Compared with contra-lateral knees, the affected knees have slight residual knee laxity in both groups. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  20. THE MID - TERM EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING ON PEAK POWER OF QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRING MUSCLES AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Khabazan Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess mid- term effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles after ACL reconstruction 24 hours after taping. Material: Thirty six men who had undergone ACL reconstruction and completed physiotherapy periods (6 months were assigned to no taping, placebo and taping groups. Peak power was tested before and 24 hours after taping by Isokinetic dynamometry. Data was analyzed by SPSS software 19. ANOVA and post hoc test (LSD were used for interpretive analysis. Results: The results showed that the effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps muscles at velocities of 180°/s and 300°/s was significant. In the hamstring muscles, significant effects were obtained at velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s & 300°/s. Conclusion: Positive impacts of Kinesio tape on muscular peak power among athletes who had ACL reconstruction were observed. Regardless of psychological effect and reducing re - injury fear, Kinesio - tape causes to stabilize and increase effective range of motion of the knee, so it is recommended that in the explosive training, athletes who have ACL reconstruction should use tape to reduce the probability of re-injury and increase muscle power.

  1. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Vinstrup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors.

  2. Hamstrings tendon graft preparation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the WhipKnotTM soft tissue cinch technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Masoumiganjgah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAppropriate graft tension and secure graft incorporation inbone tunnels are essential for successful anterior cruciateligament (ACL reconstruction using hamstrings tendonautografts. The WhipKnot™ soft tissue cinch, introduced bySmith and Nephew in 2004, is an alternative option to thecommonly used whipstitch technique during preparation ofthe hamstring autograft in ACL reconstruction.AimsTo investigate the effectiveness of the WhipKnot™ softtissue cinch and technique during the preparation of thetendon graft for ACL reconstruction.MethodA total of 33 ACL reconstruction operations performedbetween February 2011 and December 2011 were includedin this study. These were performed by a single seniorsurgeon who used the Whipknot™ technique for thepreparation of each graft. Four were used for eachoperation; two for each end of the harvested hamstringstendons, including semitendinosus and gracilis tendonsrespectively.ResultsIn total, 132 WhipKnots were used during the kneeoperations. Use of the WhipKnot™ technique resulted insuccessful graft preparations, tensioning and effective graftplacement in the tibial and femoral tunnels in almost allinstances. Only one case of WhipKnot™ failure (slippagewas recorded.ConclusionThese results indicate that the Whipknot™ technique is asafe, reliable and practical option for the preparation of thehamstrings autografts.

  3. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  4. Short term effectiveness of neural sliders and neural tensioners as an adjunct to static stretching of hamstrings on knee extension angle in healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saurab; Balthillaya, Ganesh; Rao, Roopa; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the added benefit of nerve-biased interventions over static stretching in hamstring flexibility and to compare the effectiveness of two types of nerve-biased interventions over a week. Three-arm assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial. University Laboratory. Sixty healthy individuals (mean age = 22 ± 2.4 years) with reduced hamstring flexibility were randomized to three groups who received static stretching and neurodynamic sliders (NS-SS); static stretching with neurodynamic tensioner (NT-SS) and static stretching (SS) alone. Knee extension angle (KEA) in degrees. Baseline characteristics including demographic, anthropomorphic and KEA between groups were comparable. A significant interaction was observed between group (intervention) and time, [F (2,114) = 3.595; p = 0.031]. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons analyses revealed significant differences at post-intervention measurement time point between NS-SS and SS (mean difference: -6.8; 95%CI = -12, -1.5; p = 0.011) and NT-SS and SS (mean difference: -11.6; 95%CI = -16.7, -6.3; p tensioners are both effective in increasing hamstring flexibility as an adjunct to static hamstring stretching when compared to static stretching alone. No neural mobilization technique proved to be superior over another. This clinical trial is registered in Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI) with registration number CTRI/2012/05/002619. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inter-session reliability and sex-related differences in hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time during eccentric isokinetic contractions in recreational athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    The purposes were twofold: (a) to ascertain the inter-session reliability of hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time; and (b) to examine sex-related differences in the hamstrings reaction times profile. Twenty-four men and 24 women completed the study. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measured during eccentric isokinetic contractions were recorded on three different occasions. Inter-session reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CVTE), percentage change in the mean (CM) and intraclass correlations (ICC). For both biceps femoris and semitendinosus, total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measures demonstrated moderate inter-session reliability (CVTE0.7). The results also indicated that, although not statistically significant, women reported consistently longer hamstrings total reaction time (23.5ms), pre-motor time (12.7ms) and motor time (7.5ms) values than men. Therefore, an observed change larger than 5%, 9% and 8% for total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time respectively from baseline scores after performing a training program would indicate that a real change was likely. Furthermore, while not statistically significant, sex differences were noted in the hamstrings reaction time profile which may play a role in the greater incidence of ACL injuries in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer) : A worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, F. J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039; Goedhart, Edwin A.; Huisstede, Bionka M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298688719

    2017-01-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify

  7. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  8. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  9. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  10. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  11. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  13. Associations of maximal voluntary isometric hip extension torque with muscle size of hamstring and gluteus maximus and intra-abdominal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Hirata, Kosuke; Ishida, Kiraku; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu

    2017-06-01

    Muscle size of the hamstring and gluteus maximus (GM) as well as intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are considered as factors affecting the torque development during hip extension. This study examined the associations of torque development during maximal voluntary isometric hip extension with IAP and muscle size of the hamstring and GM. Anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the hamstring and thickness of GM were determined in 20 healthy young males using an ultrasonography apparatus (Experiment 1). Torque and IAP were simultaneously measured while subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric hip extension. The IAP was measured using a pressure transducer placed in the rectum and determined at the time at which the developed torque reached to the maximal. In Experiment 2, torque and IAP were measured during maximal voluntary isometric hip flexion in 18 healthy young males. The maximal hip extension torque was significantly correlated with the IAP (r = 0.504, P = 0.024), not with the ACSA of the hamstring (r = 0.307, P = 0.188) or the thickness of GM (r = 0.405, P = 0.076). The relationship was still significant even when the ACSA of the hamstring and the thickness of GM were adjusted statistically (r = 0.486, P = 0.041). The maximal hip flexion torque was not significantly correlated with the IAP (r = -0.118, P = 0.642). The current results suggest that IAP can contribute independently of the muscle size of the agonists to maximal voluntary hip extension torque.

  14. Determination of the criterion-related validity of hip joint angle test for estimating hamstring flexibility using a contemporary statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iniesta, María; Ayala, Francisco; Santonja, Fernando; Cejudo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    To examine the criterion-related validity of the horizontal hip joint angle (H-HJA) test and vertical hip joint angle (V-HJA) test for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight-leg raise (PSLR) test using contemporary statistical measures. Validity study. Controlled laboratory environment. One hundred thirty-eight professional trampoline gymnasts (61 women and 77 men). Hamstring flexibility. Each participant performed 2 trials of H-HJA, V-HJA, and PSLR tests in a randomized order. The criterion-related validity of H-HJA and V-HJA tests was measured through the estimation equation, typical error of the estimate (TEEST), validity correlation (β), and their respective confidence limits. The findings from this study suggest that although H-HJA and V-HJA tests showed moderate to high validity scores for estimating hamstring flexibility (standardized TEEST = 0.63; β = 0.80), the TEEST statistic reported for both tests was not narrow enough for clinical purposes (H-HJA = 10.3 degrees; V-HJA = 9.5 degrees). Subsequently, the predicted likely thresholds for the true values that were generated were too wide (H-HJA = predicted value ± 13.2 degrees; V-HJA = predicted value ± 12.2 degrees). The results suggest that although the HJA test showed moderate to high validity scores for estimating hamstring flexibility, the prediction intervals between the HJA and PSLR tests are not strong enough to suggest that clinicians and sport medicine practitioners should use the HJA and PSLR tests interchangeably as gold standard measurement tools to evaluate and detect short hamstring muscle flexibility.

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of Muscle Thickness, Echo-Intensity and Cross Sectional Area of Quadriceps and Hamstrings Muscle Groups Using B-mode Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio V. Ruas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound muscle images have been extensively used as tools for investigating, diagnosing and monitoring thigh muscles. However, there is a lack of information examining ultrasound reliability of quadriceps and hamstrings images for research and clinical use. Objectives: To determine the reliability of muscle thickness (MT, echo intensity (EI and cross sectional area (CSA of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups. Methods: Single transverse images of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus intermedius (VI, vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris long head (BFlh, semitendinosus (ST, and semimembranosus (SM muscles were scanned in the right and left legs of ten healthy collegiate men (age 23.4 ± 2.2 yrs, mass 71.7 ± 11.7 kg, height 1.73 ± 0.06 m between two sessions with one day interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, standard error of measurement (SEM, and minimum difference to be considered “real” (MD were measured for MT, EI, and CSA. Results: A range of 0.97-0.99, 0.83-0.88, and 0.86-0.97 (ICC; 0.72-1.38, 2.73-3.41, and 0.36-1.04 (SEM; and 2.01-3.82, 7.56-9.46, and 0.99-2.89 (MD were found for quadriceps muscles, and 0.93-0.99, 0.74-0.90, and 0.89-0.96 (ICC; 0.73-1.94, 3.29-4.98, and 0.69-1.08 (SEM; and 2.03-5.38, 9.13-13.81, and 1.91-2.98 (MD were found for hamstrings muscles. Conclusions: These results suggest that ultrasound imaging of both quadriceps and hamstrings muscle architecture is a reliable technique for assessing thigh musculoskeletal tissue. The anatomical sites, as well as ultrasound adjustments, images, and results utilized here may assist future researchers and clinicians as reference tools when measuring quadriceps and hamstrings musculature.

  16. TREATMENT OF HAMSTRING STRAIN IN A COLLEGIATE POLE‐VAULTER INTEGRATING DRY NEEDLING WITH AN ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM: A RESIDENT'S CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Richard B.; Zylstra, Edo; Johnson, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hamstring strain injuries are among the most common injuries seen in sports. Management is made difficult by the high recurrence rates. Typical time to return to sport varies but can be prolonged with recurrence. Eccentric strength deficits remain post‐injury, contributing to reinjury. Eccentric training has shown to be an effective method at prevention of hamstring injury in multiple systematic reviews and prospective RCTs but limited prospective rehabilitation literature. Functional dry needling is a technique that has been reported to be beneficial in the management of pain and dysfunction after muscle strains, but there is limited published literature on its effects on rehabilitation or recurrence of injury. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to present the management and outcomes of a patient with hamstring strain, treated with functional dry needling and eccentric exercise. Case Description: The subject was an 18‐year‐old collegiate pole‐vaulter who presented to physical therapy with an acute hamstring strain and history of multiple strains on uninvolved extremity. He was treated in Physical Therapy three times per week for 3 weeks with progressive eccentric training and 3 sessions of functional dry needling. Outcomes: By day 12, his eccentric strength on the involved extremity was greater than the uninvolved extremity and he reported clinically meaningful improvement in outcome scores. By Day 20, he was able to return to full sports participation without pain or lingering strength deficits. Discussion: The patient in this case report was able to return to sport within 20 days and without recurrence. He demonstrated significant decreases in pain and dysfunction with dry needling. He had greater strength on the injured extremity compared to contra‐lateral previously injured extremity. Conclusions: This case illustrates the use of functional dry needling and eccentric exercise leading to a favorable outcome in a patient with

  17. Treatment of hamstring strain in a collegiate pole-vaulter integrating dry needling with an eccentric training program: a resident's case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Scott C; Westrick, Richard B; Zylstra, Edo; Johnson, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are among the most common injuries seen in sports. Management is made difficult by the high recurrence rates. Typical time to return to sport varies but can be prolonged with recurrence. Eccentric strength deficits remain post-injury, contributing to reinjury. Eccentric training has shown to be an effective method at prevention of hamstring injury in multiple systematic reviews and prospective RCTs but limited prospective rehabilitation literature. Functional dry needling is a technique that has been reported to be beneficial in the management of pain and dysfunction after muscle strains, but there is limited published literature on its effects on rehabilitation or recurrence of injury. The purpose of this case report is to present the management and outcomes of a patient with hamstring strain, treated with functional dry needling and eccentric exercise. The subject was an 18-year-old collegiate pole-vaulter who presented to physical therapy with an acute hamstring strain and history of multiple strains on uninvolved extremity. He was treated in Physical Therapy three times per week for 3 weeks with progressive eccentric training and 3 sessions of functional dry needling. By day 12, his eccentric strength on the involved extremity was greater than the uninvolved extremity and he reported clinically meaningful improvement in outcome scores. By Day 20, he was able to return to full sports participation without pain or lingering strength deficits. The patient in this case report was able to return to sport within 20 days and without recurrence. He demonstrated significant decreases in pain and dysfunction with dry needling. He had greater strength on the injured extremity compared to contra-lateral previously injured extremity. This case illustrates the use of functional dry needling and eccentric exercise leading to a favorable outcome in a patient with hamstring strain. Level 4.

  18. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer): a worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Fjg; Goedhart, Edwin A; Huisstede, Bionka Ma

    2017-11-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify RTP consultation and responsibilities after hamstring injury. The study used the Delphi procedure. The results of a systematic review were used as a starting point for the Delphi procedure. Fifty-eight experts in the field of hamstring injury management selected by 28 FIFA Medical Centres of Excellence worldwide participated. Each Delphi round consisted of a questionnaire, an analysis and an anonymised feedback report. After four Delphi rounds, with more than 83% response for each round, consensus was achieved that RTP should be defined as 'the moment a player has received criteria-based medical clearance and is mentally ready for full availability for match selection and/or full training'. The experts reached consensus on the following criteria to support the RTP decision: medical staff clearance, absence of pain on palpation, absence of pain during strength and flexibility testing, absence of pain during/after functional testing, similar hamstring flexibility, performance on field testing, and psychological readiness. It was also agreed that RTP decisions should be based on shared decision-making, primarily via consultation with the athlete, sports physician, physiotherapist, fitness trainer and team coach. The consensus regarding aspects of RTP should provide clarity and facilitate the assessment of when RTP is appropriate after hamstring injury, so as to avoid or reduce the risk of injury recurrence because of a premature RTP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  20. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  1. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  2. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  3. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  4. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  5. How the fixation method stiffness and initial tension affect anterior load-displacement of the knee and tension in anterior cruciate ligament grafts: a study in cadaveric knees using a double-loop hamstrings graft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eagar, Paul; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2004-01-01

    ... load-displacement behavior of knees reconstructed with a double-loop hamstrings tendon graft. The second was to determine the corresponding graft tensions at 225 N of anterior force applied to the knee...

  6. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard Henry; Hoskins Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and r...

  7. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  8. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  9. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and modified sit-and-reach test for estimating hamstring flexibility in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, J; Chillón, P; Ortega, F B; Montesinos, J L; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach test (SRT) and the modified sit-and-reach test (MSRT) for estimating hamstring flexibility in children and adolescents as well as to determine whether the MSRT is more valid than the SRT. A total of 87 (45 boys and 42 girls) children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-17 years old) performed the SRT and the MSRT. Hamstring flexibility was measured with goniometry through the passive straight-leg raise test. Regression analysis was performed to study the association of SRT and MSRT with hamstring flexibility (criterion measure). The SRT was associated with hamstring flexibility in both children (beta=1.089, R (2)=0.281, p=0.001) and adolescents (beta=0.690, R (2)=0.333, p=0.004). The MSRT was also associated with hamstring flexibility in both children (beta=1.296, R (2)=0.298, pcriterion-related validity of the SRT and the MSRT for estimating hamstring flexibility is weak. The present data do not support that the MSRT is a more valid method than the SRT in children and adolescents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  11. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  12. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  13. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J

    2016-01-01

    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  14. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  15. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  16. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  17. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  18. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  19. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  20. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  1. DEPRESSIONARY EFFECT OF PROXIMITY OF RESIDENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  2. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S

    2018-02-06

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  4. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  5. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  6. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  7. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  8. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2004-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  10. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  11. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  12. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  13. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  14. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  15. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  16. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  18. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M

    2014-05-01

    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  19. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  20. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  1. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  2. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine and compare the concurrent hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests in different athletes (tennis players, kayakers, canoeists, and cyclists); (b) to determine the criterion-related validity of the pelvic tilt assessed by the Spinal Mouse system as a measure of hamstring flexibility in athletes; and (c) to evaluate the influence of spinal posture, pelvic tilt, and hamstring muscle flexibility in the SR and TT scores. Twenty-four tennis players, 30 canoeists, 43 kayakers, and 44 cyclists were recruited. Passive straight leg raise (PSLR), SR, and TT tests were randomly performed. Spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system when the maximal trunk flexion was achieved in the SR and TT tests. Tennis players and cyclists showed moderate correlations between PSLR with respect to SR (β = 0.78 and β = 0.76, respectively) and TT (β = 0.77 and β = 0.74, respectively). Correlations were slightly lower in canoeists (SR, β = 0.64; TT, β = 0.75). Kayakers showed the lowest correlation values (SR, β = 0.53; TT, β = 0.57). Correlation values between PSLR and pelvic tilt angle in both the SR and TT tests were β < 0.70 in all the groups of athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed a high variance explained from pelvic tilt and lumbar spine in the SR score. In conclusion, the SR and TT tests can be appropriate measures to determine spine flexibility and pelvic tilt range of motion but not to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in tennis players, canoeists, kayakers, and cyclists.

  3. The Comparison of the Effects of Three Physiotherapy Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility in Children: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Paw?owska, Paulina; K?dra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10-13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation - PIR (n = 40), (2) static...

  4. Comparison of the electromyographic activity, quadriceps: hamstring coactivation ratio and strength changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzila Taj; Subhra Chatterjee (Nee Karmakar)

    2015-01-01

    The preliminary study was aimed to compare Electromyographic (EMG) activity, Quadriceps: Hamstring coactivation (Q: H) ratio and 1- Repetition maximum (RM) squat changes of dominant leg muscles in collegiate football and volleyball players during different forms of exercises. Surface EMG analysis was carried out in 24 university level trained male players, football (n=12) and volleyball (n=12) while performing the following exercises: unilateral bridges, lunges, lateral step up to a 20.32 cm ...

  5. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Systematic Review. Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies.

  6. The immediate effect of bilateral self myofascial release on the plantar surface of the feet on hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Goodwin, Faye; Alfaki, Mostapha; Bourton, Amey-Jay; Jeffries, Caitlin; Scott, Harriet

    2015-07-01

    Self myofascial release (SMR) via a tennis ball to the plantar aspect of the foot is widely used and advocated to increase flexibility and range of movement further along the posterior muscles of a proposed "anatomy train". To date there is no evidence to support the effect of bilateral SMR on the plantar aspect of the feet to increase hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility. The primary aim was to investigate the immediate effect of a single application of SMR on the plantar aspect of the foot, on hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility. The secondary aim was to evaluate the method and propose improvements in future research. A pilot single blind randomised control trial. Twenty four healthy volunteers (8 men, 16 women; mean age 28 years ± 11.13). Participants underwent screening to exclude hypermobility and were randomly allocated to an intervention (SMR) or control group (no therapy). Baseline and post intervention flexibility was assessed by a sit-and-reach test (SRT). A one way between groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to compare between group outcome SRT measurements. Baseline pre-intervention and control SRT measurements were used as the covariate in the analysis. There was a significant increase (p = 0.03) in the intervention SRT outcome measurements compared to the control group, with a large effect size. An immediate clinical benefit of SMR on the flexibility of the hamstrings and lumbar spine was indicated and suggestions for methodological improvements may inform future research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of seven weeks of static hamstring stretching on flexibility and sprint performance in young soccer players according to their playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Fernandez, Alejandro; Sanchez, Javier; Rodriguez Marroyo, José A; Villa, José G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 7 weeks of static hamstring stretching on flexibility and sprint performance in young soccer players. One hundred and three healthy soccer players voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were assigned to a control group (N.=22, 16.5±0.7 years, 174.0±5.4 cm and 68.0±6.8 kg) and an experimental group (N.=81, 18.9±1.8 years, 176.0±5.8 cm and 68.2±8.4 kg). All subjects performed a sit-and-reach and a 30-m Sprint Test to assess their flexibility performance and sprinting ability, respectively, before and after 7 weeks of static hamstring stretching program. The static stretching program consisted of 4 stretching exercises performed at the end of the training session during 6 days per week. Each stretch was held for 30-s and performed twice with a 15-s rest between. Flexibility was significantly (Pplaying positions studied. There were significant differences (Ptime. The use of static stretching at the end of the training sessions prevents the negative effect of the load on hamstring flexibility and it can influence improvement in flexibility.

  8. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi

    2009-09-01

    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  9. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  10. A descriptive study of a manual therapy intervention within a randomised controlled trial for hamstring and lower limb injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Wayne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little literature describing the use of manual therapy performed on athletes. It was our purpose to document the usage of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention within a RCT by identifying the type, amount, frequency, location and reason for treatment provided. This information is useful for the uptake of the intervention into clinical settings and to allow clinicians to better understand a role that sports chiropractors offer. Methods All treatment rendered to 29 semi-elite Australian Rules footballers in the sports chiropractic intervention group of an 8 month RCT investigating hamstring and lower-limb injury prevention was recorded. Treatment was pragmatically and individually determined and could consist of high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA manipulation, mobilization and/or supporting soft tissue therapies. Descriptive statistics recorded the treatment rendered for symptomatic or asymptomatic benefit, delivered to joint or soft tissue structures and categorized into body regions. For the joint therapy, it was recorded whether treatment consisted of HVLA manipulation, HVLA manipulation and mobilization, or mobilization only. Breakdown of the HVLA technique was performed. Results A total of 487 treatments were provided (mean 16.8 consultations/player with 64% of treatment for asymptomatic benefit (73% joint therapies, 57% soft tissue therapies. Treatment was delivered to approximately 4 soft tissue and 4 joint regions each consultation. The most common asymptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were thoracic (22%, knee (20%, hip (19%, sacroiliac joint (13% and lumbar (11%. For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%, hip flexor (14%, knee (12% and lumbar (11%. The most common symptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were lumbar (25%, thoracic (15% and hip (14%. For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%, lumbar (15% and posterior thigh (8%. Of the joint therapy, 56% was HVLA

  11. A descriptive study of a manual therapy intervention within a randomised controlled trial for hamstring and lower limb injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry

    2010-08-09

    There is little literature describing the use of manual therapy performed on athletes. It was our purpose to document the usage of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention within a RCT by identifying the type, amount, frequency, location and reason for treatment provided. This information is useful for the uptake of the intervention into clinical settings and to allow clinicians to better understand a role that sports chiropractors offer. All treatment rendered to 29 semi-elite Australian Rules footballers in the sports chiropractic intervention group of an 8 month RCT investigating hamstring and lower-limb injury prevention was recorded. Treatment was pragmatically and individually determined and could consist of high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation, mobilization and/or supporting soft tissue therapies. Descriptive statistics recorded the treatment rendered for symptomatic or asymptomatic benefit, delivered to joint or soft tissue structures and categorized into body regions. For the joint therapy, it was recorded whether treatment consisted of HVLA manipulation, HVLA manipulation and mobilization, or mobilization only. Breakdown of the HVLA technique was performed. A total of 487 treatments were provided (mean 16.8 consultations/player) with 64% of treatment for asymptomatic benefit (73% joint therapies, 57% soft tissue therapies). Treatment was delivered to approximately 4 soft tissue and 4 joint regions each consultation. The most common asymptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were thoracic (22%), knee (20%), hip (19%), sacroiliac joint (13%) and lumbar (11%). For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%), hip flexor (14%), knee (12%) and lumbar (11%). The most common symptomatic regions treated with joint therapies were lumbar (25%), thoracic (15%) and hip (14%). For soft tissue therapies it was gluteal (22%), lumbar (15%) and posterior thigh (8%). Of the joint therapy, 56% was HVLA manipulation only, 36% high-HVLA and

  12. Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L

    2018-01-01

    Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  13. Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft: can it restore normal knee joint kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadikota, Hemanth R; Wu, Jia-Lin; Seon, Jong Keun; Sutton, Karen; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2010-04-01

    Anatomical reconstruction techniques that can restore normal joint kinematics without increasing surgical complications could potentially improve clinical outcomes and help manage anterior cruciate ligament injuries more efficiently. Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft can more closely restore normal knee anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and internal-external kinematics than can conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematic responses after single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft were compared with the intact knee in 9 fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens using a robotic testing system. Kinematics of each knee were determined under an anterior tibial load (134 N), a simulated quadriceps load (400 N), and combined torques (10 N.m valgus and 5 N.m internal tibial torques) at 0 degrees , 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of flexion. Anterior tibial translations were more closely restored to the intact knee level after single-tunnel double-bundle reconstruction with anatomical placement of hamstring tendon graft than with a single-bundle reconstruction under the 3 external loading conditions. Under simulated quadriceps load, the mean internal tibial rotations after both reconstructions were lower than that of the anterior cruciate ligament-intact knee with no significant differences between these 3 knee conditions at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion (P > .05). The increased medial tibial shifts of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees were restored to the intact level by both reconstruction techniques under the 3 external loading conditions. Single-tunnel double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with anatomical placement of

  14. Acute Effects of Static Stretching of Hamstring on Performance and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk During Stop-Jump and Cutting Tasks in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Mianfang; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Xie

    2017-05-01

    Ruan, M, Zhang, Q, and Wu, X. Acute effects of static stretching of hamstring on performance and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1241-1250, 2017-There is limited research investigating antagonist stretch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of static stretching of hamstrings (SSH) on performance and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk during stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks. Twelve female college athletes (age 20.8 ± 0.7 years; height 1.61 ± 0.05 m; mass 54.25 ± 4.22 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks under 2 conditions: after warm-up with 4 × 30 seconds SSH or after warm-up without SSH. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data as well as electromyography of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius medialis were collected during testing. Static stretching of hamstrings significantly enhanced jump height by 5.1% (p = 0.009) but did not change the takeoff speed of cutting. No significant changes in peak knee adduction moment or peak anterior tibia shear force were observed with SSH regardless of the task. The peak lateral tibia shear force during cutting was significantly (p = 0.036) reduced with SSH. The co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps during the preactivation (stop-jump: p = 0.04; cutting: p = 0.05) and downward phases (stop-jump: p = 0.04; cutting: p = 0.05) was significantly reduced after SSH regardless of the task. The results suggest that SSH enhanced the performance of stop-jump because of decreased co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps but did not change the performance of cutting. In addition, SSH did not increase ACL injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks and even reduced medial-lateral knee loading during cutting.

  15. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C

    2013-04-01

    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  16. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  17. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  18. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  19. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

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    Sachin A Badge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  20. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  1. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  2. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  3. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  4. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  5. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  6. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  7. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  9. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  11. Therapeutic effects of tibial support braces on posterior stability after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Shen, P; Wang, J-S; Wang, G -B; He, M; Bai, L -H

    2015-04-01

    In the patients who have to be in supine position for most of the time after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, the tibia tends to shift backwards due to the gravity of the lower leg and the tensed hamstring muscle. To observe the effects of tibial support braces on rehabilitation after PCL reconstruction. Retrospective study. Inpatients. Thirty-nine patients were divided into regular brace (N.=18) and tibial support brace (N.=21) groups according to using different types of braces after PCL reconstruction. The follow-up time was more than 2 years in all patients. The function of the affected knee joint was evaluated with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity rating, range of motion (ROM) and kneelax arthrometer before and after PCL reconstruction, respectively. The function of the affected knee joint was significantly improved in both groups after PCL reconstruction. Compared with regular brace group, postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores were significantly increased in tibial support brace group (Pbrace group and tibial support brace group (Pbrace can obtain better therapeutic effects for PCL reconstruction. This study suggests that compared with regular brace, tibial support brace can significantly improve the mechanical stability and functional outcomes of the affected knee after PCL reconstruction.

  12. One-stage bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with use of hamstring tendon autografts: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Sajovic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilateral ACL rupture is not a common clinical problem, but the incidence of the bilateral knee injuries is increasing especially within highly sports active population. Mechanism of the injury rarely causes simultaneous bilateral ACL tear. Usually unilateral injury of the knee has occurred and later on contralateral injury has taken place.Patient and methods: Case report presented an unusual problem of a patient with chronic bilateral ACL – deficient knees and constitutionally very thin patellar tendons. Author decided to perform onestage bilateral ACL reconstructions using hamstring tendon autographs so as not too weaken his quadriceps muscles by compromising his extensor mechanism.Results: At three years follow-up the patient’s opinion was that both ACL reconstructed knees had normal function, and he had returned to his preinjury activity level. The overall result of the Lysholm knee score for left knee was 100 and for right one 95. Both knees had full range of motion, Lachman and pivot shift signs were negative.Conclusions: Two-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction is much more time consuming for the patient and expensive for health insurance, so one-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction is a logical solution of the problem.

  13. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  14. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  15. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  16. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  17. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  18. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai

    2013-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  20. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  1. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2017-05-10

    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  2. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  3. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  4. [Muscle exercise after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee--Part II: The development of the exercise method by simultaneous isometric contraction of the quadriceps and the hamstrings, and its biomechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K; Sasaki, T; Shirado, O; Yagi, T; Monji, J

    1985-12-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the stress of the ACL in the simultaneous isometric contraction (IMC) of the quadriceps and the hamstrings by means of analysis of two-dimensional models, and to estimate electromyographically the forces of those muscles in that contraction. The anterior drawer force (ADF) in the simultaneous IMC decreased as the flexion angle of the knee increased. The average value of the angles, where the ADF became zero, was 7.4 degrees. The integrated EMGs of the quadriceps and the hamstrings in the simultaneous maximum IMC were equal to 30-60% of those in separate maximum IMC. In the early stage of the rehabilitation after the ACL reconstruction, the simultaneous IMC of the quadriceps and the hamstrings is useful as one of the muscle exercise method, because that can be performed at the knee position near the full extension and can generate sufficient muscle force for exercise.

  5. [Muscle exercise after the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee--Part I: The force given to the anterior cruciate ligament by separate isometric contraction of the quadriceps or the hamstrings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K; Sasaki, T; Shirado, O; Yagi, T; Monji, J

    1985-12-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the force of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in separate isometric contraction (IMC) of the quadriceps and the hamstrings by means of the analysis of two-dimensional models. In IMC of the quadriceps, the average value of the anterior drawer force (ADF) was equal to 14% of the quadriceps tension at the knee flexion of 5 degrees. The ADF decreased as the flexion angle increased. The average value of the angles, where the ADF became zero, was 45.3 degrees, and the standard deviation was 12.5 degrees. In IMC of the hamstrings, the posterior drawer force was given at the every flexion angle. In the early stage of the rehabilitation after the ACL reconstruction, the quadriceps exercise by IMC should be performed at the knee flexion of more than 70 degrees (average + 1.96 X S.D.). The hamstrings exercise by IMC can be carried out regardless of flexion angle.

  6. A Comparative Study of Clinical Outcomes and Second-Look Arthroscopic Findings between Remnant-Preserving Tibialis Tendon Allograft and Hamstring Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Matched-Pair Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Keun; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Yoo, Jae Doo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare stability, functional outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft and remnant-sacrificing hamstring tendon autograft. We matched two groups (remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group and hamstring tendon autograft group) in terms of demographic characteristics, associated injury, and knee characteristics. Each group consisted of 25 patients. Operation time was longer in the remnant-preserving tibialis tendon allograft group, but there was no significant intergroup difference in stability, clinical outcome, and second-look arthroscopic findings. When an autograft is not feasible in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the remnant-preserving technique can produce comparable results in terms of restoration of function, stability of the knee, and degree of synovium coverage at second-look arthroscopy compared to remnant-sacrificing hamstring autograft.

  7. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-09-01

    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  8. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  9. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  11. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    QUIGLEY, RAYMOND; LISEC, AMBER; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  12. Reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test and toe touch test for estimating hamstring flexibility in recreationally active young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Sainz de Baranda, P; De Ste Croix, M; Santonja, F

    2012-11-01

    1) to examine the test-retest reproducibility and criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test (SRT) and the toe touch test (TT) for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR); and 2) to determine whether the SRT cut-off scores may be used for the TT test to identify participants in this sample of young healthy adults as having short hamstring flexibility. Test-retest design. Controlled laboratory environment. 243 active recreationally young adults. Participants performed the SRT, the TT test and PSLR twice in a randomized order with a 4-week interval between trials. Reproducibility was examined using typical percentage error (coefficient of variation [CV]) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as well as their respective confidence limits. Regression and Kappa correlation statistical analyses were performed to study the association of the SRT and TT test with the PSLR test and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between SRT and TT test were calculated to explore differences in the mean differences between these measurements. The finding showed acceptable reproducibility measures for SRT (8.74% CV; 0.92 ICC), TT test (9.86% CV; 0.89 ICC) and PSLR (5.46% CV; 0.85 ICC). The SRT (R² = 0.63) and TT test (R² = 0.49) were significantly associated with PSLR. The 95% LoA between SRT and TT test reported systematic bias (2.84 cm) and wide 95% random error (±9.72 cm). Reproducibility of SRT, TT test and PSLR is acceptable and the criterion-related validity of SRT and TT test is moderate. Furthermore, the SRT cut-off scores should not be used for TT test for the detection of short hamstring muscles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The comparison of the effects of three physiotherapy techniques on hamstring flexibility in children: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kędra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10-13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation - PIR (n = 40), (2) static stretch combined with stabilizing exercises - SS (n = 40) and (3) stabilizing exercises - SE (n = 40). Hamstring flexibility was assessed with straight leg raise (SLR), popliteal angle (PA) and finger-to-floor (FTF) tests. The examinations were conducted by blinded observers twice, prior to the program and a week after the last session with the physiotherapist. Twenty-six children who did not participate in all six exercise sessions with physiotherapists were excluded from the analysis. The results obtained by 94 children were analyzed (PIR, n = 32; SS, n = 31; SE, n = 31). In the PIR and SS groups, a significant (P0.05). SLR result in the PIR and SS groups was significantly (P<0.001) higher than in the SE group. As far as PA results are concerned, a significant difference was observed only between the SS and SE groups (P = 0.014). There were no significant (P = 0.15) differences regarding FTF results between the three groups. Post-isometric muscle relaxation and static stretch with stabilizing exercises led to a similar increase in hamstring flexibility and trunk forward bend in healthy 10-13-year-old children. The exercises limited to straightening gluteus maximus improved the SLR result, but did not change the PA and FTF results.

  14. The comparison of the effects of three physiotherapy techniques on hamstring flexibility in children: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Czaprowski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10-13 years, no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1 post-isometric relaxation - PIR (n = 40, (2 static stretch combined with stabilizing exercises - SS (n = 40 and (3 stabilizing exercises - SE (n = 40. Hamstring flexibility was assessed with straight leg raise (SLR, popliteal angle (PA and finger-to-floor (FTF tests. The examinations were conducted by blinded observers twice, prior to the program and a week after the last session with the physiotherapist. Twenty-six children who did not participate in all six exercise sessions with physiotherapists were excluded from the analysis. The results obtained by 94 children were analyzed (PIR, n = 32; SS, n = 31; SE, n = 31. In the PIR and SS groups, a significant (P0.05. SLR result in the PIR and SS groups was significantly (P<0.001 higher than in the SE group. As far as PA results are concerned, a significant difference was observed only between the SS and SE groups (P = 0.014. There were no significant (P = 0.15 differences regarding FTF results between the three groups. Post-isometric muscle relaxation and static stretch with stabilizing exercises led to a similar increase in hamstring flexibility and trunk forward bend in healthy 10-13-year-old children. The exercises limited to straightening gluteus maximus improved the SLR result, but did not change the PA and FTF results.

  15. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  16. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  17. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V

    2015-11-23

    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M

    2002-02-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  19. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  20. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  1. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  2. Arthroscopically assisted combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autologous hamstring grafts-isokinetic assessment with control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to: 1 evaluate the differences in pre-post operative knee functioning, mechanical stability, isokinetic knee muscle strength in simultaneous arthroscopic patients after having undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL with hamstring tendons reconstruction, 2 compare the results of ACL/PCL patients with the control group. DESIGN: Controlled Laboratory Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of 11 ACL/PCL patients had been matched with 22 uninjured control participants (CP. Prior to surgery, and minimum 2 years after it, functional assessment (Lysholm and IKDC 2000, mechanical knee joint stability evaluation (Lachman and "drawer" test and isokinetic tests (bilateral knee muscle examination had been performed. Different rehabilitation exercises had been used: isometric, passive exercises, exercises increasing the range of motion and proprioception, strength exercises and specific functional exercises. RESULTS: After arthroscopy no significant differences had been found between the injured and uninjured leg in all isokinetic parameters in ACL/PCL patients. However, ACL/PCL patients had still shown significantly lower values of strength in relative isokinetic knee flexors (p = 0.0065 and extensors (p = 0.0171 compared to the CP. There were no differences between groups regarding absolute isokinetic strength and flexors/extensors ratio. There was statistically significant progress in IKDC 2000 (p = 0.0044 and Lysholm (p = 0.0044 scales prior to (44 and 60 points respectively and after the reconstruction (61 for IKDC 2000 and 94 points for Lysholm. CONCLUSIONS: Although harvesting tendons of semitendinosus and/or gracilis from the healthy extremity diminishes muscle strength of knee flexors in comparison to the CP, flexor strength had improved. Statistically significant improvement of the knee extensor function may indicate that the recreation of joint mechanical stability is

  3. Magnetic resonance angiography evaluation of the bone tunnel and graft following ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Ryu; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Minami, Ginjiro; Nakagawa, Shuji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ikoma, Kazuya; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Shirai, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in the early phase after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to analyse the changes in nutrient blood vessels and blood flow to the femoral and tibial tunnels and the intraosseous tendon grafts. The subjects were 30 patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstruction with an autogenous hamstring tendon. MRA was performed at 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively (n = 10 at each time point). The mean overall signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in the tunnel regions and in the region of the tendon graft were compared in each femur and tibia. Blood vessels from arteries reached the femoral and tibial tunnels 2 months postoperatively. The tunnel walls showed high signal intensity, while the intraosseous tendon grafts had lower intensity. SNRs showed significant differences between the femoral and tibial tunnels overall and the intraosseous tendon grafts. At 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the signal intensity of the tunnel walls was decreased significantly, while that of the intraosseous tendon grafts was also decreased, but not significantly. At these times, the SNRs of the femoral and tibial tunnels did not differ significantly, both overall and in the region of the intraosseous tendon grafts. Revascularization around the femoral and tibial tunnels occurred at 2 months postoperatively, with blood flow subsequently decreasing over time until 6 months. This revascularization may be involved in bone tendon healing and maturation of the tendon graft within the bone tunnels. Evaluations of revascularization by MRA may show the maturation stage of the graft and guide medical rehabilitation. IV.

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament- and hamstring tendon-derived cells: in vitro differential properties of cells involved in ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebes, Corina Adriana; Kelder, Cindy; Schot, Thomas; Renard, Auke J; Pakvis, Dean F M; Fernandes, Hugo; Saris, Daniel B

    2017-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves the replacement of the torn ligament with a new graft, often a hamstring tendon (HT). Described as similar, the ACL and HT have intrinsic differences related to their distinct anatomical locations. From a cellular perspective, identifying these differences represents a step forward in the search for new cues that enhance recovery after the reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype and multilineage potential of ACL- and HT-derived cells. ACL- and HT-derived cells were isolated from tissue harvest from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or ACL reconstruction. In total, three ACL and three HT donors were investigated. Cell morphology, self-renewal potential (CFU-F), surface marker profiling, expression of tendon/ligament-related markers (PCR) and multilineage potential were analysed for both cell types; both had fibroblast-like morphology and low self-renewal potential. No differences in the expression of tendon/ligament-related genes or a selected set of surface markers were observed between the two cell types. However, differences in their multilineage potential were observed: while ACL-derived cells showed a high potential to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes, but not osteoblasts, HT-derived cells showed poor potential to form adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that HT-derived cells have low multilineage potential compared to ACL-derived cells, further highlighting the need for extrinsic signals to fully restore the function of the ACL upon reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Three-layered architecture of the popliteal fascia that acts as a kinetic retinaculum for the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masahiro; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Akira; Hitomi, Jiro; Isogai, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    When patients report pain in the popliteal fossa upon knee extension, the pain is usually localized in the lower region of the popliteal fossa. However, some patients complain of pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa as the knee is flexed, which motivated us to examine the role of the popliteal fascia as the retinaculum of the hamstring muscles. Thirty-four thighs from 19 Japanese cadavers were dissected. The popliteal fascia was defined as the single aponeurotic sheet covering the popliteal fossa. We found that the fascia acted as a three-layered retinaculum for the flexor muscles of the thigh and provided a secure route for neurovascular structures to the lower leg in any kinetic position of the knee joint. The superficial layer of the popliteal fascia covering the thigh was strongly interwoven with the epimysium of biceps femoris along its lateral aspect and with that of the semimembranosus along its medial aspect, ensuring that the flexor muscles remained in their correct positions. The intermediate layer arose from the medial side of biceps femoris and merged medially with the superficial layer. The profound layer stretched transversely between the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus. Moreover, we investigated the nerve distribution in the popliteal fascia using Sihler's staining and whole-mount immunostaining for neurofilaments. The three-layered fascia was constantly innervated by branches from the posterior femoral cutaneous or saphenous nerve. The nerves were closely related and distributed to densely packed collagen fibers in the superficial layer as free or encapsulated nerve endings, suggesting that the fascia is involved in pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa.

  6. Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, F; Ruiz-Ariza, A; Moreno del Castillo, R; Latorre-Román, P Á

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected. Cluster analysis grouped according to HF, dividing participants into a flexible group (FG, n = 24) and a non-flexible group (NFG, n = 19) in relation to performances on the PSLR test. Despite finding no significant differences between groups in body composition and age, the FG performed better in terms of sprint scores (S5 m: 6.12%, S10 m: 4.09%, S20 m: 3.29%), BAT score (4.11%), CMJ score (10.49%), and scores for KSdom (6.86%) and KSnon-dom (8%) than the NFG. The results suggest that HF is a key factor for performing football-specific skills, such as sprinting, jumping, agility, and kicking in young football players. These results support the rationale that muscle flexibility must be specifically trained in football players beginning at early ages.

  7. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A

    2010-05-01

    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  8. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  9. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  10. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  11. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  12. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-06-27

    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  13. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  14. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  15. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  16. Comparison of knee flexion isokinetic deficits between seated and prone positions after ACL reconstruction with hamstrings graft: Implications for rehabilitation and return to sports decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutras, Georgios; Bernard, Manfred; Terzidis, Ioannis P; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Georgoulis, Anastasios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    Hamstrings grafts are commonly used in ACL reconstruction, however, the effect of graft harvesting on knee flexion strength has not been longitudinally evaluated in functional positions. We hypothesized that greater deficits in knee flexion strength exist in the prone compared to the seated position and these deficits remain as rehabilitation progresses. Case series. Forty-two consecutive patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with a hamstrings graft were followed prospectively for 9 months. Isokinetic knee flexion strength at a slow and a fast speed were collected at 3, 4, 6, and 9 months in two different positions: conventional (seated) and functional (0° of hip flexion). Peak torque knee flexion deficits were higher in the prone position compared to the seated position by an average of 6.5% at 60°/s and 9.1% at 180°/s (psports even at 9 months after surgery with this method. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immediate Effects of Combining Local Techniques in the Craniomandibular Area and Hamstring Muscle Stretching in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Cocera-Morata, Francisco Miguel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Sixty subjects (35±11.22 years) with TMD, and restricted mobility of the mandibular condyles and the first cervical vertebrae, were recruited and randomized to either a control group (CG) (n=30) or an experimental group (EG) (n=30). The CG underwent a neuromuscular technique over the masseter muscles and passive hamstring muscle stretching. A suboccipital muscle inhibition technique was added to this protocol in the EG. Primary measurements were made of vertical mouth opening and pressure pain threshold of the masseter muscles. Secondary outcome measures included pressure algometry of the trigeminal nerve, suboccipital range of motion, and lumbar spine mobility, assessed with the sit-and-reach (SAR) test and lumbar forward bending. All evaluations were collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. In the intragroup comparison, the EG observed an increase in suboccipital flexion (p0.05). The inclusion of a myofascial induction maneuver in a protocol combining local (neuromuscular treatment) and distal techniques (hamstring stretching) in subjects with TMD has no impact on improving mouth opening, suboccipital and lumbar mobility, and orofacial sensitivity to mechanical pressure.

  18. Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects’ lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

  19. Relationship between peri-incisional dysesthesia and the vertical and oblique incisions on the hamstrings harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Laube Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of peri-incisional dysesthesia according to the skin incision technique for hamstring tendon graft harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with ACL rupture were separated in two groups: group 1, with 19 patients submitted to the oblique skin incision to access the hamstrings and group 2-14 patients operated by vertical skin incision technique. The selected patients were assessed after surgery. Demographic data and prevalence of dysesthesia was measured by digital pressure around the skin incision and classified according to the Highet scale. RESULTS: The total rate of dysesthesia was 42% (14 patients. Five patients (26% on the oblique incision group reported dysesthesia symptoms. On the group submitted to the vertical incision technique, the involvement was 64% (nine patients. On the 33 knees evaluated, the superior lateral area was the most affected skin region, while the superior medial and inferior medial regions were affected in only one patient (7.1%. No statistical differences between both groups were observed regarding patients' weight, age, and height¸ as well as skin incision length. CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the oblique access technique had five times lower incidence of peri-incisional dysesthesia when compared with those in whom the vertical access technique was used.

  20. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET

    2015-01-01

    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  1. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  2. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  3. MRI does not add value over and above patient history and clinical examination in predicting time to return to sport after acute hamstring injuries: a prospective cohort of 180 male athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Almusa, Emad; Boukarroum, Sirine; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Hamilton, Bruce; Whiteley, Rodney; Bahr, Roald; Tol, Johannes L.

    2015-01-01

    MRI is frequently used in addition to clinical evaluation for predicting time to return to sport (RTS) after acute hamstring injury. However, the additional value of MRI to patient history taking and clinical examination remains unknown and is debated. To prospectively investigate the predictive

  4. Factors affecting return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon and hamstring graft: a prospective clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Francisco, Ramces

    2006-10-01

    In athletes, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is recommended after injury to restore the normal knee function and allow subsequent return to sport. Successful ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) and hamstring tendon (HT) grafts combined with a well-structured rehabilitation program could bring athletes back to their previous level of sport activities. We prospectively followed-up 100 athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction with either PT (n=50) or HT grafts (n=50). Evaluation was done pre-operatively and post-operatively (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm, Noyes, and Tegner scales. Subjective assessment numeric evaluation (SANE), knee activity rating scale (Marx) and a psychological profile questionnaire (psychovitality) were also utilized. Objective evaluations included isokinetic tests and computerized knee motion analysis. Data gathered were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric U-test. Among the 100 patients who have undergone ACL reconstruction, 65% returned to the same level of sports, 24% changed sports and 11% ceased sport activities. No significant difference (P>0.05) in outcome between PT and HT grafts were observed. No significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between athletes who "returned" to their previous sport and those who "did not return" to sports at the same level when using the IKDC, Lysholm, Noyes, and Tegner knee evaluation scales. However, significant difference was observed with the knee scores obtained by those who returned and those who completely ceased participation in sport activities. Computerized laxity test revealed that 90% of these patients have less than 3 mm side-to-side difference with no significant difference between HT and PT groups. Patients who "returned to sports" obtained significantly better scores with the Marx scale (P=0.001) and the psychovitality questionnaire (P=0.001) than those who did not. Conventional knee

  5. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  6. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  7. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-02-16

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  10. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  11. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  12. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2008-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  13. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  14. Altruism by age and social proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  15. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  16. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  17. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  18. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  19. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  20. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng

    1983-09-01

    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.