Sample records for proximal glaciomarine facies

  1. Investigation of Facies Types and Associations of Kuhlan Red Bed Formation in NW Yemen: A New Hypothesis for Origin and Depositional Environment

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    Mohammed A. Al-Wosabi


    Full Text Available Varieties of thirteen facies types were recognized in the Kuhlan Formation represented by red bed siliciclastic sequences of argillaceous sediments. Examination of the Kuhlan stratigraphic column included sequence relationships, lithology, sedimentary characters, structures and petrography of the dominant rock types. These facies types are grouped in three distinct associations of facies. The lower unit A comprises association of facies (Distal turbidites represented by alternates of turbidity sequences including sandstone, siltstone and thick shale beds. These facies types confirm a regressive depositional environment in deep marine shelf conditions. There are three facies types which are identified as massive sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone and pebbly sandstone facies. The middle unit B association of facies (Proximal turbedites represents glaciomarine sequences displaying high lateral and vertical facies changes of glacioturbidite sediment alternates with diamictites and tillite beds. The sequences are affected by eustatic and eustatism of the glacial advance and retreat. This unit B includes eight types of facies. These are identified as; tillite, massive diamictites, stratified diamictites, laminated siltstone/shale, deformed siltstone/mudstone, graded rhythmic siltstone, massive conglomerate and cross-stratified sandy conglomerate facies. The upper unit C association of facies is represented by shallow marine shelf sequences displaying very thick massive and locally cross-bedded sand bar sandstone overlying the laminated siltstone/shale interbeds. The upward gradual changes in mineralogical composition and color confirms the start of marine transgression and later deposited platform Amran Group. Mineralogical composition of Kuhlan sandstone displays impure dirty rocks consisting of more than 30% of argillaceous matrix, 50% of cristobalite and quartz grains, more than 10% of ferruginous cement and 10% of detrital iron oxide grains, potash

  2. Seismic imaging of glaciomarine sediments of Antarctica: Optimizing the acquisition parameters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, D.; Chaubey, A.K.; Rajan, S.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 37(4), December 2008, pp. 412-418 Seismic imaging of glaciomarine sediments of Antarctica: Optimizing the acquisition parameters Dhananjai Pandey1*, Anil Chaubey2, S Rajan1 1National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean... discussions on the reflection signature of the glaciomarine sediments of the continental slope and rise off Prydz Bay in east Antarctica in terms of depositional processes. The present study is based on synthetic seismogram modeling using finite...

  3. Lithofacies architecture and palaeogeography of the Late Paleozoic glaciomarine Talchir Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

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    H.N. Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Talchir Formation (Permo–Carboniferous of the Gondwana Supergroup records the Late Paleozoic glaciation in Peninsular India. Talchir sedimentary succession of the Raniganj Basin, Damodar Valley Coalfields, Peninsular India, bears ten facies types grouped under three facies associations, viz., the proglacial conglomerate–sandstone facies association (CS, the foreshore–shoreface conglomerate–sandstone–mudstone facies association (CSM and the prodelta–shelf sandstone–mudstone facies association (SM. Overall facies architecture reflects initial ice–covered terrestrial subglacial sedimentation, which was subsequently reworked and emplaced subaqueously in front of the ice–grounding line, and finally overlapped by storm–laid prodelta–shelf sediments. Repeated glacial advance–retreats with shifts in the position of the ice–grounding line during phases of climatic amelioration led to multiple deglaciation– related fining–up cycles. Decoupled ice sheet and floating icebergs contributed icerafted debris (IRD to these sediments. Gradual retreat of the ice sheet, however, restricted the supply of IRD towards top of the succession. Overlap of wave–agitated shoreface–shelf sediments on the glaciogenic sediments indicates widespread marine transgression caused by glacier melting during ice–house to green–house climatic transition, and crustal downsagging related to glacioisostasy. Subsequently, complete disappearance of the ice sheet caused basinal exhumation along with crustal uplift due to isostatic rebound, leading to multiple horst–graben bounded basinal systems, which received post–Talchir coal–bearing Gondwana sediments.

  4. Geotechnical variability of permafrozen glaciomarine clays in Sdr. Strømfjord in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Belmonte, Louise Josefine


    and pegmatic veins. The deglaciation after 10000 y BC resulted in a number of noticeable terminal moraine systems and caused fluvial and glaciomarine sedimentation along the fjord. The interaction between isostatic depression of the bedrock and eustatic variations has resulted in changes of the relative sea...... level with Upper Marine Limit (UML) varying from +120 to +140m at the West Coast to +40 at Kangerlussuaq. This retreat is well documented through C14-dating in the local area near to Kangerlussuaq Airport related to Fjord Stages F2 (+60m/8300 y BC) and F3 (+40m/8100 y BC) and Mt. Keglen stage (+40m/7200......-going in the area at Strømfjordshavn. The C14 datings of marine shells collected on the marine clay terraces at level 300kPa. Clay minerals were weathered causing moderate to high activity and plasticity despite the formation age of only 7000 years. (b) The "River Bank Erosion Cut" 2 km east of the Airport Terminal...

  5. Las facies Keuper al SW de la provincia de Soria

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    Hernando, S.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sedimentological analysis of the materials that correspond to the Keuper facies in the area situated between the Iberian Ranges and the Central System. Acording to the obtained data, two main aspects are emphasized: - During the Upper Triassic, a c1ear retreat of the roast line towards the East took place, since this area constituted the litoral zone during the sedimentation of the Rot and Muschelkalk. - Facies change lateraly from West to East as proximal alluvial Can sediments pass into facies interpreted as distal alluvial fans and continental sabkha environment.Se analizan, desde el punto de vista sedimentológico, unos materiales correspondientes a las facies Keuper entre la Cordillera Ibérica y el Sistema Central. Dos aspectos resaltan tras este análisis: - Desplazamiento de la línea de costa (que durante la sedimentación del Rot y del Muschelkalk estaba situada en esta zona hacia el Este. - Marcado cambio lateral de facies desde el Oeste hacia el Este, pasando de unas facies proximales-medias de abanico aluvial a unas facies distales y ambiente de sabkha continental.

  6. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depositional environments of the Yolde Formation were studied based on the analysis of facies and facies architecture. Five sections within the Gongola Basin were studied and ten lithofocies were recognized based on lithology and sedimentary structures. The sandstone ranges from quartzarenite to subarkose and well to ...

  7. facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Depositional environments of the Yolde Formation were studied based on the analysis of facies and facies architecture. Five sections within the Gongola Basin were studied and ten lithofocies were recognized based on lithology and sedimentary structures. The sandstone ranges from quartzarenite to subarkose and well to ...

  8. Timing and mechanisms for the deposition of the glaciomarine mud in and around the Gulf of Maine: A discussion of alternative models (United States)

    Oldale, Robert N.


    Glaciomarine mud in the Gulf of Maine, characterized by rhythmic seismic layers that mimic the morphology of the underlying surface, is composed of subequal amounts of silt and clay, variable amounts of sand, and sparse gravel-sized clasts. The mud is Wisconsinan in age and was deposited during the retreat of the last ice sheet. A beginning date of 38 ka, proposed by King and Fader (1986) in their chronology of the last deglaciation, is considered too old. An alternative chronology, more consistent with the continental record to the west, is proposed here. ln this interpretation, deposition ofglaciomarine mud began about 18 ka when the late Wisconsinan ice retreated from Georges Bank, Great South Channel, and Northeast Channel and ended around 11 ka, when meltwater ceased to enter the Gulf of Maine. Basal-till melt-out from an ice shelf and bergs as the source of the glaciomarine mud, also proposed by King and Fader (1986), is thought to be inconsistent with the volume, widespread rhythmic bedding, and low stone content of the deposit. More likely the source of the glaciomarine mud was rock-flour-laden meltwater that entered the sea along the grounding line of a calving glacier or by way of subaerial meltwater streams. The rock flour was then dispersed by sediment plumes and was deposited when the sediment fell to the sea floor, aided by flocculation and biological agglutination. Rhythmic layers within the glaciomarine mud could represent annual cyclic sedimentation (varves) or cyclic events of lesser duration.

  9. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain (United States)

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.


    inertinite and vascular tissue facies. The vascular tissue facies occurs in the proximal prodelta and nearshore shallow shelf lithofacies of early Maestrichtian age. Baed in the sequence of organuic facies, dinoflagellate species abundance, and lithofacies in the investigated wells, the nonmarine and coastal inertinite facies was first deposited and was followed during the late Campanian by a marine trangression when the nearshore amorphous debris facies was deposited. This was followed in the early Maestrichtian by the influx of terrigenous organic matter (vascular tissue facies) in response to deltaic progradation on the shallow shelf. A marine regression occured towards the close of the early Maestrichtian, emplacing the coastal inertinite facies. The major marine transgression occured near the end of the early Maestrichtian, developing a farther offshore amorphous debris facies on an expanded continental shelf which persisted through the late Maestrichtian. The inertinite facies returned during marine regression in the approximate position of the Maestrichtian/Danian boudnary. ?? 1989.

  10. Sedimentology of Hirnantian glaciomarine deposits in the Balkan Terrane, western Bulgaria: Fixing a piece of the north peri-Gondwana jigsaw puzzle (United States)

    Chatalov, Athanas


    Glaciomarine deposits of late Hirnantian age in the western part of the Palaeozoic Balkan Terrane have persistent thickness ( 7 m) and lateral uniformity in rock colour, bedding pattern, lithology, and sedimentary structures. Four lithofacies are distinguished from base to top: lonestone-bearing diamictites, interbedded structureless mudstones, crudely laminated diamictites, and finely laminated mudstones. The diamictites are clast-poor to clast-rich comprising muddy to sandy varieties. Their compositional maturity is evidenced by the very high amount of detrital quartz compared to the paucity of feldspar and unstable lithic grains. Other textural components include extraclasts derived from the local Ordovician basement, mudstone intraclasts, and sediment aggregates. Turbate structures, grain lineations, and soft sediment deformation of the matrix below larger grains are locally observed. Sedimentological analysis reveals that deposition occurred in an ice-intermediate to ice-distal, poorly agitated shelf environment by material supplied from meltwater buoyant plumes and rain-out from ice-rafted debris. Remobilization by mass-flow processes (cohesive debris flows and slumps) was an important mechanism particularly for the formation of massive diamictites. The glaciomarine deposits represent a typical deglaciation sequence reflecting retreat of the ice front (grounded or floating ice sheet), relative sea-level rise and gradually reduced sedimentation rate with increasing contribution from suspension fallout. This sequence was deposited on the non-glaciated shelf of the intracratonic North Gondwana platform along the southern margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Hirnantian strata of the Balkan Terrane can be correlated with similar glaciomarine deposits known from peri-Gondwana terranes elsewhere in Europe showing clear 'Armorican affinity'. Several lines of evidence suggest that the provenance of siliciclastic material was associated mainly with sedimentary recycling of

  11. Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions (United States)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.; Ross, P.-S.; White, J. D. L.


    The volume, grain size, and depositional facies of material deposited outside an explosion crater, ejecta, are sensitive to the depth of the explosion, the explosion energy, and the presence or absence of a crater before the explosion. We detonate buried chemical explosives as an analog for discrete volcanic explosions in experiments to identify unique characteristics of proximal, medial, and distal ejecta facies and their distribution from a range of scaled depths in undisturbed and cratered ground. Ejecta are here discussed in terms of three facies: (1) proximal ejecta, which form a constructional landform around a crater; (2) medial ejecta, which form a continuous sheet deposit that thins much more gradually with distance; and (3) distal ejecta that are deposited as isolated clasts. The extent of proximal ejecta away from the crater, relative to crater size, is not sensitive to scaled depth, but the volume proportion of proximal ejecta to the total ejecta deposit is sensitive to the presence of a crater and scaled depth. Medial ejecta distribution and volume contributions are both sensitive to the presence of a crater and to scaled depth. Distal ejecta distance is dependent on scaled depth and the presence of a crater, while the volume proportion of distal ejecta is less sensitive to scaled depth or presence of a crater. Experimental facies and deposit structures inferred from observations of jet dynamics are used to suggest facies associations anticipated from eruptions dominated by explosions of different scaled depth configurations. We emphasize that significant differences in tephra ring deposits can result from the effects of scaled depth and preexisting craters on ejecta dynamics, and are not necessarily related to fundamental differences in explosion mechanisms or degree of magma fragmentation.


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    Sérgio Bergamaschi


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to locate and identify the outcrops considered iconic and valuable as references, not only from the point of view of Cultural or Didactic Tourism, but also in paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies, based on the lithologies that comprise the Itararé Group, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This work also intends to relate these sites to outcrops of sedimentary facies, in an area located at south of Itu and Porto Feliz, and north of Sorocaba. The Itararé Group lies within the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic, and is composed by sedimentary sequences associated with the record of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation event that occurred in the Gondwana supercontinent. This work is based on observations of outcrops in a macro- and mesoscopic scale, considering the characterization of external and internal aspects of the layer, the stratigraphic sequence in the outcrop, and the continuity of the layers within the mapped area. The study area has outcrops where the evidences of glaciomarine deposits predominate. Sedimentary sequences deposited in a subaquatic low-energy environment, as well as episodic deposits, in which relatively more energetic phases alternated with low hydrodynamic conditions are well-developed in the study area. There are also fluvio-deltaic environmental occurrences related to sea level oscillations linked with glacier advances and receding.

  13. Attribute classification for generating GPR facies models (United States)

    Tronicke, Jens; Allroggen, Niklas


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an established geophysical tool to explore near-surface sedimentary environments. It has been successfully used, for example, to reconstruct past depositional environments, to investigate sedimentary processes, to aid hydrogeological investigations, and to assist in hydrocarbon reservoir analog studies. Interpreting such 2D/3D GPR data, usually relies on concepts known as GPR facies analysis, in which GPR facies are defined as units composed of characteristic reflection patterns (in terms of reflection amplitude, continuity, geometry, and internal configuration). The resulting facies models are then interpreted in terms of depositional processes, sedimentary environments, litho-, and hydrofacies. Typically, such GPR facies analyses are implemented in a manual workflow being laborious and rather inefficient especially for 3D data sets. In addition, such a subjective strategy bears the potential of inconsistency because the outcome depends on the expertise and experience of the interpreter. In this presentation, we investigate the feasibility of delineating GPR facies in an objective and largely automated manner. Our proposed workflow relies on a three-step procedure. First, we calculate a variety of geometrical and physical attributes from processed 2D and 3D GPR data sets. Then, we analyze and evaluate this attribute data base (e.g., using statistical tools such as principal component analysis) to reduce its dimensionality and to avoid redundant information, respectively. Finally, we integrate the reduced data base using tools such as composite imaging, cluster analysis, and neural networks. Using field examples that have been acquired across different depositional environments, we demonstrate that the resulting 2D/3D facies models ease and improve the interpretation of GPR data. We conclude that our interpretation strategy allows to generate GPR facies models in a consistent and largely automated manner and might be helpful in

  14. Paleolatitudinal changes in vertical facies transitions recording late Paleozoic glaciations: a case study from eastern Australia (United States)

    Fielding, C. R.; Frank, T. D.; Shultis, A. I.


    Stratigraphic records of the complex and multi-phase late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) have been examined over a 2000 km paleo-polar to paleo-mid latitude transect from Tasmania to Queensland, eastern Australia. In this presentation, we summarize changes in facies assemblages within glacial and nonglacial epochs and the transitions between them, within the coastal to shallow marine Permian succession. In the earliest Permian P1 glacial interval, facies represent proximal proglacial to locally glacial environments in Tasmania (TAS), and an array of mainly marine proglacial to glacimarine environments in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland (QLD). A trend of more ice-proximal to less ice-proximal facies assemblages is evident from south to north. The end of P1 is represented both by abrupt flooding trends in some areas and by thicker intervals of more gradually fining-upward facies recording progressive deepening elsewhere. The onset of the Sakmarian/Artinskian P2 glacial interval is best-exposed in southern NSW, where an abrupt change to marine proglacial facies is accompanied by evidence for deepening, suggesting isostatic loading of the sedimentary surface. P2 glacial facies are more proximal in NSW than in QLD. Both P1 and P2 intervals preserve complex internal stratigraphy, in many cases recording multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. The close of P2 is again recorded in a variety of ways, with many sections showing a gradual fining-upward and decrease in indicators of glacial conditions. The Kungurian to Capitanian P3 and P4 glacial intervals are in general represented by less proximal facies than their predecessors, typically intervals of outsize clast-bearing mudrocks and sandstones. These in many areas show diffuse boundaries with the nonglacial facies that enclose them. Furthermore, no significant paleolatitudinal changes in the P3 and P4 facies assemblages are evident from TAS to QLD. The documented patterns support the view that the P1 glacial represents the

  15. Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.


    Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of

  16. Facies studies of bituminous coals in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Grzegorz J. [Polish Geological Institute, Lower Silesian Branch, al. Jaworowa 19, 53-122, Wroclaw (Poland)


    Polish bituminous coal basins are associated exclusively with Carboniferous deposits, differing in origin and geological structure. This paper presents only short review of papers of Polish authors on coal facies studies of Carboniferous coals occurring in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB), Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) of Poland. Facies investigations of Carboniferous coals of Poland have been in progress over 20 years. The results of these studies have provided new information on such subjects as: (1) recognition of main depositional conditions in paleomires, (2) determine prevailing paleoplant communities, (3) appraisal of peat-forming environment reconstruction-types and characteristics of paleomires. These facies analyses are connected to results of such studies as: pure coal petrology, using maceral and microlithotype composition as parameters of the environment of coal deposition, combined results of petrological, palynological and sedimentological studies.

  17. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.


    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  18. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  19. Late Devonian glacigenic and associated facies from the central Appalachian Basin, eastern United States (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.


    Late Devonian strata in the eastern United States are generally considered as having been deposited under warm tropical conditions. However, a stratigraphically restricted Late Devonian succession of diamictite- mudstonesandstone within the Spechty Kopf and Rockwell Formations that extends for more than 400 km along depositional strike within the central Appalachian Basin may indicate other wise. This lithologic association unconformably overlies the Catskill Formation, where a 3- to 5-m-thick interval of deformed strata occurs immediately below the diamictite strata. The diamictite facies consists of several subfacies that are interpreted to be subglacial, englacial, supraglacial meltout, and resedimented deposits. The mudstone facies that overlies the diamictite consists of subfacies of chaotically bedded, clast-poor mudstone, and laminated mudstone sub facies that represent subaqueous proximal debris flows and distal glaciolacustrine rhythmites or varvites, respectively. The pebbly sandstone facies is interpreted as proglacial braided outwash deposits that both preceded glacial advance and followed glacial retreat. Both the tectonic and depositional frameworks suggest that the facies were deposited in a terrestrial setting within the Appalachian foreland basin during a single glacial advance and retreat. Regionally, areas that were not covered by ice were subject to increased rainfall as indicated by wet-climate paleosols. River systems eroded deeper channels in response to sea-level drop during glacial advance. Marine facies to the west contain iceborne dropstone boulders preserved within contemporaneous units of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale.The stratigraphic interval correlative with sea-level drop, climate change, and glacigenic succession represents one of the Appalachian Basin's most prolific oil-and gas-producing intervals and is contemporaneous with a global episode of sea-level drop responsible for the deposition of the Hangenberg Shale

  20. Facies-controlled fluid migration patterns and subsequent reservoir collapse by depressurization - the Entrada Sandstone, Utah (United States)

    Sundal, A.; Skurtveit, E.; Midtkandal, I.; Hope, I.; Larsen, E.; Kristensen, R. S.; Braathen, A.


    The thick and laterally extensive Middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone forms a regionally significant reservoir both in the subsurface and as outcrops in Utah. Individual layers of fluvial sandstone within otherwise fine-grained aeolian dunes and silty inter-dune deposits of the Entrada Earthy Member are of particular interest as CO2 reservoir analogs to study injectivity, reservoir-caprock interaction and bypass systems. Detailed mapping of facies and deformation structures, including petrographic studies and core plug tests, show significant rock property contrasts between layers of different sedimentary facies. Beds representing fluvial facies appear as white, medium-grained, well-sorted and cross-stratified sandstone, displaying high porosity, high micro-scale permeability, low tensile strength, and low seismic velocity. Subsequent to deposition, these beds were structurally deformed and contain a dense network of deformation bands, especially in proximity to faults and injectites. Over- and underlying low-permeability layers of inter-dune aeolian facies contain none or few deformation bands, display significantly higher rock strengths and high seismic velocities compared to the fluvial inter-beds. Permeable units between low-permeability layers are prone to become over-pressured during burial, and the establishment of fluid escape routes during regional tectonic events may have caused depressurization and selective collapse of weak layers. Through-cutting, vertical sand pipes display large clasts of stratified sandstone suspended in remobilized sand matrix, and may have served as permeable fluid conduits and pressure vents before becoming preferentially cemented and plugged. Bleached zones around faults and fractures throughout the succession indicate leakage and migration of reducing fluids. The fluvial beds are porous and would appear in wireline logs and seismic profiles as excellent reservoirs; whereas due to dense populations of deformation bands they may in

  1. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.


    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  2. Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity


    Isham, C. J.


    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem...

  3. Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Isham, C J


    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.

  4. Multi-waveform classification for seismic facies analysis (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin


    Seismic facies analysis provides an effective way to delineate the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Traditional method is using the single waveform to classify the seismic facies, which does not consider the stratigraphy continuity, and the final facies map may affect by noise. Therefore, by defining waveforms in a 3D window as multi-waveform, we developed a new seismic facies analysis algorithm represented as multi-waveform classification (MWFC) that combines the multilinear subspace learning with self-organizing map (SOM) clustering techniques. In addition, we utilize multi-window dip search algorithm to extract multi-waveform, which reduce the uncertainty of facies maps in the boundaries. Testing the proposed method on synthetic data with different S/N, we confirm that our MWFC approach is more robust to noise than the conventional waveform classification (WFC) method. The real seismic data application on F3 block in Netherlands proves our approach is an effective tool for seismic facies analysis.

  5. Facies, architecture and diagenesis of middle to upper Jurassic carbonates in the Ghissar Range (Uzbekistan) (United States)

    Carmeille, Mehdi; Bourillot, Raphael; Barrier, Eric; Fürsich, Franz; Thierry, Jacques; Pellenard, Pierre; Schnyder, Johann; Auxiètre, Jean-Luc; Munsch, Hermann; Mortvintsev, Dmitriy; Sidorova, Irina


    Recent field work has been carried out in the Ghissar range to study the development and architecture of middle-upper Jurassic carbonate platforms of the northern Amu Darya basin. The carbonates series thickness ranges from 250 m in the northern Ghissar to 500 m in the central and southern Ghissar. The main proximal-distal polarity of the platform is from East to West, although small scale E-W trough probably linked with syn-sedimentary faults may have developed and locally modified this polarity. Neither significant sedimentary slopes, nor large scale barrier reefs were observed, challenging previous stratigraphic interpretations. Facies rather deposited on tens to hundreds of km large gently dipping ramps. Two major sequences have been recognized, one being Callovian in age and the other potentially Oxfordian to Lower Kimmeridgian. The first one is made of seven well defined deepening-shallowing upward 4th order sequences, showing an evolution from outer to inner ramp facies. These medium-scale sequences can be traced through the Ghissar from Turkmen to Tajik borders. In this sequence, large scale (several 10s of km wide) ooidic belt deposit on the inner ramp, while patch and pinnacle reefs (meters to tens of meters wide and high) develop distally, in the storm wave action zone. Small siliciclastic deltas develop in the northern Ghissar, probably related to the erosion of exposed hercynian reliefs. The second large-scale sequence is composed of inner ramp peritidal deposits showing rapid vertical and lateral facies shifts depicting a more complex architecture. Small scale ooidic grainstone bodies alternate with pellet packstone and mudstone with gypsum pseudomorphs. Middle Oxfordian black shales are intercalated in this second sequence near Turkmenistan and indicate a significant transgression. In proximal position, this transgression could be recorded by intensely bioturbated facies showing selective dolomitization of either burrows or matrix. The upper

  6. Partial melting of metavolcanics in amphibolite facies regional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metavolcanic rocks containing low-Ca amphiboles (gedrite, cummingtonite) and biotite can undergo substantial dehydration-melting. This is likely to be most prominent in Barrovian Facies Series (kyanite-sillimanite) and occurs at the same time as widespread metapelite dehydration- melting. In lower pressure facies series, ...

  7. Selection and stability of quantitative stratigraphic age models: Plio-Pleistocene glaciomarine sediments in the ANDRILL 1B drillcore, McMurdo Ice Shelf (United States)

    Cody, Rosemary; Levy, Richard; Crampton, James; Naish, Timothy; Wilson, Gary; Harwood, David


    analysis, three model families were compared, each of which make different assumptions about the scale and influence of reworking and caving on observed biostratigraphic ranges, varying from assumption of no reworking/caving to widespread reworking/caving. Of these, the Hybrid Range Model, which allows for intermediate levels of reworking expected in a glaciomarine depositional environment, was found to give the most robust and reliable single LOC, even with immature input biostratigraphic data. However, alternative models used together provide an envelope of uncertainty around this preferred LOC. Results corroborate almost all of the on-ice geomagnetic polarity reversal age interpretations, but identify a previously unrecognized disconformity (~ 800 kyr hiatus) near 440 mbsf. In spite of substantial augmentation and progressive refinement of the AND-1B input dataset, successive versions of the output LOC retain the same fundamental structure and shape with only relatively minor, fine-scale differences. The age model's remarkable stability indicates that quantitative biostratigraphic analysis is capable of constructing robust and reliable regional correlation schemes and local section chronologies, even in cases of discontinuous stratigraphy and with relatively immature or incomplete datasets.

  8. Coal facies studies in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8433 (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)


    Coals in the eastern United States (east of the Mississippi River) have been the subject of a number of coal facies studies, going back to the 19th century. Such studies would not necessarily fall within a strict modern classification of coal facies studies, but if a study encompassed some aspects of paleobotany, palynology, petrology, geochemistry, or sedimentology, we assumed that some data and interpretations may be of use in evaluations of the facies. References are presented, as a guide for further research, with annotation in the tables.

  9. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  10. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications (United States)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle


    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  11. The investigation of sedimentary facies and stacking pattern in the Mulid River (Southeastern Qayen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Fayazi Borujeni


    recognized based on geometry and boundary surfaces and are used for depositional interpretation. These elements are included channel sediment fills (CH, gravel bars and bedforms (GB, sediment gravity flow deposits (SG, sandy bedforms (SB and overbank fines (FF. The wide range of sedimentary processes are controlled the fluvial style. Therefore the river channel morphology usually vary from upstream to downstream that these variations are due to change of some factors such as valley slope, sediment supply, climate and tectonic of the studied area. According to recognized sedimentary facies and architectural elements in the Mulid River channel walls and based on provided models of Miall (2006 two sedimentary models are proposed for this river: a The gravel- bed braided river with sediment gravity flow deposits and b the shallow gravel- bed braided river. The difference of a and b models is in frequency of various architectural elements and abundance of sedimentary facies. The first sedimentary model is formed in the proximal and high relief area where the slope, the discharge rate and sediment supply are high and the sediment transported currents are gravity flows. In this reason, the abundance of architectural elements and sandy and fine sedimentary facies that are results of traction currents, are low. In the second sedimentary model, away from the source area, the slope of longitudinal profile of river decreases and therefore the discharge rate of flow and sediment supply decrease. The abundance of debris flows are very low and the sediment gravity flow deposits are not observed in the end parts of rivers. The most important flow that is transported the sediments, is the traction current in this model. In due to decreasing sediment supply and increasing the accommodation space, frequency of sandy and muddy facies are increased with respect to previous model. The paleohydraulic parameters are estimated with facies variations for three gravely terraces with suitable exposures

  12. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; hide


    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Apulia platform margin and the transition to adjacent basinal deposits (inner platform to basin are well exposed in the Gargano Promontory. Detailed field work has allowed to recognize eight main facies associations which reflect various depositional environments, and which document a differentiated zonation, from the inner platform to the basin. A shallow lagoon existed in the internal part of the Gargano Promontory with a transition to tidal flat areas (F1. Oolitic shoals (F2 bordered this internal peritidal area passing seaward to a reef-flat with abundant corals (F3. A reef-front, associated with a coral rubble zone, has been found in some areas (F4. In the external margin zone, massive wackestones with Ellipsactinia occur (F5 and pass gradually to a rudstone facies on the proximal slope (F6. The base-of-slope facies association consists of pelagic sediments interbedded with gravity-displaced deposits (F7 and F8. The depositional profile of the Apulia Platform is typical of the Tethyan Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platforms, with slope declivities in the order of 25°-28°. The remarkable progradation of the platform in the northern tract of the Gargano (Lesina and Varano lakes area and its substantial stability east- and southwards (Mattinata area suggest a possible windward position of the margin in this latter portion and, in contrast, a leeward position of the northern portion.   

  14. Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.


    The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

  15. Classification of reservoir sand-facies distribution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated reservoir properties, classified the reservoir sand-facies distribution and identified potential hydrocarbon pay zones. This was with a view to optimizing placements of wells in “Bigola” Field. Conventional interpretation of seismic and well datasets was carried out to provide the sub-surface structures and ...

  16. Facies analysis and paleoenvironments of the upper cretaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facies analysis and paleoenvironments of the upper cretaceous sediments in share – Lafiagi areas, northern Bida basin, Nigeria. ... sandstone, medium-coarse grained sandstone subfacies are wide spread and their fluvial origin is supported by unidirectional flow pattern and absence of marine biogenic features.

  17. Litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone using Schlumberger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoelectric investigations of litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding technique to delineate the vertical and lateral limestone deposit based on maximum current electrode separation of 1.0 km. The data was interpreted using conventional partial ...

  18. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  19. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India. The early Mesoproterozoic Rohtas Limestone in the Son valley area of central India represents an overall shallowing-upward carbonate succession. Detailed facies analysis of the limestone reveals outer- to inner-shelf deposition in an open ...

  20. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney


    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  1. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  2. Fluvial architecture of the buntsandstein-facies redbeds in the middle to upper triassic (Ladinian-Norian) of the southeastern edge of the Iberian Meseta (Southern Spain) (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Dabrio, Cristino

    In the southeastern edge of the Iberian Meseta in Southern Spain, fluvial continental Buntsandstein-facies red beds of Middle to Upper Triassic (Ladinian — Norian) age unconformably overlie the folded and eroded Hercynian basement. The Betic Belts consist of an internal metamorphosed part and an external sedimentary zone containing the Triassic deposits, with the latter seam being in turn divided into the Prebetic Zone with continental to shallow marine facies and the Subbetic Zone with pelagic facies. The Buntsandstein-facies red bed series is vertically split into three main facies associations: alluvial fans and pebbly braided rivers (conglomerates and sandstones), low-sinuosity proximal and distal sandy braided rivers (sandstones and mudstones) and coastal evaporitic sabkha (mudstones, marls and gypsum). Alluvial-fan and pebbly braided river sediments occur at the base of the sequence and cover the palaeorelief of the pre-Triassic morphology. The inner fan zone is characterized by debris-flows or mud-flows, the mid fan zone is dominated by sheet floods, and the outer fan zone is governed by stream flood and stream flow passing into pebbly braided rivers in front of the fans. With transition from restricted alluvial fans to an open braidplain, the pebbly rivers soon evolve both vertically and horizontally into sandy stream networks consisting of channels and floodplains. The channel facies comprises sheet-type and ribbon-type sandstone layers. The sheets form complexes up to 15 m and more thickness due to amalgamation by multilateral coalescence and multivertical stacking of individual genetical units. In the lower part of the series, the number of channels is rather high suggesting a non-hierarchical channel pattern where high- and low-sinuosity rivers coexist. The middle portion reflects a smaller number of very large channels thus indicating an amelioration of the hierarchical pattern. The upper part consists of variegated sabkha plain mudstones and

  3. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.


    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  4. Surficial Sediment Facies features near Shorty's Island on the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The surficial bed-sediment facies, herein after referred to as the sediment facies, quantitatively describes the dominant sediment substrate on the surface of the...

  5. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  6. Algorithms of Crescent Structure Detection in Human Biological Fluid Facies (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, V. R.; Malenova, O. E.; Yashina, A. S.


    One of the effective methods of early medical diagnosis is based on the image analysis of human biological fluids. In the process of fluid crystallization there appear characteristic patterns (markers) in the resulting layer (facies). Each marker is a highly probable sign of some pathology even at an early stage of a disease development. When mass health examination is carried out, it is necessary to analyze a large number of images. That is why, the problem of algorithm and software development for automated processing of images is rather urgent nowadays. This paper presents algorithms to detect a crescent structures in images of blood serum and cervical mucus facies. Such a marker indicates the symptoms of ischemic disease. The algorithm presented detects this marker with high probability when the probability of false alarm is low.

  7. Characterizing Geological Facies using Seismic Waveform Classification in Sarawak Basin (United States)

    Zahraa, Afiqah; Zailani, Ahmad; Prasad Ghosh, Deva


    Numerous effort have been made to build relationship between geology and geophysics using different techniques throughout the years. The integration of these two most important data in oil and gas industry can be used to reduce uncertainty in exploration and production especially for reservoir productivity enhancement and stratigraphic identification. This paper is focusing on seismic waveform classification to different classes using neural network and to link them according to the geological facies which are established using the knowledge on lithology and log motif of well data. Seismic inversion is used as the input for the neural network to act as the direct lithology indicator reducing dependency on well calibration. The interpretation of seismic facies classification map provides a better understanding towards the lithology distribution, depositional environment and help to identify significant reservoir rock

  8. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali


    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  9. [Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome: A case report]. (United States)

    García V, Daniel; Aragón V, Carlos R; Treviño A, M Guadalupe; Rivera S, Gerardo


    Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome is a rare disease with variable expressivity, although cases have been reported with an autosomal dominant pattern. It particularly affects the structures of the face associated with hypoplasia of the femur. Its aetiology is relatively unknown. However, this syndrome has been associated with maternal diabetes, drug exposure, viral infections, radiation, and oligohydramnios. The case of a newborn with this syndrome is presented. Newborn of 41 weeks gestation with small nose, thin upper lip, micrognathia, long philtrum, low set ears, epicanthal folds, dysplastic hips showing flexion, and adduction of the right leg, and shortening at the expense of the thigh. X-ray images revealed femoral hypoplasia and dysplastic acetabular roof. Different physicians from other specialties who excluded other associated malformations performed a complete evaluation. Surgical bone lengthening of lower limb is scheduled at 5 months of age, with the purpose that she walks with her own feet; at the same time she began management with kinesiotherapy. Femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome is a rare condition. A multidisciplinary health care team must treat individuals with femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  11. Comparison of four approaches to a rock facies classification problem (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Bohling, G.C.; Chakrabarti, S.


    In this study, seven classifiers based on four different approaches were tested in a rock facies classification problem: classical parametric methods using Bayes' rule, and non-parametric methods using fuzzy logic, k-nearest neighbor, and feed forward-back propagating artificial neural network. Determining the most effective classifier for geologic facies prediction in wells without cores in the Panoma gas field, in Southwest Kansas, was the objective. Study data include 3600 samples with known rock facies class (from core) with each sample having either four or five measured properties (wire-line log curves), and two derived geologic properties (geologic constraining variables). The sample set was divided into two subsets, one for training and one for testing the ability of the trained classifier to correctly assign classes. Artificial neural networks clearly outperformed all other classifiers and are effective tools for this particular classification problem. Classical parametric models were inadequate due to the nature of the predictor variables (high dimensional and not linearly correlated), and feature space of the classes (overlapping). The other non-parametric methods tested, k-nearest neighbor and fuzzy logic, would need considerable improvement to match the neural network effectiveness, but further work, possibly combining certain aspects of the three non-parametric methods, may be justified. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una simulación de flujo de agua subterránea en rocas fracturadas. Se emplea un enfoque estocástico (modelo estocástico equivalente en medio poroso fracturado para construir el modelo conceptual y para usar este último en la roca de baja permeabilidad encontrada en el sitio elegido como caso de estudio (Olkiluoto, Finlandia. La roca que se investiga se encuentra localizada alrededor de un grupo de pozos de sondeo y cubre un área de algunas hectáreas. Las mediciones de campo de pruebas de interferencia hidráulica se utilizan para calibrar el modelo de flujo de agua subterránea. Múltiples combinaciones de facies estocásticos se consideran para evaluar el impacto de la distribución y del número de facies en las cargas hidráulicas y en los caudales. Este estudio cuantifica la variabilidad de los resultados numéricos, lo cual es importante para el análisis de la incertidumbre en los sistemas hidrogeológicos. Por otra parte, este estudio muestra que el modelo conceptual de facies estocásticos es una alternativa adecuada a los modelos conceptuales de redes de fracturas discretas.

  13. Traces in the dark: sedimentary processes and facies gradients in the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, U.S.A. (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven O.; Fishman, Neil S.


    Black, organic-rich rocks of the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, a world-class petroleum source rock in the Williston Basin of the United States and Canada, contain a diverse suite of mudstone lithofacies that were deposited in distinct facies belts. The succession consists of three discrete facies associations (FAs). These comprise: 1) siliceous mudstones; 2) quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones; and 3) macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones. These FAs were deposited in three facies belts that reflect proximal to distal relationships in this mudstone system. The macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones (FA 3) occur in the proximal facies belt and contain erosion surfaces, some with overlying conodont and phosphate–lithoclast lag deposits, mudstones with abundant millimeter-scale siltstone laminae showing irregular lateral thickness changes, and shell debris. In the medial facies belt, quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate, exhibiting sub-millimeter-thick siltstone layers with variable lateral thicknesses and localized mudstone ripples. In the distal siliceous mudstone facies belt, radiolarites, radiolarian-bearing mudstones, and quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate. Overall, total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between about 3 and 10 wt %, with a general proximal to distal decrease in TOC content. Abundant evidence of bioturbation exists in all FAs, and the lithological and TOC variations are paralleled by changes in burrowing style and trace-fossil abundance. While two horizontal traces and two types of fecal strings are recognized in the proximal facies belt, only a single horizontal trace fossil and one type of fecal string characterize mudstones in the distal facies belt. Radiolarites intercalated into the most distal mudstones are devoid of traces and fecal strings. Bedload transport processes, likely caused by storm-induced turbidity

  14. Carbonate Facies and Sedimentation of the Klapanunggal Formation in Cibinong, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praptisih Praptisih


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.196The limestone of Klapanunggal Formation is well exposed in the area of Cibinong and its surrounding,West Java. Detailed Observation of carbonate rock has been conducted in this area and aims to studythe carbonate facies and its growth environment. The method used in the field is the detailedinvestigation, while mikropaleontology and petrogaphic analysis conducted in the laboratory. Theresult of this study indicate that the carbonate rocks in the study area consists of four facies. namely:(1 boundstone facies, (2 packstone facies, (3 rudstone facies, and (4 limestone breccia facies. Basedon these data be interpreted that the boundstone facies was deposited in the reef front to reef crestenvironment, packstone facies developed on the lower slope, upper slope, and back-reef lagoonenvironment. Rudstone facies formed on the reef front, and breccia limestone facies were formed inthe lower slope. Geographically, the position of the carbonate body environment that is at the reeffront, upper slope and lower slope is expected to be in the North – North East while the reef crest andback reef lagoon is on the South – Southwest.

  15. Early Palaeolithic Cultural Facies and the Levalloisian at Baker's Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Wenban-Smith


    Full Text Available The purpose of this short paper is to use the lithic material recovered from the site of Baker's Hole to demonstrate the point that the classificatory framework generally in operation for British, and also other European, Early Palaeolithic lithic material is overly simplified. The pigeon-holing of assemblages into one of a restricted number of industrial variants, or cultural facies, based on the presence and relative predominance of selected tool-types or knapping techniques, has served to obscure the variety and complexity of Early Palaeolithic lithic technology. The particular lithic industrial variant discussed in this paper is the Levalloisian.

  16. Prima Facie Evidence against Spin-Two Higgs Impostors


    Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong


    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too s...

  17. Blueschist-facies metamorphism related to regional thrust faulting (United States)

    Blake, M.C.; Irwin, W.P.; Coleman, R.G.


    Rocks of the blueschist (glaucophane schist) facies occur throughout the world in narrow tectonic belts associated with ultramafic rocks. In the Coast Range province of California, blueschist rocks are devloped in the eugeosynclinal Franciscan Formation of Late Mesozoic age. The blueschist rocks form a narrow belt for more than 800 km along the eastern margin of this province and commonly are separated from rocks of an overlying thrust plate by serpentinite. Increasing metamorphism upward toward the thrust fault is indicated mineralogically by a transition from pumpellyite to lawsonite and texturally by a transition from metagraywacke to schist. The blueschist metamorphism probably occurred during thrusting in a zone of anomalously high water pressure in the lower plate along the sole of the thrust fault. This tectonic mode of origin for blueschist differs from the generally accepted hypothesis involving extreme depth of burial. Other belts of blueschist-facies rocks, including the Sanbagawa belt of Japan, the marginal synclinal belt of New Zealand, and the blueschist-ultramafic belts of Venezuela, Kamchatka, Ural mountains, and New Caledonia have similar geologic relations and might be explained in the same manner. ?? 1969.

  18. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  19. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  20. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  1. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  2. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  3. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  4. Alisitos Formation, calcareous facies: Early Cretaceous episode of tectonic calm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Vidal, F.


    The Alisitos Formation (Aptian-Albian), shaped as a marine volcanic arc, crops out along the western side of the peninsula of Baja California bounding the Peninsular Range batholith. Lithologically, this formation is formed by volcanic-breccias, porphyritic flows, biohermal limestones, and tuffaceous and pyroclastic sediments. The distribution of the different facies depends on the nature of volcanism and the distance from a volcanic center, although the presence of massive biohermal limestone indicates that in the Early Cretaceous (during the tectonic episodes), the volcanic activity decreased to the level that the environmental conditions were favorable for the development of an organic reef barrier, behind an island arc. Such conditions existed south of the Agua Blanca fault and extended to El Arco, Baja California. Based upon field observations and petrological analysis of the Alisitos limestone, an attempt is made to recreate the environmental condition in the Punta China and San Fernando, Baja California, sites.

  5. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); TH Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sanz, Verónica, E-mail: [TH Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); You, Tevong [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)


    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models.

  6. Prima Facie Evidence against Spin-Two Higgs Impostors

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; You, Tevong


    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models.

  7. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors (United States)

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong


    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models.

  8. Distinguishing fluvio-deltaic facies by bulk geochemistry and heavy minerals: an example from the Miocene of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Rasmussen, Erik S.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk


    of significant differences between facies, where each fluvio-deltaic facies can be distinguished by integrating geochemistry and mineralogy through a sedimentary succession. Variations in the heavy mineral assemblage between facies are caused primarily by sorting of hydraulically equivalent grains. Decreasing...... grain size of quartz and heavy minerals from the channel facies towards the delta shoreface facies and further along the coast to the spit shoreface facies is associated with an increase in sorting and textural maturity. This trend is related to longshore drift. Increasing heavy mineral grain size...

  9. Comparison of geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping with grain size data. (United States)

    Park, No-Wook; Jang, Dong-Ho


    This paper compares the predictive performance of different geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping using grain size data. Indicator kriging, which maps facies types from conditional probabilities of predefined facies types, is first considered. In the second approach, grain size fractions are first predicted using cokriging and the facies types are then mapped. As grain size fractions are compositional data, their characteristics should be considered during spatial prediction. For efficient prediction of compositional data, additive log-ratio transformation is applied before cokriging analysis. The predictive performance of cokriging of the transformed variables is compared with that of cokriging of raw fractions in terms of both prediction errors of fractions and facies mapping accuracy. From a case study of the Baramarae tidal flat, Korea, the mapping method based on cokriging of log-ratio transformation of fractions outperformed the one based on cokriging of untransformed fractions in the prediction of fractions and produced the best facies mapping accuracy. Indicator kriging that could not account for the variation of fractions within each facies type showed the worst mapping accuracy. These case study results indicate that the proper processing of grain size fractions as compositional data is important for reliable facies mapping.

  10. Facies discrimination in a mixed fluvio-eolian setting using elemental whole rock geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Johan; Friis, Henrik; Stollhofen, Harald


    performed on the geochemical data has enabled discrimination of seven of the eight facies types. Furthermore, the facies discrimination method allowed a quantitative estimate of the degree of fluvial reworking of eolian sand. We believe that the method presented here, when calibrated to a reference well......Fluvio-eolian successions are generally characterized by a high degree of complexity and internal heterogeneity. Quantifying the rapid facies changes in time and space is a major challenge to hydrocarbon reservoir characterisation.We present a method for facies discrimination in fluvio......-eolian successions. The method is developed on the modern fluvio-eolian sediments from the Skeleton Coast dune field, Namibia. The examined sediments comprise eight different facies types; eolian dune sands, inter dune fluvial channel sands, intra erg mass flow deposits, intra erg hyperconcentrated flow deposits...

  11. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  12. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  13. Distribution and composition of verdine and glaucony facies from the sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Rao, V.P.

    Investigations on green grains from sediments of the western continental margin of India, between Ratnagiri and Cape Comorin, (water depth 37-330 m) indicate the presence of verdine and glaucony facies. Verdine facies occurs over an area of about...

  14. Surficial Sediment Facies features near the Myrtle Bend Confluence with the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, ID (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The surficial bed-sediment facies, herein after referred to as the sediment facies, quantitatively describes the dominant sediment substrate on the surface of the...

  15. Relationships Between Magnetic Susceptibility and Sedimentary Facies Along AL Qahmah, Southern Red Sea Coast (United States)

    Nabhan, A. I.; Yang, W.


    Facies and magnetic parameters of an arid siliciclastic coast were investigated in Al Qahmah, Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the survey was to map and understand the distribution of magnetic minerals in the different sedimentary facies in a 20-km2 area. Four NW-SE profiles parallel to shoreline and thirty-nine roughly perpendicular NE-SW profiles were measured. Petrographic study of sediment composition and texture of 152 samples was conducted. The coast sediments contain six lithofacies: beach, washover fan, tidal channel, eolian dune, sabkha, and wadi. The high concentration of heavy minerals in beach and dune facies causes high magnetic of susceptibility. Mineral composition of the total fraction in these facies confirms the presence of magnetite and ilmenite. The high values of susceptibility in beach and dune facies are attributed to strong winnowing and wave processes that control the pattern of transport, sorting of magnetic minerals in the beach facies. These minerals are picked up and moved by wind at low tide to form extensive low dune fields near the beach. The results showed that magnetic measurements are a sensitive and fast method, which can be used for studying the distribution of magnetic minerals in the sedimentary facies and help interpret various controlling processes.

  16. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow (United States)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad


    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW-SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW-NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area.

  17. [Burden of proof in medical cases--presumption of fact and prima facie evidence. II. Presumption of fact and prima facie evidence]. (United States)

    Sliwka, Marcin


    The aim of this paper was to present the main rules concerning the burden of proof in polish civil trials, including medical cases. The standard rules were presented with all the important exclusions such as presumption of law and fact or prima facie evidence. The author analyses the effect of these institutions on burden of proof in medical cases. The difference between presumptions of fact and prima facie evidence was analysed and explained. This paper also describes the importance of the res ipsa loquitur rule in United Kingdom and USA. This paper includes numerous High Court sentences on evidential and medical issues.

  18. RETRACTED: Facies analysis and depositional environments of the Oligocene–Miocene Asmari Formation, Zagros Basin, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahraeyan, Mohammad; Bahrami, Mohammad; Arzaghi, Solmaz


    ..., A., Vaziri-Moghaddam, H., 2010. The Asmari Formation, north of the Gascharan (Dill anticline), southwest Iran: facies analysis, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy, Carbonates Evaporites, 25, 145-160, http...

  19. Sedimentary Facies of the West Crocker Formation North Kota Kinabalu-Tuaran Area, Sabah, Malaysia (United States)

    Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd


    Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.

  20. NYNJ_FAC: usSEABED FACies data for the New York-New Jersey Region (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The facies data layer (FAC) is a point coverage of known sediment samplings, inspections, and probings from the usSEABED data collection and integrated using the...

  1. Fluvial facies reservoir productivity prediction method based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Gao


    Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.

  2. ATL_FAC: usSEABED facies data for the entire U.S. Atlantic Coast (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The facies data layer (_FAC.txt) is a point coverage of known sediment samplings, inspections, and probings from the usSEABED data collection and integrated using...

  3. Polymetamorphic evolution of the granulite-facies Paleoproterozoic basement of the Kabul Block, Afghanistan (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali; Mosazai, Amir Mohammad


    The Kabul Block is an elongate crustal fragment which cuts across the Afghan Central Blocks, adjoining the Indian and Eurasian continents. Bounded by major strike slip faults and ophiolitic material thrust onto either side, the block contains a strongly metamorphosed basement consisting of some of the only quantifiably Proterozoic rocks south of the Herat-Panjshir Suture Zone. The basement rocks crop-out extensively in the vicinity of Kabul City and consist predominantly of migmatites, gneisses, schists and small amounts of higher-grade granulite-facies rocks. Granulite-facies assemblages were identified in felsic and mafic siliceous rocks as well as impure carbonates. Granulite-facies conditions are recorded by the presence of orthopyroxene overgrowing biotite in felsic rocks; by orthopyroxene overgrowing amphibole in mafic rocks and by the presence of olivine and clinohumite in the marbles. The granulite-facies assemblages are overprinted by a younger amphibolite-facies event that is characterized by the growth of garnet at the expense of the granulite-facies phases. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the granulite-facies event of around 850 °C and up to 7 kbar were calculated through conventional thermobarometry and phase equilibria modeling. The younger, amphibolite-facies event shows moderately higher pressures of up to 8.5 kbar at around 600 °C. This metamorphism likely corresponds to the dominant metamorphic event within the basement of the Kabul Block. The results of this work are combined with the litho-stratigraphic relations and recent geochronological dating to analyze envisaged Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic events in the Kabul Block.

  4. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  6. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene successions, east Beni Suef area, eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Saber, Shaban G.; Salama, Yasser F.


    Three Eocene stratigraphic successions east of the Beni Suef area are described and measured. These successions are made up of four rock units that are from base to top: Qarara (upper Lutetian), El Fashn (Bartonian), Beni Suef, and Maadi (Priabonian) formations. A detailed facies and sequence analysis unravels the stratigraphic framework and constructs a depositional model for the Middle-Upper Eocene succession. Ten microfacies types were grouped into four facies associations on a homoclinal ramp that compose the Upper Lutetian-Priabonian succession exposed in the east Beni Suef area. The depositional environment varied from a shallow to deep ramp setting. Four third-order depositional sequences were identified in the studied sections. The sequence boundaries are paleosoil horizons that can be traced throughout the entire outcrop area. Missing biozones are also evidence of the sequence boundaries. The history of these sequences mirrors the eustatic sea-level changes and the local tectonics in the region. Each sequence comprises facies associations that make up lowstand and/or transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lowstand systems tract (LST) deposits are mainly sandstone facies and in Sequences 3 and 4 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The transgressive systems tract (TST) of Sequence 1 is dominated by nummulitic facies at Gabal Diya. The shale, mudstone and wackestone facies with planktic foraminifera and echinoids dominate the TST of Sequences 2 and 3 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The highstand systems tract (HST) of the studied sections is characterized by benthic foraminifera and bryozoan wackestone and packstone facies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Facies character, diagenesis, geochemical signature, porosity, permeability, and geometry of the upper Pleistocene Tivoli travertines were investigated integrating information from six borehole cores, drilled along a 3 km N-S transect, and quarry faces, in order to propose a revised depositional model. Travertines overlie lacustrine and alluvial plain marls, siltstones, sandstones and pyroclastic deposits from the Roman volcanic districts. In the northern proximal area, with respect to the inferred hydrothermal vents, travertines accumulated in gently-dipping, decametre-scale shallow pools of low-angle terraced slopes. The intermediate depositional zone, 2 km southward, consisted of smooth and terraced slopes dipping S and E. In the southernmost distal zone, travertine marshes dominated by coated vegetation and Charophytes interfingered with lacustrine siltstones and fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Travertine carbon and oxygen stable isotope data confirm the geothermal origin of the precipitating spring water. The travertine succession is marked by numerous intraclastic/extraclastic wackestone to rudstone beds indicative of non-deposition and erosion during subaerial exposure, due to temporary interruption of the vent activity or deviation of the thermal water flow. These unconformities identify nine superimposed travertine units characterized by aggradation in the proximal zone and southward progradation in the intermediate to distal zones. The wedge geometry of the travertine system reflects the vertical and lateral superimposition of individual fan-shaped units in response to changes in the vent location, shifting through time to lower elevations southward. The complexity of the travertine architecture results from the intermittent activity of the vents, their locations, the topographic gradient, thermal water flow paths and the rates and modes of carbonate precipitation.

  8. Depositional Model of the Marcellus Shale in West Virginia Based on Facies Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, Kathy


    A lithologic analysis of well exposed Marcellus outcrops has identified six different facies in West Virginia and neighboring states: (1) light gray calcareous shale, (2) fossiliferous limestone, (3) black calcareous shale, (4) black noncalcareous shale, (5) dark gray noncalcareous shale, and (6) K-bentonite. Close interbedding of these rock types attests to a complex, ever-changing environment on the eastern foreland ramp of the Appalachian Basin. The environmental setting was clearly not a deep trough, permanently anoxic, salinity stratified, sediment starved, and populated exclusively by phytoplankton—the traditional depositional model. To the contrary, our sedimentary data suggest a rather shallow water depth, intermittent anoxia, normal-marine salinity, a fluctuating input of siliciclastic mud, and faunal communities of low and moderate diversity. Interbedding of the shale and limestone lithofacies as well as the vertical stacking of facies associations is explained most simply by fluctuations in water depth coupled with fluctuations in sediment supply. The sea floor was, at times, immediately below wave base (Facies 1 and 2), around the depth of the thermocline (Facies 2 and 3), or below the thermocline (Facies 4 and 5), relative sea level changing through two sequences of lowstand, transgression, and highstand. Simultaneously the supply of siliciclastic mud was greater at times of lowstand (increased erosion) and highstand (prograding shoreline), and the supply smaller during transgression (sediment stored in distant coastal plain).

  9. Secondary carbonate porosity as related to early teritiary depositional facies, Zelten field, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Pendexter, C.


    Production from the Zelten field, Libya, is from the highly porous shelf limestones of the Zelten Member (Main Pay) of the Paleocene and lower Eocene Ruaga Limestone. Fifteen facies are recognized, mapped, and predicted. Seven of the facies comprise the larger part of the Zelten Member. These include miliolid-foraminiferal micrite, argillaceous bryozoan/echinoid micrite, argillaceous-molluscan micrite, coralgal micrite. Discocyclina-foraminiferal calcarenite, foraminiferal calcarenite and micrite, and Discocyclina-foraminiferal micrite. In the Zelten field secondary porosity is recorded as much as 40%; this porosity is related to the original depositional fabric of the sediment and, therefore, is facies controlled. Porosity is highest in the coralgal micrite and Discocyclina-foraminiferal calcarenite, which together form a NW.-SE. trend across the N. part of the field, and in the formaniniferal calcarenite and micrite. (10 refs.)

  10. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  11. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  12. Facies conditions of the 2. Lusatian seam horizon in the area East of Peitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, R.; Liskow, C.


    Characterizes the Miocene brown coal deposit in the area Peitz, Jaenschwalde and Guben (GDR) by methods of paleobotany and paleogeography. Results of macropetrographic facies analysis and geophysical borehole measurements were employed in the study. Geologic profiles of the region as well as maps of seam distribution were drawn up. The analysis proves that prehistoric river meanders divide the brown coal moor into a northern and a southern section. A description of the paleoenvironment and the sedimentation process is given. A correlation between coal facies and technological coal quality is pointed out. The study is being used to develop a geologic seam model for this brown coal mining area. 9 refs.

  13. Acoustic Facies of Late Quaternary Channel and Overbank Systems - Gulf of Santa Catalina, California Borderland. (United States)

    Erohina, T.; Normark, W. R.; Sliter, R.


    The Gulf of Santa Catalina is a deepwater (>300m) basin that lies offshore between Long Beach and Dana Point California. Deep-tow Huntec boomer data from the northern gulf cover a complex channel system consisting of a series of slope gullies euphemistically known as the Newport Canyon. The boomer data have a vertical resolution of 50 cm and the system works effectively for imaging sandy turbidite deposits. A preliminary evaluation of the seismic-reflection data, together with available multibeam bathymetry, provides a better understanding of when different parts of the Newport channel system were active. Three distinct acoustic facies characterize the late Quaternary turbidite sequence of the Newport channel system: an acoustically transparent facies, a high-amplitude discontinuous facies, and a moderate-amplitude sinusoidal facies. The acoustically transparent facies drapes the sea floor on both overbank deposits and some channel floors. Commonly the overbank areas on the west sides of channels preserve the thickest transparent sediment cover. The seismic characteristic of this facies is consistent with a mud-rich deposit but the thickness variation appears to rule out a simple hemipelagic deposit. The high-amplitude discontinuous facies is associated with depressions in the sea floor. These features include active channels, large-scale scours and channel remnants. The moderate-amplitude sinusoidal facies is typical for large amplitude sediment waves. The sediment waves interpreted from the boomer data are not everywhere coincident with the scale of those visible on the multibeam bathymetry. The sediment waves migrate upslope and away from the channel axes. This wave growth pattern is probably related to flows that are substantially thicker than the channel relief and is similar to wave forms found on sediment drifts in the deep ocean. A second channel system similar to the Newport system, associated with the San Gabriel Canyon approximately 9 km to the west

  14. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.


    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  15. Identification of hydrochemical facies in the Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (USA), using graphical and statistical methods (United States)

    Newman, Brent D.; Havenor, Kay C.; Longmire, Patrick


    Analysis of groundwater chemistry can yield important insights about subsurface conditions, and provide an alternative and complementary method for characterizing basin hydrogeology, especially in areas where hydraulic data are limited. More specifically, hydrochemical facies have been used for decades to help understand basin flow and transport, and a set of facies were developed for the Roswell Artesian Basin (RAB) in a semi-arid part of New Mexico, USA. The RAB is an important agricultural water source, and is an excellent example of a rechargeable artesian system. However, substantial uncertainties about the RAB hydrogeology and groundwater chemistry exist. The RAB was a great opportunity to explore hydrochemcial facies definition. A set of facies, derived from fingerprint diagrams (graphical approach), existed as a basis for testing and for comparison to principal components, factor analysis, and cluster analyses (statistical approaches). Geochemical data from over 300 RAB wells in the central basin were examined. The statistical testing of fingerprint-diagram-based facies was useful in terms of quantitatively evaluating differences between facies, and for understanding potential controls on basin groundwater chemistry. This study suggests the presence of three hydrochemical facies in the shallower part of the RAB (mostly unconfined conditions) and three in the deeper artesian system of the RAB. These facies reflect significant spatial differences in chemistry in the basin that are associated with specific stratigraphic intervals as well as structural features. Substantial chemical variability across faults and within fault blocks was also observed.

  16. Seismic-geometric facies model of lacustrine carbonates of Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin; Modelagem sismica-geometrica de facies dos carbonatos lacustres da Formacao Morro do Chaves, Bacia de Sergipe-Alagoas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Eliseu Massaaki [Internacional America Latina PETROBRAS Colombia (Colombia). E e P. UN-COL. Gerencia de Ativos Offshore], e-mail:


    Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, to the seismic facies of a high-resolution seismic section (out thrust-1) from the same outcrop This model was based on the interaction of three models: the Integration Facies Model; Stratigraphic- Structural Facies Model and Velocity Facies Model. The first relates the gamma-rays, sonic velocity, porosity and geometry information with the kinds of facies associations. The second is the result of the integration of the first model with the outcrop 3-D Laser-scanner topographic image and the structural geometric observations. The last is the representation of the substitution of the facies associations of the second model for their respective sonic velocities. This last model was the input parameter to the 2-D acoustic model, which produced a synthetic seismic section of the outcrop of a similar standard to the high-resolution section of out thrust-1. The out thrust-1 high-resolution seismic section interpretation, based on the Seismic-Geometric Facies Model, demonstrated that the facies associations found in the shallow drill hole S-217 and well FU-107, both 50m from the seismic line, correlate in the same seismic-stratigraphic level. More importantly, the geometries of the seismic facies found in the stratigraphic and structural positions were consistent with those observed in the outcrop geological structural analysis. This evidence indicates that the seismic model of the coquinas outcrop, Morro do Chaves Formation, may be used as an analogue model in hydrocarbon exploration and production activities, particularly in the coquinas facies reservoirs of the Lagoa Feia Formation, Campos Basin. (author)

  17. Unsupervised seismic facies analysis with spatial constraints using regularized fuzzy c-means (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Cai, Hanpeng; Wang, Yaojun; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin


    Seismic facies analysis techniques combine classification algorithms and seismic attributes to generate a map that describes main reservoir heterogeneities. However, most of the current classification algorithms only view the seismic attributes as isolated data regardless of their spatial locations, and the resulting map is generally sensitive to noise. In this paper, a regularized fuzzy c-means (RegFCM) algorithm is used for unsupervised seismic facies analysis. Due to the regularized term of the RegFCM algorithm, the data whose adjacent locations belong to same classification will play a more important role in the iterative process than other data. Therefore, this method can reduce the effect of seismic data noise presented in discontinuous regions. The synthetic data with different signal/noise values are used to demonstrate the noise tolerance ability of the RegFCM algorithm. Meanwhile, the fuzzy factor, the neighbour window size and the regularized weight are tested using various values, to provide a reference of how to set these parameters. The new approach is also applied to a real seismic data set from the F3 block of the Netherlands. The results show improved spatial continuity, with clear facies boundaries and channel morphology, which reveals that the method is an effective seismic facies analysis tool.

  18. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies. (United States)


    ... companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment companies. Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(a)(1)(c)), an issuer will be...

  19. Turbidite Facies of the Halang Formation in Ajibarang Area, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praptisih Praptisih


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.112An understanding of deepwater turbidite sediments is very important mainly dealing with the determination of a reservoir geometry. The problem arising in the turbidite sediment geometry is very complex and varied, and its existence depends on how, when, and type of its environment. In Central Java, the broad turbidite sediment distribution of the Halang Formation is needed to be observed its facies association. This paper will discuss the turbidite facies of Halang Formation in the Ajibarang area. The method used to analyze the turbidite facies is by measuring stratigraphic sections and observing the lithofacies characteristics to reconstruct its depositional environment. The Halang Formation outcrop in the Ajibarang area is dominantly composed of alternating sandstone and claystone or marl. Based on the observation, the turbidite facies of Halang Formation, in the Ajibarang area, was deposited on a submarine fan system at the middle fan of suprafan lobes. Compiling with the previous studies, the source of the Halang Formation is indicated to be derived from the south southwest.

  20. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini


    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  1. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  2. Facies analysis of the lower cycles of the Mesaverde Group (Upper Cretaceous) in northwestern Colorado (United States)

    Kiteley, L.W.


    The uppermost 180 m of the Mancos Shale and overlying 390 m of the Iles Formation of the Mesaverde Group in northwestern Colorado were deposited at the west margin of an epicontinental seaway that spanned North America 66-98 million years ago from the circumboreal seaway on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. Sedimentation in the seaway was controlled by uplift in source areas to the west, subsidence in the basin, and eustatic sea level changes. Sedimentation rates were relatively high, averaging about 220m/million years; marine cycles of deposition occurred in northwestern Colorado that correspond to the Claggett, Judith River, and Bearpaw regressions of Montana. The upper Mancos shale and lower Iles Formation can be subdivided into ten facies based on five criteria: (1) Lithology, texture, and thickness relations (geometry); (2) sedimentary structures and contacts; (3) trace and body fossils; (4) paleocurrent data; and (5) adjoining facies (underlying, overlying, and laterally). Each facies has distinct attributes which characterize a specific depositional environment. Environments represented by facies include (A) offshore shoreface transition (prodelta); (B) shallow marine sand bars; (C) destructional delta front; (D) constructional delta front (sheet sands and mouth bars); (E) beach foreshore-shoreface deposits; (F) interdistributary marsh and swamp deposits and fluvial floodplain; (G) distributary channels; (H) crevasse splays; (J) fluvial streams; and (K) tidally influenced distributary channel. Facies analysis of outcrop data shows that transgressions and regressions occurred, some of which are related to major (eustatic) sea level changes and others that reflect only local causes. These events in northwestern Colorado are summarized in following chapters, and an attempt is made to show their relationship to broad regional patterns of sedimentation.

  3. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.


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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  5. Occurrences and facies relations of clastic karst deposits of Southern Germany (United States)

    Trappe, M.


    Karst areas often exhibit a great many of clastic karst deposits resting upon karstified carbonate rocks or within karst cavities. These deposits originate from different geological sources. By means of Southern German localities clastic deposits from superficial and subsurface karst structures were studied. Loamy karst deposits formed at or near to the surface of the Franconian or Swabian Alb often exhibit allochthonous components and a wide range of petrographic attributes, mostly they show close relations to the specific geology of the surrounding area. They have to be interpreted as "pedo-sedimentary complexes". Main characteristic of these surface deposits is the mixing of different components at which corrosive, gravitative, pedological and several sedimentary processes are acting. Superficial dislocation of material and sedimentary conditions are controlled by the surface relief. At first clastic endokarst sediments can be classified by their occurrences, subsequently by their depositional processes: 1. Deposits of the entrance cave facies (ECF) exhibit a heterogeneous spectrum of material due to local geology. Lateral transitions to surface deposits often can be observed. 2. Cracks and smaller cavities near to the surface (crack filling facies, CFF) mainly are filled with loamy to clayey sediments similar to those of the surface. Additionally, coarser particles can occur or they form local individual deposits. 3. Cave domains far from the cave entrance (inner cave facies, ICF) comprise silt, sand or gravel, higher amounts of clay are unusual. For the most part the environment is characterised by fluvial activity. Due to main environments the crack filling facies and inner cave facies offer different portions of fluvial deposits, sediments formed by gravity action or percolation, deposits resulting from gradual decomposition of carbonate rocks and incasion debris. Especially, the fluvial environment can be subdivided into several subfacies based on different


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Fengjun Zhang; Yannong Dong; Jan Arild Skjervheim; Ning Liu


    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. But while the volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade, it is not yet possible to make use of all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. The goal of this project is to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management. Facies (defined here as regions of relatively uniform petrophysical properties) are common features of all reservoirs. Because the flow properties of the various facies can vary greatly, knowledge of the location of facies boundaries is of utmost importance for the prediction of reservoir performance and for the optimization of reservoir management. When the boundaries between facies are fairly well known, but flow properties are poorly known, the average properties for all facies can be determined using traditional techniques. Traditional history matching honors dynamic data by adjusting petrophysical properties in large areas, but in the process of adjusting the reservoir model ignores the static data and often results in implausible reservoir

  7. A catalogue of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauridsen, B.W.


    Full Text Available This catalogue of 194 gastropod taxa is based on the collection of Danian gastropods from the Baunekule facies, Faxe Formation in eastern Denmark. The gastropod fauna is extremely rich and well preserved. Most of the gastropods (106 species are referred to genus level only, 9 morphotypes to even higher taxonomical levels and 79 gastropods are referred to species level. The gastropods are classified following Bouchet & Rocroi (2005 as 4 different clades: Vetigastropoda (represented by 26 species and 10 superfamilies, Caenogastropoda (represented by 142 species and 17 superfamilies, Heterobranchia (represented by 23 species and 5 superfamilies and Opisthobranchia (represented by 1 species and 1 superfamily. The new species Zaclys? nuetzeli n. sp. is introduced. The Faxe Formation is recognised as a cold-water coral ecosystem with interfingering smaller bryozoan mounds. The Baunekule facies is found in the upper part of the coral mound complex of the Faxe Formation, where it forms isolated lensoidal bodies in the flanks of some of the coral mounds. It is characterised by a high diversity invertebrate fauna that occurs in weakly consolidated coraldominated floatstone to rudstone. The diagenesis of the Baunekule facies is of special significance because a high proportion of the originally aragonite-shelled fauna is preserved by recrystallization to calcite during early burial diagenesis. Most of the gastropods are not known from other parts of the Faxe Fm. The fauna is very important for comparative evolutionary studies of fossil and modern gastropods on cold-water coral mounds. Many of the genera have not previously been recorded from Danian strata. None of the gastropod species found in the Baunekule facies are known for certain to range below the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. The fauna is comparable to gastropods found on modern cold-water coral mounds in the North Atlantic. The gastropod fauna from the Baunekule facies is characterised by a

  8. Biostratigraphy, facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Sarvak Formation in the Ahwaz Oil Field, North Dezful Embayment Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kazemzadeh


    Full Text Available Paleontological studies lead to recognition of 21 genera and 16 species of benthic foraminifera, 5 genera and 6 species of planktonic foraminifera and 3 genera and 3 species of oligosteginids. The vertical distribution of fauna lead to identification of 5 biozones including: Favusella washitensis Range Zone, Oligostegina Assemblage Zone, Rudist debris Zone, Nezzazata-Alveolinids Assemblage Zone, Nezzazatinella-Dicyclina Assemblage Zone. Based on the indicated biozones, the age of the Sarvak Formation is Late Albian to Early Turonian in the study area. Eleven carbonate facies belonging to four environments including tidal flat, restricted and semi-restricted lagoon, shoal and open marine are recognized. The identified facies are deposited on the homoclinal ramp setting. Based on the vertical changes of facies and recognized depositional environments, four third-order depositional sequences are represented. The transgressive systems tracts mainly comprises of open marine facies including sponge spicule, oligosteginid, echinoid and benthic foraminifera, while the highstand systems tracts mainly consists of shoal facies rich in bioclast, and restricted and semi-restricted lagoon facies rich in porcellaneous and hyaline benthic foraminifera and peloid. The maximum flooding surface represented by open marine facies including echinoid and planktonic foraminifera

  9. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history? (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali


    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  10. The influence of facies heterogeneity on the doublet performance in low-enthalpy geothermal sedimentary reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crooijmans, R. A.; Willems, C. J L; Nick, Hamid


    A three-dimensional model is used to study the influence of facies heterogeneity on energy production under different operational conditions of low-enthalpy geothermal doublet systems. Process-based facies modelling is utilised for the Nieuwerkerk sedimentary formation in the West Netherlands Basin...... and the energy recovery rate for different discharge rates and the production temperature (Tmin) above which the doublet is working. With respect to the results, we propose a design model to estimate the life time and energy recovery rate of the geothermal doublet. The life time is estimated as a function of N...... errors in predicting the life time of low-enthalpy geothermal systems for N/G values below 70%....

  11. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  12. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn


    , including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab­sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites......-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep­resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted......The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes...

  13. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in northern Alaska (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brosge, William Peters; Till, Alison B.; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Mayfield, Charles F.; Reiser, Hillard N.; Miller, Thomas P.


    Approximately half of the exposed bedrock in northern Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed. The most widespread metamorphic episode that affected northern Alaska occurred under low-grade, initially high-pressure (blueschist-facies) conditions during Mesozoic time. This episode is thought to have been related to the obduction of one or more oceanic terranes onto the continental margin of North America. Rocks whose metamorphism is considered to have been part of this major episode have an aerial distribution of approximately 10,000 km2 in the southern Brooks Range, 5,000 km2 across much of the Seward Peninsula, and 800 km2 in the Ruby geanticline within the southeastern borderlands of the Yukon-Koyukuk basin. In the southern Brooks Range and on the Seward Peninsula, continental rocks experienced a clockwise pressure-temperature path that evolved during Middle Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous time from the low- to high-temperature subfacies of the blueschist facies and, finally, due to decreasing pressure, evolved to the greenschist facies. Metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range was associated with north-vergent compression along a south-dipping subduction zone that emplaced the oceanic rocks of the Angayucham terrane (represented by klippen of ultramafic rocks and prehnite-pumpellyite-facies metabasite, metatuff, metachert, and metasedimentary rocks) onto the continental margin. The present structural and metamorphic relation between the continental blueschistand greenschist-facies rocks and the structurally overlying lower temperature and pressure oceanic prehnite-pumpellyite-facies rocks to the south indicates that postmetamorphic or late metamorphic down-to-the-south, low-angle extensional faulting has dismembered the upper plate and removed much of the section that originally buried the blueschists. High-pressure metamorphism on the Seward Peninsula probably had a similar origin to that in the southern Brooks Range, but remnants of the overriding plate

  14. Three dimensional facies architecture of ancient delta-front reservoir analogs using ground-penetrating radar with outcrop and core sedimentology with case studies from the Turonian Wall Creek member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming (United States)

    Lee, Keumsuk

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements are integrated with sedimentology and Global Positioning System data for two delta-front reservoir analogs (the Murphy Creek and Raptor Ridge sites) in the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation in Wyoming. The Murphy Creek site is imaged to detail the geometry of a river-dominated delta front, and to estimate the volume of its bar deposits. The Raptor Ridge site delineates the 3D internal structure of a mixed-influenced delta front, to predict the distribution of low permeability concretions throughout a 3D GPR volume, and to provide a km-scale depositional model. The Murphy Creek and Raptor Ridge sites both contain stacked mouth-bar deposits characterized by sharp-based, top-truncated, seaward-dipping foreset beds between a prodelta mud layer and an erosional top boundary. Sedimentologically controlled GPR interpretations are, in general, consistent with the outcrops, including the paleotransport measurements. The Murphy Creek site consists of sedimentary-gravity-flow induced compound mouth bars varying with sedimentation rates, and their estimated volumes suggest that bars may accrete landward as well as basinward. The Raptor Ridge site shows three main radar facies, corresponding to seaward-prograding mouth bars, tide-influenced mouth bars, and channels. The prograding mouth bar is a dominant facies architectural element at the Raptor Ridge. Nine 3D facies bodies were identified within the 3D GPR volume. The predicted calcite cements are distributed in a dendritic, aggregate fashion. Interpretation of the 2D GPR data grids at Raptor Ridge shows nine and eight 3D facies bodies, respectively. The dominant facies architectural element falls into two (distal and proximal) delta-front mouth bars, separated by a local erosional boundary, and cut by shallow delta-slope channels. A two-phase depositional model suggests the development of an Upper Cretaceous, mixed-influenced delta, forming two separate delta lobes before

  15. RETRACTED: Facies analysis and depositional environments of the Oligocene–Miocene Asmari Formation, Zagros Basin, Iran


    Sahraeyan, Mohammad; Bahrami, Mohammad; Arzaghi, Solmaz


    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The article duplicates significant parts of three other articles without proper citations (Allahkarampour Dill, M., Seyrafian, A., Vaziri-Moghaddam, H., 2010. The Asmari Formation, north of the Gascharan (Dill anticline), southwest Iran: facies analysis, depositional environments and se...

  16. Recognition of a fluvial facies in the Pacoota Sandstone and its implications for petroleum exploration (United States)

    Deckelman, James A.

    A previously unrecognized fluvial facies is present in the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone in the north-central and northwestern parts of the Amadeus Basin. This facies forms the base of the P3 unit and correlates directly with the primary oil and gas producing interval in the Pacoota Sandstone at the Mereenie Field. In order to distinguish this facies from overlying facies in the P3, it is proposed that the P3 be divided into a lower dominantly fluvial unit, the P3B, and an upper estuarine and shoreface unit, the P3A. Both units can be mapped for hundreds of kilometers at the surface and in the subsurface throughout the Mereenie Field and adjacent areas. The P3B is interpreted as a deposit that accumulated in a dominantly fluvial environment on the basis of: its locally erosional lower bounding surface; the absence of body fossils and ichnofossils; the lobate, wedge-shaped geometry of the unit; the subarkosic composition of the sandstone; the presence of pebble and cobble conflomerate; abundant early syngenetic hematite; abundant trough cross-sets up to 1.35 m thick; overturned cross-laminae; relatively abundant asymmetrical ripple marks; contorted stratification; beds in excess of 1 m in thickness; and its unimodal paleocurrent distribution. The P3B grades conformably into overlying estuarine and shoreface sediments of the P3A. Anagentic silicification is the most significant diagenetic event affecting the present lateral distribution of primary porosity in the P3B unit. Because the extent of anagenetic silificiation decreases southward, the potential for preservation of primary porosity is greatest near the southern depositional limit of the unit. Secondary porosity in the P3B formed by the dissolution of feldspar. Because the abundance of feldspar is inversely related to grainsize which decreases to the southeast, the potential for development of secondary porosity is greatest near the southeastern depositional limit of the unit.

  17. Hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in the Sinian Dengying Fm, central Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiang Jiang


    Full Text Available The Upper Sinian Dengying Fm is the focus of natural gas exploration in the central part of the Sichuan Basin (central Sichuan Basin in recent years. Especially, epigenic karstification and its resulted reservoir-seepage spaces have always been the focal points in researches. Based on the petrographic characteristics of drilling cuttings and core samples, and through experimental analysis by using trace elements, isotopes, and cathodoluminescence, the Dengying Fm dolomite was demonstrated to have matrix recrystallized dolomite (MRD, filled saddle dolomite (FSD (the mean homogenization temperature of inclusion: 178.5 °C, high concentrations of Fe & Mn, slightly positive 87Sr/86Sr value and hydrothermal minerals combination (including sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and quartz, etc.. Thus, it was proposed that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies (HDRF exist in the Dengying Fm dolomite, in other words, the dolomite reservoir is composed of hydrothermal dissolved pores, intercrystalline pores of hydrothermal origin, hydrothermal caverns and expanded fractures, and was formed due to the reworking of hydrothermal fluid on tight matrix dolomite. Identification marks are presented in terms of petrography and geochemistry so that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies can be effectively recognized and identified. It is concluded that the development of hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in this area are preliminary controlled by deep and large basement faults and the strength of hydrothermal fluids.

  18. In defence of moral imperialism: four equal and universal prima facie principles. (United States)

    Dawson, A; Garrard, E


    Raanan Gillon is a noted defender of the four principles approach to healthcare ethics. His general position has always been that these principles are to be considered to be both universal and prima facie in nature. In recent work, however, he has made two claims that seem to present difficulties for this view. His first claim is that one of these four principles, respect for autonomy, has a special position in relation to the others: he holds that it is first among equals. We argue that this claim makes little sense if the principles are to retain their prima facie nature. His second claim is that cultural variation can play an independent normative role in the construction of our moral judgments. This, he argues, enables us to occupy a middle ground between what he sees as the twin pitfalls of moral relativism and (what he calls) moral imperialism. We argue that there is no such middle ground, and while Gillon ultimately seems committed to relativism, it is some form of moral imperialism (in the form of moral objectivism) that will provide the only satisfactory construal of the four principles as prima facie universal moral principles.

  19. Lateral Facies and Permeability Changes in Upper Shoreface Sandstones, Berakas Syncline, Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovinda Ovinda


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.1.11-20Several outcrops were studied to identify sedimentary facies and to analyze permeability distribution, through which an outcrop analogue for upper shoreface reservoirs can be established. Four facies were identified: upper shoreface, lower shoreface, offshore transition, and tidal ones. Stratigraphic correlation of eleven outcrops indicates that the upper shoreface sandstone is generally clean, well sorted, parallel, and planar cross laminated. The sand becomes thinner and pinches out to the northwest where the mud proportion increases within the sand. Muddier sand was deposited in a relatively low energy upper shoreface setting. The thickness of the upper shoreface reservoir sand generally is 5 m. It decreases to zero over approximately 1.3 km as the sand pinches out to the northwest. To the northeast, the thickness also decreases to 4 m over approximately 4 km. Permeability values are more variable laterally than vertically. The permeability distribution has an obvious relationship to the sedimentary facies and is mainly controlled by the proportion of mud and bioturbation. As the sand pinches out in the northwest, permeability decreases from 590 md to 97 md over 1 km. To the northeast, permeability also decreases to 152 md over approximately 4 km where the sand becomes highly bioturbated. These values indicate that the sands are of good to very good reservoir quality. It appears that there are no major barriers to the lateral flow of fluid within the upper shoreface sandstone.

  20. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  2. The potential role of fluids during regional granulite-facies dehydration in the lower crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Harlov


    Full Text Available High-grade dehydration of amphibolite-facies rocks to granulite-facies is a process that can involve partial melting, fluid-aided solid-state dehydration, or varying degrees of both. On the localized meter scale, solid-state dehydration, due to CO2-rich fluids traveling along some fissure or crack and subsequently outwards along the mineral grain boundaries of the surrounding rock, normally is the means by which the breakdown of biotite and amphibole to orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene occur. Various mineral textures and changes in mineral chemistry seen in these rocks are also seen in more regional orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-bearing rocks which, along with accompanying amphibolite-facies rocks, form traverses of lower crust. This suggests that solid-state dehydration during high-grade metamorphism could occur on a more regional scale. The more prominent of these fluid-induced textures in the granulite-facies portion of the traverse take the form of micro-veins of K-feldspar along quartz grain boundaries and the formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite. The fluids believed responsible take the form of concentrated NaCl- and KCl- brines from a basement ultramafic magma heat source traveling upwards along grain boundaries. Additional experimental work involving CaSO4 dissolution in NaCl-brines, coupled with natural observation of oxide and sulfide mineral associations in granulite-facies rocks, have demonstrated the possibility that NaCl-brines, with a CaSO4 component, could impose the oxygen fugacity on these rocks as opposed to the oxygen fugacity being inherent in their protoliths. These results, taken together, lend credence to the idea that regional chemical modification of the lower crust is an evolutionary process controlled by fluids migrating upwards from the lithospheric mantle along grain boundaries into and through the lower crust where they both modify the rock and are modified by it. Their presence allows for rapid mass and

  3. Facies analysis of an Upper Jurassic carbonate platform for geothermal reservoir characterization (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Dussel, Michael


    The Upper Jurassic Carbonate platform in Southern Germany is an important aquifer for the production of geothermal energy. Several successful projects were realized during the last years. 3D-seismic surveying has been established as a standard method for reservoir analysis and the definition of well paths. A project funded by the federal ministry of economic affairs and energy (BMWi) started in 2015 is a milestone for an exclusively regenerative heat energy supply of Munich. A 3D-seismic survey of 170 square kilometer was acquired and a scientific program was established to analyze the facies distribution within the area ( Targets are primarily fault zones where one expect higher flow rates than within the undisturbed carbonate sediments. However, since a dense net of geothermal plants and wells will not always find appropriate fault areas, the reservoir properties should be analyzed in more detail, e.g. changing the viewpoint to karst features and facies distribution. Actual facies interpretation concepts are based on the alternation of massif and layered carbonates. Because of successive erosion of the ancient land surfaces, the interpretation of reefs, being an important target, is often difficult. We found that seismic sequence stratigraphy can explain the distribution of seismic pattern and improves the analysis of different facies. We supported this method by applying wavelet transformation of seismic data. The splitting of the seismic signal into successive parts of different bandwidths, especially the frequency content of the seismic signal, changed by tuning or dispersion, is extracted. The combination of different frequencies reveals a partition of the platform laterally as well as vertically. A cluster analysis of the wavelet coefficients further improves this picture. The interpretation shows a division into ramp, inner platform and trough, which were shifted locally and overprinted in time by other


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  5. Prima facie (United States)

    Halpert, Madeleine-Thérèse; Chappell, M Jahi


    In principle, intellectual property protections (IPPs) promote and protect important but costly investment in research and development. However, the empirical reality of IPPs has often gone without critical evaluation, and the potential of alternative approaches to lend equal or greater support for useful innovation is rarely considered. In this paper, we review the mounting evidence that the global intellectual property regime (IPR) for germplasm has been neither necessary nor sufficient to generate socially beneficial improvements in crop plants and maintain agrobiodiversity. Instead, based on our analysis, the dominant global IPR appears to have contributed to consolidation in the seed industry while failing to genuinely engage with the potential of alternatives to support social goods such as food security, adaptability, and resilience. The dominant IPR also constrains collaborative and cumulative plant breeding processes that are built upon the work of countless farmers past and present. Given the likely limits of current IPR, we propose that social goods in agriculture may be better supported by alternative approaches, warranting a rapid move away from the dominant single-dimensional focus on encouraging innovation through ensuring monopoly profits to IPP holders.

  6. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  7. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Ridgley


    the oil (except for the Tocito Sandstone) from the lower Mancos. In the central and southern part of the Reservation, large areas, currently not productive or not tested, have the potential to contain oil in the El Vado simply based on the trend of the facies and structure. There has been little oil or gas production from the overlying regressive-transgressive wedge of rock and much of this interval is untested. Thus, large areas of the Reservation could contain hydrocarbon resources in these strata. Most of the Reservation lies within the oil generation window based on new Rock-Eval data from the Mancos Shale just south of the southern part of the Reservation. If these observations are valid then oil could have been generated locally and would only have needed to migrate short distances in to sandy reservoirs and fractures. This does not rule out long distance migration of oil from the deeper, more thermally mature part of the basin to the north. However, low porosity and permeability characterize sandier rocks in the Mancos, with the exception of Tocito-like sandstones. These factors could retard long distance oil migration through the sediment package, except through fracture or fault conduits. Thus, it is suggested that future oil and gas explorations in the Mancos treat the accumulations and reservoirs as unconventional and consider whether the source and reservoir are in closer proximity than has previously been assumed.

  9. Case study of sedimentary process simulator facies-3D for carbonate reservoirs of miocene kais formation in the Walio field; Wario yudenchu shinto kaisuso tansan'engan choryuso wo taisho toshita taiseki katei fukugen shumyureta Facies-3D kesu sutadei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, F.; Matsuda, S.; Saito, M.; Iwahashi, R.; Ishida, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A computer simulation model for the reconstruction of the sedimentary processes for carbonates and siliciclastics (Facies-3D) has been developed by the Technology Research Center of the Japan National Oil Corporation. A case study using the Facies-3D carbonate model was conducted in the Waldo field of the Salawati Basin in Eastern Indonesia. The main Walio reservoir in the reef a carbonate facies of the upper Kais Formation is interpreted to have been deposited during a third order cycle (5.5 Ma - 4.2 Ma) in the late Miocene to earliest Pliocene and is overlain by the Klasafet Formation claystone possibly after a 5.0 Ma maximum flooding surface (MFS). The reefal carbonate facies laterally changes into the Klasafet Formation claystone on the northern and eastern flanks of the field. The depositional facies distribution of the field was simulated using the Facies-3D carbonate model. The Facies-3D model describes carbonate facies based on water depth and current velocity, which are related to paleo-environment. Relations between carbonate facies and paleo-environment are estimated from the results of sedimentogical and foraminiferal analyses. Input data for the simulator comprise boundary current control data, parameters for carbonate facies, basement movement and sea level change. Results of the case study show that the simulation model describes the lateral facies changes, back-stepping features of the Walio reef, facies changes at major flooding events and drowning of the Walio reef at the 5.0 Ma MFS. (author)

  10. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn


    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  11. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk


    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  12. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of simple aphyric basalt groups (United States)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.


    Simple flows (tabular) in the Neogene flood basalt sections of Iceland are described and their mode of emplacement assessed. The flows belong to three aphyric basalt groups: the Kumlafell group, the Hólmatindur group and the Hjálmadalur group. The groups can be traced over 50 km and originate in the Breiðdalur-Thingmuli volcanic zone. The groups have flow fields that display mixed volcanic facies architecture and can be classified after dominating type morphology. The Kumlafell and the Hólmatindur groups have predominantly simple flows of pāhoehoe and rubbly pāhoehoe morphologies with minor compound or lobate pāhoehoe flows. The Hjálmadalur group has simple flows of rubbly pāhoehoe, but also includes minor compound or lobate flows of rubble and 'a'ā. Simple flows are most common in the distal and medial areas from the vents, while more lobate flows in proximal areas. The simple flows are formed by extensive sheet lobes that are several kilometers long with plane-parallel contacts, some reaching thicknesses of ~ 40 m (aspect ratios structures. Their internal structure consists generally of a simple upper vesicular crust, a dense core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The brecciated flow-top is formed by clinker and crustal rubble, the clinker often welded or agglutinated. The simple flows erupted from seemingly short-lived fissures and have the characteristics of cooling-limited flows. We estimate the effusion rates to be ~ 105 m3/s for the simple flows of the Kumlafell and Hólmatindur groups and ~ 104 m3/s for the Hjálmadalur group. The longest flows advanced 15-20 km from the fissures, with lava streams of fast propagating flows inducing tearing and brecciation of the chilled crust. Compound or lobate areas appear to reflect areas of low effusion rates or the interaction of the lava with topographic barriers or wetlands, resulting in chaotic flowage. Slowing lobes with brecciated flow-tops developed into 'a'ā flows. The groups interdigitated with lava

  13. Analysis of hydrogeochemical facies in groundwater of upper part of Cross River Basin, southeastern Nigeria (United States)

    Stephen, Ukpai N.; Celestine, Okogbue O.; Solomon, Onwuka O.


    Upper Cross River Hydrogeological Basin lies within latitudes 60 021N to 60 241N and longitudes 80 001E to 80 161E, and is generally underlain by shales of Asu River group of Albian age. The area has Histories of intensive mineralization which influenced groundwater system, resulting to occurrence of different water types. This study determines the various water types via evaluation of major ion concentration from representative water samples collected across the area. Twenty (20) water samples were analyzed using Spectrophotometer of HACH DR/2010 series, and results showed that groundwater in the area is generally hard and polluted with TDS in some places. Statistical inspection was performed on the results using aqua-chem, and it delineated five hydro-chemical facies, namely: Ca-Mg-Cl-S04, Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl-SO4, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-K-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl-SO4; all lie between slight acidic and weak alkaline water. These chemical facies (water types) diffused from non-point sources in urban area and point source from south of Abakaliki town. The dispersion of the facies plumes is possibly controlled by advection process through structural weak zones such as fractures. Hydraulic heads determined from hand-dug wells indicate local potentiometric surfaces, hence, showed local groundwater flow system which is possibly controlled by the underlying low permeable aquicludes formed by shales. The protective capacity of the aquitards was somewhat reduced by the permeating fractures which exposed the aquifers to polluting effects of mineralized water-types.

  14. Mooreville chalk - Upper Cretaceous sediment facies and sea level cycles, west-central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, J.A.; King, D.T.


    The Mooreville Chalk is composed of open-marine sediments containing a significant amount of fine-grained clastics. The main lithology is a chalk according to most workers; however, various lithologic types are present with marl being dominant. In the hemipelagic classification, a marl contains 30-70% calcium carbonate. Five facies have been delineated through detailed analysis of outcrops and subsurface samples. In stratigraphic order,these facies are: (1) bioturbated glauconitic sandstones and silty calcareous muds (inner shelf), (2) light olive-gray bioturbated marl and calcareous mud (open shelf, below storm wave base), (3) dark olive-gray laminated marl and calcareous mud (open shelf, well below storm wave base), (4) tan calcareous siltstones and sandstones, and sandy calcareous muds (open shelf, above storm wave base), and (5) tan silty calcareous muds and silty marls (open shelf, at storm wave base). The main depositional setting was a poorly oxygenated middle shelf environment, primarily below storm wave base. This interpretation is based on the absence of storm wave features known to exist in shallower water marls, the presence of small-scale laminae, the abundance of finely divided FeS/sub 2/, and the general dark color of the sediments. A relative sea level curve for the early Campanian shows two main cycles of relative sea level rise and fall. These two cycles do not compare well with the cycles reported from coeval facies of the Western Interior seaway and northern Europe. This unfavorable comparison suggests a different, local sea level history for the northeastern gulf rim.

  15. Facies control of reservoir quality in Grayburg Formation, Dune field, Crane County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G. (Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (USA))


    The lower Guadalupian Grayburg carbonates of Dune field were deposited along the edge of the Central Basin platform on the west side of the Midland basin. Dune field lies on the northeast side of a low-relief structure that dips gently into the basin. In the Mobil University Unit 15/16 of Dune field, the Grayburg reservoir section has been divided vertically into three parts based on carbonate facies recognized in whole cores. Predictable average porosities ({phi}) and geometric mean permeabilities (k) associated with these facies vary widely between four orders of magnitude. Fusulinid wackestone ({phi} = 7%, k = 0.2 md), the most widely distributed facies studied, composes the lower unit in all cores. The middle unit is represented by sponge-algal framestone ({phi} = 8%, k = 0.15 md) in the western third and crinoid packstone/grainstone ({phi} = 11%, k = 1.2 md) in the eastern two-thirds of the area studied. The upper unit contains an upward-shoaling succession from bottom to top of fusulinid wackestone, pellet grainstone ({phi} = 9%, k = 0.5 md), ooid grainstone ({phi} = 5%, k = 0.05 md), and pisolite grainstone ({phi} = 4%, k = 0.02 md). This sequence is interpreted to represent a progradational sequence from shallow-water subtidal to arid tidal-flat environments. Siltstone beds occur throughout the upper unit but are more numerous and thicker toward the top. Moldic, vuggy, interparticle, and intercrystalline porosities occur in the Grayburg dolomites. Although diagenesis of the San Andres/Grayburg carbonates (including massive dolomitization, and anhydrite and gypsum replacement and cementation) is extensive, the primary depositional fabrics still exert some control over the distribution, type, and amount of porosity and permeability. Permeability is highest (geometric mean = 0.5-1.2 md) where interparticle porosity is developed in the grainstones and packstones.

  16. Der Weg ist Das Ziel: Enthalpy Relaxation Geospeedometry in Volcanic Facies (United States)

    Dingwell, D. B.


    The advent of reliable high temperature scanning calorimetry has had a major impact on the analysis of the thermodynamics of geomaterials at high temperature. A relatively novel and unconventional use of scanning calorimetry - enthalpy relaxation geospeedometry - has been employed in volcanic facies in the past ten years. Using these techniques,information on the cooling of natural and synthetic glasses can be obtained. Reliable calibration of the technique on a wide range of glasses from various volcanic facies has led to the development of a fully quantitative method for the determination of effective cooling rate on pristine natural glasses. The evidence accumulated to date reveals an extraordinarily rich variation in volcanic cooling histories. The analysis of the glass transition region in volcanic glasses has yielded cooling rates over seven log units. The highest cooling rates are observed for explosively subaqueously erupted basalts from Loihi seamount. These filigran limu varieties are inferred to have cooled at up to >100,000 K/sec. The slowest effective cooling rates are observed in welded spatter-fed pantelleritic glasses from Mayor Island NZ for which values of several K/day have been inferred. Even whithin individual volcanic terrains, and individual eruptive events the span of thermal histories is impressive. At Teide, Tenerife, 4-5 orders of magnitude of variation have been recorded. Herein lies perhaps the real power of the technique - facies-specific thermal histories - whose employment in volcanology adds a useful tool to the understanding of pristine units. Finally, I observe that the calorimetric glass transition, once a nagging detail obstructing the interpretation of calorimetric results, has become a useful tool for understanding glass petrogenesis in nature.

  17. Application of different classification methods for litho-fluid facies prediction: a case study from the offshore Nile Delta (United States)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Ciabarri, Fabio


    In this work we test four classification methods for litho-fluid facies identification in a clastic reservoir located in the offshore Nile Delta. The ultimate goal of this study is to find an optimal classification method for the area under examination. The geologic context of the investigated area allows us to consider three different facies in the classification: shales, brine sands and gas sands. The depth at which the reservoir zone is located (2300-2700 m) produces a significant overlap of the P- and S-wave impedances of brine sands and gas sands that makes discrimination between these two litho-fluid classes particularly problematic. The classification is performed on the feature space defined by the elastic properties that are derived from recorded reflection seismic data by means of amplitude versus angle Bayesian inversion. As classification methods we test both deterministic and probabilistic approaches: the quadratic discriminant analysis and the neural network methods belong to the first group, whereas the standard Bayesian approach and the Bayesian approach that includes a 1D Markov chain a priori model to constrain the vertical continuity of litho-fluid facies belong to the second group. The ability of each method to discriminate the different facies is evaluated both on synthetic seismic data (computed on the basis of available borehole information) and on field seismic data. The outcomes of each classification method are compared with the known facies profile derived from well log data and the goodness of the results is quantitatively evaluated using the so-called confusion matrix. The results show that all methods return vertical facies profiles in which the main reservoir zone is correctly identified. However, the consideration of as much prior information as possible in the classification process is the winning choice for deriving a reliable and physically plausible predicted facies profile.

  18. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the main glauconite bed in the Middle Eocene of Texas: paleoenvironmental implications for the verdine facies. (United States)

    Harding, Sherie C; Nash, Barbara P; Petersen, Erich U; Ekdale, A A; Bradbury, Christopher D; Dyar, M Darby


    The Main Glauconite Bed (MGB) is a pelleted greensand located at Stone City Bluff on the south bank of the Brazos River in Burleson County, Texas. It was deposited during the Middle Eocene regional transgression on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Stratigraphically it lies in the upper Stone City Member, Crockett Formation, Claiborne Group. Its mineralogy and geochemistry were examined in detail, and verdine facies minerals, predominantly odinite, were identified. Few glauconitic minerals were found in the green pelleted sediments of the MGB. Without detailed mineralogical work, glaucony facies minerals and verdine facies minerals are easily mistaken for one another. Their distinction has value in assessing paleoenvironments. In this study, several analytical techniques were employed to assess the mineralogy. X-ray diffraction of oriented and un-oriented clay samples indicated a clay mixture dominated by 7 and 14Å diffraction peaks. Unit cell calculations from XRD data for MGB pellets match the odinite-1M data base. Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) from the average of 31 data points from clay pellets accompanied with Mössbauer analyses were used to calculate the structural formula which is that of odinite: Fe(3+) 0.89 Mg0.45 Al0.67 Fe(2+) 0.30 Ti0.01 Mn0.01) Σ = 2.33 (Si1.77 Al0.23) O5.00 (OH)4.00. QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) data provided mineral maps of quantitative proportions of the constituent clays. The verdine facies is a clay mineral facies associated with shallow marine shelf and lagoonal environments at tropical latitudes with iron influx from nearby runoff. Its depositional environment is well documented in modern nearshore locations. Recognition of verdine facies clays as the dominant constituent of the MGB clay pellets, rather than glaucony facies clays, allows for a more precise assessment of paleoenvironmental conditions.

  19. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Main Glauconite Bed in the Middle Eocene of Texas: Paleoenvironmental Implications for the Verdine Facies (United States)

    Harding, Sherie C.; Nash, Barbara P.; Petersen, Erich U.; Ekdale, A. A.; Bradbury, Christopher D.; Dyar, M. Darby


    The Main Glauconite Bed (MGB) is a pelleted greensand located at Stone City Bluff on the south bank of the Brazos River in Burleson County, Texas. It was deposited during the Middle Eocene regional transgression on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Stratigraphically it lies in the upper Stone City Member, Crockett Formation, Claiborne Group. Its mineralogy and geochemistry were examined in detail, and verdine facies minerals, predominantly odinite, were identified. Few glauconitic minerals were found in the green pelleted sediments of the MGB. Without detailed mineralogical work, glaucony facies minerals and verdine facies minerals are easily mistaken for one another. Their distinction has value in assessing paleoenvironments. In this study, several analytical techniques were employed to assess the mineralogy. X-ray diffraction of oriented and un-oriented clay samples indicated a clay mixture dominated by 7 and 14Å diffraction peaks. Unit cell calculations from XRD data for MGB pellets match the odinite-1M data base. Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) from the average of 31 data points from clay pellets accompanied with Mössbauer analyses were used to calculate the structural formula which is that of odinite: Fe3+0.89 Mg0.45 Al0.67 Fe2+0.30 Ti0.01 Mn0.01) Σ = 2.33 (Si1.77 Al0.23) O5.00 (OH)4.00. QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) data provided mineral maps of quantitative proportions of the constituent clays. The verdine facies is a clay mineral facies associated with shallow marine shelf and lagoonal environments at tropical latitudes with iron influx from nearby runoff. Its depositional environment is well documented in modern nearshore locations. Recognition of verdine facies clays as the dominant constituent of the MGB clay pellets, rather than glaucony facies clays, allows for a more precise assessment of paleoenvironmental conditions. PMID:24503875

  20. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica


    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  1. New interpretations of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, H.W.; Wolf, M.


    New ideas concerning the understanding of the facies of the Rhenish brown coal of West Germany are discussed. These new interpretations are based on a significantly larger number of samples and refined procedures for analysis within the field of paleobotany, palynology, coal petrology and organic geochemistry than were available to P.W. Thomson and M. Teichmuller. The light and dark bands in the coal are mainly the result of different degrees of plant decomposition. The influence of the peat-forming plant communities plays a subordinate role in the petrographical composition of these particular strata of the Rhenish brown coal. 28 refs.

  2. Sediment Facies on a Steep Shoreface, Tairua/Pauanui Embayment, New Zealand (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Hume, T. M.; Gammisch, R. A.; Wright, L. D.; Green, M. O.


    Tairua/Pauanui embayment is a small headland-bound system on the Coromandel Peninsula on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The shoreface in this area is steep ( ~0.85) and concave; however, where the profile is steepest, between 10-15-m water depth, the profile is slightly convex. A sedimentological study of the shoreface was conducted to provide baseline information for a sediment-dynamics study. Detailed swath mapping of the seabed sediment from the beach out to a water depth of ~50 m was conducted using side-scan sonar. Over 200 km of side-scan sonar data were collected by separate surveys in September 2000 and again in February 2001. Ground-truthing of side-scan sonar data was carried out by SCUBA, grab sampling ( ~100 samples) and drop-camera video. A digital terrain model (DTM) of the area was constructed using newly collected bathymetric data along with data from digitized nautical charts. The DTM exposes changes in bathymetry and variation in slope throughout the study area. The acoustic and sedimentologic data were used to identify and map 8 individual facies units. Shoreface facies distribution was found to be patchy and complex. Large-scale ( ~200-m wide x 1600-m long), slightly depressed, mega-rippled coarse-sand/shell-hash units were abruptly truncated by contacts with fine, featureless, continuous sand-cover units. The repeat survey in February indicated stability of the overall shape and location of large-scale facies units, while diver observations indicated that bedforms within units actively migrate. Bedform roughness is highly variable, including patchy reefs/rubble, sand-dollar fields mega-rippled coarse-gravel/sands, ripple scour depressions, and fields of dense tubeworms. The distribution of coarse shell-hash units is consistent with diabathic sediment transport. Three tripods supporting a range of instruments for measuring waves, currents, boundary-layer flows and sediment resuspension and settling were deployed on the

  3. Geochemical and Microbial Community Attributes in Relation to Hyporheic Zone Geological Facies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Nelson, William C.; Stegen, James C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Crump, Alex R.; Kennedy, David W.; Perkins, M. C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.


    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the active ecotone between the surface stream and groundwater, where exchanges of water, nutrients, and organic matter occur in response to variations in discharge and riverbed properties. Within this region, a confluence of surface-derived organic carbon and subsurface nitrogen (in the form of nitrate) has been shown to stimulate microbial activity and transformations of carbon and nitrogen species. For example, production of gases such as CO2, N2 and N2O indicate hyporheic zones might have a significant effect on energy and nutrient flows between the atmosphere and the subsurface. Managed and seasonal river stage changes and geomorphology-controlled sediment texture drive water flow within the HZ of the Columbia River. To examine the relationship between sediment texture, biogeochemistry, and biological activity in the HZ, the grain size distributions for sediment samples taken across 320 m of shoreline were characterized to define geological facies, and the relationships among physical properties of the facies, physicochemical attributes of the local environment, and the structure and activity of associated microbial communities were examined. Mud and sand content and the presence of carbon and nitrogen oxidizers were found to explain the variability in many biogeochemical attributes. Microbial community analysis revealed a high relative abundance of putative ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospirae, together comprising ~20% of the total community across all samples, but scant ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria. Network analysis of operational taxonomic units and the measured geophysical, chemical, and functional parameters showed negative relationships between abundance-based modules of organisms and sand and mud contents, and positive relationships with total organic carbon. The relationships identified in this work indicate grain size distribution is a good predictor of biogeochemical properties, and that subsets

  4. A chemostratigraphic study of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Insights on magma chamber withdrawal and deposit accumulation as revealed by compositionally zoned stratigraphic and facies framework (United States)

    Fedele, L.; Scarpati, C.; Sparice, D.; Perrotta, A.; Laiena, F.


    Petrochemical analyses of juvenile samples from twenty stratigraphic sections of the Campanian Ignimbrite medial deposits, located from 30 to 79 km from the vent, are presented here. Sampling has accurately followed a well-defined stratigraphic framework and the new component facies scheme. The Campanian Ignimbrite succession is formed by a basal plinian pumice fall deposit, overlain by a complex architecture of pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced from a single sustained pyroclastic density current through a mechanism of vertical and lateral accretion. The deposit is broadly zoned, from more evolved trachyte at its base to less evolved trachyte at its top, and is similarly less evolved with increasing distance from the area of emission. Irregular chemical trends are locally observed and interpreted to represent only a limited, "patchy" record of the entire vertical geochemical trend. The petrochemical variation observed horizontally was ascribed to changes in the flow dynamics and interaction between the advancing flow and the underlying topography. The results of this study were used to propose a unified volcanological-petrological model for the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, taking into account the emplacement of both the proximal (i.e., the "Breccia Museo" formation) and medial deposits.

  5. Prediction of Diagenetic Facies using Well Logs: Evidences from Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation Chang 8 Sandstones in Jiyuan Region, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Jin


    Full Text Available The eighth member of Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation (Chang 8 is the major oil reservoir unit in Jiyuan oil field, though with the high potential for oil exploration. The Chang 8 sandstones are characterized with low porosity, low permeability and strong microscopic heterogeneities due to the complex deep-burial diagenetic history. Detailed petrological studies by thin section, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, core analysis have been used to investigate the lithogology characteristics, diagenesis, diagenetic minerals and their coupling impacts on reservoir property. The results show that Chang 8 sandstones comprise fine to mediumgrained subarkoses, feldspathic litharenites. The pore systems are dominated by remaining primary intergranular pores, secondary dissolution porosity and micropores. Then, five diagenetic facies were divided in Chang 8 sandstones based on the type and degree of diagenesis, diagenetic minerals assemblages and their coupling effects on the reservoir quality. They consist of grain-coating chlorite weak dissolution facies, unstable component dissolution facies, tight compaction facies, clay minerals filling facies and carbonate cementation facies. The well logging response characteristics of various diagenetic facies are summarized on Gamma Ray (GR, Density Logging (DEN, Acoustic (AC, Compensated Neutron Logging (CNL, and True Formation Resistivity (RT by translating diagenetic facies to well log responses, the diagenetic facies were defined by a set of log responses, and porosity, permeability ranges for each diagenetic facies were determined from core analyses. Well log data of Luo 13 and Chi 212 are processed to evaluate the accuracy of the predictive model. The diagenetic facies are predicted on the vertical profile based on the generated model. Predicted distribution of diagenetic facies precisely coincide with the microscopic observations, and diagenetic facies in Chang 8 sandstones are generally

  6. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of tortuosity for discriminating electro-facies to interpret the electrical parameters of carbonate reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saner, Salih; Than Htay, Maung [Petroleum and Gas Technology Division, Research Institute of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Harthi, Abdulaziz [Physics department of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)


    The electrical parameters of 80 various carbonate rock plugs from a Saudi Arabian reservoir were measured. The results were first analyzed without considering the lithology, and then subsequently lithology was considered. Tortuosity distribution and correlations with other petrophysical parameters were used in differentiating samples of similar electrical properties, called `electro-facies`. Tortuosity distribution indicated two populations of data points one of which corresponded to the oolitic and skeletal-intraclastic lithofacies, referred to as `granular electro-facies`; and the other to the muddy and the dolomitic lithofacies, named `dolomitic-muddy electro-facies`. Three methods were applied to interpret the cementation factor: (1) the Archie; (2) the best fit; and (3) the cementation factor as a function of porosity. Error analysis showed that the Archie cementation factor was not an appropriate method for the studied reservoir rocks. The best fit and the cementation factor as a function of porosity methods yielded more reasonable results and they are recommended over the Archie method. A comparison of the water saturations obtained using the electrical parameters of the overall samples with the water saturations obtained using the parameters of each electro-facies showed significant errors especially in low water saturation zones. This indicates the importance of litho- or electro-facies discrimination in heterogeneous reservoirs

  8. Microbial facies distribution and its geological and geochemical controls at the Hanford 300 area (United States)

    Hou, Z.; Nelson, W.; Stegen, J.; Murray, C. J.; Arntzen, E.


    Efforts have been made by various scientific disciplines to study hyporheic zones and characterize their associated processes. One way to approach the study of the hyporheic zone is to define facies, which are elements of a (hydrobio) geologic classification scheme that groups components of a complex system with high variability into a manageable set of discrete classes. In this study, we try to classify the hyporheic zone based on the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and understand their interactive influences on the integrated biogeochemical distributions and processes. A number of measurements have been taken for 21 freeze core samples along the Columbia River bank in the Hanford 300 Area, and unique datasets have been obtained on biomass, pH, number of microbial taxa, percentage of N/C/H/S, microbial activity parameters, as well as microbial community attributes/modules. In order to gain a complete understanding of the geological control on these variables and processes, the explanatory variables are set to include quantitative gravel/sand/mud/silt/clay percentages, statistical moments of grain size distributions, as well as geological (e.g., Folk-Wentworth) and statistical (e.g., hierarchical) clusters. The dominant factors for major microbial and geochemical variables are identified and summarized using exploratory data analysis approaches (e.g., principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, factor analysis, multivariate analysis of variance). The feasibility of extending the facies definition and its control of microbial and geochemical properties to larger scales is discussed.

  9. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen


    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  10. Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Southern Germany (Schwaebische Alb). Organic facies, depositional environment, and maurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littke, R.; Rotzal, H.; Leythaeuser, D.; Baker, D.R. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und Organische Geochemie)


    Four cores of Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale from the Schwaebische Alb in Southern Germany were characterized by elemental analyses (C, S, C{sub org}), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and incident light microsocpy. These results are compared to a single core of the same stratigraphic interval in Northern Germany. Data reveal the same principal organic facies evolution within the Posidonia Shale in three of the cores, but a different evolution within the core drilled at the nothern site from the Schwaebische Alb and in Northern Germany. Differences in the consistency of anaerobic bottom water are regarded as the primary control of organic facies and are presumed to be dependent on depth of water during deposition. Accumulation rates of bulk sediment and organic carbon were low, if Posidonia Shale sedimentation lasted 2.5 million years as suggested by biostratigrahic information. These low accumulation rates contradict the existence of high rates of primary productivity as a principal cause for black shale deposition. High bioproductivity can only be assumed, of the Posidonia Shale only represents a much smaller time interval; i.e. less than 0.5 million years. The maturity level of all profiles corresponds to the onset of petroleum formation. Small differences exist between the more mature northern and central sites and the southern sites in the Schwaebische Alb. (orig.).

  11. Facies-related fracturing in turbidites: insights from the Marnoso-Arenacea Fm. (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Bedogni, Enrico; Tinterri, Roberto; Fetter, Marcos; Gomes, Leonardo; Hatushika, Raphael


    Natural fractures deeply influence subsurface fluid flow, exerting a primary control on resources like aquifers, hydrocarbons and geothermal reservoirs, and on environmental issues like CO2 storage and nuclear waste disposal. In layered sedimentary rocks, depositional processes-imprinted rock rheology favours the development of both mechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity on a wide range of scales, and are thus expected to strongly influence location and frequency of fractures. To better constrain the contribution of stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrophysical attributes, we performed a high-resolution, multidisciplinary study on a selected stratigraphic interval of jointed foredeep turbidites in the Miocene Marnoso-arenacea Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy), which are characterised by a great lateral and vertical variability of grain-size and depositional structures. Statistical relationships among field and laboratory data significantly improve when the single facies scale is considered, and, for similar facies recording different evolutionary stages of the parent turbidity currents, we observed a direct correlation between the three-dimensional anisotropies of rock hardness tensors and the normalized fracture frequencies, testifying for the primary sedimentary flow-related control on fracture distributions.

  12. HIV status: the prima facie right not to know the result. (United States)

    Chan, Tak Kwong


    When a patient regains consciousness from Cryptococcus meningitis, the clinician may offer an HIV test (in case it has not already been done) (scenario 1) or offer to tell the patient his HIV status (in case the test has already been performed with a positive result while the patient was unconscious) (scenario 2). Youngs and Simmonds proposed that the patient has the prima facie right to refuse an HIV test in scenario 1 but not the prima facie right not to be told the HIV status in scenario 2. I submit that the claims to the right of refusal in both scenarios are similarly strong as they should both be grounded in privacy, self determination or dignity. But a conscientious agent should bear in mind that members of the public also have the right not to be harmed. When the circumstance allows, a proper balance of the potential benefits and harm for all the competing parties should guide the clinical decision as to whose right should finally prevail. Where a full ethical analysis is not possible, the presumption should favour respecting the patient's right of refusal in both scenarios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. [First trimester screening for Down syndrome at Prima facie. A 6-year survey]. (United States)

    Roth, P; Bernard, J-P; Meyer, V; Beaujard, M-P; Salomon, L-J; Ville, Y


    To evaluate the results of screening for trisomy 21 by the combined risk of first trimester (as defined by the decree of June 23, 2009) in the Prima facie structure. Single center study involving all patients that were seen for first trimester screening at Prima facie with singleton living pregnancy, not obtained by embryo donation, between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Eighteen thousand two hundred and fifty-one patients were included, of which underwent screening for trisomy 21 by the combined risk. One thousand and forty-six (6.1%) had a calculated risk higher than 1/250. Seventy-five were affected by trisomy 21, of whom 65 in the high risk group. The sensitivity and specificity of screening are 86.7% and 94.4%. The median nuchal translucency was 0.98 MoM. Screening for trisomy 21 by calculating the combined risk of first trimester enabled to detect 86.7% of trisomy 21 with a false positive rate of 5.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The facies distribution of carbonate sediments on Porcupine bank, northeast Atlantic (United States)

    Scoffin, Terence P.; Bowes, George E.


    Porcupine Bank (51-54°N, 12-15°W), approximately 10,000 km 2 in area and 150-500 m deep, is effectively removed from present-day terrigenous sedimentation by the broad Irish Shelf to the east, and deep water to the north, west and south. Water temperatures range from 10° to 14.5°C. Carbonate sediments presently accumulate on the bank, mixing with relict quartz sands and lithic pebbles, cobbles and boulders of glacial origin. Traction current structures are absent but biogenic hollows, pits, mounds and trails are prevalent. The lithofacies have a crudely concentric zonation with pelagic foraminiferal oozes in the deepest waters (> 500 m), passing to foraminiferal (pelagic and benthic) glauconitic quartz sands over the bulk of the bank (500-200 m) where scattered patches of Lophelia pertusa coral branches are found, which in turn pass into a narrow zone associated with the lithic boulder field at the bank crest (skeletal fragments of benthic organisms-molluscs, echinoids, bryozoans and serpulids. This facies pattern is closely similar to that on Rockall Bank, 500 km to the north, and supports the construction of a depth-related facies model for modern open-sea temperate carbonate sediments: > 500 m, pelagic foraminiferans; 500-200 m, benthic foraminiferans plus Lophelia coral patches; 200-100 m, bivalve-echinoderm; 100-50 m, bryozoan-bivalve-gastropod-serpulid; <50 m, calcareous red algae-bivalve-gastropod-barnacle.

  15. Correlation of different-facies Triassic deposits of the eastern Urals and Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirichkova, A.I.; Kulikova, N.K. [All Russian Research Institute of Oil Prospecting, Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Some Triassic key sections of Siberia and the eastern Urals are characterized in terms of palaeontology. In the northeastern Siberia, these are sequences of the Cape Tsvetkov (the eastern Taimyr Peninsula) and the Ust-Anabar and Buur-Olenek structural-facies zones. Marine and continental deposits of these sections contain six palynological assemblages of the Induan, Olenekian, late Anisian, Ladinian-early Carnian, Carnian, and early Norian ages. The dating is supported by marine fauna identifications. Analogous palynological assemblages were detected in volcano-sedimentary coastal-marine Triassic sequences recovered by the Tyumen' superdeep borehole and by deep Nikol'skaya-1 borehole in West Siberia. In the eastern Urals, the palynological assemblages of similar composition were found in continental volcano-sedimentary coal-bearing sequences of the Chelyabinsk and Anokhino grabens. This allows correlation of the different-facies Triassic deposits. Distribution patterns of the distinguished spore-pollen and macrofossil plant assemblages are compared for the first time. The correspondence between evolutionary stages of Triassic taphofloras in East Siberia and the eastern Urals is established.

  16. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Brosge, W.P.; Till, A.B.; Doyle, E.O.; Mayfield, C.F.; Reiser, H.N.; Miller, T.P.


    Approximately half of the exposed bedrock in northern Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed. In the southern Brooks Range and on the Seward Peninsula, continental rocks experienced a clockwise pressure-temperature path that evolved during Middle Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous time from the low- to high-temperature subfacies of the blueschist facies and, finally, due to decreasing pressure, evolved to the greenschist facies. Metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range was associated with north-vergent compression along a south-dipping subduction zone that emplaced the oceanic rocks of the Angayucham terrane onto the continental margin. High-pressure metamorphism on the Seward Peninsula probably had a similar origin to that in the southern Brooks Range, but remnants of the overriding plate have not been identified, and the mechanism by which the high-pressure rocks in the two areas were separated is not known. In the Ruby geanticline, glaucophane, attesting to high-pressure metamorphism, is sporadically developed both within the continental rocks of the lower plate and, less commonly, near the base of the overlying oceanic thrust sheets. Although the majority of the metamorphic episodes that affected northern Alaska occurred during the Mesozoic, older episodes have been documented or are suspected in a few areas.

  17. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  18. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  19. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  20. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  1. Dating High Temperature Mineral Fabrics in Lower Crustal Granulite Facies Rocks (United States)

    Stowell, H. H.; Schwartz, J. J.; Tulloch, A. J.; Klepeis, K. A.; Odom Parker, K.; Palin, M.; Ramezani, J.


    Granulite facies rocks may record strain that provides a record of compressional and/or extensional crustal events in hot orogenic cores and the roots of magmatic arcs. Although the precise timing of these events is important for constructing tectonic histories, it is often difficult to determine due to uncertain relationships between isotopic signatures, mineral growth, and textural features that record strain. In addition, there may be large uncertainties in isotope data due to intracrystalline diffusion and multiple crystallization events. L-S tectonites in lower crustal rocks from Fiordland, NZ record the early stages of extensional collapse of thickened magmatic arc crust. The precise age of these fabrics is important for constraining the timing of extension that led to opening of the Tasman Sea. High temperature granulite facies L-S fabrics in garnet reaction zones (GRZ) border syn- to post-deformational leucosomes. U-Pb zircon, Lu-Hf garnet, and Sm-Nd garnet ages, and trace elements in these phases indicate the complexity of assigning precise and useful ages. Zircon have soccer ball morphology with patchy and sector zoned CL. Zircon dates for igneous host and adjacent GRZ range over ca. 17 Ma. 236U-208Pb LA-ICP-MS are 108-125 Ma, N=124 (host & GRZ); however, chemical abrasion (CA) shifts GRZ dates ca. 2 Ma older. 236U-208Pb SHRIMP-RG dates cluster in 2 groups: 118.5±0.8 Ma, N=23 and 111.0±0.8 Ma, N=6. CA single crystal TIMS dates also fall into 2 groups: 117.6±0.1 Ma, N=4 and 116.6±0.2 Ma N=4. Garnet isochron ages determined from coarse garnet selvages adjacent to leucosomes range from 112.8±2.2 (147Sm-143Nd, 10 pts.) to 114.8±3.5 (177Lu-176Hf, 6 pts.) Ma. Zircon dates from all methods show ranges (>10 Ma) and 2 distinct populations. Host and GRZ zircon cannot be readily distinguished by age, lack younger rims, but have distinct Th/U trends and Eu/Eu* vs. Hf ratios. Difference in zircon trace element composition indicates either early leucosome

  2. Palynostratigraphy and sedimentary facies of Middle Miocene fluvial deposits of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Antonioli, Luzia; Riccomini, Claudio; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues


    Palynostratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses were made on sedimentary deposits from the left bank of the Solimões River, southwest of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. These provided the age-dating and subdivision of a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in the Amazonas Basin. The Novo Remanso Formation is subdivided into upper and lower units, and delineated by discontinuous surfaces at its top and bottom. The formation consists primarily of sandstones and minor mudstones and conglomerates, reflecting fluvial channel, point bar and floodplain facies of a fluvial meandering paleosystem. Fairly well-preserved palynoflora was recovered from four palynologically productive samples collected in a local irregular concentration of gray clay deposits, rich in organic material and fossilized wood, at the top of the Novo Remanso Formation upper unit. The palynoflora is dominated by terrestrial spores and pollen grains, and is characterized by abundant angiosperm pollen grains ( Tricolpites, Grimsdalea, Perisyncolporites, Tricolporites and Malvacearumpollis). Trilete spores are almost as abundant as the angiosperm pollen, and are represented mainly by the genera Deltoidospora, Verrutriletes, and Hamulatisporis. Gymnosperm pollen is scarce. The presence of the index species Grimsdalea magnaclavata Germeraad et al. (1968) indicates that these deposits belong to the Middle Miocene homonymous palynozone (Lorente, 1986; Hoorn, 1993; Jaramillo et al., 2011). Sedimentological characteristics (poorly sorted, angular to sub-angular, fine to very-coarse quartz sands facies) are typical of the Novo Remanso Formation upper part. These are associated with a paleoflow to the NE-E and SE-E, and with an entirely lowland-derived palinofloristic content with no Andean ferns and gymnosperms representatives. All together, this suggests a cratonic origin for this Middle Miocene fluvial paleosystem, which was probably born in the Purus Arch eastern flank and areas surrounding the

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  4. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  5. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  6. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  7. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  8. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  9. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  10. Coupling level set methods with the ensemble kalman filter conditioning geological facies models to well and production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, David Leonardo


    In the present work a coupling methodology between level set methods and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for modeling and conditioning geological facies with respect to production and, well data is presented. The modeling of the facies is based on the concept of implicit interfaces where level set methods are used to add dynamics to the implicit interfaces. The conditioning of the facies models is done through the application of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), a sequential Bayesian inversion technique completely automatic that does not require the calculation of gradients or uses the information of previous states. The EnKF has been presented as an evolution of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that solves the problem of the unbounded error growth of the covariance of a non-linear dynamical system by extending the traditional Kalman filter(KF) to a Monte Carlo ensemble type filter where the covariance representation is centered on the first moment of an ensemble distribution instead of the unknown true model, however, for the problem to be well defined, the parameters to be estimated should still be Gaussian or approximately Gaussian. For updating facies models defined as highly non-Gaussian systems the EnKF fails at first, since if facies types with different petrophysical properties are mixed, the generated petrophysical model will have some average properties that do not behave like any of the original facies types. The methodology presented in this work is designed to avoid the problem of the non-Gaussianity provided by facies models by applying a transformation of the facies into implicit interfaces and uses a more Gaussian variable to perturb and move the implicit representations of the facies. The result is a methodology that conditions Gaussian random fields (GRFs) to production and well data with the EnKF, later used as velocity fields in the level set equations for moving boundaries between facies systems with the purpose of obtaining good topological

  11. Sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation at Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin, Iran (United States)

    Amirshahkarami, Mahnaz; Vaziri-Moghaddam, Hossein; Taheri, Azizolah


    The Oligocene-Miocene Asmari Formation of the Zagros Basin is a thick sequence of shallow water carbonate. In the study area, it is subdivided into 14 microfacies that are distinguished on the basis of their depositional textures, petrographic analysis and fauna. Based on the paleoecology and lithology, four distinct depositional settings can be recognized: tidal flat, lagoon, barrier, and open marine. The Asmari Formation represents sedimentation on a carbonate ramp. In the inner ramp, the most abundant lithofacies are medium grained wackestone-packstone with imperforated foraminifera. The middle ramp is represented by packstone-grainstone to floatstone with a diverse assemblage of larger foraminifera with perforate wall, red algae, bryozoa, and echinoids. The outer ramp is dominated by argillaceous wackestone characterized by planktonic foraminifera and large and flat nummulitidae and lepidocyclinidae. Three third-order depositional sequences are recognized from deepening and shallowing trends in the depositional facies, changes in cycle stacking patterns, and sequence boundary features.

  12. Pennsylvanian coniferopsid forests in sabkha facies reveal the nature of seasonal tropical biome (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Jud, N.A.; John, Nelson W.; DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Lucas, S.G.


    Pennsylvanian fossil forests are known from hundreds of sites across tropical Pangea, but nearly all comprise remains of humid Coal Forests. Here we report a unique occurrence of seasonally dry vegetation, preserved in growth position along >5 km of strike, in the Pennsylvanian (early Kasimovian, Missourian) of New Mexico (United States). Analyses of stump anatomy, diameter, and spatial density, coupled with observations of vascular traces and associated megaflora, show that this was a deciduous, mixed-age, coniferopsid woodland (~100 trees per hectare) with an open canopy. The coniferopsids colonized coastal sabkha facies and show tree rings, confirming growth under seasonally dry conditions. Such woodlands probably served as the source of coniferopsids that replaced Coal Forests farther east in central Pangea during drier climate phases. Thus, the newly discovered woodland helps unravel biome-scale vegetation dynamics and allows calibration of climate models. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  13. Lower Tertiary Sedimentary Turbidite Facies at the Chicontepec Basin, East-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Piña N.


    Full Text Available The study area comprises the northwestern portion of the Chicontepec Basin at southeastern San Luis Potosí and northeastern Hidalgo States. At the stratigraphy sequences of the Chicontepec Formation from Lower Paleocene in isolated outocrops, were herein interpreted two major sedimentary sub-environments into the fan model: the middle and the external sedimentary settings; the applied criteria for their identification were: (a lithostratigraphic (thickness, geometry and distribution; (b internal and external primary sedimentary structures, and (c intra-formational deformation structures. The sedimentary facies are composed of siliciclastic and calcareous particles sourced from the Sierra Madre Oriental, western; the Tuxpan paleo-island, eastern; and from the Teziutlan Massif, southern; the sediments were massively transported by slideing, slumping, flow debris and turbidity currents, then deposited as massive, tabular, lenticular and lobely in shape at the slope foot and on the sea marine floor.

  14. Bayesian inversion of seismic attributes for geological facies using a Hidden Markov Model (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Curtis, Andrew


    Markov chain Monte-Carlo (McMC) sampling generates correlated random samples such that their distribution would converge to the true distribution only as the number of samples tends to infinity. In practice, McMC is found to be slow to converge, convergence is not guaranteed to be achieved in finite time, and detection of convergence requires the use of subjective criteria. Although McMC has been used for decades as the algorithm of choice for inference in complex probability distributions, there is a need to seek alternative approaches, particularly in high dimensional problems. Walker & Curtis (2014) developed a method for Bayesian inversion of 2-D spatial data using an exact sampling alternative to McMC which always draws independent samples of the target distribution. Their method thus obviates the need for convergence and removes the concomitant bias exhibited by finite sample sets. Their algorithm is nevertheless computationally intensive and requires large memory. We propose a more efficient method for Bayesian inversion of categorical variables, such as geological facies that requires no sampling at all. The method is based on a 2-D Hidden Markov Model (2D-HMM) over a grid of cells where observations represent localized data constraining each cell. The data in our example application are seismic attributes such as P- and S-wave impedances and rock density; our categorical variables are the hidden states and represent the geological rock types in each cell-facies of distinct subsets of lithology and fluid combinations such as shale, brine-sand and gas-sand. The observations at each location are assumed to be generated from a random function of the hidden state (facies) at that location, and to be distributed according to a certain probability distribution that is independent of hidden states at other locations - an assumption referred to as `localized likelihoods'. The hidden state (facies) at a location cannot be determined solely by the observation at that

  15. La validez prima facie y el principio de derrotabilidad de Las normas jurídicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Víctor García-Yzaguirre


    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende explorar las implicancias teóricas del concepto prima facie y como este se relaciona con el principio de derrotabilidad, el cual es aplicable para justificar el incumplimiento de un deber jurídico a causa del acatamiento de otro en un contexto en el que ambos son incom- patibles entre sí. Partiremos desde su sustento conceptual analizando cuál es el rol y la importancia del contexto en el razonamiento jurídico hasta arribar a pautas concretas de cómo opera en la práctica judicial ofreciendo algunos ejemplos hipotéticos y jurisprudenciales.

  16. Strain localization in shear zones during exhumation: a graphical approach to facies interpretation (United States)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Augier, Romain; Laurent, Valentin; Roche, Vincent; Jolivet, Laurent


    Strain localization is a fundamental process determining plate tectonics. It is expressed in the ductile field by shear zones where strain concentrates. Despite their worldwide distribution in most metamorphic units, their detailed characterization and processes comprehension are far to be fully addressed. In this work, a graphic approach to tectono-metamorphic facies identification is applied to the Delfini Shear Zone in Syros (Cyclades, Greece), which is mostly characterized by metabasites displaying different degree of retrogression from fresh eclogite to prasinite. Several exhumation mechanisms brought them from the depths of the subduction zone to the surface, from syn-orogenic exhumation to post-orogenic backarc extension. Boudinage, grain-size reduction and metamorphic reactions determinate strain localization across well-deformed volumes of rocks organized in a hierarchic frame of smaller individual shear zones (10-25 meters thick). The most representative of them can be subdivided in 5 tectono-metamorphic (Tm) facies, TmA to E. TmA records HP witnesses and older folding stages preserved within large boudins as large as 1-2 m across. TmB is characterized by much smaller and progressively more asymmetric boudins and sigmoids. TmC is defined by well-transposed sub- to plane-parallel blueschist textures crossed by chlorite-shear bands bounding the newly formed boudins. When strain increases (facies TmD-E), the texture is progressively retrograded to LP-HT greenschist-facies conditions. Those observations allowed us to establish a sequence of stages of strain localization. The first stage (1) is determined by quite symmetric folding and boudinage. In a second stage (2), grain-size reduction is associated with dense shear bands formation along previously formed glaucophane and quartz-rich veins. With progressively more localized strain, mode-I veins may arrange as tension gashes that gradually evolve to blueschist shear bands. This process determinates the

  17. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihi, H.


    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  18. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy


    Full Text Available Las avalanchas de detritos, asociadas a colapsos parciales de edificios volcánicos, son fenómenos comunes en la evolución de un volcán. Este tipo de flujos son por inestabilidades, que pueden deberse a factores tales como la existencia de zonas afectadas por alteración hidrotermal, cambios climáticos, terremotos, intrusión de magmas en zonas superficiales (criptodomos y/o diques y/o movimiento de fallas bajo el edificio volcánico o cercanas a él. El producto final de estos flujos -denominado depósito de avalancha de detritos (DAD- presenta morfologías típicas de cerrillos y drenajes cerrados. En los Andes Centrales se han reconocido, al menos, 14 centros volcánicos con depósitos de avalancha asociados, entre los que está el volcán Tata Sabaya (Bolivia. El colapso que ha dado origen a este depósito podría haberse generado por una combinación de actividad sísmica y magmática en el volcán. El depósito asociado al colapso parcial de este volcán se distribuye sobre la parte baja del flanco sur del volcán y sobre la parte noroccidental de la cuenca del salar de Coipasa. Cubre una superficie de más de 230 km² y tiene un volumen estimado de 6±1 km³. Sobre la base de las composiciones litológicas, se ha establecido que el depósito está constituido por 6 tipos distintos de cerrillos, los cuales son: lávicos, piroclásticos, sedimentarios mixtos, brecha piroclástica y andesítico-basálticos. Considerando el tipo predominante de cerrillos y su distribución espacial dentro del depósito, se ha definido 6 facies diferentes (Facies de Bloques Toreva, Facies de Cerrillos Volcánicos, Facies Central, Facies de Cerrillos Sedimentarios, Facies Mixta y Facies de Cerrillos de Brecha Piroclástica. Tomando en cuenta la distribución espacial de estas facies, se propone la estructura del paleovolcán previa a su colapso parcial.Debris avalanches associated with partial sector collapse of volcanic edifices are common phenomena in the

  19. Sediment Composition and Facies of Coral Reef Islands in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Janßen


    Full Text Available Sedimentological and geomorphological characteristics of coral reef islands are strongly related to past and recent boundary conditions such as the hydrodynamic regime, wind directions, sea-level fluctuations, and the ecological footprint of the surrounding reef complexes. Alterations in the physical, chemical, and biological boundary controls may affect the stability of reef islands. Additionally, these factors are of importance in the context of future climate change. Such alterations through time may well be documented within the sedimentary record of reef islands and a better knowledge on its effects could help to improve our understanding of island responses to future changes of the status quo. However, detailed studies on the sedimentology and geomorphology of reef islands from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, are still rare. Here we report on the sedimentary composition and related facies zonation of four uninhabited coral reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago. Sediment samples from onshore- and reef-flat environments were analyzed in regard to their grain size, component assemblages and facies distribution. Our results show that the analyzed island sediments are characterized by medium- to coarse-grained sand fractions and are well to poorly sorted. Across all islands examined, the surface sediment is predominately composed of materials identified as scleractinian coral and coralline red algae fragments, with minor additions from bivalves, gastropods and foraminifers. Importantly, statistical analyses of the variations in the percentage of these components allow for a clear sedimentary distinction of the four study sites into three outer shelf islands, situated closer to the open marine Makassar Strait, and one inner shelf island. On the inner shelf island, additional subsurface sedimentological analyses indicate a potential shift in major sediment contributors through time, preserved as coral-dominated accumulations within the

  20. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.


    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A combined multidisciplinary approach has been applied to calculate minimum values of the stratigraphic completeness and, secondarily, sedimentation rates in 9.2 m thick Rosso Ammonitico facies from central Apennines (Italy and 11 m thick deposits of the same facies in Southern Spain. Middle - Upper Toarcian expanded sedimentation in Valdorbia section (Umbria-Marche Apennines and extremely condensed Oxfordian-Tithonian sedimentation at Puerto Escaño section (External Subbetic have been investigated using combined taphonomic, ichnologic and sedimentologic data and analyses. At Valdorbia, infaunal tiering is largely preserved and 27 horizons of infaunal-tiering truncation and casting reveal strong erosional activity forced by tempestite/turbidite events. Therefore, microstratigraphic gaps could be evaluated without biostratigraphic control. In this expanded section, 13 horizons of firm- and hardgrounds have been recorded showing simple or gradational tiering. Conversely, in the condensed Puerto Escaño section, taphonomic analysis reveals 25 horizons of bioclasts truncation (mainly in ammonites, and 56 horizons of firm-hardgrounds intensively bioturbated. In Valdorbia rather than in Puerto Escaño section, the evaluation of flattening in burrows and spherical bioclasts reveal a measurable mechanical compaction and dissolution. In addition, Rosso Ammonitico at Valdorbia section favoured the calculation of decompaction coefficients (nd for each lithology easier than in Puerto Escaño section. In condensed and essentially hiatal Rosso Ammonitico, mottled deposits due to intense bioturbation dominate and tiering cannot be recognizable. This fact is accentuated by usual overprinting of elementary depositional events, which in turn hampered the accurate calculation of missing deposits. Therefore, in condensed Rosso Ammonitico the latter was only available in terms of minimal missing-record trough the analysis of truncated bioclasts. 

  2. Volumetric facies analysis of a Late Holocene mudbelt environment on the Galician shelf (NW Spain). (United States)

    Oberle, F. K. J.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Schwenk, T.


    This case study uses geographically dense, shallow-seismic data from the Galician continental shelf in order to quantify the sedimentary volume of a confined mudbelt depocenter. Mud depocenters on shelves are of particular economic and environmental interest because they represent areas where fishing and other ground disturbing activities are most intense and ecosystems hold some of the highest biodiversities. Also, up until now, studies of sedimentary shelf systems have mainly focused on the temporal and special development of sedimentary facies in relation to sea-level changes while little is known about the sedimentary budgets and fluxes that control these systems. Budget analyses of sedimentary shelf environments are, difficult to accomplish and only very few studies exist to this date that have attempted this due to the required high geographic density of shallow-seismic reflection profiles and sediment cores to calculate sedimentary volumes in an adequate accuracy. In this study we use 1500 km of new (May, 2011) shallow-seismic (PARASOUND) data in conjunction with multiple sediment cores to calculate a high-resolution isopach map that represents the Late Holocene (Galician coast. This is especially noteworthy in the wake of urbanization of watershed areas and associated higher erosion rates and consequent higher riverine sedimentary load. While previous studies show that shelfal mud depocenters represent a major sink for sediments on shelves little is known about their importance for global material flux calculations. This study contributes rare quantitative data from a high-energy shelf environment that helps develop a more in depth understanding of their significance within global material fluxes. In addition, a high resolution spatial record of this modern mudbelt will enable researchers to analyze future seasonal or annual shifts of material pathways and spatial distribution and volume of this facies. Such an analysis may hold serious implications for a

  3. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  4. Verdine and other associated authigenic (glaucony, phosphate) facies from the surficial sediments of the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.; Dupeuble, P.A.

    , these grains represent a long depositional history and have had enough time to evolve. The altered nature of some green grains represents a post-genetic phase of the history of the shelf facies. In contrast with the shelf grains, the initial substrate...

  5. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Piacenzian carbonate deposits from the Guitar Formation of Car Nicobar Island, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Ghosh


    Full Text Available Facies characterization of Piacenzian (late Pliocene carbonate sediments of the Guitar Formation in Car Nicobar Island, India and the subsequent integration of paleoecological data have been applied to interpret the paleoenvironment of the coralline algal-reef deposits. Thin-section analysis reveals that Amphiroa, Corallina and Jania are the dominant geniculate corallines, while Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum, Phymatolithon, Lithophyllum, Spongites and Lithoporella are the major non-geniculate corallines contributing to the sedimentary facies. Numerous small and larger benthic foraminifera also dominate the biogenic assemblages. Corals, barnacle shells, echinoid spines, fragments of bryozoans, mollusks and ostracodes are the subordinate constituents. Grainstones dominate the studied facies while packstones and boundstones (with wackestone elements are the sub-lithofacies showing a fair representation. Six carbonate facies presenting a complete reef complex have been distinguished that were deposited in shallow intertidal, back-reef shelf/lagoon, reef and deeper fore-reef shelf settings. Evidences of coralline algal and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, taphonomic signatures of abrasion and fragmentation, grain size, angularity and encrustation indicate a shallow to relatively deeper bathymetric horizon of approximately 10–60 m that corresponds to a regime of high to moderate hydrodynamic conditions.

  6. Objective justification and Prima Facie anti-competitive unilateral conduct : an exploration of EU Law and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Tjarda Desiderius Oscar van der


    The prohibition of anti-competitive unilateral conduct by firms with market power is not absolute, but allows for derogation. For the purposes of EU law, the ECJ has accepted that a so-called ‘objective justification’ plea may be invoked in the case of a prima facie abuse of dominance. Even though

  7. Oxygenation in carbonate microbialites and associated facies after the end-Permian mass extinction: Problems and potential solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kershaw


    The oxygenation state of post-end-Permian extinction shallow marine facies continues to present a challenge of interpretation, and requires high-resolution sampling and careful attention to small-scale changes, as well as loss of rock through pressure solution, as the next step to resolve the issue.

  8. Mechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and micro fabric of Opalinus Clay. Sandy and shaly facies (Mont Terri, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Graesle, Werner [BGR Hannover (Germany); Plischke, Ingo


    For the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste, different host rocks are currently considered. The favorable properties of claystone are low permeability, retention capacity for some radionuclides, and the ability to self-seal cracks, e.g. by swelling or time-dependent compaction creep. For the understanding of the long-term behavior of clay host rocks, the interaction between mechanical behavior, micro fabric, and mineral composition has to be understood (Bock et al., 2010). In the international research project Mont Terri (Switzerland) the Opalinus Clay (Jurassic Formation) is investigated in an underground rock laboratory (URL). In the present study the relationship between mechanical, mineralogical and micro fabric properties were studied on representative samples of the sandy and shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay (OPA) from Mont Terri. The mineral composition of all samples was analysed by using a complex mineral phase analysis. Therefore, the results of the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluoreszence, organic and inorganic carbonate analysis (LECO) were adjusted with each other. In the case of the sandy facies (OPA) the mechanical strength inrcreases with increasing carbonate content. Here small carbonate particles form the matrix and act as stabilisator. The carbonates of the shaly facies (OPA), on the other hand, are mainly fossil fragments (e.g. shells) aligned parallel to bedding. These large carbonate particles are acting as predetermined breaking surfaces. Hence, in the case of shaly facies (OPA) the mechanical strength decreases with increasing carbonate content. Image Analyses (Fiji {sup registered}) of scattering electron microscope images of polished sections proved the determined microstructural differences. Besides, carbonate particles in the sandy facies are mostly isometric, in contrast carbonates of the shaly facies show different shapes. This is explained further in terms of the aspect ratio. The mechanical tests were carried out as triaxial

  9. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  10. Assessing linkages between spatial facies changes and dimensional variations of glaciers in the upper Indus Basin, western Himalaya (United States)

    Ali, Iram; Shukla, Aparna; Romshoo, Shakil A.


    The present study provides an insight into the heterogeneous response of 45 glaciers in the Lidder and Sindh river basins, western Himalaya, and explores the linkages between glacier facies variability and changing glacier parameters. Results show that the region has undergone an overall deglaciation of 12 ± 1.5% (11.9 ± 1.4 km2) from 1996 to 2014. Fluctuations in the temperature and precipitation patterns seem to be the primary factor controlling the changes in glacier dimensions (R2 > 0.82 in all cases). Glacier facies changes suggest depletion in snow-ice cover ( 18 ± 2.3%) and an increase in ice-mixed debris ( 4 ± 1.4%), supraglacial debris ( 6 ± 1.5%), and periglacial debris ( 17 ± 1.2%). These glacier facies transitions are possibly the result of ice-melting; however, its relative rate and elevation decides the nature of facies conversion. An increase in the proportion of supraglacial debris has led to the conversion of 11 clean glaciers to sparsely debris-covered glaciers and 5 sparsely debris-covered glaciers to debris-covered glaciers. The size of the glaciers greatly influenced the rate of conversion of glaciers, and glaciers glaciers also experienced maximum shrinkage. Further, the glaciers with varying supraglacial debris cover respond differently, as sparsely debris-covered glaciers exhibit the highest rates of retreat (25 ± 7.3 m/y), followed by clean (23.7 ± 7.3 m/y) and debris-covered glaciers (13.1 ± 7.3 m/y). Thus, the findings of this work clearly show that the climate change driven dimensional changes of glaciers and variations in the spatial distribution of glacier facies have strong mutual control on each other.

  11. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Lu


    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  12. Structural controls on channel-related seismic facies distribution in the toe-thrust of deepwater Niger Delta (United States)

    Jolly, Byami A.; Anyiam, Okwudiri A.; Omeru, Tuviere


    Deepwater gravitational settings are often characterised by active structures at, or near the seabed. Consequently, these structures exert significant control on sediment distribution especially on the distribution of reservoir-grade sediments often transported to deepwater by turbidity flows. This study investigates structural controls on the spatial and temporal facies distribution in the deepwater Niger Delta using 3D seismic reflection data. The study shows that the main seismic facies include: (a) channel-axis sands and channel levees; (b) sheet sands deposited immediately outboard of channel levees; (c) pelagic deposits; and (d) slump deposits. The distribution and overall geometry/architecture of these facies vary from the west of the study area (dominated by growing fault-propagation folds) to the east where a piggyback basin had developed, and bounded by a broad detachment fold. Reservoir grade sheet sands (splays) are common, and their deposition is triggered by a sudden increase in seabed gradient (between 0.8° and 4°) at fold locations. The spatial distribution of the splays is controlled by the distribution of seabed scarps - located on the forelimbs of growing folds. Splays deposited in sub-basins in the west of the study area are lobate-shaped (up to 10 × 15 km). In contrast, splays deposited within the piggyback basin have shapes that are elongated parallel to a growing detachment fold that is causing channels to divert. This study has provided great insight into the distribution of seismic facies in a complex deepwater setting, and in particular, into the temporal evolution of reservoir facies and their potential organization into hydrocarbon traps as they interact with growing structures through time.

  13. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  14. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  15. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  16. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  18. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  19. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  20. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  1. Pan-African granulite facies reworking along Moyar shear zone, south India: Implications for Gondwanaland assembly (United States)

    Bhadra, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Pritam


    ER: Fe-Bt + Mg-Grt → Mg-Bt + Fe-Grt) equilibria. Mineral and isopleth thermobarometry constrain the peak metamorphic condition at 900 oC, 9.5 kbar implying high pressure granulite facies metamorphism. ReNTR and ReER equilibria were constrained to be closed respectively at 740 oC, 8 kbar and 650 oC, 7 kbar. Geo-speedometric analyses reveal very rapid cooling in the order of >150 oC/Ma, at least during the initial stages of retrograde metamorphism. This estimate is commensurate with strong Mn kick up near the garnet rim along Fe+Mg-Ca+Mn+profiles and absence of any symplectectic phases through break down of porphyroblastic garnet. High-P granulite facies metamorphism and subsequent cooling decompression path, documented in this study, in conjugation with reported Neoproterozoic Sm-Nd garnet ages (624-591 Ma) from the quartzo-feldspathic gneiss bear semblance with Pan-African HT-UHT reworking along Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone (521 Ma) that was culminated with the closure of Paleo-Mozambique ocean during east and west Gondwanaland assembly. We envisaged that peak granulite facies metamorphism in MSZ marks the onset of paleo-Mozambique ocean closure in the northern part of SGT. Rapid exhumation along MSZ was possibly engineered by early Paleozoic tectonic extrusion related processes during final assembly of the Gondwanaland.

  2. Understanding chemical and facies variability in the Murray Formation, Gale crater, from ChemCam data (United States)

    Rivera-Hernandez, Frances; Mangold, Nicolas; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Nachon, Marion; Wiens, Roger C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Newsom, Horton; Dehouck, Erwin; Payre, Valerie


    The primary goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is to determine if habitable environments existed on Mars [1]. To evaluate the potential for habitability, reconstructing the transport and depositional history of the sedimentary rocks at Gale Crater relies on the accurate interpretation of changes in depositional facies. This study uses ChemCam data to identify and characterize chemical variations that may be due to grain size and possibly facies changes within the Murray formation, a fluvio-lacustrine unit in Gale Crater dominated by interbedded mudstones and fine-grained sandstones [1]. These analyses compliment current efforts by APXS and ChemCam in reconstructing a chemostratigraphic record for the Curiosity rover traverse [e.g.,2,3]. Textural analyses from images taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), and the ChemCam Remote Micro Imager (RMI), and ChemCam chemical data were used to exclude targets with resolvable diagenetic features. Remaining targets were analyzed for chemical heterogeneity using the Gini Index (G), where G=0 indicates no point-to-point chemical variation and G=1 for a completely heterogeneous target [4]. Sandstones with grains larger than the laser beam diameter ( 0.3-0.5 mm; medium sand) typically have G>0.25 [4]. Hence, heterogeneity in composition among closely spaced points on a single target may reflect variations in mineralogy among individual sand grains or concentrations of grains. In contrast, homogeneous rocks may have homogeneous grain compositions or only contain grains smaller than sand. Thus, even when the presence of sand grains cannot be demonstrated from images, their presence can be inferred using the Gini Index. Preliminary analyses from sols 1400-1500 suggest that the abundances of FeOT, SiO2, Al2O3, and TiO2 do not vary significantly in individual rock targets (G0.1). Most variations between targets are likely associated with resolvable diagenetic features [e.g.,5,6]. However, Murray bedrock targets

  3. New insights into Holocene eruption episodes from proximal deposit sequences at Mt. Taranaki (Egmont), New Zealand (United States)

    Torres-Orozco, Rafael; Cronin, Shane J.; Pardo, Natalia; Palmer, Alan S.


    Upper stratovolcano flanks contain the most nuanced depositional record of long eruption episodes, but steep, irregular terrain makes these sequences difficult to correlate and interpret. This necessitates development of a detailed and systematic approach to describing localized depositional facies and relating these to eruptive processes. In this work, the late-Holocene eruption history of Mt. Taranaki/Egmont, New Zealand, was re-assessed based on a study of proximal deposits spanning the 14C-dated age range of 5.0-0.3 cal ka B.P. Mt. Taranaki is a textbook-example stratovolcano, with geological evidence pointing to sudden switches in scale, type and frequency of eruptions over its 130 ka history. The proximal stratigraphy presented here almost doubles the number of eruptions recognized from previous soil-stratigraphy studies. A total of 53 lithostratigraphic bed-sets record eruptions of the summit crater and parasitic vents like Fanthams Peak (the latter between 3.0 and 1.5 cal ka B.P.). At least 12 of the eruptions represented by these bed-sets comprise deposits comparable with or thicker than those of the latest sub-Plinian eruption of AD 1655. The largest eruption episode represented is the 4.6-4.7-cal ka B.P. Kokowai. Contrasting eruption styles were identified, from stable basaltic-andesite eruption columns at Fanthams Peak, to andesitic lava-dome extrusion, blasts and partial collapse of unstable eruption columns at Mt. Taranaki's summit. The centemetre-scale proximal deposit descriptions were used to identify several previously unknown, smaller eruption events. These details are indispensable for building a comprehensive probabilistic event record and in the development of realistic eruptive scenarios for complex eruption episodes prior to re-awakening of a volcano.

  4. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  5. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  6. Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Facies characterization at Little Cedar Creek Field, Conecuh County, Alabama (United States)

    Ridgway, John Grayson

    The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation is a shallow-marine carbonate unit in the subsurface of the U.S. Gulf Coast, spanning from south Texas to west Florida. This field case-study focuses on Little Cedar Creek Field located in southeastern Conecuh County, Alabama. The objectives of this study are to (1) construct a 3-D depositional model for the Smackover Formation at Little Cedar Creek Field; (2) establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for the construction of the depositional model; (3) characterize and map lithofacies with high resource potential based on the depositional model; and (4) demonstrate the use of the depositional model to maximize hydrocarbon recovery in the field area. Little Cedar Creek Field is located near the up-dip limit of the Smackover Formation. The top of the Smackover is found at depths between 10,000 to 12,000 feet, and the formation ranges in thickness from 60 to 120 feet. The Smackover Formation overlies the Callovian-Oxfordian Norphlet Formation and underlies the Kimmeridgian Haynesville Formation. The petroleum reservoirs in Little Cedar Creek Field, unlike most Smackover fields in the eastern Gulf region, are composed predominantly of limestone, not dolomite, and do not possess a Buckner Anhydrite top seal immediately above the reservoir. Beginning from the top of the Smackover, the facies are: (S-1) Peritidal lime mudstone-wackestone; (S-2) tidal channel conglomeratic floatstone-rudstone; (S-3) peloid-ooid shoal grainstone-packstone; (S-4) subtidal lime wackestone-mudstone; (S-5) microbially-influenced packstone-wackestone; (S-6) microbial (thrombolite) boundstone; and (S-7) transgressive lime mudstone-dolostone. Production is from both the thrombolite boundstone and shoal grainstone facies, though pressure and fluid data indicate no communication between the two reservoirs. The data indicate that the microbial communities developed on subtle topographic highs overlying the transgressive lime mudstone-dolostone in

  7. Organic facies of the Oligocene lacustrine system in the Cenozoic Taubate basin, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, J.G. Mendonca; Chagas, R.B.A.; Mendonca, J.O.; Silva, F.S. da; Sabadini-Santos, E. [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Menezes, T.R. [Geochemistry Section/CENPES/PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    A quantitative study of palynofacies and organic facies was carried out in the Cenozoic sedimentary succession of the Taubate basin. The palaeoenvironmental distributions of particulate organic components were examined in relation to various potential controlling factors (lithology, depositional environment, and stratigraphic sequence). About 30 samples were analyzed from a single borehole drilled in Sao Paulo State. This involved rigorous kerogen counts supported by 30 TOC and sulphur, 20 Rock-Eval pyrolysis and 20 biochemistry analyses. In the studied area the Oligocene deposits are approximately 600 m thick. Data was obtained by counting 300 to 500 kerogen particles per sample, and then recalculating the percentages of the different constituent groups (phytoclast, palynomorph, and amorphous organic matter - AOM). The kerogen assemblage is palynomorph-dominated (> 70%), consisting mainly of freshwater lacustrine algae (Pediastrum and Botryococcus). Non-opaque phytoclasts predominate in most of the kerogen samples. However, significant variations in the proportion of biostructured and non-biostructured brown phytoclasts occur in some intervals. The fluorescent AOM content occurs in some levels and is composed of two main components: an intensively fluorescing structureless organic matter, which also has high lipid and protein content indicating a probable bacterial origin for the organic matter (microbial mats); and terrestrially-derived amorphous organic matter, which has been reworked to a different extent exhibiting a high content of carbohydrates. Comparison of the mean kerogen assemblages from different lithologies revealed that the finer-grained lithologies generally have higher palynomorph percentages, whereas coarser-grained lithologies present higher percentages of phytoclasts, emphasizing the important role of grain size in organic-matter distribution. The TOC content is generally less than 10%, but reaches as high as 44% in some intervals, due mainly to

  8. Transformation of blueschist to greenschist facies rocks as a consequence of fluid infiltration, Sifnos (Cyclades), Greece (United States)

    Schliestedt, Manfred; Matthews, Alan


    The transformation from blueschist to greenschist facies forms a major part of the Alpine regional geodynamic evolution of the Cyclades. The transition in metabasic rocks on Sifnos involves the retrogression of eclogites, blueschists and actinolite-bearing rocks from high-pressure conditions which have been estimated at 460±30° C and 15±3 kb. Petrographically observed parageneses are interpreted by a sequence of hydration and carbonation reactions involving the breakdown of omphacite and glaucophane-bearing assemblages to albite+chlorite±actinolite±calcite assemblages. The retrograde processes are calculated to occur at pressures of 10 to 8 kb during the isothermal uplift of the Sifnos units. Oxygen isotope analyses of different rock types show that interlayered lithologies have experienced a large degree of isotopic equilibration during both metamorphic phases. However, chemically equivalent rocks show systematic increases in δ 18O from lowest values (˜8 to 11‰ in metabasics) in the unaltered blueschists in the upper stratigraphic levels to higher values (>15‰ in metabasics) associated with greenschists in the deepest stratigraphic levels. Relict eclogites enclosed within greenschists have the lower δ 18O values typical of unaltered blueschist facies rocks. These isotopic gradients and the δ 13C and δ 18O compositions of carbonates demonstrate an infiltration mechanism involving the upward movement of 18O-enriched fluids whose compositions were buffered by exchange with marble units. Calculated minimum fluid/rock ratios for the blueschist-to-greenschist transition decrease from ˜0.4 in the deepest studied level (Central Sifnos) and ˜0.2 in the intermediate level (Kamares Bay samples) to an assumed value of zero in unaltered blueschists. These ratios may be lower if recycling of fluids occurred between schists and marbles. Infiltration of fluids became inhibited as the transformation advanced as a consequence of “sealing effect” of the hydration

  9. Tectonic and climatic controls on continental depositional facies in the Karoo Basin of northern Natal, South Africa (United States)

    Turner, Brian R.


    The eastern Karoo Basin, South Africa, contains a thick sequence of terrigenous clastic sediments comprising a meanderbelt facies, braided channel facies divided into coarse and fine subfacies, fluviolacustrine facies and aeolian facies. Depositional trends and changes in fluvial style reflect a progressive increase in aridity of the climate under stable tectonic conditions, interrupted by two phases of source area tectonism and the development of fine and coarse clastic wedges of the braided channel subfacies; the latter signifying a short interlude of cool, wet conditions. The fine braided channel subfacies occurs in the upper part of the meanderbelt facies, which was deposited by ephemeral, meandering mixed-load streams of variable discharge and sinuosity, under dry, semi-arid climatic conditions. These deposited complex, internally discordant channel sands and well-developed levee deposits. Following deposition of the coarse braided channel subfacies semi-arid conditions returned and fluvial deposition was dominated by ephemeral, straight to slightly sinuous mixed load streams characterised by simple channel sand bodies. As the aridity of the climate increased, the streams became more localised and carried an increasing proportion of fines. Interbedded with and overlying the fluvial deposits is a mudstone-dominated lacustrine sequence grading up into aeolian sands suggesting a playa lake-type situation. The general absence of evaporites from these sediments is attributed to the fresh nature of the lake waters, as evidenced by the freshwater aquatic organisms and clay-mineral suite, the lack of adequate inflow for solute accumulation and the removal of dust impregnated by salts from the surface of the dry lake bed during the dry season by superheated, upward-spiralling columns of air. Broadly similar environments to the fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian facies sequence are to be found in the Lake Eyre Basin of central Australia and the Okavango "delta" of northern

  10. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  11. Facies control on seismites in an alluvial-aeolian system: The Pliocene dunefield of the Teruel half-graben basin (eastern Spain) (United States)

    Liesa, Carlos L.; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Ezquerro, Lope; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Ángel; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Simón, José L.


    The recognition of seismically induced soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) in sedimentary successions characterized by different facies, and hence by different rheology, is challenging. This is the case for high porosity and high permeability aeolian facies interbedded with muddy wet interdune deposits and alluvial conglomerates and sandstones. Several types of SSDS have been studied in two exposures of the Upper Pliocene (2.9-2.6 Ma) sediments of a fault-bounded intracontinental aeolian dune field in the Teruel Basin (Iberian Chain, eastern Spain). Among SSDS, load and fluid-escape structures, apart from several animal tracks, have been recognized. Those structures show an irregular distribution through the studied stratigraphic sections, being scarce in homogenous aeolian sands and frequent in water-related facies. A detailed study of the distribution and geometry of SSDS and their relationships with respect to the stratigraphic architecture and facies has allowed a critical discrimination of trigger mechanisms, i.e. biological or physical overloading vs. earthquakes. The seismically induced structures are concentrated into seven deformed beds, showing an uneven lateral distribution and geometry closely controlled by the hosting sedimentary facies and their rheology. These seismites resulted from liquefaction during moderate earthquakes (estimated magnitude from 5.0 to 6.8). The most probable seismogenic source was the Sierra del Pobo normal fault zone, located 2 km to the East. Results show how an appropriate recognition of sedimentary facies is crucial to understand the lateral variability of seismites in sedimentary environments characterized by sharp facies changes.

  12. Facies associations, depositional environments and stratigraphic framework of the Early Miocene-Pleistocene successions of the Mukah-Balingian Area, Sarawak, Malaysia (United States)

    Murtaza, Muhammad; Rahman, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Sum, Chow Weng; Konjing, Zainey


    Thirty-five stratigraphic section exposed along the Mukah-Selangau road in the Mukah-Balingian area have been studied. Sedimentological and palynological data have been integrated to gain a better insight into the depositional architecture of the area. Broadly, the Mukah-Balingian area is dominated by fluvial, floodplain and estuarine related coal-bearing deposits. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations have been described and interpreted in terms of seven facies association. These are: FA1 - Fluvial-dominated channel facies association; FA2 - Tide-influenced channel facies association; FA3 - Tide-dominated channel facies association; FA4 - Floodplain facies association; FA5 - Estuarine central basin-mud flats facies association; FA6 - Tidal flat facies association and FA7 - Coastal swamps and marshes facies association. The Balingian Formation is characterised by the transgressive phase in the base, followed by a regressive phase in the upper part. On the basis of the occurrence of Florscheutzia trilobata with Florscheutzia levipoli, the Early to Middle Miocene age has been assigned to the Balingian Formation. The distinct facies pattern and foraminifera species found from the samples taken from the Begrih outcrop imply deposition in the intertidal flats having pronounced fluvio-tidal interactions along the paleo-margin. Foraminiferal data combined with the pronounced occurrence of Stenochlaena laurifolia suggest at least the Late Miocene age for the Begrih Formation. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Liang Formation is a function of a combination of sea level, stable tectonic and autogenic control. Based on stratigraphic position, the Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the Liang Formation is probable. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations display deposits of multiple regressive-transgressive cycles while the sediments were derived from the uplifted Penian high and Rajang group.

  13. Velocity-dependent frictional weakening of large rock avalanche basal facies: Implications for rock avalanche hypermobility? (United States)

    Wang, Y. F.; Dong, J. J.; Cheng, Q. G.


    To characterize the hypermobility mechanism of rock avalanches, a series of rotary shear tests at different shearing velocities (Veq) ranging from 0.07 m/s to 1.31 m/s and at a normal stress of 1.47 MPa were carried out on soil sampled from the basal facies of the Yigong rock avalanche that occurred in the Tibetan plateau in China. Through conducting these tests, the macroscale and microscale features of the deformed samples were analyzed in detail with the following valuable conclusions being reached: (1) soil subjected to rotary shear exhibits a clear velocity-dependent weakening characteristic with an apparent steady state friction of 0.13 being reached at Veq ≥ 0.61 m/s, (2) high-temperature rises and layers with high porosity were observed in the samples sheared at Veq ≥ 0.61 m/s, and (3) the cooperation of thermal pressurization and moisture fluidization induced by friction heating plays an important role in explaining the marked frictional weakening of the soil. In addition, the appearance of nanoparticles due to particle fragmentation should facilitate the weakening of the soil but is not the key reason for the marked frictional weakening.

  14. Application of Musical Information Retrieval (MIR Techniques to Seismic Facies Classification. Examples in Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dell’Aversana


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for automatic pattern recognition and classification of geophysical data based on digital music technology. We import and apply in the geophysical domain the same approaches commonly used for Musical Information Retrieval (MIR. After accurate conversion from geophysical formats (example: SEG-Y to musical formats (example: Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or briefly MIDI, we extract musical features from the converted data. These can be single-valued attributes, such as pitch and sound intensity, or multi-valued attributes, such as pitch histograms, melodic, harmonic and rhythmic paths. Using a real data set, we show that these musical features can be diagnostic for seismic facies classification in a complex exploration area. They can be complementary with respect to “conventional” seismic attributes. Using a supervised machine learning approach based on the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm and on Automatic Neural Networks, we classify three gas-bearing channels. The good performance of our classification approach is confirmed by borehole data available in the same area.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Yannong Dong; Ning Liu; Guohua Gao; Fengjun Zhang; Ruijian Li


    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. The volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade. The techniques developed in this research will make it easier to use all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. In this project, we have developed computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Specifically, we have developed methods for adjusting porosity and permeability fields to match both production and time-lapse seismic data and have also developed a procedure to adjust the locations of boundaries between facies to match production data. In all cases, the history matched rock property fields are consistent with a prior model based on static data and geologic information. Our work also indicates that it is possible to adjust relative permeability curves when history matching production data.

  16. Single well multidisciplinary facies reconstruction (De Lute-6 Upper Carboniferous, Netherlands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Zwan, C.J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V., Assen (Netherlands)); Van De Laar, J.G.M.; Pagnier, H.J.M.; Van Amerom, H.W.J. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Heerlen (Netherlands))


    De Lutte-6 is a key well situated in onshore Netherlands. A cored lithological sequence from the Upper Carboniferous has been investigated by means of palynology, palynofacies, paleobotany, and sedimentology. Paleobotanical data suggest a late Westphalian C to late Westphalian D Age. Palynological assemblages have a late Westphalian D-Stephanian character. This discrepancy suggests that the local paleobotanical remains allow for a more precise age determination, whereas the palynological data provide information about the regional facies development. Palynofacies analyses combined with palynoflora data indicate a gradual transition from a waterlogged flood plain characterized by a diverse lycopod/cordait palynoflora, to well-drained flood plain with an impoverished cordait/conifer palynoflora. The sedimentological data, combined with the palynological and the paleobotanical data, suggest that the flood plains alternate with swamp and lake deposits. The transition from a waterlogged flood plain to a well-drained flood plain coincides with transition from intervals characterized by seat-earth soils (indicating humid conditions) to intervals characterized by immature calcie soils (witnessing semihumid to semi-arid conditions).

  17. Autoantibodies to neuronal antigens in children with focal epilepsy and no prima facie signs of encephalitis. (United States)

    Borusiak, Peter; Bettendorf, Ulrich; Wiegand, Gert; Bast, Thomas; Kluger, Gerhard; Philippi, Heike; Münstermann, Dieter; Bien, Christian G


    There is increasing awareness of neuronal autoantibodies and their impact on the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We investigated children with focal epilepsy in order to provide an estimate of autoantibody frequency within a pediatric population without prima facie evidence of encephalitis using a broad panel of autoantibodies. This was done to assess the specificity of antibodies and to see whether antibodies might be of modifying influence on the course of focal epilepsies. We searched for autoantibodies in 124 patients with focal epilepsy (1-18 years; mean 10; 6 years). Sera were tested using a broad panel of surface and intracellular antigens. We found autoantibodies in 5/124 patients (4%): high-positive GAD65 antibodies (n = 1), low-positive GAD65 antibodies (N = 1), VGKC complex antibodies not reactive with LGI1 or CASPR2 (n = 3). We did not find any distinctive features distinguishing antibody positive patients from those without antibodies. The antibodies found in this cohort are probably neither disease-specific nor pathogenic. This has been suggested before for these antigenic targets. Moreover, they do not seem to modify disease severity in the antibody-positive epilepsy patients. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbonate platform facies development of the Turonian Wata Formation in central and eastern Sinai, Egypt (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.; Farouk, S.; Hassan, A. M.


    The Wata carbonate platform in central and eastern Sinai show a clear pattern of evolutionary development during sedimentation. Three facies are recognized in the carbonate platform. Inner-platform in the south, inter-platform basin in the middle, and outer-platform in the northwest. Such classification was probably performed by the effect of Syrian Arc System that culminated during Turonian in Sinai. Inner-platform includes fining-upward cycles, each begins with packstone, followed by wackestone and capped by lime-mudstone or claystone or molluscan bioclastic wackestone at the base capped by sandy oolitic packstone or dolostone. The dominant faunal associations are molluscs, and echinoids. Inter-platform basin occurs north of inner-platform and extends northwest-southeast direction and comprises fining-upward cycles, each of which begins with bioclastic ostracodal packstone, calcisphere packstone, bioclastic packstone, capped by wackestone and lime-mudstone The faunal association includes, sponge spines, ostracodes, molluscan debris and calcispheres. They were deposited in shoal marine and barrier. The outer-platform occurs at Gebel Giddi and extended northwestwards. The lithofacies are entirely represented by calcisphere wackestone/packstone, with a reduced thickness of 20 m.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufan Wiguna


    Full Text Available Two dimension (2D seismic profile of Baruna and Jaya lines at North-East Java Basin show seismic reflector characteristics that can be used to interpret sediment thickness and continuity. Those reflector characteristics that can be applied for seismic facies analysis that represent depositional environment. This study starts from seismic data processing that using Kirchhoff Post Stack Time Migration method which is 2D seismic profile as result. Seismic reflector characterization has been done to both 2D profiles. Seismic reflector characterization was grouped as (i individual reflection, (ii reflection  configuration, (iii reflection termination, (iv external form. Individual reflection characteristics show high and medium amplitude, medium and low frequency, and continuous. Configuration reflection is continuous with parallel and subparallel type. Reflection termination shows onlap, and external form shows sheet drape. Local mound appearance can be interpreted as paleo-reef. Facies seismic anlysis result for this study area is shelf.

  20. Calcareous nannofossils and sedimentary facies in the Upper Cretaceous Bozeş Formation (Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Balc


    Full Text Available The lithology, sedimentology and biostratigraphy of the Bozes Formation, which crop out in the SE Metaliferi Mountains (Apuseni Mts. have been investigated in order to establish the age of the deposits and the depositional environment. The sedimentary structures and facies are interpreted as indicating a deep-water depositional environment, representing part of a submarine fan lobe. Three facies assemblages have been identified and described. Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The presence of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii and Calculites obscurus indicates the CC17 biozone, while UC13 Zone is pointed out by the continuous occurrence of Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis and the absence of Broinsonia parca parca. Thus, the age of the studied deposits is Late Santonian -?Early Campanian.

  1. Anatomy of a 2nd-order unconformity: stratigraphy and facies of the Bakken formation during basin realignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Orion; Canter, Lyn; Sonnenfeld, Mark; Williams, Mark [Whiting Oil and Gas Corp., Denver, CO (United States)


    Because classic Laramide compressional structures are relatively rare, the Williston Basin is often considered as structurally simple, but because of the presence of numerous sub-basins, simplistic lithofacies generalization is impossible, and detailed facies mapping is necessary to unravel Middle Bakken paleogeography. The unconformity above the Devonian Three Forks is explained by the infilling and destruction of the Devonian Elk Point basin, prepares the Bakken system, and introduces a Mississippian Williston Basin with a very different configuration. Black shales are too often considered as deposits that can only be found in deep water, but to a very different conclusion must be drawn after a review of stratigraphic geometry and facies successions. The whole Bakken is a 2nd-order lowstand to transgressive systems tract lying below the basal Lodgepole, which represents an interval of maximal flooding. This lowstand to transgressive stratigraphic context explains why the sedimentary process and provenance shows high aerial variability.

  2. Sedimentary facies interpretation of Gamma Ray (GR log as basic well logs in Central and Lower Indus Basin of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Nazeer


    Full Text Available Rocks and most type of soils emit Gamma Ray (GR in varying amount. The emitting elements of primary gamma radiations include potassium 40, uranium, and thorium which are associated with rocks forming minerals in variable amount. GR log is used to predict the varying lithology in borehole by measuring the spontaneous emission of GR radiation from rocks. Role of GR logs in the identification of subsurface facies is the main focused research theme of this manuscript including with objective of brief introduction of GR log and its applications in the identification of facies in the field of Petroleum Geosciences by analyzing the examples of GR log(s from wells, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  3. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  4. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation in the northern area of Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Zabihi Zoeram


    Full Text Available This paper concerns the sequence stratigraphy of the Oligocene (Rupelian–Chattian–Early Miocene (Burdigalian Asmari Formation based on microfacies analysis of the sediments in the Ghale Nar Oilfield, central area of Zagros fold-thrust belt. Fourteen facies types typical for upward shallowing trend from open marine (MF 1–3, to shoal (MF 4-5, semi-restricted and restricted lagoon (MF 6–12 and finally to near-shore lagoon (MF 13-14 depositional environments were identified. Based on the environmental interpretations, we reconstructed a homoclinal ramp mainly represented by its inner and middle sectors. Facies types MF 4–14 are characterized by the occurrence of large and small porcelaneous benthic foraminifera representing a shallow-water setting of an inner ramp influenced by wave and tide processes. MF1 (Pabdeh Formation, and 2 -3 with planktonic, large and small hyaline benthic foraminifera represent between FWWB and SWB. Four third-order depositional sequences were recognized. In this study, in order to better correlate the identified sequences with pre-defined sequences of the Asmari Formation in the Dezful Embayment and the Izeh zone that are chronologically well-defined, we use their number instead of their name. Sequence 2 mainly consists of an open marine environment in the base, followed by semi-restricted to restricted lagoonal facies. Sequences 36 are characterized by semi-restricted to restricted lagoonal facies. Moreover, the regional relative sea-level change curves correlate well with the global sea-level change curves.

  5. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)


    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  6. Analysis on the overpressure characterization with respect to depositional environment facies: Case Study in Miri Area, Baram Delta (United States)

    Mhd Hanapiah, N.; Yusoff, W. I. Wan; Zakariah, M. N. A.


    Overpressure studies in oil and gas exploration and production are carried out in order to mitigate any losses that could happen while drilling. These concerns can be addressed by enhancing the understanding of overpressure characterization in the fields. This research emphasizes in determining the pore pressure trend in Miri area to assist pore pressure prediction for future hydrocarbon exploration and production. Generally, pore pressure trends are related to mechanisms that contribute to the overpressure generation. In the region predominant overpressure are disequilibrium compaction within the prodelta shales meanwhile in outer shelf overpressure generation controlled by fluid expansion in deltaic sequence of inner shelf area. The objective of this research is to analyze the pore pressure profile of wells for determining vertical trends of pore pressure for various depositional environment facies of Miri area. Integration of rock physics and pore pressure analysis and relating the trends to environment depositional environment facies within shale underlying sand interval. Analysis done shows that overpressure top is characterize by depositional environment facies within shale underlying sand interval.

  7. Distribution of marcasite-pyrite within stromatolitic facies, Oneota Dolomite, Prairie du Chien Formation, Filmore County, MN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingebritsen, R.H. (E.K. Lehman Associates, Minneapolis, MN (United States))


    An exposure of Oneota Dolomite in a quarry in Filmore County, Minnesota, contains three sedimentary cycles in which well preserved stromatolitic facies are regularly overlain by dolograinstones. The stromatolites are of two forms. The lowermost are digitate forms, the upper a mound like cryptozoan form which is partly replaced by chert. The stromatolite zones are characterized by stromatactis vugs now lined with marcasite-pyrite, and filled by clear to milky calcite. Original stromatactis openings were later enlarged by dolomitization. Marcasite-pyrite and calcite appear to be the result of later epigenetic fluid flow. A series of large openings, flat on the top, with bowl shaped bottoms, occur regularly at the horizon marking a contact between the stromatolitic facies and overlying dolograinstone. These openings contain geopetal pebbles of adjacent stromatolitic material. The overlying dolograinstone lies conformably across the opening, with no evidence of sedimentation or later collapse into the openings. Similar features have been observed within stromatolitic facies of the Mascot Formation in the Gordonsville Mine in central Tennessee. The openings in Tennessee are often much larger, are overlain by supratidal dense dolomite, often referred to as primary dolomite, and host some of the more spectacular specimen grade sphalerite, barite and fluorite for which this district is so well known.

  8. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  9. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  10. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  11. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  12. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  13. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  14. Thickness of Jurassic evaporite facies in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins of northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas (evapisoafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines (isopachs) that describe the thickness of Jurassic age evaporite facies (Gaurdak formation) in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins

  15. GMX_FAC: usSEABED facies data for the entire U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The facies data layer (_FAC.txt) is a point coverage of known sediment samplings, inspections, and probings from the usSEABED data collection and integrated using...

  16. Jurassic evaporite facies of the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins in northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas (evapfacafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polygons that describe the spatial extent of Jurassic age evaporite facies (Gaurdak formation) in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins.

  17. Sediments of the Dry Tortugas, south Florida, USA: Facies distribution on a ramp-like isolated carbonate platform (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Isaack, Anja; Hudson, J. Harold


    Four sedimentary facies may be delineated based on quantitative analysis of texture and composition of modern surface sediments on the Dry Tortugas carbonate platform. These include (1) mollusk-Halimeda wackestone, (2) mollusk packstone-to-grainstone, (3) coralgal-Halimeda grainstone, and (4) coralgal grainstone. Even though the Tortugas platform is characterized by an open circulation due to deep, broad marginal channels and a lack of a continuous surface-breaking marginal reef, facies are not distributed at random and show bathymetrical zonation. Also, facies appear to cover wide belts rather than forming a mosaic. Mollusk-Halimeda wackestone occurs in protected platform interior areas ca. 10-18 m deep. Mollusk packstone-to-grainstone occurs in more open platform interior settings adjacent to channels and in deeper outer reef areas of 14-25 m water depth. Coralgal-Halimeda grainstone is found on shallow marginal shoals (1-11 m deep), and coralgal grainstone on the somewhat deeper (3-16 m), seaward edges of these shoals. However, there is bathymetrical overlap of facies in intermediate depths of ca. 5-17 m. This limitation has implications for the interpretation of the fossil record, because changes in water depth are commonly thought to be reflected in facies changes, e.g., in sequence stratigraphy. Comparison with previous sediment studies of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s in the area exhibit a decrease in coral fragments and increases in coralline algal and mollusk shell fragments. These observations might be a result of environmental changes such as coral decline and die-outs during temperature events, disease, and the increase in macroalgae (due to the ecological extinction of the echinoid Diadema). The results suggest that more long-term studies are needed that further explore the influence of environmental change on reef sediment composition. Dry Tortugas surface sediments consist of lower portions of Halimeda plates and mollusk shell fragments and higher

  18. Geomorphology, facies architecture, and high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy in avulsion deposits, Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan (United States)

    Farrell, K.M.


    This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution

  19. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  20. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  1. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  2. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  4. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  6. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  7. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  9. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.


    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  10. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  11. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  12. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  13. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  14. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  15. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  16. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  17. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  18. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  20. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays. (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M


    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  1. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  2. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  3. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.


    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  4. Petrogenesis of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite pipe, Indrāvati Basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Chalapathi Rao


    Full Text Available New geochemical data of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite system sandwiched between the lower and upper stratigraphic horizons of the Mesoproterozoic Indrāvati Basin are presented. The kimberlite has been subjected to extensive and pervasive low-temperature alteration. Spinel is the only primary phase identifiable, while olivine macrocrysts and juvenile lapilli are largely pseudomorphed (talc-serpentine-carbonate alteration. However, with the exception of the alkalies, major element oxides display systematic fractionation trends; likewise, HFSE patterns are well correlated and allow petrogenetic interpretation. Various crustal contamination indices such as (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O/(MgO + K2O and Si/Mg are close to those of uncontaminated kimberlites. Similar La/Yb (79–109 of the Tokapal samples with those from the kimberlites of Wajrakarur (73–145 and Narayanpet (72–156, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India implies a similarity in their genesis. In the discriminant plots involving HFSE the Tokapal samples display strong affinities to Group II kimberlites from southern Africa and central India as well as to ‘transitional kimberlites’ from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, and those from the Prieska and Kuruman provinces of southern Africa. There is a striking similarity in the depleted-mantle (TDM Nd model ages of the Tokapal kimberlite system, Bastar craton, the kimberlites from NKF and WKF, Eastern Dharwar craton, and the Majhgawan diatreme, Bundelkhand craton, with the emplacement age of some of the lamproites from within and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, southern India. These similar ages imply a major tectonomagmatic event, possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia, at 1.3–1.5 Ga across the three cratons. The ‘transitional’ geochemical features displayed by many of the Mesoproterozoic potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, across these Indian cratons are inferred to be

  5. Insights on Coral Adaptation from Polyp and Colony Morphology, Skeletal Density Banding and Carbonate Depositional Facies (United States)

    Oehlert, A. M.; Hill, C. A.; Piggot, A. M.; Fouke, B. W.


    densities were measured in vertical cross-sections of each whole corallum using standard X-ray techniques utilizing a calibrated step wedge to portray banding and overall density. The combination of the stereoscope and X-ray analyses across spatial and temporal gradients provide insight into how coral reef carbonate depositional facies are affected by changes in key environmental parameters, such as increased pollution, or changing photosynthetic activity with depth or sea surface temperature fluctuations.

  6. Blueschist facies pseudotachylytes from Corsica: First account of fossil earthquakes from a subduction complex (United States)

    Andersen, T. B.; Austrheim, H.


    Pseudotachylytes (PST) are products of deformation at extreme slip-rates along faults or in impact structures. Fault-plane PSTs are considered to represent fossil earthquakes. Tectonics in subduction zones, generate >80% of the seismic energy. Earthquake rocks should therefore also be common in old subduction complexes. Blueschist terrains are formed in the upper 15 to 50 km by tectonic burial in accreationary complexes and subduction zones. In spite of the very common earthquakes recorded from present-day subduction complexes, we are unaware of previous accounts of fossil earthquakes from exhumed subduction complexes. With a working hypothesis predicting fossil earthquakes to be preserved in subduction complexes, we have re-examined parts of the Alpine blueschist-eclogite terrain in Corsica. Within blueschist facies ophiolite gabbro and peridotite of Cape Corse, we discovered a number of faults decorated with ultra-fine fault rocks including PSTs. Detailed probe and SEM-studies reveal that some of the PSTs have quench textures proving the former presence of a melt. Quenched minerals, including fassaitic pyroxene are found as spherulites and dendrites. Fassaite has previously been described from UHP complexes and from PSTs formed in HP experiments. Other devitrification minerals include glaucophane, barroisite and zoisite as well as pumpellyite and albite. Our hypothesis -- fossil earthquakes in the form of frictional heat generated PST and ultra-cataclasite may be preserved within subduction complexes -- has been confirmed. Whilst most models view the properties of subducted lithosphere as a function of temperature, it is increasingly recognized that the rheological properties of rocks depend on their metamorphic status and importantly on fluids. Fluids from dehydration reactions in subduction complexes may reduce the effective stress to allow rapid brittle failure, which in turn may produce frictional heating and additional dehydration. It is, however, also

  7. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi


    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  8. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  9. Volcanic facies analysis of a subaqueous basalt lava-flow complex at Hruškovec, NW Croatia — Evidence of advanced rifting in the Tethyan domain (United States)

    Palinkaš, Ladislav A.; Bermanec, Vladimir; Borojević Šoštarić, Sibila; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Palinkaš, Sabina Strmić; Molnar, Ferenc; Kniewald, Goran


    The Hru\\vskovec quarry of basaltoid rocks is situated on the northwestern slopes of Mt. Kalnik, within the Zagorje-Mid-Transdanubian zone, a part of the North-western Dinarides. The basaltoids are inter-bedded with radiolarites of the Middle and Upper Triassic age (Langobardian, Carnian-Norian). Spilites, altered diabases and meta-basalts form part of Triassic volcanic-sedimentary sequence, made of sandstones, shales, micritic limestone, altered vitric tuffs and radiolarian cherts, incorporated tectonically into the Jurassic-Cretaceous mélange. The architecture of the 2 km long and 100 m high pile of the extrusive basaltoid rocks is interpreted as a subaqueous basaltic lava flow. The presented research deals with a variety of volcanic facies of the subaqueous basaltic lava flow, which consists of several facial units: 1. Coherent pillow lavas, with massive core; the bending rims around the massive core, 30-50 cm thick, are dissected by polygonal columnar joints radiating from the pillow centres; 2. Closely packed pillows; densely packed and contorted pillows due to emplacement accommodation, clearly younging upward; 3. Pillow fragment breccia; clast supported, matrix poor, monomict breccia, formed proximal to the axis of the extrusion; 4. Isolated pillow breccia; matrix supported, clast poor breccia, made of lava pipes and tubes, within a matrix of fine-grained sideromelan granules and shards; 5. Pyjama-style pillows; spherical, decimetre to meter size pillow lava balls, grown and chilled in isostatic state (i.e. in a state of diminished density contrast) within water-soaked sediments, named after peculiar alternating basaltic shelves inside the sphere, which are encrusted with white secondary minerals; 6. Peperite and peperitic hyaloclastites; blocky and globular peperites developed at the contact of soft, wet sediment and hot intruding magma. Discovery of peperite and peperitic hyaloclastites within the Triassic radiolarian cherts, shales, and micritic

  10. Tufa in Northern England: depositional facies, carbonate mineral fabrics, and role of biomineralization (United States)

    Manzo, E.; Mawson, M.; Perri, E.; Tucker, M. E.


    Tufas are widely scattered in northern England, being concentrated in areas of limestone (Carboniferous and Permian), where there are springs, seepages, streams and waterfalls with waters supersatured in respect of calcite. Some deposits are clearly related to faults. Tufas have been examined in Gordale and Malham (SW Yorkshire), Teesdale and Weardale (Co. Durham), Sunderland (Tyne & Wear) and Great Asby Fell (Cumbria). A variety of tufa types are developed: spring-related pisoids and moss tufa, fluviatile barrage and waterfall tufa, and seepage and spring tufa with microbial oncoids in a paludal setting. We present preliminary data and observations on tufa in the Teesdale area, which forms along the valley-side adjacent to the River Tees. Locally here, a tiny stream draining agricultural land runs over a sandstone outcrop at the top of a 30 metre high slope; water descends the 30-60 degrees slope, creating tiny waterfalls and pools across an area reaching 10 metres wide, on the way down towards the river. Three main facies are recognizable in the tufa deposits: carbonate crusts, moss tufa and pisoids. In the upper part of the slope tufa occurs as sub-vertical 0.5-5 cm thick carbonate crusts forming "sheets" with a bulbous external surface covered by a green biofilm, with some insect larvae. Encrustations form upon surfaces of rock exposures and pebbles, and coat plant fragments (leaves, twigs, pine cones). Tufa precipitation, particularly on mosses, liverworts and leaves (moss tufa), creates a series of rimmed pools, a few decimetres across and centimetres deep. Apart from the presence of moss, which gives the tufa has a vacuolar texture, the main constituents are cyanobacteria and diatoms. The moss tufa deposit may reach a metre or more in height and several metres in width, notably towards the base of the slope, adjacent to the river. Within the small pools on the slope, pisoids and partially calcified plant remains accumulate. They also occur abundantly in the

  11. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures]. (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C


    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  12. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.


    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  13. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor


    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  14. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  15. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  16. The Adversarial Principle in Prima Facie Judgments of the Legal Thesis Firmed in the Trial of Repetitive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Provedel Cardoso


    Full Text Available The present articles objective is to analyse the highly effective adversarial principle from the Constitutional Democratic State of Law and the cooperative process structure. In this sense, an analysis of the repetitive cases model is made with special relevance to the Civil Procedure Codice 2015, put in evidence the preliminary injunction, the repetitive appeals and the resolution incident repetitive demands. With the establishment of the premises, an analysis of the adversarial principle is made on prima facie judgments of the legal thesis firmed in the trial of repetitive cases, in view of the motivation of the court decision (speech of the case and law (speech of the precedents.

  17. Sedimentary Facies and their possible significance in Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction: Example of Baraila Tal, Central Ganga Plains (United States)

    Misra, Pavani; Sinha, Rajiv; Tandon, Sampat Kumar


    To seek insights into natural climate variability on decadal/ centennial or half-millennial scale, we need to examine Holocene stratigraphic records. Due to the paucity of high-resolution Holocene continental records in India, Holocene climate change has mostly been studied from the marine sediments. Since agricultural communities are sustained by the resources of large river basins, it is important to understand the response of these systems directly to any climate change. The fluvial archive itself offers a relatively low resolution record, but the ox-bows and meander cut-offs in these basins act as semi-closed systems and hence offer the possibility of obtaining better time resolved stratigraphic data. Therefore, lakes from Central Ganga Plains can be regarded as good terrestrial archives; these have been inadequately investigated as compared to the lakes in western India which have been studied with multi-proxy approaches and show major abrupt climatic disruptions. Previous work on some of the lakes in the Central Ganga Plains is largely based on fossil pollen and commonly shows an alternating increase in tree pollen and grassland pollen representing a shifting trend of warm and humid conditions (from 12,500 to 6,400 and 4,800 to 2000 cal yrs BP), to cold and dry spells, respectively. Lake organic facies from Sanai Tal follow an increasing trend of δ13C values from 15,000 to 5,800 14C yr BP, which indicate an enhanced aquatic productivity during that period, except between 11,500 to 10,500 14C yr BP when lighter δ13C values are observed (Sharma et al., 2004), indicating a dry climate for this short period. Against the above background of previous studies, the Baraila Tal, a lake in the Central Ganga Plains has been chosen to obtain a relatively better time-resolved stratigraphy and to characterize its lithofacies for assessing proxy-paleoclimatic data. We have carried out sedimentary facies analysis for three trenches in the Baraila Tal; the major sand, silt

  18. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang


    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  19. Genesis of the Etzel petroleum deposit. Facies, geochemistry, coal petrology. Die Entstehung der Erdoellagerstaette Etzel. Fazies, Geochemie, Kohlenpetrologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, P.S.


    The limestone breccia and Posidonia shale of the Etzel salt stock were investigated with the primary goal of obtaining information on the conditions of deposition and on their hydrocarbon potential. Drill cores were analyzed by microfacial, organic geochemical and organic petrological methods, and a model of the facies was established. In contrast to similar samples from the Paris basin, the results suggest a depletion (fetid limestone) and enrichment (breccia) process in the course of hydrocarbon migration. The concentration of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons increases with the distance from the bedrock, at the expense of the heterocomponents.

  20. Visual Mapping of Sedimentary Facies Can Yield Accurate And Geomorphically Meaningful Results at Morphological Unit to River Segment Scales (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Jackson, J. R.


    Long practiced in fisheries, visual substrate mapping of coarse-bedded rivers is eschewed by geomorphologists for inaccuracy and limited sizing data. Geomorphologists perform time-consuming measurements of surficial grains, with the few locations precluding spatially explicit mapping and analysis of sediment facies. Remote sensing works for bare land, but not vegetated or subaqueous sediments. As visual systems apply the log2 Wentworth scale made for sieving, they suffer from human inability to readily discern those classes. We hypothesized that size classes centered on the PDF of the anticipated sediment size distribution would enable field crews to accurately (i) identify presence/absence of each class in a facies patch and (ii) estimate the relative amount of each class to within 10%. We first tested 6 people using 14 measured samples with different mixtures. Next, we carried out facies mapping for ~ 37 km of the lower Yuba River in California. Finally, we tested the resulting data to see if it produced statistically significant hydraulic-sedimentary-geomorphic results. Presence/absence performance error was 0-4% for four people, 13% for one person, and 33% for one person. The last person was excluded from further effort. For the abundance estimation performance error was 1% for one person, 7-12% for three people, and 33% for one person. This last person was further trained and re-tested. We found that the samples easiest to visually quantify were unimodal and bimodal, while those most difficult had nearly equal amounts of each size. This confirms psychological studies showing that humans have a more difficult time quantifying abundances of subgroups when confronted with well-mixed groups. In the Yuba, mean grain size decreased downstream, as is typical for an alluvial river. When averaged by reach, mean grain size and bed slope were correlated with an r2 of 0.95. At the morphological unit (MU) scale, eight in-channel bed MU types had an r2 of 0.90 between mean

  1. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures. (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A


    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  2. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers


    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.


    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  3. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery


    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe


    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  4. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  5. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu


    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  6. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  8. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital]. (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire


    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  10. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers. (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard


    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  12. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  13. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  14. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  15. Nódulos opalinos en facies marginales del salar Olaroz (Puna Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, R.


    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a petrological and geochemical study of silica nodules from Quaternary alluvial fallS of the Olaroz Salar. The nodules are mainly constituted by C-T opal, d. (101 spacing to 4,11 A, implying a high-disorder; this is commonly observed in opa! rocks formed in near surface environments, without burial and heating. The chemical composition of the nodules is anomalous when compared with other typical silica-rocks formed in arid continental closed basin, without any eruptive environments (for instance the Cuenca del Tajo in Spain. The siliceous nodules do not have the characteristics of the silcretes and are not associated to the evaporitic facies of the salar. Their genesis is probably related to contamination of groundwater of the alluvial fan with high-silica thermal water. The C-T opal would thus precipitate by either displacing tbe terrigenous host-rock or replacing previous ulexite nodules.Se realiza un estudio petrológico y geoquímico de los nódulos silíceos que se encuentran incluidos en sedimentos terrígenos cuaternarios de la Cuenca de Olaroz (La Puna, Argentina. Estos nódulos se localizan en abanicos aluviales que aparecen encajados, debido a los cambios en el nivel de base que se produce desde el Pleistoceno a la actualidad, durante la evolución de los cuerpos lacustres a salares. Un estudio mediante DRX revela que son rocas constituidas por ópalo C-T, con un espaciado (101 a 4,11 A, que implica un grado de desorden alto, típico de las rocas silíceas formadas en superficie y que no han sufrido enterramiento ni influencia térmica. Su composición química es anómala si se compara con rocas silíceas continentales formadas en ambiente endorreico y fuera de un marco volcánico (Mioceno de la Cuenca del Tajo. No poseyendo características de silcretas y no estando asociadas a la sedimentación evaporítica de los salares, se considera la influencia de aguas termales. La contaminación local y en

  16. The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Janardhan, A. S.; Newton, R. C.; Hansen, E. C.


    Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points: 1) The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after charnockite, as proved by patchy obliteration of their foliation by transgressive, very coarse-grained charnockite, high fluorine content of biotite and amphibole in gneisses, and high large-ion lithophile element contents in gneisses and charnockites. These features are in contrast to very low fluorine in retrogressive amphiboles and biotites, very low large-ion lithophile element contents, and zonal bleaching of charnockite, in clearly retrogressive areas, as at Bhavani Sagar, Tamil Nadu. 2) Metamorphic temperatures in the transitional areas were 700° 800° C, pressures were 5 7 kbar, and H2O pressures were 0.1 0.3 times total pressures, based on thermodynamic calculations using mineral analyses. Dense CO2-rich fluid inclusions in the Kabbal rocks confirm the low H2O pressures at the first appearance of orthopyroxene. Farther to the south, in the Nilgiri Hills and adjacent granulite massif areas, peak metamorphic temperatures were 800° 900° C, pressures were 7 9 kbar, and water pressures were very low, so that primary biotites and amphiboles (those with high F contents) are rare. 3) The incipient granulite-grade metamorphism of the transitional areas was introduced by a wave of anatexis and K-metasomatism. This process was arrested by drying out under heavy CO2 influx. Charnockites so formed are hybrids of anatectic granite and metabasite, of metabasite and immediately adjacent gneiss, or are virtually isochemical with pre-existing gneiss despite gross recrystallization to granulite mineralogy

  17. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions (United States)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Viola, Giulio; Menegon, Luca; Sørensen, Bjørn


    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein with a random CPO, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by optical microscopy, SEM imaging and EBSD to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low greenschist facies conditions at the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is located in a high strain zone at the front of an imbricate stack of Caledonian age along the northwesternmost edge of the Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed within the Nussirjavrri Fault Zone (NFZ), an out-of-sequence thrust with a phyllonitic core characterized by a ramp-flat-ramp geometry, NNW plunging stretching lineations and top-to-the SSE thrusting kinematics. Deformation conditions are typical of the frictional-viscous transition. The phyllonitic core formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation, related to the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage, was accommodated within the vein initially by basal slip of suitably oriented quartz crystals, which produced e.g. undulose extinction, extinction bands and bulging grain boundaries. In the case of misoriented quartz crystals, however, glide-accommodated dislocation creep resulted soon inefficient and led to localized dislocation tangling and strain hardening. In response to 1) hardening, 2) progressive increase of fluid pressure within the actively deforming vein and 3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the surrounding weak, foliated phyllonitic fault core, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific lattice planes oriented optimally with respect to the imposed stress field. Microfaulting generated small volumes of gouge along

  18. Large Early Permian eruptive complexes in northern Saxony, Germany: Volcanic facies analysis and geochemical characterization (United States)

    Hübner, Marcel; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Repstock, Alexander; Heuer, Franziska


    In the course of formation of extensional basins during the Early Permian a widespread volcanic activity led to the deposition of volcanic and volcanosedimentary units in Saxony (Walter 2006, Hoffmann et al. 2013). Situated east of Leipzig, the North Saxonian Volcanic Complex (NSVC) hosts two large caldera complexes, the Rochlitz and Wurzen Volcanic Systems, with diameters of 90 and 52 km, respectively. Volume estimates (> 1000 km3) qualify these as supereruptions according to Mason et al. (2004). In addition to the large caldera systems, the NSVC hosts several small pyroclastic flow deposits ranging from crystal-poor (e.g. Cannewitz and vitrophyric Ebersbach ignimbrites) to crystal-rich units (Wermsdorf and Dornreichenbach ignimbrites). Additionally rhyolitic lava and subvolcanic units are present. The Chemnitz basin (Schneider et al. 2012), located to the south of the NSVC, harbours caldera-outflow facies deposits of the Rochlitz eruption (Fischer 1991), i.e. the partially vitrophyric Planitz ignimbrite. The Rochlitz and Wurzen caldera-fill ignimbrites exhibit relatively high crystal contents with maxima up to 52 and 58 vol.-%, for corresponding 66 and 68 wt.-% SiO2. This is comparable with the 'monotonous intermediates' (Hildreth 1981) in the Cenozoic western USA investigated by Huber et al. (2012). In contrast, the Planitz ignimbrite in the Chemnitz basin reveals predominantly crystal-poor pyroclastics ( 70 analyses), and mineral geochemistry to reconstruct the eruption history and magma genesis of this large Late Paleozoic magmatic complex in Central Europe. Volcanic textures and geochemical trends indicate magma mingling and mixing to have been important during the formation of the Wurzen caldera system. Geothermometric and -barometric calculations based on composition of pyroxene and feldspar suggest deeply seated crustal magma chambers for the NSVC and the Planitz ignimbrite. Fischer, F. (1991): Das Rotliegende des ostthüringisch-westsächsischen Raumes

  19. Facies and architecture of deep-water Sandstone lobes: Comparison of a shale-rich and a sand-rich system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppers, J.D. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))


    Two different foreland-basin deep-water sandstone systems have been studied for reservoir characterization purposes: the Broto lobes of the Eocene Hecho group, spain, and two sand bodies of the Oligocene-Miocene Arakintos Sandstone, Greece. The shale-rich Broto lobes are characterized by distinct vertical developments in terms of facies and expression of heterogeneity. Bed-thickness trends, lateral extent of sand beds, and facies variability are related to overall sand/shale ratio. A feature common to most of the sandstone packages is the occurrence of a basal slump and/or pebbly mudstone. The dominant sediment source is considered fluvial. Variation in sand quality within and between lobes is high. Deposition is considered to be strongly controlled by tectonics. The sand-rich Arakintos Sandstone consists of massive and pebbly sandstones, forming thick, sandy sheets alternating with relatively coarse-grained, thin-bedded turbidites. Facies, geometries, vertical organization, and the relation between grain size and bed thickness indicate a constrained development of the lobes, partly influenced by preexisting topography. A coastal sediment source is inferred. Little variation exists in sand quality within and between the lobes. The overall regularity in terms of facies, and the absence of slumps, suggest that fluctuations in relative sea level may have formed a major control on deposition. The two lobe systems illustrate the effect of tectonics, sediment type, topographic confinement, and possible sea level on facies and sand body architecture of deep-water sandstone lobes.

  20. Ammonite shell shape covaries with facies and hydrodynamics: Iterative evolution as a response to changes in basinal environment (United States)

    Jacobs, David K.; Landman, Neil H.; Chamberlain, John A., Jr.


    Shell shape varies within many ammonoid species, and some ammonoid lineages appear to have evolved in concert with changes in their environment. We report variation within an Upper Cretaceous ammonoid species that correlates with facies differences and is consistent with a hydrodynamic explanation. In the Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale (Turonian) of South Dakota and Wyoming, more compressed morphs of Scaphites whitfieldi Cobban are found in nearshore sandy facies, whereas more depressed morphs occur in offshore muds. We measured drag forces on models of juvenile and adult shells that differed in lateral compression of the shell. Plots of drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number indicate that thinner, more compressed morphs swam more efficiently at higher velocities and depressed morphs swam more efficiently at low velocities. Higher swimming velocities may be essential for life in nearshore sandy environments, which have higher ambient current velocities. Shelled cephalopods swim most efficiently at low swimming speeds; therefore, lower velocity, more energetically economical swimming should be preferred in more quiescent offshore settings. An analysis of power consumption supports this interpretation. Correlated changes in shell compression and environmental factors, here observed within a species, have been documented in numerous ammonite lineages. These iterative evolutionary changes within lineages may be similarly explained by selection for shell morphologies appropriate to environments that fluctuate cyclically with sea level.

  1. Tectonically controlled facies changes in the Jurassic of the northern border of the central High Atlas east of midelt (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauptmann, M.K.; Heinetz, W.


    Jurassic carbonate sedimentation and facies changes at the northern border of the Central High Atlas mountain range east of Midelt are mainly controlled by synsedimentary tectonics which took place during the development of the Central High Atlas rift. There is no evidence of the influence of global eustatic sea level changes. During early Liassic time the carbonate facies documents an extended platform with numerous isolated mud mounds surrounded by biodetritic limestone fans. From middle Liassic to early Dogger (Aalenian) time, different kinds of mass-flow deposits coincide with the maximum extension of the Central High Atlas trough. Large-scale slide blocks, conglomerates, mud-flow and debris-flow sediments, etc, show the existence of a platform-basin border formed by a preexisting fault system acting as downthrusts during Jurassic time. A sudden diminution of the subsidence at the Aalenian-Bajocian border is indicated by nearshore carbonates (tidal flats, tidal channels). Already at middle Bajocian time red beds were deposited. From the Oligocene onward during a compressive phase most likely due to the Rif orogenesis, these faults were reactivated. As a result, the east-northeast-striking faults which oriented at right angles toward the direction of compression were transformed to inverse faults and the north-northeast-striking faults became sinistral strike-slip faults. At the fault junction, areas of higher compression were created, inducing a cleavage of the Mesozoic sediments. Whereas upfolds predominantly occur over preexisting fault zones, wide flat downfolds developed above the basement blocks.

  2. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  3. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  4. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  5. Dowód prima facie w postępowaniu cywilnym dotyczącym szkód powstałych w związku z leczeniem


    Białkowski, Michał


    The objective of this paper is to present main perspectives expressed by representatives of Polish legal doctrine as well as several examples of applications of prima facie evidence in legal cases submitted to Polish Supreme Court. Although not codified in Polish civil procedure prima facie evidence is applied in cases concerning claims for compensation for damages such as those occurred during medical treatment or inflicted by employees. The paper tries to answer whether prima facie evidence...

  6. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai


    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  7. Sedimentary facies and gas accumulation model of Lower Shihezi Formation in Shenguhao area, northern Ordos basin, China (United States)

    Lin, Weibing; Chen, Lin; Lu, Yongchao; Zhao, Shuai


    The Lower Shihezi formation of lower Permian series in Shenguhao develops the highest gas abundance of upper Paleozoic in China, which has already commercially produced on a large scale. The structural location of Shenguhao belongs to the transition zone of Yimeng uplift and Yishan slope of northern Ordos basin, China. Based on the data of core, well logging and seismic, the sedimentary facies and gas accumulation model have been studied in this paper. Sedimentary facies analysis shows that the braided delta is the major facies type developed in this area during the period of Lower Shihezi formation. The braided delta can be further divided into two microfacies, distributary channel and flood plain. The distributary channel sandbody develops the characteristics of scour surface, trough cross beddings and normal grading sequences. Its seismic reflection structure is with the shape of flat top and concave bottom. Its gamma-ray logging curve is mainly in a box or bell shape. The flood plain is mainly composed of thick mudstones. Its seismic reflection structure is with the shape of parallel or sub-parallel sheet. Its gamma-ray logging curve is mainly in a linear tooth shape. On the whole, the distribution of sandbody is characterized by large thickness, wide area and good continuity. Based on the analysis of the sea level change and the restoration of the ancient landform in the period of Lower Shihezi formation, the sea level relative change and morphology of ancient landform have been considered as the main controlling factors for the development and distribution of sedimentary facies. The topography was with big topographic relief, and the sea level was relatively low in the early stage of Low Shihezi formation. The sandbody distributed chiefly along the landform depressions. The sandbody mainly developed in the pattern of multiple vertical superpositions with thick layer. In the later stage, landform gradually converted to be flat, and strata tended to be gentle

  8. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause. (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R


    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  9. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  10. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon. (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L


    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  11. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events. (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R


    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  12. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)]. (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria


    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  13. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  14. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture. (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad


    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  16. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability (United States)



    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  17. Field-trip guide to subaqueous volcaniclastic facies in the Ancestral Cascades arc in southern Washington State—The Ohanapecosh Formation and Wildcat Creek beds (United States)

    Jutzeler, Martin; McPhie, Jocelyn


    Partly situated in the idyllic Mount Rainier National Park, this field trip visits exceptional examples of Oligocene subaqueous volcaniclastic successions in continental basins adjacent to the Ancestral Cascades arc. The >800-m-thick Ohanapecosh Formation (32–26 Ma) and the >300-m-thick Wildcat Creek (27 Ma) beds record similar sedimentation processes from various volcanic sources. Both show evidence of below-wave-base deposition, and voluminous accumulation of volcaniclastic facies from subaqueous density currents and suspension settling. Eruption-fed facies include deposits from pyroclastic flows that crossed the shoreline, from tephra fallout over water, and from probable Surtseyan eruptions, whereas re-sedimented facies comprise subaqueous density currents and debris flow deposits.

  18. Sequential development of platform to off-platform facies of the great American carbonate bank in the central Appalachians: chapter 15 (United States)

    Brezinski, David K.; Taylor, John F.; Repetski, John E.


    In the central Appalachians, carbonate deposition of the great American carbonate bank began during the Early Cambrian with the creation of initial ramp facies of the Vintage Formation and lower members of the Tomstown Formation. Vertical stacking of bioturbated subtidal ramp deposits (Bolivar Heights Member) and dolomitized microbial boundtsone (Fort Duncan Member) preceded the initiation of platform sedimentation and creation of sand shoal facies (Benevola Member) that was followed by the development of peritidal cyclicity (Daragan Member). Initiation of peritidal deposition coincided with the development of a rimmed platform that would persist throughout much of the Cambrian and Early Odrovician. At the end of deposition of the Waynesboro Formation, the platform became subaerially exposed because of the Hawke Bay regression, bringing the Sauk I supersequence to and end. In the Conestoga Valley of eastern Pennsylvania, Early Cambrian ramp deposition was succeeded by deposition of platform-margin and periplatfrom facies of the Kinzers Formation.

  19. Effects of relative sea level changes on facies and diagenetic variability of a Pennsylvanian outcrop and near-surface reservoir analog, SE Kansas (Missourian, Drum Limestone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Perez, I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fieldman, H.R.; Franseen, E.K. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others


    The Drum Limestone contains facies that are an analog to important petroleum reservoirs elsewhere in the Mid-continent. It consists predominantly of an oolitic shoal and algal buildup complex deposited and the seaward edge of a shale delta. This study integrates outcrop, core, well log, petrographic, and high-resolution reflection seismic data to understand the role of relative sea level fluctuations in the depositional and diagenetic history of the Drum reservoir facies. The Drum Limestone forms an E-W belt 30 km wide, is up to 21 m thick, and thins to less than one meter thick both up-dip and down-dip of the depositional shelf edge. The basal contact of the Drum Limestone is regionally erosive and interpreted to represent a relative sea level drop. The erosion surface is overlain by a basal oolite with lithoclasts. Two-thirds of the Drum oolite facies coexisted partially with algal-bryozoan buildups, in shallow-waters at the shelf edge. Ooids were likely transported by tidal and wave currents to paleotopographic lows forming basinward prograding (SSW direction) clinoforms. Landward, Drum facies grade to stromatolites, and basinward the oolite pinches out. An interpreted relative sea level fall at the end of this Drum depositional stage resulted in a sharp, regionally traceable surface with evidences of likely subaerial exposure in shelf positions, and represented basinward by an oolitic lithoclastic breccia capped by an incipient hardground. The surface is overlain by Drum trough-crossbedded (N-NE direction) bioclastic oolitic facies interbedded with shales, deposited during a relative sea level rise. This upper third of oolite deposition was influenced by siliciclastic input from the south that eventually overtook carbonate sedimentation. Facies and diagenetic changes documented for the Drum Limestone analog are providing important details on reservoir heterogeneities at a scale important for Mid-continent reservoirs.

  20. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in east- and south-central Alaska (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Csejtey, Bela; Foster, Helen L.; Doyle, Elizabeth O.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Plafker, George


    Most of the exposed bedrock in east- and south-central Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed and deformed during Mesozoic and early Cenozoic time. All the regionally metamorphosed rocks are assigned to metamorphic-facies units on the basis of their temperature and pressure conditions and metamorphic age. North of the McKinley and Denali faults, the crystalline rocks of the Yukon- Tanana upland and central Alaska Range compose a sequence of dynamothermally metamorphosed Paleozoic and older(?) metasedimentary rocks and metamorphosed products of a Devonian and Mississippian continental-margin magmatic arc. This sequence was extensively intruded by postmetamorphic mid-Cretaceous and younger granitoids. Many metamorphic-unit boundaries in the Yukon-Tanana upland are low-angle faults that juxtapose units of differing metamorphic grade, which indicates that metamorphism predated final emplacement of the fault-bounded units. In some places, the relation of metamorphic grade across a fault is best explained by contractional faulting; in other places, it is suggestive of extensional faulting.Near the United States-Canadian border in the central Yukon- Tanana upland, metamorphism, plutonism, and thrusting occurred during a latest Triassic and Early Jurassic event that presumably resulted from the accretion of a terrane that had affinities to the Stikinia terrane onto the continental margin of North America. Elsewhere in the Yukon-Tanana upland, metamorphic rocks give predominantly late Early Cretaceous isotopic ages. These ages are interpreted to date either the timing of a subsequent Early Cretaceous episode of crustal thickening and metamorphism or, assuming that these other areas were also originally heated during the latest Triassic to Early Jurassic and remained buried, the timing of their uplift and cooling. This uplift and cooling may have resulted from extension.South of the McKinley and Denali faults and north of the Border Ranges fault system, medium

  1. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  2. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  3. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V


    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M


    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  5. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  6. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V


    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  7. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.


    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  8. Supercritical flows and their control on the architecture and facies of small-radius sand-rich fan lobes (United States)

    Postma, George; Kleverlaan, Kick


    New insights into flow characteristics of supercritical, high-density turbidity currents initiated renewed interest in a sand-rich lobe complex near the hamlet of Mizala in the Sorbas Basin (Tortonian, SE Spain). The field study was done using drone-made images taken along bed strike in combination with physical tracing of bounding surfaces and section logging. The studied lobe systems show a consistent built-up of lobe elements of 1.5-2.0 m thick, which form the building 'blocks' of the lobe system. The stacking of lobe elements shows lateral shift and compensational relief infill. The new model outlined in this paper highlights three stages of fan lobe development: I. an early aggradational stage with lobe elements characterized by antidune and traction-carpet bedforms and burrowed mud intervals (here called 'distal fan' deposits); II. a progradational stage, where the distal fan deposits are truncated by lobe elements of amalgamated sandy to gravelly units characterized by cyclic step bedform facies (designated as 'supra fan' deposits). The supra fan is much more channelized and scoured and of higher flow energy than the distal-fan. Aggradation of the supra-fan is terminated by a 'pappy' pebbly sandstone and by substrate liquefaction, 'pappy' referring to a typical, porridge-like texture indicating rapid deposition under conditions of little-to-no shear. The facies-bounded termination of the supra-fan is here related to its maximum elevation, causing the lobe-feeding supercritical flow to choke and to expand upwards by a strong hydraulic jump at the channel outlet; III. a backfilling stage, characterized by backfilling of the remaining relief with progressively thinning and fining of turbidite beds and eventually with mud. The three-stage development for fan-lobe building is deducted from reoccurring architectural and facies characteristics in three successive fan-lobes. The validity of using experimental, supercritical-flow fan studies for understanding the

  9. Petrographic changes induced by artificial coalification of peat: comparison of two planar facies (Rhizophora and Cladium) from the Everglades-mangrove complex of Florida and a domed facies (Cyrilla) from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.D.; Bailey, A.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences


    Petrographic changes during coalification of three peat samples were investigated by artificial coalification experiments using a semi-open reactor system. Compressions of from 83 to 88% produced dark brown to black, shiny, flattened pellets exhibiting microscopic banding. Overall amounts of compression inversely correlated with the framework to matrix ratios (F/M) although certain tissue fragments remained relatively uncompressed due to the presence of tanniferous cell fillings. The most distinct microscopic banding (longest and widest bands) developed in samples of the dome-formed peat facies. The planar, root-dominated, Rhizophora facies showed the greatest change in microbanding character during coalification, with greater compressions roots having disappeared. This could explain why roots are significant components of many modern peats (and ancient coal ball concretions) but are difficult to recognize in bituminous coals. Similarly, separation of cuticles from leaves in modern peat-forming environments partially explains why leaf remains are also difficult to recognize in most coals, even those with abundant cutinites. Macerals were also affected. These petrographic results, along with previously reported chemical results, all suggest that the methods used in these experiments have produced changes that might reasonably be expected to occur during natural coalification (despite speeding up). Although more work needs to be done to verify and refine these results and to establish a correlation between these artificial `coalification steps` and true coalification, the new observations and conclusions from these studies might still be helpful in constructing models to predict or interpret coal seam characteristics and to establish the timing and release-potential of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons from coals. 69 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement. (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A


    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  11. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)


    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  12. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection. (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  13. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J


    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  14. Eclogite-facies metamorphic reactions under stress and faulting in granulites from the Bergen Arcs, Norway: an experimental investigation (United States)

    Incel, Sarah; Hilairet, Nadège; Labrousse, Loïc; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Wang, Yanbin; Schubnel, Alexandre


    Field observations from the Bergen Arcs, Norway, demonstrate a network of pseudotachylites quenched under eclogite-facies conditions in mafic granulites. In these nominally anhydrous high-pressure high-temperature (HP/HT) rocks the formation of pseudotachylites, believed to represent fossilized earthquakes, cannot be explained by processes akin to dehydration embrittlement. On the contrary, the transition to eclogite is expected to involve hydration of the initial rock. To experimentally investigate the underlying mechanisms leading to brittle failure in HP/HT rocks, we performed deformation experiments on natural granulite samples from the Bergen Arcs. The experiments were conducted under eclogite-facies conditions (2-3 GPa, 990-1220 K) to trigger the breakdown of plagioclase - the main constituent of granulite. For these experiments, both a D-DIA and a Griggs apparatus were used. The D-DIA press is mounted on a synchrotron beamline, enabling us to monitor strain, stress, and phase changes in-situ while contemporaneously recording acoustic emissions. The Griggs experiments were performed on a new device installed at ENS Paris, in which only stress-strain were recorded, and post-mortem microstructures investigated. The initial material consisted of a fine grain size granulite powder (powder plus the adhesion water on grain surfaces. Mechanical data together with XRD observations and the record of acoustic emissions demonstrate a correlation between stress drops, the growth of plagioclase breakdown products and the onset of acoustic emissions during deformation of our specimen within the eclogitic field. Microstructural analysis show remarkable similarities with that of the natural ecoligitic pseudotachylites of the Bergen arcs. The plagioclase decomposition products form narrow conjugated shear bands, along which dissected and displaced crystals are found in the samples. The lack of microstructural evidence for macroscopic brittle failure in our microstructures

  15. Facies architecture of basin-margin units in time and space: Lower to Middle Miocene Sivas Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Çiner, A.; Kosun, E.


    The Miocene Sivas Basin is located within a collision zone, forming one of the largest basins in Central Turkey that developed unconformably on a foundered Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement and Eocene-Oligocene deposits. The time and space relationships of sedimentary environments and depositional evolution of Lower to Middle Miocene rocks exposed between Zara and Hafik towns is studied. A 4 km thick continuous section is subdivided into the Agilkaya and Egribucak Formations. Each formation shows an overall fining upward trend and contains three members. Although a complete section is present at the western part (near Hafik) of the basin, to the east the uppermost two members (near Zara) are absent. The lower members of both formations are composed of fluvial sheet-sandstone and red mudstone that migrate laterally on a flood basin within a semi-arid fan system. In the Agilkaya Formation that crops out near Zara, alluvial fans composed of red-pink volcanic pebbles are also present. The middle members are composed of bedded to massive gypsum and red-green mudstone of a coastal and/or continental sabkha environment. While the massive gypsum beds reach several 10’s of m in Hafik area, near Zara, they are only few m thick and alternate with green mudstones. In Hafik, bedded gypsums are intercalated with lagoonal dolomitic limestone and bituminous shale in the Agilkaya Formation and with fluvial red-pink sandstone-red mudstone in the Egribucak Formation. The upper members are made up of fossiliferous mudstone and discontinuous sandy limestone beds with gutter casts, HCS, and 3-D ripples. They indicate storm-induced sedimentation in a shallow marine setting. The disorganized accumulations of ostreid and cerithiid shells, interpreted as coquina bars, are the products of storm generated reworking processes in brackish environments. Rapid vertical and horizontal facies changes and the facies associations in both formations reflect the locally subsiding nature of this molassic

  16. Distal facies variability within the Upper Triassic part of the Otuk Formation in northern Alaska (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, M.T.; Hutton, E.; Moore, Thomas; Gaswirth, Stephanie


    The Triassic-Jurassic Otuk Formation is a potentially important source rock in allochthonous structural positions in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the North Slope of Alaska. This study focuses on three localities of the Upper Triassic (Norian) limestone member, which form a present-day, 110-km-long, east-west transect in the central Brooks Range. All three sections are within the structurally lowest Endicott Mountain allochthon and are interpreted to have been deposited along a marine outer shelf with a ramp geometry.The uppermost limestone member of the Otuk was chosen for this study in order to better understand lateral and vertical variability within carbonate source rocks, to aid prediction of organic richness, and ultimately, to evaluate the potential for these units to act as continuous (or unconventional) reservoirs. At each locality, 1 to 4 m sections of the limestone member were measured and sampled in detail to capture fine-scale features. Hand sample and thin section descriptions reveal four major microfacies in the study area, and one diagenetically recrystallized microfacies. Microfacies 1 and 2 are interpreted to represent redeposition of material by downslope transport, whereas microfacies 3 and 4 have high total organic carbon (TOC) values and are classified as primary depositional organofacies. Microfacies 3 is interpreted to have been deposited under primarily high productivity conditions, with high concentrations of radiolarian tests. Microfacies 4 was deposited under the lowest relative-oxygen conditions, but abundant thin bivalve shells indicate that the sediment-water interface was probably not anoxic.The Otuk Formation is interpreted to have been deposited outboard of a southwest-facing ramp margin, with the location of the three limestone outcrops likely in relatively close proximity during deposition. All three sections have evidence of transported material, implying that the Triassic Alaskan Basin was not a low-energy, deep

  17. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy. (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  18. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems. (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles


    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  19. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John


    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  20. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures. (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing


    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  1. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke


    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  2. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination. (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  3. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  4. Facies and faunal assemblage changes in response to the Holocene transgression in the lagoon of Mayotte (Comoro Archipelago, SW Indian Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinke, J.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Taviani, M.; Dullo, W.-C.; Thomassin, B.A.


    This paper documents the facies change in response to the Holocene transgression within five sediment cores taken in the lagoon of Mayotte, which contain a Type-1 depositional sequence (lowstand, transgressive and highstand deposits underlain by an erosive sequence boundary). Quantitative

  5. Pore morphology and distribution in the Shaly facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri, Switzerland): Insights from representative 2D BIB-SEM investigations on mm to nm scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J.L.


    We used Broad-Ion-Beam polishing in combination with Scanning Electron Microscopy to study the microstructure and porosity in the Shaly facies of Opalinus Clay (northern Switzerland). With resolutions of a few nm, we studied areas of around 1 mm2, sufficiently large to be statistically

  6. Asymmetrical cross-current turbidite facies tract in a structurally-confined mini-basin (Priabonian-Rupelian, Ranzano Sandstone, northern Apennines, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinterri, R.; Laporta, M.; Ogata, K.


    This work discusses the stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Ranzano Sandstone, in the northern Apennines (Italy), a confined low-efficiency turbidite system deposited in a series of small piggy-back basins, which show strong analogies with intraslope minibasins commonly observed in divergent

  7. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities


    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET


    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  8. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen


    Ermler, Romy


    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  9. Integrating bio-, chemo- and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Ordovician, Early Katian: A connection between onshore and offshore facies using carbon isotope analysis: Kentucky, Ohio, USA (United States)

    Young, Allison; Brett, Carlton; McLaughlin, Patrick


    A common problem in stratigraphic correlation is the difficulty of bridging shallow water shelf carbonates and down ramp shale-rich facies. This issue is well exemplified by the Upper Ordovician (lower Katian) Lexington Limestone of Kentucky, USA and adjacent dark shale facies in the deeper water Sebree Trough, an elongate, narrow bathymetric low abruptly north of the outcrop belt in the Ohio subsurface. Chronostratigraphic schemes for this interval have been proposed on the basis of conodont and graptolite biostratigraphy, mapping of event beds, and sequence stratigraphy through facies analysis. The relation of the siliciclastic rich offshore records of the "Point Pleasant-Utica" interval, well known to drillers because of its oil and gas potential, with the up-ramp shallow water carbonate dominated equivalents of the Lexington Formation is complicated by convoluted nomenclature, a major, abrupt change in facies, and disparity in the availability and completeness of records. Current genetic models of organic rich shale intervals, such as the Point Pleasant-Utica interval, are still lacking in detail, and will greatly benefit from detailed correlation with shallow water settings where more is understood about paleoclimatic conditions. In order to understand the development and evolution of this Late Ordovician Laurentian basin, it is important to understand the age relationships of depositional processes occurring at a range of depths, particularly in the less well studied epeiric sea setting of the "Point Pleasant-Utica" interval of Ohio and partial lateral equivalent, Lexington Formation of central Kentucky. The outcrop area of central Kentucky, exposed by the later uplift of the Cincinnati Arch, hosts numerous world-class exposures of the Lexington Formation, nearly all of which are representative of the highly fossiliferous, shallow-water marine platform carbonates. These successions display well differentiated depositional sequences, with sharp facies offsets

  10. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  11. Fluvial and deltaic facies and environments of the late permian back-reef shelves of the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzullo, J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))


    The Artesia Group is a sequence of carbonates, evaporites, and clastics that was deposited across the back-reef shelves of the Permian Basin during late Permian time. There has been some controversy over the depositional environments of the clastic members of the Artesia Group and the role of sea level fluctuations in their accumulation. However, the results of a regional core study of the Queen Formation of the Artesia Group indicate that they were largely deposited in desert fluvial and deltaic environments during low-stands of sea level. Three fluvial-deltaic facies are recognized within the clastic members of the Queen. The first consists of medium to very find sandstones and silty sandstones with cross-beds, ripple cross-laminae, and planar and wavy laminae. This facies forms wavy sheets that thicken and thin along linear trends, and was deposited in sandy braided streams. The second facies consists of very find to fine sandstones, silty sandstones, and siltstones with ripple cross-laminae, planar and wavy laminae, cross-beds, clay drapes and pedogenetic cutans, as well as siltstones and silty mudstones with haloturbation structures and evaporite nodules. This facies forms thick planar sheets, and was deposited in fluvial sandflats and adjacent fluvial-dominated continental sabkhas. The third facies consists of cyclic deposits of haloturbated silty mudstones that grade into siltstones and very fine sandstones with crossbeds, planar and wavy laminae, haloturbation structures and evaporite nodules. Each cycle forms a lobate body that is bounded by carbonates or evaporites and which was deposited in sheet deltas that formed along the landward margins of a back-reef lagoon.

  12. A seismic study of the Mekong subaqueous delta: Proximal versus distal sediment accumulation (United States)

    Liu, J. Paul; DeMaster, David J.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; Eidam, Emily F.; Nguyen, Thanh T.


    The Mekong River Delta is one of the largest in Asia. To understand its sediment distribution, thickness, mass budget, stratigraphic sequences and sediment-transport process, extensive geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted on the inner portions of the adjacent continental shelf. Analyses of > 80 high-resolution Chirp-sonar profiles show the Mekong River has formed a classic sigmoidal cross-shelf clinoform in the proximal areas, up to 15 m thick, with topset, foreset and bottomset facies, but constrained to water depths of sediment has extended > 250 > 300 km southwestward to the tip of the Ca Mau Peninsula, forming a distal mud depocenter up to 22 m thick, and extending into the Gulf of Thailand. A large erosional trough or channel (up to 8 m deeper than the surrounding seafloor and parallel to the shore) was found on the top of the clinoform, east of the Ca Mau Peninsula. Based on the thicknesses and distribution revealed by Chirp sonar profiles, the total estimated volume of the Mekong River subaqueous clinoform on the shelf is 120 km3, which is equivalent to 120-140 × 109 t of sediment using an average sediment dry-bulk density of 1.0-1.2 g/cm3. Assuming the subaqueous deltaic deposit has formed within 1000 yr, the calculated millennial-timescale average sediment discharge to the shelf could be 120-140 × 106 t per year. Spatially, the proximal subaqueous delta has accumulated 45 × 109 t ( 33%) of sediment; the distal part around the Ca Mau Peninsula has received 55 × 109 t ( 42%) of sediment; and the remaining 35 × 109 t ( 25%) has accumulated within the central transition area, although the coastline and shoreface in this area are presently eroding. The spatially averaged 1000-yr-scale accumulate rate is up to 2 cm/yr. Compared to other tide-dominated fluvial dispersal systems, the Mekong River system has a relatively young (≤1000 yr) subaqueous delta, a shallow rollover at 4-6 m water depth, gentle foreset gradients (0.03-0.57°), and a

  13. Carbonate facies patterns in surface sediments of upwelling and non-upwelling shelf environments (Panama, East Pacific).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, J.J.G.; Bauch, Th.; Schäfer, P.


    In this study two carbonate environments are compared and contrasted; the Gulf of Panama and the Gulf of Chiriquí on the Pacific side of Panama. These two embayments are in close geographic proximity at latitudes between 7°N and 9°N. The Gulf of Panama and the Gulf of Chiriquí are characterized by

  14. Syn-metamorphic interconnected porosity during blueschist facies reactive fluid fluxes at the slab-mantle interface (United States)

    Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Klitscher, Nicolai; Halama, Ralf; Wirth, Richard; Morales, Luiz


    At the slab-mantle interface in subdution zones fluids released from the downgoing plate infiltrate into a mechanical mixture of rocks with different chemical compositions, different hydration states and different rheological behaviour resulting in a highly reactive mélange within a steep temperature gradient. Fluid pathways, reaction mechanisms and reaction rates of such fluxes, however, are poorly known, although these parameters are thought to be crucial for several seismic phenomena, such as those commonly referred to as slow earthquakes (e.g., episodic tremor and slip (ETS)). We discovered syn-metamorphic fluid-pathways in the form of interconnected metamorphic porosity in eclogite and blueschist facies mélange rocks from the Franciscan Complex near Jenner, CA. The sampled rocks occur as rigid mafic blocks of different sizes (cm to decametre) in a weak chlorite-serpentine matrix interpreted to be an exhumed slab-mantle interface. Some of these mafic blocks record reactive fluid infiltration that transforms dry eclogite into hydrous blueschist with a sharp reaction front clearly preserved and visible from outcrop- down to µm-scale. We can show that a number of interconnected fluid pathways, such as interconnected metamorphic porosity between reacting omphacite and newly formed sodic amphibole enabled fluid infiltration and interface coupled solution-reprecipitation reactions at blueschist facies conditions. We investigated the different types of fluid pathways with TEM and visualized their interconnectivity with 3D focused ion beam (FIB) sections. The eclogitic parts of the samples preserve porous primary omphacite as a product of amphibole and epidote breakdown during subduction. This primary porosity in omphacite I results from a negative volume change in the solids during amphibole and epidote dehydration. The resulting pores appear as (fluid filled) elongated inclusions the orientations of which are controlled by the omphacite lattice. During

  15. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)


    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  16. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.


    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  17. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler]. (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M


    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures. (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong


    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)


    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  20. Altruism by age and social proximity. (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  1. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G


    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  2. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh


    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  3. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  4. Altruism by age and social proximity (United States)


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  5. Sedimentología y petrología de los abanicos aluviales y facies adyacentes en el Neogeno de Paracuellos de Jarama (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, M.


    Full Text Available Lateral and vertical variations of middle Miocene lithofacies (Lower and Intermediate Units of the Miocene of the Madrid Basin have been analyzed in the Paracuellos de Jarama area, near Madrid. A complete transition from medial to distal alluvial fan facies and palustrinelshaltow 1acustrine deposits can be observed. This sedimentary evolution is inferred from the detailed sedimentological. analysis carried out in each of the previously defined lithostratigraphic units: a1 Green shale and dolomite Unit, a2 Brown clays, arkosic and carbonate Unit; these two units are linked together into a Lower Group. b Coarse Arkosic Unit (Upper Group. Facies relationsbips within the Lower Group show a lateral change pattern between alluvial fan deposits, and palustrine deposits. Also the former ones gradually prograde over the palustrine deposits, as deduced from vertical evolution in the southernmost parts of the area. Upper Group represents a sudden progradation of the alluvial fan systems, that extensively overlie the distal facies observed in the Lower Group.
    Wide development of calcretes, sepiolite deposits, and nodular chert is an outstanding feature in the most distal parts of the alluvial fan bodies. They are studied in some detail provided the scarcity of well described examples of facies relationships in the kinds of deposits.

    Se estudia en este trabajo la variación lateral y vertical de las litofacies del Mioceno medio (Unidades Inferior e Intermedia en el área de Paracuellos de Jarama, próxima a Madrid, quedando representada en este área una transición completa entre depósitos de facies medias de abenícos aluviales y depósitos de ámbitos palustres. Estas conclusiones se extraen a partir del análisis sedimentológico realizado en cada una de las unidades previamente definidas: a Unidad de arcillas verdes y carbonatos y Unidad de arcillas pardas, arcillas y carbonatos en el Conjunto Inferior; b Unidad de

  6. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel


    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  7. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  8. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.


    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  9. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  10. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  11. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng


    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  12. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  13. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes. (United States)

    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J


    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  14. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  15. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh


    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  16. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  17. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  18. Facies, stratal and stacking patterns of syn-rift sequences along present-day and fossil hyperextended rifted margins (United States)

    Ribes, Charlotte; Epin, Marie-Eva; Gillard, Morgane; Chenin, Pauline; Ghienne, Jean-Francois; Manatschal, Gianreto; Karner, Garry D.; Johnson, Christopher A.


    Research on the formation and evolution of deep-water rifted margins has undergone a major paradigm shift in recent years. An increasing number of studies of present-day and fossil rifted margins allows us to identify and characterize the architecture of hyperextended rifted margins. However, at present, little is known about the depositional environments, sedimentary facies and stacking and stratal patterns in syn-rift sequences within these domains. In this context, characterizing and understanding the spatial and temporal evolution of the stratal and stacking patterns is a new challenge. The syn-rift sequence at rifted margins is deposited during the initial stages of stretching to the onset of oceanic accretion and comprises pre-, syn- and post-kinematic deposits along the margin. A difficulty arises from the fact that the observed stratigraphic geometries and facies relationships result from the complex interplay between sediment supply and creation of accommodation, which in turn are controlled by regional synchronous events (i.e. crustal necking and onset of seafloor spreading) and diachronous events (i.e. migration of deformation during rifting, lags in sediment input to the distal margin). These parameters are poorly constrained in hyperextended rift systems. Indeed, the complex structural evolution of hyperextended systems include an evolution from initially distributed to localized extension (i.e. necking) and the development of poly-phase in-sequence and/or out of sequence extensional faulting associated with mantle exhumation and magmatic activity. This multiphase structural evolution can generate complex accommodation patterns over a highly structured top basement but can only be recognized if there is sufficient sediment input to record the events. In our presentation, we show preliminary results for fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in the Alps and seismic examples of the present-day deep water rifted margins offshore Australian-Antarctica, East

  19. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from mangrove swamps and channels of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Lokier, Stephen W.; Paul, Andreas


    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations in several coastline environments (mangrove swamps and channels) located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of living and dead benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding area comprising natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels) and areas modified by anthropogenic activities (dredged channels). The fine-grain sediments collected near mangrove (Avicenna marina) roots presented a high abundance of living and dead foraminifera tests. The assemblages in these samples show very low diversity and are almost entirely constituted of small-sized opportunistic species belonging to the genera Ammonia and Elphidium. In particular: • Samples collected on the mud flat and in ponds at the margin of the channel show a foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. • Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicenna marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Elphidium along with rare miliolidae. • Samples from the upper intertidal area (dry) close to Avicenna marina roots, produced an assemblage exclusively composed of small-sized opportunistic Ammonia and Elphidium, together with abundant specimens belonging to the genera Trochammina. Throchammina specimens have not been previously recorded from Recent sedimentary samples of

  20. The transition from blueschist to greenschist facies modeled by the reaction glaucophane + 2 diopside + 2 quartz = tremolite + 2 albite (United States)

    Jenkins, David M.


    The reaction glaucophane + 2 diopside + 2 quartz = tremolite + 2 albite is proposed to model the transition from the blueschist to greenschist facies. This reaction was investigated experimentally over the range of 1.0-2.1 GPa and 500-800°C using synthetic phases in the chemical system Na2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Reversals of this reaction were possible at 500 and 550°C and growth of the low-pressure assemblage at 600°C; however, at temperatures of 600°C and higher and at pressures above 1.6 GPa omphacite nucleation (at the expense of diopside and albite) became quite strong and prevented attaining clear reversals of this reaction. Compositional changes in the amphiboles were determined by both electron microprobe analyses and correlations between unit-cell dimensions and composition. Glaucophane and particularly tremolite showed clear signs of compositional re-equilibration and merged to a single amphibole of winchite composition by about 754°C. These data were used to model the miscibility gap between glaucophane and tremolite using either the asymmetric multicomponent formulism parameters of W TR,GL of 68 kJ with αTR of 1.0 and αGL of 0.75 or a simple two-site asymmetric thermodynamic mixing expression with Margules parameters W NaCa of 13.4 kJ and W CaNa of 19.3 kJ. Combination of these thermodynamic models of the miscibility gap with extant thermodynamic data for the other phases yields a calculated location of the above reaction, involving pure diopside and albite, that is in good agreement with the observed experimental reversals and amphibole compositions over the range of 0.94-1.93 GPa and 400-754°C. The calculated effect of jadeite solid solution into diopside is to reduce the dP/dT slope from 0.0028 to 0.0021 GPa/°C and decrease the pressure by 0.28 GPa at 754°C. The dP/dT slope of this reaction boundary lies close to a linear geotherm of 13°C/km and is consistent with the slopes of other solid-solid reactions that have been used to model the

  1. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion. (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian


    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  2. Detailed facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Tununk Shale Member, Henry Mountains Region, Utah: Implications for mudstone depositional models in epicontinental seas (United States)

    Li, Zhiyang; Schieber, Juergen


    Lower-Middle Turonian strata of the Tununk Shale Member of the greater Mancos Shale were deposited along the western margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway during the Greenhorn second-order sea level cycle. In order to examine depositional controls on facies development in this mudstone-rich succession, this study delineates temporal and spatial relationships in a process-sedimentologic-based approach. The 3-dimensional expression of mudstone facies associations and their stratal architecture is assessed through a fully integrative physical and biologic characterization as exposed in outcrops in south-central Utah. Sedimentologic characteristics from the millimeter- to kilometer-scale are documented in order to fully address the complex nature of sediment transport mechanisms observed in this shelf muddy environment. The resulting facies model developed from this characterization consists of a stack of four lithofacies packages including: 1) carbonate-bearing, silty and sandy mudstone (CSSM), 2) silt-bearing, calcareous mudstone (SCM), 3) carbonate-bearing, silty mudstone to muddy siltstone (CMS), and 4) non-calcareous, silty and sandy mudstone (SSM). Spatial and temporal variations in lithofacies type and sedimentary facies characteristics indicate that the depositional environments of the Tununk Shale shifted in response to the 2nd-order Greenhorn transgressive-regressive sea-level cycle. During this eustatic event, the Tununk shows a characteristic vertical shift from distal middle shelf to outer shelf (CSSM to SCM facies), then from outer shelf to inner shelf environment (SCM to CMS, and to SSM facies). Shifting depositional environments, as well as changes in dominant paleocurrent direction throughout this succession, indicate multiple source areas and transport mechanisms (i.e. longshore currents, offshore-directed underflows, storm reworking). This study provides a rare documentation of the Greenhorn cycle as exposed across the entire shelf setting

  3. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  4. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing. (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian


    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  5. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography. (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J


    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  6. Glacier Remote Sensing Using Sentinel-2. Part II: Mapping Glacier Extents and Surface Facies, and Comparison to Landsat 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Paul


    Full Text Available Mapping of glacier extents from automated classification of optical satellite images has become a major application of the freely available images from Landsat. A widely applied method is based on segmented ratio images from a red and shortwave infrared band. With the now available data from Sentinel-2 (S2 and Landsat 8 (L8 there is high potential to further extend the existing time series (starting with Landsat 4/5 in 1982 and to considerably improve over previous capabilities, thanks to increased spatial resolution and dynamic range, a wider swath width and more frequent coverage. Here, we test and compare a variety of previously used methods to map glacier extents from S2 and L8, and investigate the mapping of snow facies with S2 using top of atmosphere reflectance. Our results confirm that the band ratio method works well with S2 and L8. The 15 m panchromatic band of L8 can be used instead of the red band, resulting in glacier extents similar to S2 (0.7% larger for 155 glaciers. On the other hand, extents derived from the 30 m bands are 4%–5% larger, indicating a more generous interpretation of mixed pixels. Mapping of snow cover with S2 provided accurate results, but the required topographic correction would benefit from a better orthorectification with a more precise DEM than currently used.

  7. Effects of greenschist-facies metamorphism and related deformation on the Mobrun massive sulfide deposit, Québec, Canada (United States)

    Larocque, A. C. L.; Hodgson, C. J.


    The Mobrun Zn-Cu-Ag-Au deposit in the Noranda mining camp is hosted by Archean mafic and felsic submarine volcanic rocks. The deposit comprises three massive sulfide complexes: the Main and Satellite Lenses near surface, and the 1100 orebody at depth. The rocks have been subjected to lower greenschist-facies metamorphism and related deformation, which resulted in changes in ore textures, development of shear zones and veins systems, remobilization of gold, and formation of a new mineral (electrum) within the orebodies. Both mechanical and chemical processes operated to produce secondary textures and structures resulting from brittle deformation, ductile deformation, and annealing. The specific deformation mechanisms include brittle failure and cataclastic flow, dislocation glide, dislocation creep and solution-precipitation creep. The Main and Satellite Lenses are characterized by excellent preservation of primary sulfides deposited from and reworked by synvolcanic hydrothermal fluids. These orebodies were affected to a limited degree by mechanical processes of deformation. In contrast, the 1100 orebody is characterized by a higher degree of development of textures and structures related to metamorphism and deformation, especially those formed by chemical processes. The differences may be due to the greater depth of the 1100 orebody relative to the other lenses, as regional metamorphic isograds are subhorizontal, and more extensive interaction between metamorphic fluids and the 1100 Lens.

  8. Multiple migmatite events and cooling from granulite facies metamorphism within the Famatina arc margin of northwest Argentina (United States)

    Mulcahy, Sean R.; Roeske, Sarah M.; McClelland, William C.; Ellis, Joshua R.; Jourdan, Fred; Renne, Paul R.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Vujovich, Graciela I.


    The Famatina margin records an orogenic cycle of convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and extension related to the accretion of the allochthonous Precordillera terrane. New structural, petrologic, and geochronologic data from the Loma de Las Chacras region demonstrate two distinct episodes of lower crustal migmatization. The first event preserves a counterclockwise pressure-temperature path in kyanite-K-feldspar pelitic migmatites that resulted in lower crustal migmatization via muscovite dehydration melting at ˜12 kbar and 868°C at 461 ±1.7 Ma. The shape of the pressure temperature path and timing of metamorphism are similar to those of regional midcrustal granulites and suggest pervasive Ordovician migmatization throughout the Famatina margin. One-dimensional thermal modeling coupled with regional isotopic data suggests Ordovician melts remained at temperatures above their solidus for 20-30 Ma following peak granulite facies metamorphism, throughout a time period marked by regional oblique convergence. The onset of synconvergent extension occurred only after regional migmatites cooled beneath their solidus and was synchronous with the cessation of Precordillera terrane accretion at ˜436 Ma. The second migmatite event was regionally localized and occurred at ˜700°C and 12 kbar between 411 and 407 Ma via vapor saturated melting of muscovite. Migmatization was synchronous with extension, exhumation, and strike-slip deformation that likely resulted from a change in the plate boundary configuration related to the convergence and collision of the Chilenia terrane.

  9. A method to generate small-scale, high-resolution sedimentary bedform architecture models representing realistic geologic facies. (United States)

    Meckel, T A; Trevisan, L; Krishnamurthy, P G


    Small-scale (mm to m) sedimentary structures (e.g. ripple lamination, cross-bedding) have received a great deal of attention in sedimentary geology. The influence of depositional heterogeneity on subsurface fluid flow is now widely recognized, but incorporating these features in physically-rational bedform models at various scales remains problematic. The current investigation expands the capability of an existing set of open-source codes, allowing generation of high-resolution 3D bedform architecture models. The implemented modifications enable the generation of 3D digital models consisting of laminae and matrix (binary field) with characteristic depositional architecture. The binary model is then populated with petrophysical properties using a textural approach for additional analysis such as statistical characterization, property upscaling, and single and multiphase fluid flow simulation. One example binary model with corresponding threshold capillary pressure field and the scripts used to generate them are provided, but the approach can be used to generate dozens of previously documented common facies models and a variety of property assignments. An application using the example model is presented simulating buoyant fluid (CO2) migration and resulting saturation distribution.

  10. Two sisters with growth failure, microcephaly, peculiar facies and apical dystrophy: the presentation of brachymorphism-onychodysplasia-dysphalangism syndrome? (United States)

    Ounap, K; Justus, I; Lipping-Sitska, M


    We report two sisters with growth failure, relative microcephaly, peculiar facies and apical dystrophy (brachydactyly type B). They had shortness and clinodactyly of the 5th fingers, aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanges of 5th fingers, short medial phalanges of the 2nd and 5th fingers, hypoplasia or aplasia of distal phalanges of 2-5th toes, with tiny toenails, and aplasia or nails of 5th fingers and right 5th toe in the younger sister. Dysmorphic facial features included high forehead, sparse hair, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, epicanthic folds, a low nasal bridge, a broad nasal tip and micrognathia. Their ears were low-set and malformed. The older sister additionally had a high-pitched voice and eczema on the face and limbs. In the younger sister a cardiac defect was diagnosed--ventricular and atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus. They had some clinical features of Coffin-Siris syndrome, but with a milder phenotype and much less severe mental handicap. Their clinical picture resembles more the brachymorphism-onychodysplasia-dysphalangism (BOD) syndrome.

  11. Isotopic geochemistry of the Bamble granulite facies (Norway) and the origin of the deep crust carbonic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineau, F.; Javoy, M. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)); Behar, F. (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison); Touret, J. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Spectroscopie des Plasmas)


    Various carbonaceous species found in granulite facies rocks from the Bamble area (Norway) have been separated and isotopically analyzed in order to specify mantle or crustal origin. Quartz crystals in the acidic rocks contain CO/sub 2/ fluid inclusions with isotopically light carbon, which can be related to mixtures of organic carbon common in the Scandinavian basement with minor amounts of CO/sub 2/ from decarbonatation of carbonates. These inclusions are supposed to represent the memory of prograde metamorphism. Acidic rocks as well as intrusive amphibolitized mafic rocks (hyperites) contain abundant late synmetamorphic carbonates, which, after their /sup 18/O composition, were precipitated or reequilibrated down to 400 deg C. Their delta/sup 13/C points to growing mantle influence just after the metamorphic paroxysm. The hyperites also contain large amounts of non carbonate carbon, released only upon fusion of the sample. This carbon is considered to represent carbon dissolved in the melt at the time of emplacement and trapped in the silicate network (interstitial defects or scapolite) during crystallization. Its concentration and isotopic composition is explained in terms of equilibrium with heavy carbonic fluid and partial outgassing under a few kbars.

  12. A weakening mechanism for intermediate-depth seismicity? Detailed petrographic and microtextural observations from blueschist facies pseudotachylytes, Cape Corse, Corsica (United States)

    Deseta, N.; Andersen, T. B.; Ashwal, L. D.


    Gabbro- and peridotite-hosted pseudotachylytes from the Alpine Schistes Lustres Unit in Corsica, previously determined to have formed at blueschist to lawsonite-eclogite facies conditions, have been causally linked to the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes, which occur at depths of 50-300 km. Detailed petrographic and microtextural analyses of these pseudotachylytes suggest that their initiation may be controlled by a thermally-activated shear runaway process that is controlled by rheology rather than mineralogy. This is documented by sheared out, prolate, kinked and twinned wallrock clasts that have been peeled off and entrained into the pseudotachylyte vein as sigmoid survivor clasts. The presence of metastable high temperature crystallisation products in the pseudotachylyte, such as hoppers and dendrites of olivine, enstatite and diopside (peridotite) and Al-rich omphacite and Fe-rich anorthite in metagabbro, are suggestive of a short-lived high-temperature event resulting from thermal instability. These high temperature mineral assemblages are overprinted by ones indicating a return to ambient conditions of lower temperatures, but still high pressures: glaucophane, albite and epidote in metagabbro and clinochlore; and fine-grained granoblastic olivine, enstatite and diopside in peridotite. The observations from this detailed study of natural samples suggest that intermediate-depth seismicity may be generated by a thermal runaway process.

  13. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study. (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür


    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  14. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member


    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane


    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  15. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  16. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M


    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  17. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  18. Proximity to urban parks and mental health. (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah


    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  19. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia. (United States)

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim


    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus providing

  20. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Duda

    Full Text Available Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰, are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰ that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies

  1. Las bioconstrucciones de corales y sus facies asociadas durante el Malm en la Cordillera Ibérica Central (provincia de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndez, A.


    Full Text Available The differents types of bioconstructions and associated facies in the Central Iberian Chain (Higueruelas Formation, Upper Kimmeridgian have been studied. Biohermes of different thickness (decimetric to metric and less lateral continuity are developped, highly colonized by corals, that are associated to oncolitic, bioclastic and oolitic of high energy facies, in marginal areas, near the litoral developpment. At the same time takes place an important set up of mud mounds, with a small coral colonisation, in protected arcas in a inner shelf, or in outer areas, where the action of the waves is not so effective. The environment protection is been generated in some places due to the appearance of oolitic barrier islands.Se estudian los diferentes tipos de bioconstrucciones de corales, y sus facies asociadas, presentes en el sector central de la rama aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica, en la Formación Higueruelas (Kimmeridgiense superior. Se desarrollan biohermos de potencias métricas a decimétricas y escasa continuidad lateral, intensamente colonizados por corales coloniales, que se encuentran asociados a facies oncolíticas, bioclásticas y oolíticas de alta energía en zonas marginales, próximas al desarrollo litoral. Al mismo tiempo tiene lugar una importante instalación de mud mounds, con escasa colonización de corales, en zonas protegidas dentro de la plataforma interna o en zonas más externas, donde la acción del oleaje no es efectiva. La protección del medio viene condicionada en algunos puntos por la aparición de islas barrera oolíticas.

  2. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus. (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel


    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  3. Facies Model for a Quaternary Hierarchical Depositional Sequences in the Niigata Basin, Central Japan. Approach to Prediction of Petroleum Reservoir Distribution on Bach-arc Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arato, Hiroyuki. [Teikoku Oil Corp, Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Center


    Dialectic prediction of reservoir distribution using conceptual facies models is one of the most direct techniques in petroleum exploration for reducing uncertainties about the factors in a petroleum system. If reservoir distribution could be predicted logically on the basis of generics of strata and sedimentary processes with inproved accuracy, then previously discovered petroleum systems might be reconsidered as future objectives of subtle entrapments. In this study a fourth-order daces model was constructed for Quaternary of the Niigata Basin within a back-arc setting, based on the concept of sequence stratigraphy. A progradational type fourth-order depositional sequence is subdivided into the following four systems tracts, which are defined by their morphologies and benthic foraminiferal faunas: (1) regressive progradational wedge systems tract (RPW), consisting of a forced-regressive strandplain system and associated depositional systems, (2) lowstand stable progradational wedge systems trac (LPW), consisting mainly of an incised-valley fill braidplain dalta system and associated systems, (3) transgressive aggradational sheet systems tract (TAS), consisting of a filled-estuary system and associated depositional systems, and (4) highstand stable progradational wedge systems tract (HPW), consisting of a fluvial-dominated dalta system and associated system. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of sequence stratigraphic approaches and provide useful examples of occurrence, development, and sedimentary facies distribution for prograding coasts in ative margin basins. The development of such facies models improves our ability to the presence of sudetected standstone reservoirs, which is one of the most important factors of petroleum system. (autor)

  4. Basin analysis in the Southern Tethyan margin: Facies sequences, stratal pattern and subsidence history highlight extension-to-inversion processes in the Cretaceous Panormide carbonate platform (NW Sicily) (United States)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio


    In the Mediterranean, the South-Tethys paleomargin experienced polyphased tectonic episodes and paleoenvironmental perturbations during Mesozoic time. The Cretaceous shallow-water carbonate successions of the Panormide platform, outcropping in the northern edge of the Palermo Mountains (NW Sicily), were studied by integrating facies and stratal pattern with backstripping analysis to recognize the tectonics vs. carbonate sedimentation interaction. The features of the Requienid limestone, including geometric configuration, facies sequence, lithological changes and significance of the top-unconformity, highlight that at the end of the Lower Cretaceous the carbonate platform was tectonically dismembered in various rotating fault-blocks. The variable trends of the subsidence curves testify to different responses, both uplift and downthrow, of various platform-blocks impacted by extensional tectonics. Physical stratigraphic and facies analysis of the Rudistid limestone highlight that during the Upper Cretaceous the previously carbonate platform faulted-blocks were subjected to vertical movements in the direction opposite to the displacement produced by the extensional tectonics, indicating a positive tectonic inversion. Comparisons with other sectors of the Southern Tethyan and Adria paleomargins indicate that during the Cretaceous these areas underwent the same extensional and compressional stages occurring in the Panormide carbonate platform, suggesting a regional scale significance, in time and kinematics, for these tectonic events.

  5. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel De la Sen


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  6. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  7. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome (United States)

    ... can range from mild to severe. In particular, vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) ... Some affected individuals have an unusually large head size ( macrocephaly ). People with proximal 18q deletion syndrome often ...

  9. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park. (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana


    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  10. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  11. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  12. [A case of proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the perineum]. (United States)

    Murashima, Takaya; Kamibeppu, Toyoharu; Hiromasa, Tukino; Mukai, Syoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki


    Epithelioid sarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms which occur more often in young people. They tend to relapse, metastatize and show poor prognosis. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcomas arise from the more proximal part of body and are more malignant than distal-type epithelioid sarcomas. We present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma which occurred in the perineum. A 24-year-old male visited our hospital with the chief complaint of pain in the perineum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor 30×23×17 mm in diameter in the perineal region. The tumor was excised regionally and the pathological examination with immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. The patient is free of recurrence and metastasis one year after local excision.

  13. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  14. TETRAPOLIS - an exercise in building the complexities of proximity space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Blidariu; Diana Giurea


    ... student’s intuitive ways for understanding these vicinities, their physical and symbolic proximities, through participatory tactics and certain poetic/architectural tools required in the phenomenological build-up of space...

  15. Cold-water coral habitats of Rockall and Porcupine Bank, NE Atlantic Ocean: Sedimentary facies and benthic foraminiferal assemblages (United States)

    Smeulders, G. G. B.; Koho, K. A.; de Stigter, H. C.; Mienis, F.; de Haas, H.; van Weering, T. C. E.


    The extent of the cold-water coral mounds in the modern ocean basins has been recently revealed by new state-of-the-art equipment. However, not much is known about their geological extent or development through time. In the facies model presented here seven different types of seabed substrate are distinguished, which may be used for reconstruction of fossil coral habitats. The studied substrates include: off-mound settings, (foram) sands, hardgrounds, dead coral debris, and substrates characterized by a variable density of living coral framework. Whereas sediment characteristics only provide a basis for distinguishing on- and off-mound habitats and the loci of most prolific coral growth, benthic foraminiferal assemblages are the key to identifying different mound substrates in more detail. Specific foraminiferal assemblages are distinguished that are characteristic of these specific environments. Assemblages from off-mound settings are dominated by (attached) epifaunal species such as Cibicides refulgens and Cibicides variabilis. The attached epibenthic species Discanomalina coronata is also common in off-mound sediments, but it is most abundant where hardgrounds have formed. In contrast, the settings with coral debris or living corals attract shallow infaunal species that are associated with more fine-grained soft sediments. The typical ‘living coral assemblage' is composed of Cassidulina obtusa, Bulimina marginata, and Cassidulina laevigata. The abundance of these species shows an almost linear increase with the density of the living coral cover. The benthic foraminifera encountered from off-mound to top-mound settings appear to represent a gradient of decreasing current intensity and availability of suspended food particles, and increasing availability of organic matter associated with fine-grained sediment trapped in between coral framework.

  16. Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman. (United States)

    Lee, C; Fike, D A; Love, G D; Sessions, A L; Grotzinger, J P; Summons, R E; Fischer, W W


    The largest recorded carbon isotopic excursion in Earth history is observed globally in carbonate rocks of middle Ediacaran age. Known from the Sultanate of Oman as the 'Shuram excursion', this event records a dramatic, systematic shift in δ(13) Ccarbonate values to ca. -12‰. Attempts to explain the nature, magnitude and origin of this excursion include (i) a primary signal resulting from the protracted oxidation of a large dissolved organic carbon reservoir in seawater, release of methane from sediment-hosted clathrates, or water column stratification; and (ii) a secondary signal from diagenetic processes. The compositions and isotope ratios of organic carbon phases during the excursion are critical to evaluating these ideas; however, previous work has focused on localities that are low in organic carbon, hindering straightforward interpretation of the observed time-series trends. We report carbon isotope data from bulk organic carbon, extracted bitumen and kerogen, in addition to lipid biomarker data, from a subsurface well drilled on the eastern flank of the South Oman Salt Basin, Sultanate of Oman. This section captures Nafun Group strata through the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary in the Ara Group and includes an organic-rich, deeper-water facies of the Shuram Formation. Despite the high organic matter contents, the carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates - which record a negative δ(13) C isotope excursion similar in shape and magnitude to sections elsewhere in Oman - do not covary with those of organic phases (bulk TOC, bitumen and kerogen). Paired inorganic and organic δ(13) C data only display coupled behaviour during the latter part of the excursion's recovery. Furthermore, lipid biomarker data reveal that organic matter composition and source inputs varied stratigraphically, reflecting biological community shifts in non-migrated, syngenetic organic matter deposited during this interval. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Caracterización y origen de la facies glauconítica de la cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, M. A.


    Full Text Available Occurrences of glauconite in Tertiary materials of the Guadalquivir basin have been known nearly a century. Recent studies indicate that the glauconite is stratigraphically concentrated in two levels: the lower one (Miocene being at the boundary between a detrital-carbonate formation and the «Blue Clays»; the higher one (Pliocene at the transition between the «Blue Clays» and the Huelva Sand Formation. Different glauconitizacion degrees of organic remains have been observed in both glauconitic level studied. The environmental conditions during sedimentation of glauconite materials as deduced from palaeontological and sedimentological data, suppose that glauconite pellets may have formed in an open-sublitoral environment at around 50 m deep.La presencia de glauconita en los materiales terciarios de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir se conoce desde hace casi un siglo. Estudios recientes la sitúan estratigráficamente en dos niveles: uno inferior (Mioceno en el tránsito de una facies detrítico-carbonatada y las Margas azules, y otro superior (Plioceno entre las Margas azules y la Formación Arenas de Huelva. En el presente trabajo se ha realizado una caracterización mineralógica y genética de la glauconita, encontrándose un diferente grado de evolución para cada nivel, y condiciones de sedimentación propias de un medio marino sublitoral, con una profundidad < 50 m, a partir de datos sedimentológicos y paleontológicos. Por último, se interpreta además su significado paleogeográfico en la evolución general de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir.

  18. Patterns of Downstream Fining and Facies Change Reflecting Differing Modes of Mid-Holocene Sediment Dispersal across the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Paola, C.


    The removal of sediment mass to deposition in sedimentary systems creates predictable patterns of downstream fining and facies changes. We examine the mid-Holocene sedimentary record of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) in a mass balance framework to demonstrate a shift from bypass-dominated to extraction enhanced modes of sediment dispersal. A prolonged ( 3000 year) occupation of the tectonically-influenced Sylhet Basin occurred from 7.5-4.5 ka, producing thick (20-30 m) packages of channel sands and splay deposits. Sediment was initially ( 7.5-6.0 ka) routed along the western edge of Sylhet Basin, where confinement in antecedent valleys promoted bypass to downstream depocenters. This bypass dominance is reflected in low rates of downstream fining, minimal variability in percent sand values, and persistent channel sand preservation. At 6.0-5.5 ka, the system shifted to an extraction enhanced mode of sediment dispersal, as a large (3500 km2) splay developed northeast of the main sediment delivery pathway. Evidence for this shift includes rapid downstream fining and the prevalence of lower net:gross values in facies preserved in the deepest parts of the central basin. This pattern of deposition persists through the end of the occupation ( 4.5 ka) as reflected in another large ( 4000 km2) splay along the Shillong Foredeep at the basin's northern margin. The spatial distribution of sediment mass contained in each of the three pathways was apportioned spatially to calculate chi, a scale-independent dimensionless downstream distance that represents the total percent of supplied sediment flux lost to deposition at any given point in the system. Both of the splay deposits contain distinct facies shifts and a reduction in net:gross at a chi value of 0.6. The bypass-dominated pathway does not contain a full depositional length, meaning that true chi values cannot be calculated. However, a similar facies change and decrease in percent sand occurs at a geographic

  19. P- T- t evolution of eclogite/blueschist facies metamorphism in Alanya Massif: time and space relations with HP event in Bitlis Massif, Turkey (United States)

    Çetinkaplan, Mete; Pourteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Koralay, O. Ersin; Oberhänsli, Roland; Okay, Aral I.; Chen, Fukun; Kozlu, Hüseyin; Şengün, Fırat


    The Alanya Massif, which is located to the south of central Taurides in Turkey, presents a typical nappe pile consisting of thrust sheets with contrasting metamorphic histories. In two thrust sheets, Sugözü and Gündoğmuş nappes, HP metamorphism under eclogite (550-567 °C/14-18 kbar) and blueschist facies (435-480 °C/11-13 kbar) conditions have been recognized, respectively. Whereas the rest of the Massif underwent MP metamorphism under greenschist to amphibolite facies (525-555 °C/6.5-7.5 kbar) conditions. Eclogite facies metamorphism in Sugözü nappe, which consists of homogeneous garnet-glaucophane-phengite schists with eclogite lenses is dated at 84.8 ± 0.8, 84.7 ± 1.5 and 82 ± 3 Ma (Santonian-Campanian) by 40Ar/39Ar phengite, U/Pb zircon and rutile dating methods, respectively. Similarly, phengites in Gündoğmuş nappe representing an accretionary complex yield 82-80 Ma (Campanian) ages for blueschist facies metamorphism. During the exhumation, the retrograde overprint of the HP units under greenschist-amphibolite facies conditions and tectonic juxtaposition with the Barrovian units occurred during Campanian (75-78 Ma). Petrological and geochronological data clearly indicate a similar Late Cretaceous tectonometamorphic evolution for both Alanya (84-75 Ma) and Bitlis (84-72 Ma) Massifs. They form part of a single continental sliver ( Alanya- Bitlis microcontinent), which was rifted from the southern part of the Anatolide-Tauride platform. The P- T- t coherence between two Massifs suggests that both Massifs have been derived from the closure of the same ocean ( Alanya- Bitlis Ocean) located to the south of the Anatolide-Tauride block by a northward subduction. The boundary separating the autochthonous Tauride platform to the north from both the Alanya and Bitlis Massifs to the south represents a suture zone, the Pamphylian- Alanya- Bitlis suture.

  20. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.


    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.


    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  1. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture


    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D


    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  2. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination


    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...

  3. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  4. Partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome: a new case. (United States)

    Nucaro, A; Faedda, A; Cao, A; Boccone, L


    We report a case of partial proximal trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) performed with whole chromosome 10 specific painting and specific yac clones. The phenotypic findings, compared to those found in other published cases with the same karyotype, support the recognition of a distinctive partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome (10q11-->q22).

  5. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.


    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  6. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  7. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology


    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben


    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitatio...

  8. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai


    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  9. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation. (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E


    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  10. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas


    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  11. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.


    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  12. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.


    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  13. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids. (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Hidrogeoquímica de los manantiales sulfhídricos y ferruginosos de las facies Purbeck-Weald del noroeste de la Cordillera Iberica (provincia de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Pérez, E.


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to study the chemical composition of the sulfide-bearingand iron-rich springs in Soria. These springs are mainly located on sedimentary rocks of the Purbeck-Weald facies and most precisely in the Oncala group materials. Sulfide-bearing spring water belongs to calcium sulfate facies. It pH is basic or neutral. This kind of springs is mainly in the eastern area of Oncala group. Sulfate reduction with presence of organic matter seems to be the most common ORIGIN of the H2S. lronrich springs are more often located in the westside of Oncala group. Water of these springs has calcium bicarbonate character, very low salinity and acid pH. These differences on major ion chemical composition likely show the influence of the lithologic and mineralogic changes in the Oncala group. It presents low soluble terrigenous sediments in the western area whereas eastward there is a facies lateral change with the appearance of carbonates and sulfates. On the other hand, none of the iron-rich springs contains H2S and coversely Fe is never detected in the sulfide-bearing springs, although sometimes they appear together. This fact is in accordance with the plot of the two water types have in the pH/Eh diagrams.El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el estudio de la composición química de las aguas de los manantiales sulfhídricos y ferruginosos existentes en la provincia de Soria. Este tipo de surgencias se encuentran principalmente en los materiales de las facies Purbeck-Weald, y más concretamente en los afloramientos del grupo Oncala. Los manantiales sulfhídricos son de facies sulfatada cá1cica, pH neutro o básico, y se concentran en el sector oriental del grupo Oncala; en la mayoría de los casos, el origen del H2S parece deberse a procesos de reducción de sulfatos en presencia de materia orgánica. Los manantiales ferruginosos tienden a ser más frecuentes en el sector oeste del grupo Oncala, donde presentan un car

  15. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: the role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry


    Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo


    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  16. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A


    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  17. Comparative microbial diversity and redox environments of black shale and stromatolite facies in the Mesoproterozoic Xiamaling Formation (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Hallmann, Christian; Xie, Shucheng; Ruan, Xiaoyan; Summons, Roger E.


    The composition of microbial communities and their relationship to ocean redox structure in the Precambrian are topics of continuing interest in geobiology. Our knowledge of organismic diversity and environmental conditions during this time are mostly based on fragmentary paleontological and geochemical records and might be skewed accordingly. In North China the Xiamaling Formation (∼1.37 Ga) is characterized by black shales of relatively low thermal maturity (Tmax is ∼445 °C) and has been identified as a potential petroleum source rock. To date, however, the biological sources of the organic matter and the environmental conditions prevalent during the deposition of these sediments remain unclear. In this study we analyzed the hydrocarbon biomarker compositions of the Xiamaling Formation shales and a superjacent stromatolitic carbonate in order to shed light on the microbial diversity in the sedimentary environments they represent. The hydrocarbons extracted from both sediments are dominated by low-molecular-weight n-alkanes with a maximum at C15-18, suggesting that bacteria and/or algae were primary biotic precursors. Our inability to detect steranes in bitumen I, and only traces of rearranged steranes in bitumen II of black shales, indicates that modern eukaryotic algae were either ecologically insignificant or not preserved due to a taphonomic bias. The high relative concentration of hopanes and diahopanes ranging from C27 to C35, as well as monomethylalkanes, suggests that cyanobacteria may have been the dominant primary producers and could have contributed to the biologically available nitrogen pool through N2-fixation. This observation is supported by the low nitrogen isotopic composition of the kerogens. Even though all facies zones appear to have been anoxic but not sulfidic on the basis of biomarker ratios and trace metals, subtle but distinct molecular differences are observed between the stromatolite and the black shales, which can be attributed to

  18. Seismic Facies of Pleistocene–Holocene Channel-fill Deposits in Bawean Island and Adjacent Waters, Southeast Java Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albab


    Full Text Available The late Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic architecture of the Bawean Island and surrounding waters, southeast Java Sea has been analyzed by using sparker seismic profiles. Geological interpretation of these seismic profiles revealed the widespread distribution of paleochannels with different shape and size in the present-day Java Sea. Two channel types can be distinguished based on its morphology: U-shaped channels in the western part and V-shaped channels in the eastern part. The stratigraphic successions were grouped into two major seismic units separated by different seismic boundaries. Characters of marine and fluvial deposits were determined based on seismic boundaries and internal reflectors. Three seismic facies can be identified within late Pleistocene – Holocene incised channel fills associated with SB2. The internal structure of incised-channels consist of chaotic reflector at the bottom, covered by parallel–sub parallel and almost reflection-free indicating the homogenous sediment deposited during the succession. Keywords : Pleistocene-Holocene channel fills, sparker seismic profiles, seismic boundaries, incised–channel, Java Sea.   Rekaman seismik sparker digunakan untuk menganalisis endapan stratigrafi berumur Plistosen Akhir–Holosen di Perairan Pulau Bawean dan sekitarnya. Berdasarkan interpretasi geologi dari rekaman seismik tersebut teridentifikasi sebaran alur purba yang berbeda bentuk dan ukuran dengan kondisi Laut Jawa sekarang. Berdasarkan morfologinya, dua tipe alur purba yang terdentifikasi adalah alur purba berbentuk U di bagian barat dan berbentuk V yang terbentuk di bagian timur daerah penelitian. Suksesi stratigrafi kemudian dibedakan menjadi dua grup unit seismik utama yang dibatasi oleh perbedaan batas seismik, yaitu endapan asal darat dan laut yang ditentukan berdasarkan batas sikuen dan reflektor internal. Pada unit Pleistosen–Holosen teridentifikasi tiga tipe fasies seismik yang berkorelasi pada batas

  19. Evaluation on the effectiveness of natural fractures in Changxing Fm reef-flat facies reservoirs, Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyuan Zhao


    Full Text Available Study on the effectiveness of fractures is of great significance for understanding reservoir types and properties, identifying reservoir seepage mechanisms and delineating the reasonable development technologies and policies. In this paper, the Changxing reef-flat facies reservoirs in the Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin, was taken as an example. After the characteristics of natural fractures were evaluated, the effectiveness of different types of fractures was investigated by using core, thin section, imaging logging and production performance data. Then, the main geological factors that influence fracture effectiveness were analyzed, and the development significance of effective fractures was illustrated. The following results are obtained. (1 Structural fractures and diagenetic fractures are mainly developed in Changxing Fm carbonate reservoirs in Yuanba area. Structural fractures include shear fractures and extensional fractures, and diagenetic fractures include dissolution fractures, structural-dissolution fractures and pressure-solution fractures. (2 High-angle structural fractures are the most effective, followed by horizontal fractures and then oblique fractures, and pressure-solution fractures are the least effective. (3 Among structural fractures, those of NW–SE and nearly E–W oriented are more effective than those of the NE–SW oriented. (4 The earlier the fractures are formed, the more likely they are to be filled with calcite or dolomite and become invalid. (5 The fractures which are formed before or during the oil and gas charging tend to be filled with organic matters and become invalid. The late fractures which are formed after oil and gas charging are mostly effective and their contribution to the reservoir is the greatest. (6 The fractures nearly parallel to the maximum principal stress direction of current ground stress present good effectiveness with large opening. It is concluded that the opening and filling features of

  20. Two-point versus multiple-point geostatistics: the ability of geostatistical methods to capture complex geobodies and their facies associations—an application to a channelized carbonate reservoir, southwest Iran (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyyedhossein; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Ataee-pour, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein


    Facies models try to explain facies architectures which have a primary control on the subsurface heterogeneities and the fluid flow characteristics of a given reservoir. In the process of facies modeling, geostatistical methods are implemented to integrate different sources of data into a consistent model. The facies models should describe facies interactions; the shape and geometry of the geobodies as they occur in reality. Two distinct categories of geostatistical techniques are two-point and multiple-point (geo) statistics (MPS). In this study, both of the aforementioned categories were applied to generate facies models. A sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and a truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS) represented two-point geostatistical methods, and a single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) selected as an MPS simulation representative. The dataset from an extremely channelized carbonate reservoir located in southwest Iran was applied to these algorithms to analyze their performance in reproducing complex curvilinear geobodies. The SNESIM algorithm needs consistent training images (TI) in which all possible facies architectures that are present in the area are included. The TI model was founded on the data acquired from modern occurrences. These analogies delivered vital information about the possible channel geometries and facies classes that are typically present in those similar environments. The MPS results were conditioned to both soft and hard data. Soft facies probabilities were acquired from a neural network workflow. In this workflow, seismic-derived attributes were implemented as the input data. Furthermore, MPS realizations were conditioned to hard data to guarantee the exact positioning and continuity of the channel bodies. A geobody extraction workflow was implemented to extract the most certain parts of the channel bodies from the seismic data. These extracted parts of the channel bodies were applied to the simulation workflow as hard data. This

  1. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Koljonen, Paul Aarne; Fang, Christian; Lau, Tak Wing; Leung, Frankie; Cheung, Nigel W K


    To report the outcome after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) through the deltoid-splitting approach for proximal humeral fractures. 10 men and 30 women aged 37 to 88 years underwent MIPO through the deltoid-splitting approach using the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System or the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate for 2-part (n=18), 3-part (n=20), and 4-part (n=2) proximal humeral fractures. The rehabilitation protocol was standardised. All 40 patients were followed up at 3 months, 34 (85%) at 6 months, 30 (75%) at one year, and 13 (33%) at 2 years. Two patients had malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis, infection, nerve palsy, or nonunion. The mean Constant score at one year and 2 years was 75 and 87.5, respectively. The Constant score at 6 months correlated to that at one year (r=0.926, pfracture grade, or hand dominance. MIPO for fixation of proximal humeral fractures using a locking plate is safe and effective in enabling an early return of shoulder function.

  2. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang


    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  3. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye


    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  4. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus. (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Han-Soo


    Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkateswarlu


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  6. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  7. Results of the proximal humerus endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Mikailov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection, compare the functional results with the results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with extensive damage of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin. Material and methods. Between 2001 and 2013 38 proximal humeral reconstructions were performed in our clinic: using monopolar endoprostheses - 26 (68% and modular systems with reversible head -12 (32%. The control group included 46 patients with extensive lesions of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin, operated in our clinic in the period from 2006 to 2012. Term follow-up of patients ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Assessment of functional results was carried out in a period from six months to one year. Results. The seven-year survival according the Kaplan - Meier method for patients with primary malignant tumors of the proximal humerus (25 patients was 77%. In the study group the average value of functional outcome MSTS score was 77.7%. Unipolar prosthesis showed a bad result, both in the control (61,3% MSTS, 60,7 Neer and in the main (67,7% MSTS, 61,1 Neer study groups. Conclusion. Currently the method of choice which doesn’t impair the oncologic component of treatment patients with shoulder neoplastic lesions is its replacement with modular reversible systems in combination with additional soft tissue fixation.

  8. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries. (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H


    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  9. The Middle Jurassic basinal deposits of the Surmeh Formation in the Central Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran: Facies, sequence stratigraphy, and controls (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Jalilian, A.H.


    The lower part of the Lower to Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation consists of a succession of shallow marine carbonates (Toarcian-Aalenian) overlain by a deep marine basinal succession (Aalenian-Bajocian) that grades upward to Middle to Upper Jurassic platform carbonates. The termination of shallow marine carbonate deposition of the lower part of the Surmeh Formation and the establishment of deep marine sedimentation indicate a change in the style of sedimentation in the Neotethys passive margin of southwest Iran during the Middle Jurassic. To evaluate the reasons for this change and to assess the basin configuration during the Middle Jurassic, this study focuses on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the basinal deposits (pelagic and calciturbidite facies) of the Surmeh Formation, referred here as 'lower shaley unit' in the Central Zagros region. The upper Aalenian-Bajocian 'lower shaley unit' overlies, with an abrupt contact, the Toarcian-lower Aalenian platform carbonates. It consists of pelagic (calcareous shale and limestone) and calciturbidite facies grading to upper Bajocian-Bathonian platform carbonates. Calciturbidite deposits in the 'lower shaley unit' consist of various graded grainstone to lime mudstone facies containing mixed deep marine fauna and platform-derived material. These facies include quartz-bearing lithoclast/intraclast grainstone to lime mudstone, bioclast/ooid/peloid intraclast grainstone, ooid grainstone to packstone, and lime wackestone to mudstone. The calciturbidite layers are erosive-based and commonly exhibit graded bedding, incomplete Bouma turbidite sequence, flute casts, and load casts. They consist chiefly of platform-derived materials including ooids, intraclasts/lithoclasts, peloids, echinoderms, brachiopods, bivalves, and open-ocean biota, such as planktonic bivalves, crinoids, coccoliths, foraminifers, and sponge spicules. The 'lower shaley unit' constitutes the late transgressive and the main part of the highstand

  10. Investigating the Evolution of Southern California Salt Marshes: A Facies Model to Understand the Influence of Seismic Events on Environmental Resiliency and Sustainability (United States)

    Aranda, A. N.; Carlin, J. A.; Rhodes, B. P.; Kirby, M.


    Only 10-20% of the US Pacific coast is estimated to be suitable for marsh development. In southern California specifically, marshes are disappearing ecosystems due to high population and urbanization. The future environmental impacts from climate change on these ecosystems are complicated not only by anthropogenic influences, but also by seismic activity in the region. In general, marsh evolution and response to seismic activity has yet to be fully explored in southern California. This study aims to develop a sediment facies model for salt marsh evolution in southern California by utilizing the salt marshes of the Seal Beach Wetlands (SBW). The SBW is an ideal location to develop the facies model because it straddles the active Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone. We collected sediment cores from the SBW that underwent a variety of sedimentological and geochemical analyses including grain size, X-Ray Fluorescence core scanning, magnetic susceptibility, and loss-on-ignition.. The results show a facies model consisting of sequences of marsh accretion punctuated by seismic events. These seismic events caused the marsh to subside, effectively re-setting marsh development from peat generation at a vegetated marsh state, to subtidal to intertidal mud deposition. The model also allowed us to qualify and quantify marsh recovery as inferred from event intensity, where what we perceived as more intense events resulted in more significant ecosystem disturbances and longer recovery times. Understanding this interplay between seismic activity and marsh development highlights the fragile nature of these ecosystems to climate change and sea level rise, as these stresses will only become amplified by seismic events.

  11. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.


    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)

  12. Facies architecture of the fluvial Missão Velha Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil: paleogeographic and tectonic implications (United States)

    Fambrini, Gelson Luís; Neumann, Virgínio Henrique M. L.; Menezes-Filho, José Acioli B.; Da Silva-Filho, Wellington F.; De Oliveira, Édison Vicente


    Sedimentological analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeast Brazil) is the aim of this paper through detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and paleocurrent data. The main facies recognized were: (i) coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstones, locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks and several large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications and predominantly lenticular geometry; (ii) lenticular coarse-to-medium sandstones with some granules, abundant silicified fossil wood, and large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications, cut-and fill features and mud drapes on the foresets of cross-strata, (iii) poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebbles and with horizontal stratification, (iv) fine to very fine silty sandstones, laminated, interlayered with (v) decimetric muddy layers with horizontal lamination and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Nine architectural elements were recognized: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel bars and bed forms, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB (p): sand bedform with planar cross-stratification, OF: Overbank flow, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet, LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. The lithofacies types and facies associations were interpreted as having been generated by alluvial systems characterized by (i) high energy perennial braided river systems and (ii) ephemeral river systems. Aeolian sand dunes and sand sheets generated by the reworking of braided alluvial deposits can also occur. The paleocurrent measurements show a main dispersion pattern to S, SE and SW, and another to NE/E. These features imply a paleodrainage flowing into the basins of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá.

  13. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang


    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  14. The Proximity Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Brown, G; Cragg, D; Crook, M; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlowska, A H; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; ten Kate, H H J; Rochford, J; Sole, D


    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  15. The proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroidal magnets (United States)

    Haug, F.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; ten Kate, H.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, G.; Cragg, D.; Crook, M.; Orlowska, A. H.; Rochford, J.; Sole, D.; Mayri, C.


    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  16. How to improve outcome in surgery for Proximal Hypospadias? (United States)

    Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar


    To evaluate the role of subdartos fascial tissue as watertight layer in improving outcome for 2-stage proximal hypospadias surgery. The experimental study was conducted at the Department of Urology, Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised an audit of patients with proximal hypospadias who underwent surgery from July 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011. The initial two-stage repair of proximal hypospadias led to a high rate of urethrocutanous fistula formation (Group A), and, thus, a modification was introduced and subdartos facial double layer was applied over the urethral suture line (Group B). The results were compared regarding age, type of hypospadias, graft failure and urethrocutanous fistula in these patients. There were 27 patients in Group A and 16(59.3%) of them ended up having urethrocutanous fistula. Group B had 25 patients and only 2(8%) had fistula formation. The application of dartos facial flap waterproofing layer reduced fistula rate.

  17. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona


    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  18. Tafonomía del titanosaurio Aeolosaurus colhuehuapensis, Cretácico Superior, Patagonia central, Argentina: un ejemplo de preservación en facies fluviales de desbordamiento


    Gabriel A Casal; Ibiricu, Lucio Manuel; Allard, Jose Oscar; Martínez, Rubén D.; Luna, Marcelo; Gonzalez Riga, Bernardo Javier


    Aeolosaurus colhuehuapensis es un titanosaurio procedente del lago Colhué Huapi, en el Sur de Chubut, Argentina. Los materiales estudiados incluyen veintiuna vértebras caudales y siete hemapófisis, y se hallaron articulados en facies correspondientes a depósitos de desbordamientos vinculados a sistemas fluviales multicanalizados y de alta sinuosidad presentes en los aquí denominados ?estratos del lago Colhué Huapi? de edad Campaniano-Maastrichtiano. Estos sistemas poseían importantes fluctuac...

  19. The Early Iron Age in the central sector of the Duero river basin: domestic architecture and political power in the Soto Facies (IX-VII centuries BC)


    Miguel Ángel Arnaiz Alonso


    El texto analiza las trasformaciones de la arquitectura doméstica durante el tránsito entre la Fase Inicial y Plena de la Facies Soto, I-Edad del Hierro en el sector central de la cuenca del Duero. Se conectan tales modificaciones con los cambios políticos desarrollados en comunidades autosuficientes estructuradas bajo el Modo de producción doméstico. El nuevo marco político conlleva trastornos en las relaciones de reproducción social basadas en intercambios simétricos, sustituidas por otras ...

  20. Hydroclimatic variability in the Levant during the early last glacial (∼ 117-75 ka) derived from micro-facies analyses of deep Dead Sea sediments (United States)

    Neugebauer, I.; Schwab, M. J.; Waldmann, N. D.; Tjallingii, R.; Frank, U.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Naumann, R.; Taha, N.; Agnon, A.; Enzel, Y.; Brauer, A.


    The new sediment record from the deep Dead Sea basin (ICDP core 5017-1) provides a unique archive for hydroclimatic variability in the Levant. Here, we present high-resolution sediment facies analysis and elemental composition by μXRF scanning of core 5017-1 to trace lake levels and responses of the regional hydroclimatology during the time interval from ca 117-75 ka, i.e. the transition between the last interglacial and the onset of the last glaciation. We distinguished six major micro-facies types and interpreted these and their alterations in the core in terms of relative lake level changes. The two end-member facies for highest and lowest lake levels are (a) up to several meters thick, greenish sediments of alternating aragonite and detrital marl laminae (aad) and (b) thick halite facies, respectively. Intermediate lake levels are characterised by detrital marls with varying amounts of aragonite, gypsum or halite, reflecting lower-amplitude, shorter-term variability. Two intervals of pronounced lake level drops occurred at ∼110-108 ± 5 and ∼93-87 ± 7 ka. They likely coincide with stadial conditions in the central Mediterranean (Melisey I and II pollen zones in Monticchio) and low global sea levels during MIS 5d and 5b. However, our data do not support the current hypothesis of an almost complete desiccation of the Dead Sea during the earlier of these lake level low stands based on a recovered gravel layer. Based on new petrographic analyses, we propose that, although it was a low stand, this well-sorted gravel layer may be a vestige of a thick turbidite that has been washed out during drilling rather than an in-situ beach deposit. Two intervals of higher lake stands at ∼108-93 ± 6 and ∼87-75 ± 7 ka correspond to interstadial conditions in the central Mediterranean, i.e. pollen zones St. Germain I and II in Monticchio, and GI 24 + 23 and 21 in Greenland, as well as to sapropels S4 and S3 in the Mediterranean Sea. These apparent correlations suggest

  1. Hydroclimatic variability in the Levant during the early last glacial (˜ 117-75 ka) derived from micro-facies analyses of deep Dead Sea sediments (United States)

    Neugebauer, I.; Schwab, M. J.; Waldmann, N. D.; Tjallingii, R.; Frank, U.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Naumann, R.; Taha, N.; Agnon, A.; Enzel, Y.; Brauer, A.


    The new sediment record from the deep Dead Sea basin (ICDP core 5017-1) provides a unique archive for hydroclimatic variability in the Levant. Here, we present high-resolution sediment facies analysis and elemental composition by micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) scanning of core 5017-1 to trace lake levels and responses of the regional hydroclimatology during the time interval from ca. 117 to 75 ka, i.e. the transition between the last interglacial and the onset of the last glaciation. We distinguished six major micro-facies types and interpreted these and their alterations in the core in terms of relative lake level changes. The two end-member facies for highest and lowest lake levels are (a) up to several metres thick, greenish sediments of alternating aragonite and detrital marl laminae (aad) and (b) thick halite facies, respectively. Intermediate lake levels are characterised by detrital marls with varying amounts of aragonite, gypsum or halite, reflecting lower-amplitude, shorter-term variability. Two intervals of pronounced lake level drops occurred at ˜ 110-108 ± 5 and ˜ 93-87 ± 7 ka. They likely coincide with stadial conditions in the central Mediterranean (Melisey I and II pollen zones in Monticchio) and low global sea levels during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5d and 5b. However, our data do not support the current hypothesis of an almost complete desiccation of the Dead Sea during the earlier of these lake level low stands based on a recovered gravel layer. Based on new petrographic analyses, we propose that, although it was a low stand, this well-sorted gravel layer may be a vestige of a thick turbidite that has been washed out during drilling rather than an in situ beach deposit. Two intervals of higher lake stands at ˜ 108-93 ± 6 and ˜ 87-75 ± 7 ka correspond to interstadial conditions in the central Mediterranean, i.e. pollen zones St. Germain I and II in Monticchio, and Greenland interstadials (GI) 24+23 and 21 in Greenland, as well as to

  2. Eclogite-, amphibolite- and blueschist-facies rocks from Diego de Almagro Island (Patagonia): Episodic accretion and thermal evolution of the Chilean subduction interface during the Cretaceous (United States)

    Hyppolito, Thais; Angiboust, Samuel; Juliani, Caetano; Glodny, Johannes; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Calderón, Mauricio; Chopin, Christian


    Few localities in the Patagonian Andes expose remnants of the Mesozoic Chilean paleo-accretionary complex. We focus on the Diego de Almagro Island high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) Complex, a pluri-kilometer thick sequence comprising metavolcanic rocks with oceanic affinities and metasedimentary rocks. In this study, the deepest segments of the Chilean subduction interface in Patagonia are characterized for the first time. Despite its apparent homogeneity, the complex is actually composed of two tectonic units with distinct ages of metamorphism and thermal evolution: the garnet amphibolite (GA) and the underlying blueschist (BS) units. The GA unit mafic rocks exhibit epidote, phengite, titanite, rutile, chloritoid and paragonite inclusions in prograde garnet I, diopside + albite intergrows replacing omphacite inclusions in garnet II, and relict omphacite (XJd45) included in edenitic-pargasitic amphiboles. Thermobarometric results show that these rocks were buried along a relatively cold prograde path (c. 11 °C/km) and reached eclogite-facies near peak pressure conditions (c. 550-600 °C, 1.6 GPa). The GA unit underwent a pervasive stage of amphibolitization during decompression at c. 1.3 GPa. Field and petrological observations, together with multi-mineral Rb-Sr dating, indicate that amphibolitization of the GA unit took place along the subduction interface at c. 120 Ma in a slightly warmer subduction regime (c. 13-14 °C/km), in agreeement with the formation of coetanoeus amphibolites at c. 35 km. The underlying BS unit (i) yields four consistent Rb-Sr deformation ages of c. 80 Ma, i.e. 40 Ma younger than the overlying rocks from the GA unit; (ii) exhibits slightly cooler peak metamorphic conditions (c. 520-550 °C, 1.6 GPa) indicating burial along a prograde path of c. 10 °C/km (iii) does not show amphibolite-facies overprint as seen in the GA unit. After a long residence time under amphibolite-facies conditions, the amphibolitized rocks of the GA unit

  3. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage. (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto


    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  4. One-stage surgical correction of proximal hypospadias. (United States)

    Joseph, V T


    Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.

  5. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan


    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  6. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben


    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical...... work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity....

  7. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures. (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal


    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  8. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)


    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  9. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. (United States)

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke


    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events.

  10. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik


    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  11. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter


    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  12. Arthroscopic-assisted removal of proximal tibia locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gille Justus


    Full Text Available Abstract We present a new technique to remove plates from the proximal tibia arthroscopic-assisted with all advantages of the minimally invasive surgery and the possibility to treat concomitant intraarticular pathologies. The initial results (n = 7 are promising with an increase of the Lysholm score in all cases studied [preop. median 78 (range 32–100, postop. median 89 (range 60–100]. In conclusion, arthroscopic-assisted hardware removal at the proximal tibia is feasible and may provide patients with all the benefits of minimal-invasive hardware removal. The described technique can be recommended for all surgeons familiar with arthroscopic surgery.

  13. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect. (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Uchida, K; Shiomi, Y; Qiu, Z; Hou, D; Tian, D; Nakayama, H; Jin, X-F; Saitoh, E


    This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

  14. Proximal focal humeral deficiency in a large breed dog. (United States)

    Kalff, S; Gemmill, T


    A 26-week-old female Boerboel was referred for evaluation of progressive left thoracic limb lameness. Computed tomography and radiographic evaluation revealed radiolucency of the caudal region of the proximal humeral metaphysis, absence of the humeral head, and gross distortion of the glenoid. Given the severe glenohumeral deformation, arthrodesis of the left shoulder was performed using orthogonal locking bone plates, lag screw fixation, and bone grafting. Despite late implant failure, arthrodesis was successful in this case, and satisfactory limb function was restored. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a case of a focal developmental deficiency of the proximal humerus reported in a dog.

  15. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.


    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  16. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier (United States)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo


    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement

  17. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  18. Facies characterization and sequential evolution of an ancient offshore dunefield in a semi-enclosed sea: Neuquén Basin, Argentina (United States)

    Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Schwarz, Ernesto


    This study analyses a 30-m-thick, sand-dominated succession intercalated between offshore mudstones in the Lower Cretaceous record of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina, defining facies associated with unidirectional currents as sand dunes (simple and compound), rippled sand sheets and heterolithic sheets. These facies associations are related to the development of an offshore, forward-accreting dunefield developed as a response to the onset of a tidal-transport system. The reported stratigraphic record results from the combination of the gradual downcurrent decrease of the current speed together with the long-term climbing of the entire system. Maximum amplification of the tidal effect associated with incoming oceanic tides to this epicontinental sea would develop at the time of more efficient connection between the basin and the open ocean. Thus, the onset of the offshore tidal system approximately corresponds to the time of maximum flooding conditions (or immediately after). The short-term evolution of the tidal-transport system is more complex and characterized by the vertical stacking of small-scale cycles defined by the alternation of episodes of construction and destruction of the dunefield. The development of these cycles could be the response to changes in tidal current speed and transport capacity.

  19. Espinas dérmicas del dinosaurio anquilosaurio Polacanthus en las facies Weald de Salas de los Infantes (Burgos, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urién, V.


    Full Text Available Ankylosaurian dermal armour elements from the Fuente Espudia locality, near Salas de los Infantes (Burgos Province, are described. These remains have been recovered from red clays of the Urbion Group, which belong to the Weald facies of the western Cameros Basin, of possible Barremian-Aptian age (Lower Cretaceous. Based on their general form, two caudal spines are here assigned to the nodosaurid Polacanthus. This represents the first mention of this genus in the Iberian Peninsula. Previous finds in the same area could also be assigned to this armoured dinosaur.Se describen elementos dermatoesqueléticos de un anquilosaurio procedentes del yacimiento de Fuente Espudia, cerca de Salas de los Infantes (Burgos. Los restos fósiles se localizan en arcillas rojas del Grupo Urbión, que forman parte de las facies Weald del sector occidental de la Cuenca de Cameros, de posible edad Barremiense-Aptiense (Cretácico inferior. Dos espinas proceden de la región caudal y, por su forma general, se atribuyen al nodosáurido Polacanthus. Se trata de la primera cita de este género en la Península Ibérica. Hallazgos previos en el mismo área pueden también asignarse a este dinosaurio acorazado.

  20. Putative domal microbial structures in fluvial siliciclastic facies of the Mesoproterozoic (1.09 Ga) Copper Harbor Conglomerate, Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. (United States)

    Wilmeth, Dylan T; Dornbos, Stephen Q; Isbell, John L; Czaja, Andrew D


    The Copper Harbor Conglomerate is a Mesoproterozoic (1.09 Ga) freshwater sedimentary sequence that outcrops in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The formation was deposited during infilling of the failed Midcontinent Rift and contains fluvial, lacustrine, and alluvial fan facies. This study describes and analyzes the formation of small domal structures preserved in fluvial sandstone facies within the lower portion of the formation. These domal structures range from millimeters to several centimeters in diameter and height, and are preserved in convex epirelief on fine-grained sandstone beds. The structures have a pustulose texture and a patchy distribution on bedding planes. Slabs containing the structures were collected in the field and analyzed in the laboratory through inspection of cut slabs, petrographic thin sections, X-radiographs, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Results of these analyses reveal that the domal structures often contain weak, wavy horizontal bedding and laminae, and lack any vertical structures. These results support a biogenic origin of the domal structures instead of through abiogenic processes such as loading, sand volcanoes, or adhesion warts. These structures are akin to what were traditionally labeled as 'sand stromatolites', but are now known as 'domal sand structures'. Along with previous descriptions of carbonate stromatolites, organic-rich paleosols, and microbial sand structures, our findings provide further evidence that mat-forming microbial communities thrived in the late Mesoproterozoic freshwater systems of the Midcontinent Rift. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The genus Perissocytheridea Stephenson, 1938 (Crustacea: Ostracoda) and evidence of brackish water facies along the Oligo-Miocene, Pirabas Formation, eastern Amazonia, Brazil (United States)

    Evangelista Nogueira, Anna Andressa; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó


    Perissocytheridea Stephenson is characteristic of brackish water facies. In 57 samples from the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene, from five localities, Pirabas Formation, Pará State, Brazil eleven species have been identified. Among these species, four are new reports: Perissocytheridea punctoreticulata n. sp., Perissocytheridea largulateralis n. sp., Perissocytheridea colini n. sp. and Perissocytheridea pirabensis n. sp.; five species in open nomenclature: Perissocytheridea sp. 1, P. sp. 2, P. sp. 3, P. sp. 4, and P. sp. 5 and two species left in ;aff.; abbreviation: Perissocytheridea aff. Perissocytheridea pumila and Perissocytheridea aff. Perissocytheridea brachyforma subsp. excavata. The distributional pattern of the Perissocytheridea combined with the occurrence of foraminifera Elphidium and Ammonia in the studied sections supports the presence of the brackish water facies to the respective layers. Their quantitative variation through the studied sections indicate more than one phase of salinity reduction (about >5 and <30 ppm) and/or the decrease of the sea level, forming lagoon along the Pirabas Formation. This genus has a wide paleobiogeographical occurrence and stratigraphic distribution ranging from the Cretaceous to Recent, and already been recorded in the northern of South America, especially in the Neogene of Solimões Basin, but this is the first report of a neotropical genus to the Oligo-Miocene deposits of Pirabas Formation, northern Brazilian Coast, Pará State.

  2. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  4. outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through decreased bone mineral density, disruption of bone micro-architecture and reduction in non- collagenous proteins. Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to manage, particularly in the osteoporotic bone, where the fracture is usually .... is followed by pendulum shoulder exercises which gradually graduate to active ...

  5. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  6. Case report of LCP pediatric hip osteosynthesis of a proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report demonstrating the experience of the department of pediatric orthopaedics of the University Orthopedic Hospital at Sofia Medical University in the treatment of an intertrochanteric proximal femoral fracture in a child with osteopetrosis. We performed open fracture reduction with stable 120° LCP ...

  7. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  8. Noncycling mappings and best proximity pair results in Hilbert and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new class of noncyclic mappings, called generalized noncyclic relatively nonexpansive, is introduced and used to study the existence of best proximity pairs in the setting of uniformly convex Banach spaces. We also obtain a weak convergence theorem for noncyclic relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of ...

  9. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It decreases the rate of fistula formation; disruption; stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Index Word: proximal hypospadias, two stages repair. ... Second procedure: a) formation of the neo-urethra, b) skin closure, c) dressing. Complete degloving of the penile shaft was performed till its base. Then artificial ...

  10. Fractures of the proximal humerus in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Raj Joshi, Dr


    Full Text Available Background: In most children proximal humeral fractures are treated non-operatively with generally good results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of closed/open reduction in children with severely displaced proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The charts of 15 patients (8 girls and 7 boys; mean age: 9.4 years with proximal humeral fractures who were managed at our institution were reviewed from October 2011 to December 2013. Results: There were 7 metaphyseal fractures and 8 physeal injuries which were angulated according to Neer-Horowitz score as grade II (n=2, grade III(n=4 and grade IV(n=9. Associated lesions comprised open fracture with head trauma in a 2 year old female child which was operated on primarily and the 14 others by secondary intention. All patients were treated surgically with either closed (n = 5 or open (n=10 reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wire or titanium elastic nails (TENs. They were assessed for clinical and radiological healing at a mean follow up of 1.25 years ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 years. Conclusion: Surgical option is indicated for severely displaced and unstable fractures in older children and adolescents. In addition to the periosteum , long head of the biceps, deltoid muscle, and bone fragments in combination can prevent fracture reduction. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture, Children, Open reduction, Operative.

  11. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  12. Proximate composition of traditional local sorghum beer “dolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dolo is a local beer manufactured from malted sorghum grains. It is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage in Burkina Faso (60% of population). Thirty (30) samples of dolo were collected from local markets in Ouagadougou and analyzed with respect to their proximate compositions and pH values using ...

  13. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect(s) of cooking fresh fish (Lake Malawi tilapia) by boiling, roasting, pan frying and, using a locally made fireless cooker) on its proximate (protein, fat, ash and moisture) and mineral (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus) composition. Highest and lowest values for crude protein were ...

  14. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of five agricultural wastes were determined and latter subjected to low temperature conversion process in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere.These agricultural wastes are Cocos nucifera husk,Theobroma cacao pod, Kola nitida pods and Plantago major peels(ripe and unripe peels). All the ...

  15. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu


    Jun 9, 2011 ... The major problems are limb length inequality and variable inadequacy of the proximal femoral musculature and hip joint. Treatment is indicated and ranges from amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation to limb salvage, lengthening, and hip re- construction. Until the early 1960s, treatment for PFFD at the St.

  16. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker


    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  17. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  18. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas


    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  19. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  20. Oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: a mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P


    This study presents a dynamic continuous time model of the regulation of the renal proximal intratubular pressure in the rat. The model integrates a functional model of the glomerulus, a tubular model, a feedback model, and an afferent arteriolar model. The model has one equilibrium solution for ...