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Sample records for proximal gastric acid

  1. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O.; Bennink, R. J.; de Ruigh, A. A.; Hirsch, D. P.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. Objective To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi)

  2. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  3. DO PROXIMAL AND DISTAL GASTRIC TUMOURS BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Laurence Bedin da; Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the incidence of gastric (adenocarcinoma) cancer has been decreasing over time, it is still one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and proximal tumours tend to have a worse prognosis. To compare surgical outcomes and prognosis between proximal - excluding tumours of the cardia - and distal gastric cancer. Out of 293 cases reviewed - 209 with distal and 69 with proximal gastric cancer - were compared for clinical and pathological features, stage, surgical outcome, mortality and survival. Statistically, there was no significant difference between patients in both groups regarding mortality (p=0.661), adjuvant chemotherapy (p 0.661), and radiation (p=1.000). However, there was significant difference in the degree of lymph node dissection employed (p=0.002) and the number of positive lymph nodes resected (p=0.038) between the two groups. The odds of death at five years for patients who had a D0 dissection was three times greater (odds ratio 2.78; (95%CI 1.33-5.82) than that for patients who had a D2 dissection, while for patients who had a D1 dissection the odds ratio was only 1.41 (95%CI 0.71-2.83) compared to D2-dissected patients. Although no significant differences were found between proximal and distal gastric cancer, the increased risk of death in D0- and D1-dissected patients clearly suggests an important role of radical D2 lymph node dissection in survival. Embora a incidência do câncer gástrico esteja diminuindo nas últimas décadas, ele ainda aparece como uma das neoplasias malignas mais comuns, e tumores proximais tendem a ter pior prognóstico. Comparar os resultados cirúrgicos e o prognóstico entre o câncer gástrico proximal, excluindo os tumores da cárdia e junção esofagogástrica, e o distal. De 293 casos revistos - 209 distais e 69 proximais - foram comparados quanto aos achados clínicos e patológicos, estágio, resultados cirúrgicos, mortalidade e sobrevida. Estatisticamente não houve diferença entre pacientes em ambos

  4. Effects of proximal gastric vagotomy and antrectomy on parietal cell function in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leth, R.; Elander, B.; Fellenius, E.; Olbe, L.; Haglund, U.

    1984-12-01

    Both proximal gastric vagotomy and antrectomy reduce maximal gastric acid secretion in vivo by about 60%. The combination of vagotomy and antrectomy reduces the maximal acid secretion by about 80%. This additive effect indicates that these surgical procedures differ in their mode of action. The function of isolated human oxyntic glands was studied before and after vagotomy and antrectomy, respectively, using radioactively labeled aminopyrine as a marker of parietal cell response. The basal accumulation increased after vagotomy, suggesting a vagally controlled inhibitory component. The carbachol response disappeared and the maximal response induced by histamine or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate was reduced by 60% (p less than 0.01) after vagotomy. This reduction could not be overcome by increasing the dose of dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This indicates an intracellular effect of vagotomy peripheral to dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate point of action. Antrectomy did not induce any statistically significant change at the glandular level, indicating that the reduced gastric acid secretion in vivo may be caused by a reduction in the number of oxyntic glands due to a removal of a trophic effect of antral gastrin.

  5. Failure of proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulcer resistant to cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J H; Knigge, U

    1984-07-14

    45 patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer who did not respond to cimetidine underwent elective proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV). 39 of these, who had received cimetidine for an average of 5.2 months before surgery, were followed up for 20-67 months postoperatively. 18(46%) of them were classified as grade IV (ie, failures) according to a modified Visick scale--17 (44%) had a recurrent peptic ulcer. Augmented histamine tests done in 17 patients showed an expected reduction of peak acid output, so maintenance of stomach acidity was unlikely to be a cause of failure of the operation. The presence of mental and social problems preoperatively was associated with a postoperative Visick grade IV. Despite repeated medical therapy, and reoperation in 6 patients, 10(26%) patients still had severe pain and/or dumping at follow up. Proximal gastric vagotomy cannot be advocated in patients with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer resistant to cimetidine, and an alternative treatment is needed for these patients.

  6. Gastric Stump Cancer: More Than Just Another Proximal Gastric Cancer and Demanding a More Suitable TNM Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa-Pinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Considerable controversy persists about the biological behavior of gastric stump cancer (GSC. The aim of this study is to clarify if this cancer is just another proximal gastric cancer or if it emerges as a distinctive clinicopathologic entity. Methods. This review of a prospectively collected gastric cancer database identified 73 patients with GSC in a single institution between January 1980 and June 2012 and compared them with 328 patients with proximal gastric cancer (PGC and 291 patients with esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC. Results. Patients with GSC were predominantly males. Eighty-three percent of GSC penetrated the subserosal or the serosal layers. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved in GSC patients was significantly lower than in PGC patients or in EGJC patients. Cumulative survival curves were not different between GSC, PGC, or EGJC patients. Unlike that observed in PGC and in EGJC, no significant differences in cumulative survival according to the TNM staging system were observed in GSC cases. Conclusions. The outcome of patients with GSC displayed significant differences when compared to those with other proximal gastric cancers concerning the lack of survival association with the TNM staging system. Therefore a more suitable staging system should be designed for these unique cancers.

  7. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  8. the roles of gastric acid and nitric oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    metavanadate at (0, 50 and 200 ppm) in drinking water for 10weeks after which ulcer was induced using pylorus ... that can reduce or curb the aggressive factors (gastric acid, abnormal .... Table 4 shows the effects of vanadium on gastric.

  9. Efficacy of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading greater curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi

    2017-05-25

    For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.

  10. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction is superior to laparoscopic total gastrectomy for proximal early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Hyun; Lee, Yoontaek; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2017-03-24

    Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) with double tract reconstruction (DTR) is known to reduce reflux symptoms, which is a major concern after proximal gastrectomy. The aim of this study is to compare retrospectively the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing LPG with DTR with those treated by laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). Ninety-two and 156 patients undergoing LPG with DTR and LTG for proximal stage I gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed for short- and long-term clinical outcomes. There were no significant differences in the demographics, T-stage, N-stage, and complications between the groups. The LPG with DTR group had a shorter operative time and lower estimated blood loss than the LTG group (198.3 vs. 225.4 min, p DTR group compared to in the LTG group in the first and second postoperative years (5.03 vs. 9.18% p = 0.004; and 3.45 vs. 8.30%, p = 0.002, respectively), as was the mean amount of vitamin B12 supplements 2 years after operation (0.1 vs. 3.1 mg, p DTR maintained comparable oncological safety and anastomosis-related late complications compared to LTG and is preferred over LTG in terms of preventing postoperative anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency.

  11. Adrenergic influence on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of alpha-, beta- and dopaminergic receptor stimulation and blockade on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs with gastric fistula. Gastric acid secretion was found to be subject to a dose related....... The inhibitory effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion showed the characteristics of competitive type and on bethanechol stimulated acid secretion of non competitive type. An increasing and dose-dependent stimulation of bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine...... 1, 5 and 10 micrograms/kg/min. Dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min.) exerted an inhibitory effect on pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated gastric acid secretion mediated, via the beta 1-receptors. The stimulatory effect of low doses of dopamine during bethanechol stimulation could not be defined...

  12. Proximal gastric motor activity in response to a liquid meal in type I diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Akkermans, L. M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Disordered gastric emptying occurs in 30-50% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Although the rate of gastric emptying is dependent on the integration of motor activity in different regions of the stomach, there is limited information about the function of the proximal stomach in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  14. Preliminary findings on the effect of chloroquine on gastric acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is not certain whether chloroquine-induced pruritus is mainly attributable to the liberation of histamine, a powerful gastric acid secretagogue from mast cells, which may not be beneficial in peptic ulceration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether chloroquine (CQ) can stimulate gastric acid secretion in the ...

  15. THE EFFECT OF ALOE VERA ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe ...

  16. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Penninckx, F; Siegel, J A; Vandenborre, P; Van Cutsem, E; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V; De Roo, M

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  17. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium))

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate Splenectomy in Total Gastrectomy for Proximal Gastric Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Takeshi; Sasako, Mitsuru; Mizusawa, Junki; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Katai, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Nashimoto, Atsushi; Ito, Seiji; Kaji, Masahide; Imamura, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Norimasa; Fujitani, Kazumasa

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the role of splenectomy in total gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer. Splenectomy in total gastrectomy is associated with increased operative morbidity and mortality, but its survival benefit is unclear. Previous randomized controlled trials were underpowered and inconclusive. We conducted a multiinstitutional randomized controlled trial. Proximal gastric adenocarcinoma of T2-4/N0-2/M0 not invading the greater curvature was eligible. During the operation, surgeons confirmed that R0 resection was possible with negative lavage cytology, and patients were randomly assigned to either splenectomy or spleen preservation. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and the secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival, operative morbidity, operation time, and blood loss. The trial was designed to confirm noninferiority of spleen preservation to splenectomy in OS with a noninferiority margin of the hazard ratio as 1.21 and 1-sided alpha of 5%. Between June 2002 and March 2009, 505 patients (254 splenectomy, 251 spleen preservation) were enrolled from 36 institutions. Splenectomy was associated with higher morbidity and larger blood loss, but the operation time was similar. The 5-year survivals were 75.1% and 76.4% in the splenectomy and spleen preservation groups, respectively. The hazard ratio was 0.88 (90.7%, confidence interval 0.67-1.16) (splenectomy should be avoided as it increases operative morbidity without improving survival.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862.1320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...-secreting tumor of the pancreas), and related gastric disorders. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  20. gastric acid secretion, mucus concentration and ulceration following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology

    and in high dose group (P<0.001) respectively when compared with control group. The ulceration in high dose ... Cannabis sativa causes decrease in adherent gastric mucus, increase acid secretion and increase in gastric ulceration in a dose ... important cannabis sativa products in food and drug trade are whole hemp.

  1. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, trace metals and amino acids composition of Celosia argentea were determined. The crude fat, fibre and protein contents were moderate with 1.10, 3.53 and 5.17% respectively while high in the ash content (22.43%). Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-10-18

    Oct 18, 2003 ... Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity in a rural. African population. A M Sammon, M Mguni, L Mapele, K 0 Awotedu, J E Iputo. Setting. The people of Transkei eat a diet high in linoleic acid, the principal fatty acid in maize. The theory has been put forward that a diet high in linoleic acid and low in fat ...

  3. Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssen, Stephan; González-Calero, Gloria; Schimiczek, Michael; Singer, Manfred V

    1999-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunt...

  4. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  5. Comparison of proximate and fatty acid compositions of wild brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fatty acid and proximate composition of two commercially exploited trout species (wild brown trout (WBT) and farmed rainbow trout (FRT)). The mean crude lipid content in FRT (4.3%) was significantly higher than that in WBT (2.7%). Total saturated fatty acid concentration ...

  6. Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity in a rural African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting. The people of Transkei eat a diet high in linoleic acid, the principal fatty acid in maize. The theory has been put forward that a diet high in linoleic acid and low in fat and riboflavin, such as the traditional diet in Transkei, results in overproduction of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric mucosa, and that this overproduction ...

  7. Feasibility and Nutritional Benefits of Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer in the Upper Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has recently been applied for early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper stomach as a minimally invasive and function-preserving surgery. This study aimed to clarify the feasibility and nutritional benefits of LPG over laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). This was a retrospective study of 77 patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer in the upper stomach. Of these patients, 25 underwent LPG, while 52 underwent LTG. Surgical outcomes and postoperative nutritional status such as changes in body weight and blood chemistries were compared between LPG and LTG. Intraoperative blood loss and C-reactive protein levels at 3 and 7 days after surgery were significantly lower in LPG than in LTG (p = 0.018, 0.036, and 0.042, respectively). No significant differences were observed in postoperative early or late complication rates between LPG and LTG. The incidence of Los Angeles Grade B or more severe reflux esophagitis after LPG was 9.1 %, which was similar to that after LTG (9.3 %). Postoperative changes in body weight at 6 months and 1 and 2 years after surgery were consistently less in LPG than in LTG (p = 0.001, 0.022, and 0.001, respectively). Moreover, postoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin and total lymphocyte count were also higher in LPG than in LTG. LPG may be a better choice for EGC in the upper stomach than LTG because it has distinct advantages in terms of surgical invasiveness and postoperative nutritional status.

  8. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose-dependent stimu......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose...... by high dopamine doses could be explained by a beta 1 stimulation. Dopamine (10 micrograms/kg/min) was found to increase the bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow. Phentolamine (alpha blackade) increased this dopamine-elevated blood flow further, with a significant increase in the ratio...... between blood flow and acid secretion, indicating a primary action of the alpha receptors on blood flow. Bethanechol stimulated the gastric acid secretion and blood flow in a parallel manner. It is concluded that alpha-receptor stimulation is the predominant directly acting factor in the regulation...

  9. the roles of gastric acid and nitric oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Fujishita, T., Furutani, K and Okabe, S. (2003):. Pharmacological control of gastric acid secretion for the treatment of acid-related peptic disease: past, present and future. Pharmacol. Ther. 98:109-127. Amure, B.O., and Ginsburg, M. (1964). Inhibitors of histamine catabolism and the action of gastrin in the rat. Br. J. Pharmacol.

  10. Abnormal clearance of exogenous acid and increased acid sensitivity of the proximal duodenum in dyspeptic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Verhagen, M. A.; vanBerge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although acid is likely to play a role in the genesis of symptoms in dyspeptic patients, most studies have failed to show an increase in gastric acid secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate clearance of acid from the duodenum and its relationship with symptoms in

  11. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    livestock nutrition. Keywords: Sesamum indicum; Proximate composition; Amino acid profile; Nutrient value. Correspondence: ubi.benjamin@yahoo.com. Introduction. Sesame ... presence of oxygen in the air to CO2 at a temperature of 600 0C (dry ashing). The % ash content was ..... Effect of Heat Treatment and Defatting.

  12. Effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on healing of chronic gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1988-01-01

    The effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on healing of chronic gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion was investigated in rats. The effect of three doses of omeprazole given orally once daily for 25 days was investigated. In controls median ulcer healing was 19.6% after 25 days. Omeprazole...... increased median ulcer healing from 36% at 145 mumole/kg/day to 80% at 580 mumole/kg/day. Basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid secretion decreased dose-dependently by nearly 90% at a dose of 580 mumole/kg/day 22-24 hr after the last dose of omeprazole. Cimetidine given twice daily, in a dose...... that initially inhibits gastric acid secretion by 95%, reduced acid secretion by only 50% 11 hr after the last dose. Median ulcer healing after treatment with cimetidine for 25 days was 41%. This study demonstrates that omeprazole has a more long-acting inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion compared...

  13. Effect of antrectomy on Capsicum annuum induced gastric acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The induction of gastric acid secretion by Capsicum annuum is attributed to its active principle, capsaicin, whose effect on the parietal cell is indirect. Capsaicin acutely stimulates sensory neurons to liberate acetylcholine which can release histamine from the enterochromaffin like cells. It also releases gastrin ...

  14. Adenosine and its Related Nucleotides may Modulate Gastric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on lumen-perfused rat isolated stomachs showed that adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) inhibited histamine-induced gastric acid secretion. The inhibitions and the calcium levels of the serosal solution exhibited inverse relationship. Adenosine ...

  15. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.

  16. Analysis of Gastric Juice in Acid Peptic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V. Khodke , , ,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease is an imbalance between offensive and defensive gastric factors. A bacterium called Helicobacter pylori has been considered a major causative agent for gastric and duodenal ulcers. This is a major cause of mortality in developing countries. Aims and Objectives:The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters in gastric juice of acid peptic disease patients (Study Group and normal healthy individuals (Control Group in humans. Material and Methods: A total of 70 patients suffering peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori infection and 15 non-infected individuals were chosen as control group. Results: We observed an increased significant level (p<0.05 in pH, b-glucuronidase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD as well as catalase(CAT levels in gastric juice and decrease significant level (p<0.05 in pepsin activity, urea, mucin and nitric oxide level. Conclusion: The present study showed variations in levels of MDA, b-glucuronidase, SOD, CAT activities, pepsin, mucin urea and nitric oxide. Therefore these parameters can be used as additional parameters for diagnosis and prognosis of acid peptic diseases. These can be used by clinicians to adopt treatment strategies in betterment of acid peptic disease patients.

  17. Long-term outcome after proximal gastrectomy with jejunal interposition for gastric cancer compared with total gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Isao; Hato, Shinji; Kobatake, Takaya; Ohta, Koji; Kubo, Yoshirou; Kurita, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Proximal gastrectomy (PG) has been widely accepted as treatment for early gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach. Reconstruction by jejunal interposition has been known to reduce reflux esophagitis for PG patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent PG with jejunal interposition with those treated by total gastrectomy (TG). Data on 102 cases of PG with jejunal interposition and 49 cases of TG with Roux-Y reconstruction for gastric cancer were analyzed retrospectively in terms of overall survival, weight maintenance, anemia and nutritional status, and endoscopic findings. Median follow-up time was 59 months in the both groups. There was no significant difference in the overall 5-year survival rate between the PG group (94%) and the TG group (84%). The PG group showed significantly better body weight maintenance at the first year. The laboratory blood tests showed that the PG group had a significantly better red blood cell count and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at the second and third year. However, postoperative endoscopic surveillance detected reflux esophagitis (3%), peptic ulcer (9%), and metachronous gastric cancer (5%) in the PG group. Proximal gastrectomy maintains comparable oncological radicality to TG and is preferred over TG in terms of preventing postoperative anemia. However, periodic endoscopic follow-up is necessary to monitor the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbatein vitroandin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the C max value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their T max values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  19. High levels of aromatic amino acids in gastric juice during the early stages of gastric cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-stage gastric cancer is mostly asymptomatic and can easily be missed easily by conventional gastroscopy. Currently, there are no useful biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer, and their identification of biomarkers is urgently needed. METHODS: Gastric juice was obtained from 185 subjects that were divided into three groups: non-neoplastic gastric disease (NGD, advanced gastric cancer and early gastric cancer (EGC. The levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The median values (25th to 75th percentile of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were 3.8 (1.7-7.5 µg/ml, 5.3 (2.3-9.9 µg/ml and 1.0 (0.4-2.8 µg/ml in NGD; 19.4 (5.8-72.4 µg/ml, 24.6 (11.5-73.7 µg/ml and 8.3 (2.1-28.0 µg/ml in EGC. Higher levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were observed in individuals of EGC groups compared those of the NGD group (NGD vs. EGC, P<0.0001. For the detection of EGC, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs of each biomarker were as follows: tyrosine, 0.790 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.703-0.877]; phenylalanine, 0.831 (95% CI, 0.750-0.911; and tryptophan, 0.819 (95% CI, 0.739-0.900. The sensitivity and specificity of phenylalanine were 75.5% and 81.4%, respectively, for detection of EGC. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were associated with gastric cancer (adjusted β coefficients ranged from 1.801 to 4.414, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice samples were detected in the early phase of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in gastric juice could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer. A gastric juice analysis is an efficient, economical and convenient method for

  20. Gastric Acid Secretion, Mucus Concentration and Ulceration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of consumption (ingestion) of Cannabis sativa on the gastrointestinal tract using mucus concentration, acid secretion and ulceration in animal (rats) model as indices. Three groups of six (6) rats each were used. The control group were fed on rat chow only while another group ...

  1. [Post-cholecystectomy condition: duodeno-gastric reflux and bile acid concentration in the gastric juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, K A; Kühne, C; Zemlin, C

    1979-07-01

    In cholecystectomized patients highly significantly more frequently a duodenogastric reflux was found than in a group of patients with a healthy abdomen and a group of patients with cholelithiasis. The average concentration of bile acid in the gastric juice was after the removal of the gall-bladder manifoldly higher than in the control groups. The number of patients with concentrated reflux was also highly significantly larger than in patients with cholelithiasis not operated on and in patients with a healthy abdomen. Despite the high reflux rate and the high concentration of the bile acids influencing on the mucous membrane of the stomach the number of patients with ulcera ventriculi was not significantly larger than in a group of not cholecystectomized persons. These observations plead for the fact that the bile acids in the duodenogastric reflux alone are not to be regarded as an ulcerogenic agent, but that perhaps other components of the duodenal juice have to be considered as causes of lesions of the gastric mucous membrane.

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Could Induce Apoptosis and Trigger Gastric Carcinogenesis on Gastric Epithelial Cells by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pathologic duodenogastric reflux can induce or aggravate gastritis because of the presence of bile acids. Bile reflux has been generally considered to be associated with intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of the effects of bile acids on gastric mucosa are still unknown. Methods. To explore the mechanisms by which bile acids induce gastric mucosal lesions, we examined cell apoptosis in the gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 and investigated the changes in protein profiles of GES-1 cells in response to a bile acid deoxycholic acid using a proteomics approach. Changes in the profiles of the differently expressed proteins were analyzed using the DAVID and STRING programs. Results. We found apoptosis was significantly induced in GES-1 cells by deoxycholic acid. Using liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS methods, 134 upregulated proteins and 214 downregulated proteins were identified in the bile acid treated GES-1 cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the interactions and signaling networks of these differentially expressed proteins. Conclusion. These findings may improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of bile acids on gastric mucosa.

  3. Adrenergic receptors and gastric acid secretion in dogs. The influence of beta 2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F; Hovendal, C; Bech, K

    1984-01-01

    The action of adrenergic subtypes of receptors in gastric acid secretion is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of beta 2-adrenoceptors in the regulation of gastric secretion in conscious gastric fistula dogs. A dose-related inhibitory effect of beta 2......-adrenergic stimulation on gastric acid secretion was found. The rank order of this inhibition was: Pentagastrin greater than bethanechol greater than histamine stimulated acid output. The strong beta 2-adrenergic induced inhibition found for pentagastrin and bethanechol stimulated acid output followed...... effect of beta 2-adrenoceptors. It is concluded that beta 2-adrenoceptors inhibit gastric acid secretion through an effect on gastric mucosa. A working hypothesis involving an endogenous inhibitory substance is proposed....

  4. β-Catenin activation in fundic gland polyps, gastric cancer and colonic polyps in families afflicted by 'gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach' (GAPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Lucas A; Sabesan, Arvind; Allgäeuer, Michael; Xin, Liqiang; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo; Davis, Jeremy L; Raffeld, Mark; Miettienen, Markku; Quezado, Martha; Rudloff, Udo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate possible colon involvement in the 'gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach' (GAPPS) gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Prospective clinicopathological evaluation of two GAPPS families and expression of nuclear β-catenin, p53 and Ki67 measured by immunohistochemistry on endoscopic and surgical specimens from patients with GAPPS. Patients with the GAPPS phenotype were more frequently affected by colonic polyps than patients at risk within the same families (pgastric cancers including increased expression of nuclear β-catenin, Ki67 and p53. Both gastric and colonic lesions harboured activating somatic variants of β-catenin signalling. Similarities in expression markers in fundic gland and colonic polyps, together with an enrichment of colonic adenomas in family members affected by GAPPS phenotype compared with family members at risk, support mild colonic involvement of this rare cancer syndrome. Colonoscopic screening might be warranted. #09-C-0079; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

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    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  6. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs. PMID:28115909

  7. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife; Silici, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  8. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  9. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate an...

  10. Adenocarcinoma in the jejunal pouch after proximal gastrectomy for early stage upper gastric cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Takanori; Kanai, Motoshi; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Motohara, Toshiji

    2012-06-01

    An 84-year-old male was admitted to a local clinic suffering from general fatigue with associated anemia, and therefore was referred to our hospital. His medical history included a proximal gastrectomy with the formation of a jejunal pouch as a reconstructive treatment for early upper gastric cancer at 78 years of age (6 years prior). A type 2 tumor located in the jejunal pouch almost completely surrounded by small intestinal mucosa was demonstrated by gastrointestinal endoscopy. The biopsy specimens showed a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed no lymphadenopathy or hepatic metastases. A resection of the residual stomach and jejunal pouch was performed. Based on the histological findings from the resected specimen, the tumor was considered to be primary adenocarcinoma in the jejunal pouch. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has shown no evidence of any recurrence during the 6-year period after the most recent surgery.

  11. induced gastric acid secretion in the common african toad – bufo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    generation modulates the inhibition of interleukin-1-Beta of pentagastrin – stimulated gastric acid secretion in the rat. Gut 34: S11. Bilski, J., Konturek, S. J, Cieszkowski, M.,. Czarnobilski, K.. and Pawlik, W. W.. (1994). Endogenous nitric oxide in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, gastrin release and blood flow. Biomed.

  12. Perfluorodecanoic acid stimulates NLRP3 inflammasome assembly in gastric cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Dong, Tianyi; Fan, Ziyan; Peng, Yanping; Zhou, Rongbin; Wang, Xiaqiong; Song, Ning; Han, Mingyong; Fan, Bingbing; Jia, Jihui; Liu, Shili

    2017-04-01

    Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), a perfluorinated carboxylic acid, presents in the environment and accumulates in human blood and organs, but its association with tumor promotion are not clear. Given that inflammation plays a significant role in the development of gastric malignancies, we evaluated the effects of PFDA on activation of the inflammasome and inflammation regulation in the gastric cell line AGS. When added to cell cultures, PFDA significantly stimulated IL-1β and IL18 secretion and their mRNA levels compared with control cells. By RT-PCR and western-blot we found that up-regulation of NLRP3 were associated with promotion of IL-1β and IL-18 production. Then expression variation of cIAP1/2, c-Rel and p52 were analyzed, the results demonstrated raised mRNA expression in all the tested genes concomitant with enhanced inflammasome activity after exposure to PFDA. Assays with cIAP2 siRNA and NFκB reporter provided additional evidence that these genes were involved in PFDA-induced inflammasome assembly. Furthermore, increased secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 were detected in stomach of PFDA-treated mice, disorganized alignment of epithelial cells and inflammatory cell infiltration were also observed in the stomach tissues upon PFDA treatment. This study reports for the first time that PFDA regulates inflammasome assembly in human cells and mice tissues.

  13. Stimulation of acid formation in permeable gastric glands by valinomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersey, S.J.; Steiner, L. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Isolated gastric glands made permeable with digitonin treatment were employed to study the ionic requirements of acid formation. Acid formation was monitored by the accumulation of a novel weak base probe, ({sup 14}C)benzylamine. ATP-dependent acid formation was found to require K{sup +} in a concentration-dependent manner, with an apparent K{sub 0.5} = 7 mM. The anion dependence of acid formation gave a selectivity sequence of Cl = I > Br < NO{sub 3} > SO{sub 4} = isethionate, with isethionate being {approximately}50% as effective as Cl. The dependence of acid formation on (Cl) gave an apparent K{sub 0.5} = 6 mM. Addition of the K{sup +} ionophore, valinomycin, to resting glands (cimetidine pretreatment) resulted in a two- to threefold increase in ATP-dependent acid formation. In contrast, stimulated (forskolin pretreated) glands showed a greater accumulation of benzylamine with ATP but significantly less valinomycin stimulation. The valinomycin stimulation required both K{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} and was inhibited by omeprazole and Sch 28080. The results and interpreted to indicate that major events in the transition from a resting to a stimulated state include changes in both K{sup +} and anion permeability of the secretory membrane of parietal cells.

  14. Anti-Gastric Ulcer Effect of Betulinic Acid in Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuchekwa, C; Oluwole, F S

    2015-12-20

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a lupane-type triterpene that has been identified and isolated from various plant species used in ethnomedicine in various cultures across the world. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-ulcer effect of Betulinic acid. The effect of BA on indomethacin-induced ulcer, gastric mucus secretion, gastric mucus cells count, basal and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion and levels of malondialdehyde formation were studied using dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg. The results showed that BA reduced indomethacin-induced ulceration significantly and significantly increased  gastric mucus secretion in the 1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg BA treated rats compared to the control rats. There was a significant increase  in the mucus cells count in all the treated groups which is in a dose- dependent manner compared to the control group. There was significant decrease  in gastric acid secretion in each of the BA treated groups compared to the control. Malondialdehyde concentration significantly decrease in all the treated groups compared to the control. The anti-gastric ulcer effect of BA may be mediated via decreasing gastric acid secretion, increasing gastric mucus secretions, increasing the number of gastric mucus cells and also by reducing the level of MDA concentration.

  15. Esophagojejunostomy Using the Purse-String Suturing Device After Laparoscopic Total or Proximal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Keisuke; Gokita, Kentaro; Tanioka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Norihito; Otsuki, Sho; Inokuchi, Mikito; Takayama, Toshio; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2017-04-26

    Performing a safe esophagojejunostomy is important for the standardization of laparoscopic total gastrectomy. We have performed intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy by a circular stapler using the purse-string suturing device that we co-developed. The advantage of this device is that it makes use of the same surgical procedure as open surgery, but it does not depend on the surgeon's technical skills since this device does not require the laparoscopic hand-sewn technique. Furthermore, we have also adapted this device for double-tract reconstruction after laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy. In this study, we present the surgical procedures and postoperative short-term outcomes that were obtained using this novel technique. We enrolled 94 patients that underwent intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy by circular stapler using our device after laparoscopic total or proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer between November 2009 and October 2016. Postoperative complications related to esophagojejunostomy were due to anastomotic stenosis in two cases (2.1%) and leakage of the jejunum stump in one case (1.1%). Intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy by circular stapler using the purse-string suturing device is safe and feasible. This method can be one of the standard procedures for performing intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy.

  16. Mucosal integrity and sensitivity to acid in the proximal esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, Froukje B; Weijenborg, Pim W; van den Bergh Weerman, Marius A; van den Wijngaard, René M J G J; Verheij, J; Smout, André J P M; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Acid reflux episodes that extend to the proximal esophagus are more likely to be perceived. This suggests that the proximal esophagus is more sensitive to acid than the distal esophagus, which could be caused by impaired mucosal integrity in the proximal esophagus. Our aim was to explore sensitivity to acid and mucosal integrity in different segments of the esophagus. We used a prospective observational study, including 12 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). After stopping acid secretion-inhibiting medication, two procedures were performed: an acid perfusion test and an upper endoscopy with electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and esophageal biopsies. Proximal and distal sensitivity to acid and tissue impedance were measured in vivo, and mucosal permeability and epithelial intercellular spaces at different esophageal levels were measured in vitro. Mean lag time to heartburn perception was much shorter after proximal acid perfusion (0.8 min) than after distal acid perfusion (3.9 min) (P = 0.02). Median in vivo tissue impedance was significantly lower in the distal esophagus (4,563 Ω·m) compared with the proximal esophagus (8,170 Ω·m) (P = 0.002). Transepithelial permeability, as measured by the median fluorescein flux was significantly higher in the distal (2,051 nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)) than in the proximal segment (368 nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)) (P = 0.033). Intercellular space ratio and maximum heartburn intensity were not significantly different between the proximal and distal esophagus. In GERD patients off acid secretion-inhibiting medication, acid exposure in the proximal segment of the esophagus provokes symptoms earlier than acid exposure in the distal esophagus, whereas mucosal integrity is impaired more in the distal esophagus. These findings indicate that the enhanced sensitivity to proximal reflux episodes is not explained by increased mucosal permeability. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. How Helicobacter pylori infection controls gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Adam J; Backert, Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Infection of the human stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori induces strong inflammatory responses and a transitory hypochlorhydria which can progress in ~2 % of patients to atrophic gastritis, dysplasia, or gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection of gastric biopsies or cultured gastric epithelial cells in vitro represses the activity of endogenous or transfected promoter of the alpha-subunit (HKα) of gastric H,K-adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), the parietal cell enzyme mediating acid secretion. Some mechanistic details of H. pylori-mediated repression of HKα and ensuing hypochlorhydria have been recently elucidated. H. pylori strains expressing a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island are known to upregulate the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The NF-κB-binding regions in the HKα promoter were identified and shown to repress its transcriptional activity. Interaction studies have indicated that although active phosphorylated NF-κB p65 is present in infected cells, an NF-κB p50/p65 heterodimeric complex fails to bind to the HKα promoter. Point mutations at -159 and -161 bp in the HKα promoter NF-κB binding sequence prevent the binding of NF-κB p50 and prevent H. pylori repression of point-mutated HKα promoter activity. The T4SS factors CagL, CagE, CagM, and possibly CagA and the lytic transglycosylase Slt, are mechanistically involved in NF-κB activation and repression of HKα transcription. CagL, a T4SS pilus component, binds to the integrin α(5)β(1) to mediate translocation of virulence factors into the host cell and initiate signaling. During acute H. pylori infection, CagL dissociates ADAM 17 (a disintegrin and a metalloprotease 17) from the integrin α(5)β(1) complex and stimulates ADAM17-dependent release of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulation, ERK1/2 kinase activation, and NF-κB-mediated repression of HKα. These studies suggest that H

  18. Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Amino acid metabolism in cancer patients differs from that in healthy people. In the study, we performed urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer at different stages and health subjects to explore potential biomarkers for diagnosing or screening gastric cancer. Methods. Forty three urine samples were collected from inpatients and healthy adults who were divided into 4 groups. Healthy adults were in group A (n=15, early gastric cancer inpatients in group B (n=7, and advanced gastric cancer inpatients in group C (n=16; in addition, two healthy adults and three advanced gastric cancer inpatients were in group D (n=5 to test models. We performed urine amino acids profile of each group by applying ion chromatography (IC technique and analyzed urine amino acids according to chromatogram of amino acids standard solution. The data we obtained were processed with statistical analysis. A diagnostic model was constructed to discriminate gastric cancer from healthy individuals and another diagnostic model for clinical staging by principal component analysis. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer patients changed to a certain degree compared with that of healthy adults. Compared with healthy adult group, the levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine increased (P<0.05, but the levels of histidine and methionine decreased (P<0.05, and aspartate decreased significantly (P<0.01. The urine amino acid profile was also different between early and advanced gastric cancer groups. Compared with early gastric cancer, the levels of isoleucine and valine decreased in advanced gastric cancer (P<0.05. A diagnosis model constructed for gastric cancer with AUC value of 0.936 tested by group D showed that 4 samples could coincide with it. Another diagnosis model for clinical staging with an AUC value of 0.902 tested by

  19. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Keshavarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction. The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p

  20. Two distinct etiologies of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: interactions among pH, Helicobacter pylori, and bile acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi eMukaisho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer can be classified as cardia and noncardia subtypes according to the anatomic site. Although the gastric cancer incidence has decreased steadily in several countries over the past 50 years, the incidence of cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC continue to increase. The etiological factors involved in the development of both cardia cancers and EACs are associated with high animal fat intake, which causes severe obesity. Central obesity plays roles in cardiac-type mucosa lengthening and partial hiatus hernia development. There are two distinct etiologies of cardia cancer subtypes: one associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER, which predominantly occurs in patients without Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and resembles EAC, and the other associated with H. pylori atrophic gastritis, which resembles noncardia cancer. The former can be developed in the environment of high volume duodenal content reflux, including bile acids and a higher acid production in H. pylori–negative patients. N-nitroso compounds, which are generated from the refluxate that includes a large volume of bile acids and are stabilized in the stomach (which has high levels of gastric acid, play a pivotal role in this carcinogenesis. The latter can be associated with the changing colonization of H. pylori from the distal to the proximal stomach with atrophic gastritis because a high concentration of soluble bile acids in an environment of low acid production is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori in the distal stomach with H. pylori infection. The manuscript introduces new insights in causative factors of adenocarcinoma of the cardia about the role of bile acids in gastro-esophageal refluxate based upon robust evidences supporting interactions among pH, H. pylori, and bile acids.

  1. Hunger and microbiology: is a low gastric acid-induced bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine a contributor to malnutrition in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Shafiqul A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Brüssow, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Underproduction of hydrochloric acid into the stomach is frequently encountered in subjects from developing countries. We explore the hypothesis that hypochlorhydria compromises the gastric barrier and favours bacterial overgrowth in the proximal parts of the small intestine where nutrient absorption takes place. Food calories are thus deviated into bacterial metabolism. In addition to an adequate caloric supply, correcting hypochlorhydria might be needed to decrease childhood malnutrition. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effect of isoprenaline on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secrtion and mucosal blood flow in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    blocker. The dose-response curve with five doses of bethanechol with and without isoprenaline was in accordance with a non-competitive inhibition. There was no significant effect on gastric mucosal blood flow, indicating that the acid inhibition was not secondary to changes in blood flow. The inhibitory...

  3. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  4. Esomeprazole inhibits the pentagastrin-stimulated secretion of gastric acid in healthy Japanese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease, in which the reflux of gastric acid causes mucosal damage of the esophagus and/or troublesome symptoms. Esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, has been used for treatment of GERD in Japan since 2011; namely, only little is known about its effect on gastric acid secretion in Japanese. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between dose and timing of esomeprazole administration and gastric acid inhibition in 11 healthy male Japanese volunteers by directly examining gastric acid secretion capacity. In this randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study, the subjects were dosed with esomeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg once a day (q.d.), or 20 mg twice a day (b.i.d.) for 14 days, and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured by endoscopic gastrin test. At steady states, gastric acid inhibition rates were significantly higher in esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (median 100.0%, interquartile range [IQR] 99.4-100%, P = 0.027) or 20 mg q.d. (100.0%, IQR 99.7-100%, P = 0.016), compared with 10 mg q.d. (98.4%, IQR 84.4-100%). At trough states, esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. showed significantly higher gastric acid inhibition (99.6%, IQR 99.0-100%) than did 20 mg q.d. (84.2%, IQR 76.4-88.8%, P = 0.002) or 10 mg q.d. (64.9%, IQR 59.1-76.7%, P = 0.001). Thus, esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. was sufficient to inhibit > 99% gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects. We propose that esomeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. is effective for treating Japanese patients with refractory GERD who require long-lasting gastric acid inhibition.

  5. A Study on the Gastrointestinal Hormones and the Gastric Acid Secretion during Physical Stress in Man,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-15

    not caused by the gastrin hormone , but the hypersecretion of gastric acid could account for approximately fifty per cent of the hypersecretinemia found...The hyperchlorhydria was not caused by the gastrin hormone , but the hyper- secretion of gastric acid could account for approximately fifty per cent...34 ( gastrin -17) (41). Most data reveals that this hormone , especially the gastrin -17 component, is involved in the regulation of the gastri acid secretion (42

  6. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  7. Effect of esophageal distention on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Gharib Nasery

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well established that the esophageal distention leads to gastric relaxation, partly by vago-vagal reflex but till now, the effect of esophageal distention on gastric acid secretion has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of esophageal distention (ED on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (200-240g were deprived of food but not water for 24 hrs before the experiments. Under urethane anesthesia (1.2 g/kg, i.p., animals underwent tracheostomy and laparotomy. A catheter was inserted in the stomach through duodenum for gastric distention and gastric washout and the esophagus was cannulated with a distensible balloon orally to distend esophagus (0.3 ml, 10 min. Gastric acid secretion was stimulated by gastric distention, carbachol (4 µg/kg, i.p. or histamine (5 mg/kg, s.c.. Effects of vagotomy, L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.v., L-arginine (500 mg/kg, i.p. and hexamethonium were also investigated. Results: Esophageal distention reduces basal and gastric distention, carbachol and histamine stimulated acid secretion (P<0.05, P<0.0001, P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively. Vagotomy reduced the inhibitory effect of the esophagus distention on gastric distention-induced acid secretion (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that vagus nerve involves in the inhibitory effect of the esophageal distention on the basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Nitric oxide (NO may also be involved.

  8. Antisecretory Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Gastric Acid Secretion and the Involvement of Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of H2S on distention-induced gastric acid secretion. Fifty-two rats were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups. The gastric acid secretion was stimulated by gastric distention. Two groups of rats received L-cysteine or saline for 5 days before stimulation of the gastric acid secretion. Two groups of animals also received NaHS or saline just prior to stimulation of the gastric acid secretion. The effect of L-NAME and propargylglycine was also investigated. The mucosal levels of the gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, and H+/K+-ATPase α-subunit were quantified by qPCR and luminal concentrations of NO were determined. NaHS and L-cysteine decreased the gastric acid output in response to distention. The mRNA expression of H+/K+-ATPase α-subunit decreased by NaHS and L-cysteine as compared with the control group while gene expression of eNOS and COX-2 was upregulated. The inhibitory effect of NaHS on distention-induced gastric acid secretion was mitigated by pretreatment of L-NAME. These findings suggest the involvement of NO in mediating the antisecretory effect of H2S.

  9. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of intravenously administered dopamine on dopamine receptors and adrenergic receptors in terms of its effect on gastric acid secretion, the kinetic mechanism, blood flow, and antral motility. Dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with sel......The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of intravenously administered dopamine on dopamine receptors and adrenergic receptors in terms of its effect on gastric acid secretion, the kinetic mechanism, blood flow, and antral motility. Dopamine was used alone and in conjunction...... with selective blockade of alpha-, beta-, and dopaminergic receptors. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine used (40 micrograms/kg/min). The kinetic study showed characteristics of a non-competitive type. The anti-secretory effect dopamine......, but the ratio between blood flow and acid secretion was significantly elevated during dopamine infusion, indicating that the acid inhibition was not secondary to changes in blood flow. It is concluded that the dopamine inhibition of acid secretion is mediated by beta 1-receptors, unlike the effect on antral...

  10. Association between Increased Gastric Juice Acidity and Sliding Hiatal Hernia Development in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    Full Text Available Several clinical factors; overweight, male gender and increasing age, have been implicated as the etiology of hiatal hernia. Esophageal shortening due to acid perfusion in the lower esophagus has been suggested as the etiological mechanism. However, little is known about the correlation between gastric acidity and sliding hiatus hernia formation. This study examined whether increased gastric acid secretion is associated with an endoscopic diagnosis of hiatal hernia.A total of 286 consecutive asymptomatic patients (64 were diagnosed as having a hiatal hernia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were studied. Clinical findings including fasting gastric juice pH as an indicator of acid secretion, age, sex, body mass index, and Helicobacter pylori infection status determined by both Helicobacter pylori serology and pepsinogen status, were evaluated to identify predictors in subjects with hiatal hernia.Male gender, obesity with a body mass index >25, and fasting gastric juice pH were significantly different between subjects with and without hiatal hernia. The cut-off point of fasting gastric juice pH determined by receiver operating curve analysis was 2.1. Multivariate regression analyses using these variables, and age, which is known to be associated with hiatal hernia, revealed that increased gastric acid secretion with fasting gastric juice pH 25 (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.77-6.91 and age >65 years (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.00-3.45, were also significantly associated with hiatal hernia.This study suggests that increased gastric acid secretion independently induces the development of hiatal hernia in humans. These results are in accordance with the previously reported hypothesis that high gastric acid itself induces hiatal hernia development.

  11. Association between Increased Gastric Juice Acidity and Sliding Hiatal Hernia Development in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kayoko; Ito, Asako; Arahata, Kyoko; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kaida, Shogo; Kanai, Takanori; Miura, Soichiro; Nishida, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Several clinical factors; overweight, male gender and increasing age, have been implicated as the etiology of hiatal hernia. Esophageal shortening due to acid perfusion in the lower esophagus has been suggested as the etiological mechanism. However, little is known about the correlation between gastric acidity and sliding hiatus hernia formation. This study examined whether increased gastric acid secretion is associated with an endoscopic diagnosis of hiatal hernia. A total of 286 consecutive asymptomatic patients (64 were diagnosed as having a hiatal hernia) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were studied. Clinical findings including fasting gastric juice pH as an indicator of acid secretion, age, sex, body mass index, and Helicobacter pylori infection status determined by both Helicobacter pylori serology and pepsinogen status, were evaluated to identify predictors in subjects with hiatal hernia. Male gender, obesity with a body mass index >25, and fasting gastric juice pH were significantly different between subjects with and without hiatal hernia. The cut-off point of fasting gastric juice pH determined by receiver operating curve analysis was 2.1. Multivariate regression analyses using these variables, and age, which is known to be associated with hiatal hernia, revealed that increased gastric acid secretion with fasting gastric juice pH hiatal hernia. Moreover, previously reported risk factors including male gender (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23-4.35), body mass index >25 (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.77-6.91) and age >65 years (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.00-3.45), were also significantly associated with hiatal hernia. This study suggests that increased gastric acid secretion independently induces the development of hiatal hernia in humans. These results are in accordance with the previously reported hypothesis that high gastric acid itself induces hiatal hernia development.

  12. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Dongjun; Ni, Qing; Ji, Anlai; Gu, Wen; Wu, Junhua; Jiang, Chunping

    2016-01-01

      Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin's main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA). We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death...

  13. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  14. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy combined with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Kocar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The addition of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, infusional 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid before and after chemoradiotherapy was found to be safe and effective in patients with operated gastric cancer.

  15. Gastric exocrine and endocrine cell morphology under prolonged acid inhibition therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocca, R; Mastracci, L; Attwood, S E

    2012-01-01

    Sustained acid inhibition with PPI stimulates gastrin secretion, exerting a proliferative drive on enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) of the oxyntic mucosa. It may also accelerate development of gastric gland atrophy in Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals.......Sustained acid inhibition with PPI stimulates gastrin secretion, exerting a proliferative drive on enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL cells) of the oxyntic mucosa. It may also accelerate development of gastric gland atrophy in Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals....

  16. Dietary proteins extend the survival of salmonella dublin in a gastric Acid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Kristensen, Kim; Harboe, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which we...... mimicked the dynamic pH changes in the human stomach. In the present study, model gastric fluid was set up to imitate pH dynamics in the stomachs of young and elderly people after ingestion of a standard meal. To model a serious foodborne pathogen, we followed the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype...... Dublin, and found that the addition of proteins such as pepsin, ovalbumin, and blended turkey meat to the simple gastric acid model significantly delayed pathogen inactivation compared with the control, for which no proteins were added. In contrast, no delay in inactivation was observed in the presence...

  17. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  18. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amino acids with the WHO recommended values, the vegetable is adequate in these acids. ... Vegetables are sources of vitamins, ascorbic acid, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine and minerals, calcium and iron, as well as supplementary protein and calories. (FAO, 1988). ... pupa and cultivars with deep green narrow leaves.

  19. Calcium carbonate breath test for non-invasive estimation of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Hirohiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Maejima, Ryuhei; Endo, Hiroyuki; Ara, Nobuyuki; Asano, Naoki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-04-01

    Gastric acid measurement is useful in assessing the effectiveness of antisecretory drugs, however, the conventional tests involve invasive nasogastric intubation. Orally administered ¹³C-labeled calcium carbonate (Ca¹³CO₃) reacts with gastric acid to produce ¹³C-labeled carbon dioxide (¹³CO₂), which is then excreted in the breath. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Ca¹³CO3 breath test for estimating gastric acid secretion in human noninvasively. First, the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test and the measurement of pooled gastric acid under a fasting condition were performed in 6 healthy volunteers to evaluate the correlation between the two parameters. Next, endoscopic gastric acid collection and the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test were performed on different days after pentagastrin injection in 20 subjects to evaluate the correlation between the tests and the reproducibility. Finally, the same studies were repeated in 4 subjects before and after 1-week rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, administration. The maximum CO₂ concentration (Cmax) correlated very well with the amount of pooled gastric acid (r = 0.95), suggesting that Ca¹³CO₃ breath test values well reflected the fasting intragastric acidity. The ¹³CO₂ concentration after pentagastrin injection correlated well with pentagastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (r = 0.79 at 20 min). The reproducibility of the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test under pentagastrin-stimulation was good (coefficient of variation = 0.11). Rabeprazole administration markedly reduced the values of the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test, suggesting that it can sensitively assess the efficacy of rabeprazole. The Ca¹³CO₃ breath test can potentially be a useful method for non-invasive estimation for gastric acid secretion in human.

  20. Alleviation of ascorbic acid-induced gastric high acidity by calcium ascorbate in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Kyung; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Han, Joo-Hui; Jo, Eunji; Park, Hyun-Soo; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Deasun

    2018-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the most well-known nutritional supplement and antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Calcium ascorbate has been developed to mitigate the gastric irritation caused by the acidity of ascorbic acid. The aim of this study was to compare calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid, focusing on their antioxidant activity and effects on gastric juice pH, total acid output, and pepsin secretion in an in vivo rat model, as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid had similar antioxidant activity. However, the gastric fluid pH was increased by calcium ascorbate, whereas total acid output was increased by ascorbic acid. In the rat pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, calcium ascorbate increased the gastric fluid pH without changing the total acid output. Administration of calcium ascorbate to rats given a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg as ascorbic acid resulted in higher plasma concentrations than that from ascorbic acid alone. The area under the curve (AUC) values of calcium ascorbate were 1.5-fold higher than those of ascorbic acid, and the Cmax value of calcium ascorbate (91.0 ng/ml) was higher than that of ascorbic acid (74.8 ng/ml). However, their Tmax values were similar. Thus, although calcium ascorbate showed equivalent antioxidant activity to ascorbic acid, it could attenuate the gastric high acidity caused by ascorbic acid, making it suitable for consideration of use to improve the side effects of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, calcium ascorbate could be an appropriate antioxidant substrate, with increased oral bioavailability, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:29302210

  1. Acute effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hansen, Carsten P; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    of progastrin fragment 1-35 were infused intravenously during constant gastric acid stimulation by gastrin-17. In addition, the effects of progastrin fragment 1-35, fragment 6-35, and fragment 1-19 on gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion were tested. The gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion decreased 30% after...... administration of a high dose of progastrin fragment 1-35 (P gastrin-17 alone did not reveal fading of gastric acid output during the time...... course of the experiments. The results show that N-terminal fragments of progastrin may acutely affect gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in vivo. Structure-function analysis suggests that the N-terminal pentapeptide of progastrin is required for the effect....

  2. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A.; Riepl, R. L.; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined ...

  3. Short-term outcomes and nutritional status after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy with a very small remnant stomach for cStage I proximal gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Haruna; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-08-20

    Total or proximal gastrectomy is usually performed for early proximal gastric carcinoma, but the optimal type of gastrectomy is still unknown. We evaluated short-term outcomes and nutritional status after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LsTG) in comparison with laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) and laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). We analyzed 113 patients who underwent LsTG (n = 38), LTG (n = 48), or LPG (n = 27) for cStage I gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach. Postoperative morbidities, nutritional status including body weight, serum albumin, hemoglobin, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and endoscopic findings at 1 year after surgery were compared between LsTG and both LTG and LPG. Operation time and intraoperative blood loss were similar among the three groups. The incidence of postoperative morbidities was lower in LsTG than in LTG. The degree of body weight loss was significantly smaller in LsTG than in LTG at 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, LsTG resulted in better serum albumin and PNI than LPG, and better hemoglobin than LTG. Endoscopic examination demonstrated that one LsTG patient and two LPG patients had reflux esophagitis. Remnant gastritis was observed more frequently in LPG than in LsTG. No LsTG patient had bile reflux, although it was observed in four LPG patients. LsTG with a very small remnant stomach had favorable short-term outcomes and nutritional status compared with LTG and LPG, so it may be a better treatment option for cStage I proximal gastric carcinoma.

  4. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-03-01

    Gut-brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (pAloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (pAloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (pAloe vera group. The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output.

  5. The role of bile acids in morphological changes оf gastric mucosa in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Rudenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 60 white male laboratory rats in order to investigate the role of bile acids in morphofunctional changes of gastric mucosa in rats with due regard to exposure of bile and its concentration. It was found that in the early stages of duodenogastric reflux in experiment bile in low concentrations carries protective adaptive-trophic function and promotes cell renewal of the surface epithelium. At the same time long-term exposure to the bile acids regardless of its concentration can lead to the significant dystrophic changes in gastric mucosa, pilorization and atrophy of the gastric glands. In the case of the oral administration of bile followed by «immobilization and cold stress» for one hour (I group experiment’s results can confirm that the combined effects of several aggressive factors lead to the more severe pathological changes in the gastric mucosa: first erosive and later ulcerative lesions.

  6. Functional Advantages of Proximal Gastrectomy with Jejunal Interposition Over Total Gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y Esophagojejunostomy for Early Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Masaki; Morita, Shinji; Fukagawa, Takeo; Oda, Ichiro; Kushima, Ryoji; Katai, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The postoperative functional advantages of a proximal gastrectomy over a total gastrectomy remain debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of a proximal gastrectomy with jejunal interposition (PG-JI), compared with those for a total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (TG-RY), in patients with early gastric cancer. Between 2007 and 2012, 65 patients underwent PG-JI and 117 underwent TG-RY for cT1 gastric cancer. Various parameters, including body weight, serum hemoglobin level, and interview-based symptoms, were prospectively evaluated in these patients. In patients who underwent PG-JI, the postoperative endoscopic findings were also assessed. All the surgeries were performed via a laparotomy alone. During a median postoperative follow-up of 42 months (range, 12-78 months), PG-JI offered significant reductions in body weight loss (12.5 ± 5.8 vs. 17.4 ± 6.4 %, P advantages over TG-RY, although it requires active surveillance for remnant gastric cancer.

  7. Reconstruction after proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach: a review of the literature published from 2000 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2016-05-01

    Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is occasionally performed to preserve the physiological function of the remnant stomach with the aim of maintaining a gastric reservoir for patients with early gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach. Many reconstructive procedures after PG have been reported, including esophagogastrostomy (EG), jejunal interposition, jejunal pouch interposition, and double tract. However, no general agreement exists regarding the optimal reconstructive procedure. This article reviews the current reconstructive procedures available for PG. We examined the surgical outcomes, postoperative complications, endoscopic findings, and quality of life (QOL) according to the reconstructive procedures. We found no significant difference in anastomotic leakage and anastomotic stricture among the procedures. The frequency of reflux esophagitis was higher with simple EG compared with the other reconstructive procedures. Some additional procedures, such as fundoplication, the use of a narrow gastric conduit, and placement of a gastric tube in the lower mediastinum on EG, could decrease the frequency of reflux esophagitis and reflux symptoms. These additional procedures may improve the QOL; however, the previous studies were small and could not adequately compare the reconstructive procedures. Prospective randomized controlled trials that involve a longer trial period and more institutions are needed to clarify the optimal reconstructive procedures after PG.

  8. Effects of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids in horses with induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martínez A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the influence of corn oil on the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentrations in the gastric juice in horses with phenylbutazone (PBZ induced gastric ulcers and Correlate the gastroscopic findings with the VFA concentrations. Materials and methods. 15 horses were allotted in 3 groups. Group I (control received placebo during first 6 days (induction period and was treated with sucralfate for 2 weeks (treatment period. Groups II and III received PBZ during the induction phase. After 6 days, horses from group II received 70 mL of corn oil /100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks and horses from group III received 90 mL of corn oil/100 kg of body weight/ po, twice a day, for 2 weeks. All horses were examined by gastroscopy at days 0, 7 and 21. The lesions were recorded and classified according to the number and severity. Samples from gastric fluid were taken to measure the concentrations of the acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids. Results. Both PBZ protocols produced lesions in the both non-glandular and glandular areas of the stomach. All the treatments produced healing of the injured mucosa glandular. Neither of the two corn oil treatments affected healing of the gastric ulcers located in the non-glandular area. Conclusions. The concentrations of acetic and butyric acids were highest in the gastric juice. The corn oil and sucralfate did not lead to differences in the concentration of acetic acid and butyric acid.

  9. Anti-Gastric Ulcer Effect of Betulinic Acid in Male Albino Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Effect of Betulinic acid on Gastric Mucus Secretion. Each glandular portion of the stomach in sacrificed rats was opened along the lesser curvature, everted and soaked for two hours in 0.1% Alcian blue dissolved in. 0.16M sucrose buffered with 5 0.05M sodium acetate, adjusted to pH 5.8 with hydrochloric acid.

  10. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Hassing, R.J.; Dieleman, J.P.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Reduction of gastric acid secretion by acid-suppressive therapy allows pathogen colonization from the upper gastrointestinal tract. The bacteria and viruses in the contaminated stomach have been identified as species from the oral cavity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the

  11. Longterm treatment of psoriasis using fumaric acid preparations can be associated with severe proximal tubular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    1999-12-01

    Fumaric acid preparations are used as longterm and effective treatment of psoriasis. Apart from gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological side-effects, transient renal damage was observed during treatment with fumaric acid. The case of a 38 year old woman who was treated with fumaric acid (420 mg bid) for 5 years before she complained of fatigue and weakness. According to clinical laboratory she had developed severe proximal tubular damage. Hypophosphatemia, glycosuria and proteinuria persisted although medication was stopped immediately.

  12. Inhibitors of gastric acid secretion increase the risk of prion infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Tom C; Benestad, Sylvie L; Moldal, Torfinn; Waldum, Helge L

    2011-12-01

    Gastric juice is a unique combination of hydrochloric acid and the proteolytic enzyme pepsin. Its main function is to inactivate ingested microorganisms. Prions cause fatal transmissible degenerative encephalopathies in animals and man. These diseases have attracted attention due to the proposed link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and the occurrence of a new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans where the most probable route of transmission is via contaminated food. The role of gastric juice in the protection against these agents is not settled. The aim of this study was to examine if drug-induced gastric hypoacidity increases the susceptibility of prion infection transmitted by the oral route. Forty-six mice (tg338) were given brain homogenates contaminated with scrapie by gastric intubation. Twenty-two of these animals were concomitantly dosed with omeprazole increasing the median gastric pH from 1.2 to 5.3. After 381 days, the animals were sacrificed and all the brains were examined for detection of pathogenic prion proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. Drug-induced decrease in gastric acidity more than doubled the rate (59% vs. 25%, p hypochlorhydria would be expected to enhance the susceptibility to prion infection by the oral route. This finding may have relevance to the pathogenesis of the new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and prion diseases in general.

  13. Point Mutations in Exon 1B of APC Reveal Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach as a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Woods, Susan L.; Healey, Sue; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lee, Jason S.; Sivakumaran, Haran; Wayte, Nicci; Nones, Katia; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Pearson, John; Patch, Anne-Marie; Senz, Janine; Ferreira, Manuel A.; Kaurah, Pardeep; Mackenzie, Robertson; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Hansford, Samantha; Lannagan, Tamsin R.M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Simpson, Peter T.; da Silva, Leonard; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Bettington, Mark; Grimpen, Florian; Busuttil, Rita A.; Di Costanzo, Natasha; Boussioutas, Alex; Jeanjean, Marie; Chong, George; Fabre, Aurélie; Olschwang, Sylviane; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Bellos, Evangelos; Coin, Lachlan; Rioux, Kevin; Bathe, Oliver F.; Wen, Xiaogang; Martin, Hilary C.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Davis, Sean R.; Walker, Robert L.; Calzone, Kathleen A.; Avital, Itzhak; Heller, Theo; Koh, Christopher; Pineda, Marbin; Rudloff, Udo; Quezado, Martha; Pichurin, Pavel N.; Hulick, Peter J.; Weissman, Scott M.; Newlin, Anna; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Sampson, Jone E.; Hamman, Kelly; Goldgar, David; Poplawski, Nicola; Phillips, Kerry; Schofield, Lyn; Armstrong, Jacqueline; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Suthers, Graeme K.; Huntsman, David G.; Foulkes, William D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Lindor, Noralane M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Waddell, Nicola; Meltzer, Paul S.; Worthley, Daniel L.; Schrader, Kasmintan A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present. PMID:27087319

  14. DUODENOPLASTIA ASSOCIADA À VAGOTOMIA GÁSTRICA PROXIMAL NO TRATAMENTO DAS ÚLCERAS DUODENAIS ESTENOSANTES DUODENOPLASTY PLUS PROXIMAL GASTRIC VAGOTOMY IN THE TREATMENT OF STENOSING DUODENAL ULCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ceneviva R.; Santos J. S. dos; Silva Jr. O. de C.; Módena J. L. P.; Mente E. D.; Sankarankutty A. K.

    2001-01-01

    A vagotomia gástrica proximal firmou-se como o procedimento de escolha no tratamento cirúrgico eletivo das úlceras duodenais crônicas, por ser a operação mais segura quanto à morbidade e mortalidade. Sua aplicação tem sido estendida às complicações da úlcera duodenal, mediante operação complementar que visa solucionar a complicação. Com o objetivo de avaliar a vagotomia gástrica proximal no tratamento das úlceras duodenais estenosantes os resultados clínicos de uma série consecutiva de 80 pac...

  15. The effect of cisapride on duodenal acid exposure in the proximal duodenum in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M. A.; Roelofs, J. M.; Edelbroek, M. A.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of the prokinetic drug, cisapride, on fasting and postprandial acid exposure in the proximal duodenum. METHODS: Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study design, 12 healthy male volunteers were studied. After 1 week of dosing (cisapride 20 mg b.d. orally

  16. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin’s main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death. Methods. The cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The underlying mechanisms were tested by administration of cell death related inhibitors and detection of apoptotic and oncosis related proteins. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage assay, mitochondrial function test, and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration detection. Results. QC4 inhibited cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and destroyed cell membrane integrity, activated calpain-1 autolysis, and induced apoptotic protein cleavage in gastric cancer cells. The detection of decreased ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS accumulation, and cytosolic free Ca2+ elevation confirmed organelles damage in QC4-treated gastric cancer cells. Conclusions. DHA derivative QC4 induced the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, as a derivative of plant derived small molecule DHA, QC4 might become a promising agent in gastric cancer therapy.

  17. Determination of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a metabolomics in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Maral; Rezaei, Amin; Ghasemi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study urinary5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in gastric cancer patients with a biochemical method and compare this metabolite with normal control and individuals with chronic gastritis. The subjects were 48 histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma patients. They were 10 women and 38 men with mean age of 63.73 years. For determination of urinary excretion of 5-HIAA, a biochemical method was applied. According to kit protocol, the patients' fresh urine was added to the reagent material, and the color of the sediment that was the result of interaction between 5-HIAA and the mercury salt was compared with the standard colorimetric plate of the kit. The same method was also performed for a group of 47 patients with chronic gastritis and also a group of 50 normal individuals (age and sex matched). Urinary 5-HIAA was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients compared to individuals with chronic gastritis and normal controls (P value <0.001), but no association was detected in urinary 5-HIAA based on age, sex, or site of tumor and tumor grade in gastric cancer patients group. Also, no significant difference was noted in 5-HIAA excretion between chronic gastritis and normal control groups. Urinary excretion of 5-HIAA is significantly higher in the gastric cancer patients in comparison with that of chronic gastritis patients or normal individuals. So, this test could be regarded as a tumor marker in conjunction with other modalities in diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  18. Gastroprotective effect of vanadium in rats - the roles of gastric acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vanadium (various forms) has been proven to be beneficial in the treatment of certain diseases, especially diabetes. Reports have it that vanadium may protect the stomach from gastric ulcerogens such as ethanol and acid. This study was designed to investigate the probable mechanism Vanadium exerts its' ...

  19. Influence of gastric mucosal status on success of stepwise acid suppressive therapy for dyspepsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Marrewijk, C. J.; Van Oijen, M. G. H.; Paloheimo, L. I.; Fransen, G. A. J.; Mujakovic, S.; Muris, J. W. M.; Numans, M. E.; De Wit, N. J.; Grobbee, D. E.; Knottnerus, J. A.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The most effective initial treatment strategy of dyspepsia is still under debate. Individual biological characteristics, such as condition of gastric mucosa, might contribute to selection of the most appropriate acid suppression treatment strategy. Aim To assess whether pre-treatment

  20. 69 preliminary findings on the effect of chloroquine on gastric acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Hydroxytryptamine and their antagonists. In: The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Vol. I, Gilman, A G, Rall, T W, Nies, A S, Taylor, P. Goodman and Gilman: 8th ed., New York,. McGraw Hill International Edition. Medica series. Gosh, M.N. and Schild, H.O. (1958). Continuous recording of Gastric Acid Secretion in rats.

  1. Influence of beta blockade on gastric acid secretion and changes in gastric mucosal blood flow before and after parietal cell vagotomy in dogs and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Bekker, C

    1983-01-01

    -Adrenergic blockade had no effect on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion before PCV, but after PCV beta blockade caused a modest increase in acid secretion, mediated mainly by the beta 2 receptors. A similar trend was seen in man. A marked increase in mucosal blood flow occurred 30 min after propranolol...

  2. A Review of the Management of Gastric Acid-Related Diseases: Focus on Rabeprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Kusano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment guidelines for acid-related diseases (ARDs recommend first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI to reduce gastric acid production. PPIs are indicated in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (reflux esophagitis, nonerosive reflux disease, peptic ulcer (gastric and duodenal ulcer, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID-associated ulcer, bleeding ulcer, functional dyspepsia, and in association with Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy when needed. Currently, PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole are widely used for the treatment of ARDs. All 5 PPIs are effective. However, there are differences in PPI pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles that might influence their clinical utility. Rabeprazole is a useful option for the treatment of acid-related diseases due to its rapid onset of acid inhibition and few drug interactions.

  3. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Louise; Sanchez, Linda Chris; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2008-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration occours in both squampos and glandular mucsa, with the former being studied more. Prevalence studies of high risk horse populations, such as racehorses in training, revealed the 80-90% of this group had lesions within mucosa....

  4. Activation of Secretagogue Independent Gastric Acid Secretion via Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Stimulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Miriam Kitay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: L-arginine is an important mediator of cell division, wound healing, and immune function. It can be transformed by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS to nitric oxide (NO, an important cell signaling molecule. Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrate specific effects of L-arginine (10mM exposure on gastric acid secretion in rat parietal cells. Methods: Studies were performed with isolated gastric glands and the pH sensitive dye BCECF-AM +/- L-arginine to examine its effects on acid secretion. The direct NO-donor diethylamine NONOate sodium salt hydrate, was also used while monitoring intracellular pH. The specific inhibitor of the intracellular NO signal cascade ODQ was also used. Results: We found that gastric proton extrusion was activated with application of L-arginine (10mM, in a separate series when L-arginine (10mM + L-NAME (30µM were added there was no acid secretion. Addition of the NO-donor diethylamine NONOate sodium salt hydrate (10µM also induced acid secretion. When the selective sGC-inhibitor ODQ was added with NONOate we did not observe acid secretion. Conclusion: We conclude that L-arginine is a novel secretagogue, which can mediate gastric acid secretion. Furthermore, the intake of L-arginine causes direct activation of the H+, K+ ATPase and increased proton extrusion from parietal cells resulting in the increased risk for acid-related diseases. The NO/sGC/cGMP pathway has never been described as a possible intracellular mechanism for H+, K+ ATPase activation before and presents a completely new scientific finding. Moreover, our studies demonstrate a novel role for L-NAME to effectively eliminate NOS induced acid secretion and thereby reducing the risk for L-arginine inducible ulcer disease.

  5. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation.

  6. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Anna Kirstine; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance......: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not impaired after RYGB...

  7. GERD and acid reduction medication use following gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Alex C; Frelich, Matthew J; Bosler, Matthew E; Goldblatt, Matthew I; Gould, Jon C

    2017-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common comorbid medical condition of obesity. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been associated with de novo and worsening GERD following surgery. For this reason, patients who suffer from GERD and are considering bariatric surgery are often counseled to undergo gastric bypass. Given this practice, we sought to determine acid reduction medication (ARM) utilization in bariatric surgical patients who undergo one of these procedures prior to surgery and at 1 year following surgery. A retrospective review of prospectively maintained data on patients to undergo gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy between November 2012 and December 2014 was conducted after IRB approval. ARM utilization and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) scores [range 0 (no symptoms)-50 (severe GERD)] were compared prior to surgery and at 1 year postoperatively. 334 patients underwent an eligible procedure in the study interval. 147 patients (44 %) had data on both preoperative and 1 year postoperative ARM use (93 gastric bypass and 54 sleeve gastrectomy). ARM utilization prior to surgery in gastric bypass patients did not reach statistical significance when compared to sleeve gastrectomy (40.9 vs. 26 %, p = 0.07). GERD-HRQL scores were greater prior to surgery in gastric bypass patients (GERD-HRQL 8.2 vs. 1.9; p sleeve gastrectomy patients had a significantly higher rate of overall ARM use (48.1 vs. 16.1 %, p sleeve; p = 0.72). Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is associated with a significantly increased likelihood that acid reduction medications will be necessary for GERD symptom control 12 months postoperatively when compared to gastric bypass.

  8. Effect of parity on the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the milk were collected in a single day and the milk was analyzed using gas chromatography. Parity had no effect of proximate composition (fat, DMC and moisture %) on milk. The fatty acids (FA) present in the milk of the three parity groups were primarily palmitic (33.3 to 40.5%), oleic (16.3 to 20.3%), myristic ...

  9. Evaluation of gastric acid secretion at endoscopy with a modified Congo red test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ervin; Sjölund, Kristina; Thorsson, Ola; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2002-08-01

    Markedly decreased or absent gastric acid production is associated with a number of clinically significant conditions, and identification of patients with hypo/achlorhydria may be important. However, current methods of assessing impaired acid secretion are unreliable, time-consuming, and/or complex. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate a modified endoscopic Congo red test for the diagnosis of hypo/achlorhydria by correlation with a standard gastric acid secretory test. One hundred six consecutive outpatients with or without dyspeptic symptoms referred for endoscopy were evaluated by using a modified endoscopic Congo red test and a standard test of gastric acid secretion. The modified endoscopic Congo red test suggested hypo/achlorhydria when there was no color shift or a shift of small extent (less than one third of fundic mucosa). Hypo/achlorhydria by the standard gastric acid secretory test was defined as a maximal acid output of less than 6.9 mmol/hour in men and 5.0 mmol/hour in women. The accuracy of the modified endoscopic Congo red test for the diagnosis of hypo/achlorhydria was 0.98 (95% CI [0.93, 0.99]). The sensitivity was 1.0 (95% CI [0.92, 1.00]) and specificity 0.96 (95% CI [0.88, 0.99]). All patients tolerated the modified endoscopic Congo red test well. The modified endoscopic Congo red is an accurate, simple, fast, inexpensive, and well-tolerated chromoendoscopic method for identification of patients with hypo/achlorhydria during routine upper endoscopy.

  10. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors affecting gastric proton pump expression and acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Suarez, Giovanni; Peek, Richard M; Backert, Steffen; Smolka, Adam J

    2015-08-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and human gastric biopsies represses H,K-ATPase α subunit (HKα) gene expression and inhibits acid secretion, causing transient hypochlorhydria and supporting gastric H. pylori colonization. Infection by H. pylori strains deficient in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) genes cagL, cagE, or cagM, which do not transfer CagA into host cells or induce interleukin-8 secretion, does not inhibit HKα expression, nor does a cagA-deficient strain that induces IL-8. To test the hypothesis that virulence factors other than those mediating CagA translocation or IL-8 induction participate in HKα repression by activating NF-κB, AGS cells transfected with HKα promoter-Luc reporter constructs containing an intact or mutated NF-κB binding site were infected with wild-type H. pylori strain 7.13, isogenic mutants lacking cag PAI genes responsible for CagA translocation and/or IL-8 induction (cagA, cagζ, cagε, cagZ, and cagβ), or deficient in genes encoding two peptidoglycan hydrolases (slt and cagγ). H. pylori-induced AGS cell HKα promoter activities, translocated CagA, and IL-8 secretion were measured by luminometry, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Human gastric biopsy acid secretion was measured by microphysiometry. Taken together, the data showed that HKα repression is independent of IL-8 expression, and that CagA translocation together with H. pylori transglycosylases encoded by slt and cagγ participate in NF-κB-dependent HKα repression and acid inhibition. The findings are significant because H. pylori factors other than CagA and IL-8 secretion are now implicated in transient hypochlorhydria which facilitates gastric colonization and potential triggering of epithelial progression to neoplasia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Somatic pain sensitivity during formation and healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushkina, Natalya; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Filaretova, Ludmila

    2006-06-30

    A classical feature of visceral pain is its referring to somatic locations. Gastric ulcer is a source of visceral pain. In the present study we investigated whether gastric ulcers may trigger the changes in somatic nociception. For this aim somatic pain sensitivity was estimated under conditions of gastric ulcer development and healing. Gastric ulcers were induced by luminal application of 60% acetic acid under surgical conditions. Control rats were subjected to the same surgical procedure, but with the application of saline instead of the acid. Somatic pain sensitivity (tail flick latency), plasma corticosterone level, adrenal and thymus weight were investigated under conditions of the formation and the healing of gastric ulcers. The application of the acid resulted in the formation of kissing gastric ulcers, the increase of somatic pain sensitivity (the decrease of tail flick latency) as well as the appearance of typical signs of chronic stress: long-lasting increase of plasma corticosterone level, adrenal gland hypertrophy and thymus gland involution. Natural healing of gastric ulcers was accompanied by restoration of pain sensitivity as well as attenuation of the signs of chronic stress. Delay of ulcer healing by the daily indomethacin administration (2 mg/kg, s.c.) prevented the restoration of somatic pain sensitivity. The results suggest that chronic gastric ulcers may trigger somatic hypersensitivity.

  12. Effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F; Bech, K

    1981-01-01

    dose-dependently inhibited the secretory volume and the acidity. The antisecretory effect of isoprenaline was significantly blocked by the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol and by the beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol but not by H 35/25, a beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker. This indicates...

  13. Gastric acid suppression promotes alcoholic liver disease by inducing overgrowth of intestinal Enterococcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Cristina; Jepsen, Peter; Inamine, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    fatty liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by increasing numbers of intestinal Enterococcus spp. Translocating enterococci lead to hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte death. Expansion of intestinal Enterococcus faecalis is sufficient to exacerbate ethanol-induced liver disease......Chronic liver disease is rising in western countries and liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death worldwide. Simultaneously, use of gastric acid suppressive medications is increasing. Here, we show that proton pump inhibitors promote progression of alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic...... in mice. Proton pump inhibitor use increases the risk of developing alcoholic liver disease among alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction of gastric acid secretion therefore appears to promote overgrowth of intestinal Enterococcus, which promotes liver disease, based on data from mouse models and humans...

  14. Gastric Varices with Remarkable Collateral Veins in Valpronic Acid-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hattori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is a commonly prescribed and approved treatment for epilepsy, including Angelman syndrome, throughout the world. However, the long-term administration of drugs like VPA is associated with the possible development of gastric varices and splenic obstruction as a result of chronic pancreatitis. Such cases can be difficult to treat using endoscopy or interventional radiology because of hemodynamic abnormalities; therefore, surgical treatment is often necessary.

  15. Physical and psychological stress have similar effects on gastric acid and pepsin secretions in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Salimi; Soheila Adeli; Hedayat Sahraei; Mohammad Vahedian; Nabavizadeh Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Stress is one of the most important health and social problems. Previous studies have demonstrated stress influence on the clinical course of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, but its physical and psychological effects on gastric acid and pepsin secretions are largely unknown. 48 male wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were used in this study. Animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8); Control, Physical stress, Psychological stress, L-NAME+ Physical stress and L-NAME+ Psychological stress gr...

  16. Gastric acid secretion and gastrin release during continuous vagal neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli, Liu; Wu, Che-Wei; Kim, Hoon Yub; Tian, Wen; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Liu, Renbin; Anuwong, Angkoon; Randolph, Gregory W; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Lavazza, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) has essential regulatory roles in the gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) via VN stimulation is a promising technique in thyroid surgery because it potentially avoids injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, no studies have investigated changes in gastric acid secretion and gastrin release during CIONM. This prospective study of 58 thyroid surgery patients compared gastric acid and serum gastrin at five time points: (1) before skin incision, (2) after baseline calibration of CIONM probe, (3) +20 min from baseline, (4) before probe removal, and (5) after extubation. Patients were excluded if they had any history of using tobacco, acid suppression medications, or drugs that affect gastric motility. Patients were also excluded if they had any history of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, helicobacter pylori infection, or chronic kidney disease. Non significant differences in mean gastric pH values were observed at all time points, i.e., (1) before skin incision (2.2 ± 0.2; p = 0.50), (2) after baseline calibration of CIONM probe (2.0 ± 0.8; p = 0.62), (3) +20 min from baseline (2.5 ± 0.5; p = 0.24), (4) before probe removal (2.9 ± 0.9; p = 0.52), and (5) after extubation (2.6 ± 1.0; p = 0.60). Comparisons of pH monitoring parameters revealed no significant differences in age, gender, side of CIONM (left vs. right), sequence of CIONM, or duration of CIONM. Gastrin values were normal in sequential determinations and did not significantly differ at any time points. CIONM performed via VN stimulation during total thyroidectomy in healthy patients does not influence gastrin secretion and gastric pH.

  17. A Case of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Which Was Aggravated by Acid Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiomi Nakade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE. After ceasing to administer the acid reducer, incidences of hospitalization due to oozing from GAVE stopped. After the administration of the acid reducer was restarted, the patient had tarry stool, and diffuse oozing of blood was seen again. We report a first case of GAVE which was aggravated by acid reducer.

  18. In vitro effects of hydrochloric and lactic acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F M; Buchanan, B R; Elliott, S B; Al Jassim, R A M; McGowan, C M; Saxton, A M

    2008-06-01

    Volatile fatty acids, byproducts of carbohydrate fermentation by resident bacteria, have been implicated in causing nonglandular (NG) gastric ulcers. Lactic acid (LA), also produced by stomach bacteria, may cause gastric ulcers when exposed to the equine NG mucosa. To investigate the in vitro effects of LA on equine NG mucosa bioelectric properties, sodium transport and tissue resistance. Gastric tissues obtained from 13 mature horses were studied in Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured, and electrical resistance (R) and conductance (G) calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and LA (5, 10, 20 and 40 mmol/l) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Mucosa exposed to HCl or LA (5, 10 and 20 mmol/l) in NRS (pH 1.5 and to a lesser extent pH 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc and PD. Mucosa exposed to a high concentration of LA (40 mmol/l) in NRS (LRS) at pH 1.5 showed an increased G, but this increase was not significant. Values returned to baseline after solutions were returned to pH 7.0. Histological changes were consistent with HCl-induced (pH acid damage. HCl induced alteration in bioelectric properties of equine NG mucosa whereas addition of LRS did not, other than those changes seen with HCl alone.

  19. Seasonal proximate and fatty acid variations of some seaweeds from the northeastern Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Polat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal nutritional value of red (Jania rubens, Laurencia papillosa, Spyridia filamentosa and Dasya rigidula and brown macroalgae (Padina pavonia and Stypopodium schimperi was evaluated as a dietary supplement for human and animal nutrition based on proximate and fatty acid profiles. The protein content varied from 0.80% (L. papillosa to 3.41% (J. rubens of wet weight with the highest values in winter. The highest lipid levels were recorded in S. schimperi (2.03% in spring, 2.16% in summer, the lowest in S. filamentosa (0.08% in spring. The ash content of J. rubens (46.11-51.63% was significantly higher than that of the other species (2.28-16.57%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition showed that these seaweed species are very rich in n-3 fatty acids.

  20. Effect of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Artesunate on Gastric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further assessment of the roles of histaminergic and muscarinic receptors were done using ranitidine (H2 antagonist) and atropine (M3 antagonist) in the treated animals. PCM and GMP were determined in the stomach samples by histometry. The basal acid output was 0.70 + 0.01 mmol/10 mins. Normal saline and SP ...

  1. The bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5) is expressed in human gastric cancers and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carino, Adriana; Graziosi, Luigina; D'Amore, Claudio; Cipriani, Sabrina; Marchianò, Silvia; Marino, Elisabetta; Zampella, Angela; Rende, Mario; Mosci, Paolo; Distrutti, Eleonora; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-09-20

    GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) is a bile acid activated receptor expressed in several adenocarcinomas and its activation by secondary bile acids increases intestinal cell proliferation. Here, we have examined the expression of GPBAR1 in human gastric adenocarcinomas and investigated whether its activation promotes the acquisition of a pro-metastatic phenotype. By immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis we found that expression of GPBAR1 associates with advanced gastric cancers (Stage III-IV). GPBAR1 expression in tumors correlates with the expression of N-cadherin, a markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (r=0.52; PTLCA, oleanolic acid or 6-ECDCA (a dual FXR and GPBAR1 ligand) increased the expression of genes associated with EMT including KDKN2A, HRAS, IGB3, MMP10 and MMP13 and downregulated the expression of CD44 and FAT1 (PTLCA increased propensity toward peritoneal dissemination in vivo. These effects were abrogated by cetuximab. In summary, we report that GPBAR1 is expressed in advanced gastric cancers and its expression correlates with markers of EMT. GPBAR1 activation in MKN45 cells promotes EMT. These data suggest that GPBAR1 antagonist might have utility in the treatment of gastric cancers.

  2. [Application status of circulating nucleic acids as biomarkers in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu

    2014-01-01

    Considerable concentrations of circulating nucleic acids have been reported in peripheral blood from cancer patients. These circulating nucleic acids bear a variety of tumor-specific information and potentially represent a stable source of non-invasive tumor biomarkers. The assessable genetic and epigenetic changes of circulating nucleic acids include DNA mutations, copy number alterations, abnormal methylation and disruption of microRNA. Such alterations reflecting molecular characteristics of tumor tissues, provide a new clue for noninvasive, real-time and monitoring test. In the present article, the main findings of research status related to the utility of circulating nucleic acids for early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of gastric cancer are reviewed. In addition, the advantage, the examination technique and the application prospection of circulating nucleic acids as tumor markers are also reviewed.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro and mice gastric mucosa colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Correia

    Full Text Available H. pylori drug-resistant strains and non-compliance to therapy are the major causes of H. pylori eradication failure. For some bacterial species it has been demonstrated that fatty acids have a growth inhibitory effect. Our main aim was to assess the ability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to inhibit H. pylori growth both in vitro and in a mouse model. The effectiveness of standard therapy (ST in combination with DHA on H. pylori eradication and recurrence prevention success was also investigated. The effects of DHA on H. pylori growth were analyzed in an in vitro dose-response study and n in vivo model. We analized the ability of H. pylori to colonize mice gastric mucosa following DHA, ST or a combination of both treatments. Our data demonstrate that DHA decreases H. pylori growth in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA inhibits H. pylori gastric colonization in vivo as well as decreases mouse gastric mucosa inflammation. Addition of DHA to ST was also associated with lower H. pylori infection recurrence in the mouse model. In conclusion, DHA is an inhibitor of H. pylori growth and its ability to colonize mouse stomach. DHA treatment is also associated with a lower recurrence of H. pylori infection in combination with ST. These observations pave the way to consider DHA as an adjunct agent in H. pylori eradication treatment.

  4. Gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets reduced degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Duarte Freire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are considered the first-line medication for preventing and treating tuberculosis. Rifampicin is degraded in the stomach acidic environment, especially when combined with isoniazid, factor contributing to treatment failure. In this study, gastric-resistant isoniazid pellets were obtained to physical contact of this drug with rifampicin and to bypass the stomach´s acidic environment. The pellets were fabricated using the extrusion-spheronization technique. The coating process was conducted in a fluid spray coater using Acrycoat L 100(r solution as the coating agent. The pellets obtained were submitted to a dissolution test in HCl 0.1 N and phosphate buffer media. The results indicated that optimum gastric-resistance was only attained with the highest amount of coating material, with isoniazid almost fully released in phosphate buffer. The amount of rifampicin released from its mixture with non-coated isoniazid pellets in HCl 0.1 N was less than that released from its mixture with the enteric-coated pellets. Acrycoat L 100(r was shown to be an effective enteric/gastric-resistant coating since the stability of rifampicin appeared to be enhanced when physical contact of this drug with isoniazid was prevented at low pH.

  5. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  6. Effects of three major amino acids found in Japanese broth on glucose metabolism and gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Fumika; Ikeda, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Yamane, Shunsuke; Harada, Norio; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-08-10

    To our knowledge, the effect of the broth of dried kelp and dried bonito, dashi, on glucose metabolism and digestion has rarely been studied. Based on the component analysis of three actual broths served in traditional restaurants, a chemically synthesized broth with three free amino acids (histidine, glutamate, aspartate) and salt was prepared to investigate their effect on glucose metabolism, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, and digestion. In study 1, seven healthy individuals were enrolled in a four-period crossover study. Participants drank or ate hot water, synthesized broth, hot water with rice, and synthesized broth with rice. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, plasma GIP, and plasma GLP-1 were measured at baseline and after ingestion. In study 2, 6 of the 7 individuals ingested rice steamed with (13)C-labeled sodium acetate with hot water or synthesized broth to estimate gastric emptying by the (13)C-labeled acetate breath test in a two-period crossover trial. Ingesting water or synthesized broth alone elicited no change in plasma glucose or serum insulin levels. Ingesting synthesized broth with rice resulted in a rapid rise in plasma glucose and GLP-1 (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively) in an early postprandial phase compared with that by ingesting water with rice, but the area under the curve of those showed no significant differences. Ingesting synthesized broth with rice resulted in a significantly higher gastric emptying coefficient than that after rice with water (P = 0.03). Three amino acids and sodium chloride corresponding to those found in actual broth promoted gastric emptying and led to a rapid response of plasma glucose. Our findings suggest that ingestion of the broth of dried kelp and dried bonito may improve gastric motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine D. Crew; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has...

  8. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment...... with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid...

  9. Effects of Acids, Bases, and Heteroatoms on Proximal Radial Distribution Functions for Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao Linh; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-04-14

    The proximal distribution of water around proteins is a convenient method of quantifying solvation. We consider the effect of charged and sulfur-containing amino acid side-chain atoms on the proximal radial distribution function (pRDF) of water molecules around proteins using side-chain analogs. The pRDF represents the relative probability of finding any solvent molecule at a distance from the closest or surface perpendicular protein atom. We consider the near-neighbor distribution. Previously, pRDFs were shown to be universal descriptors of the water molecules around C, N, and O atom types across hundreds of globular proteins. Using averaged pRDFs, a solvent density around any globular protein can be reconstructed with controllable relative error. Solvent reconstruction using the additional information from charged amino acid side-chain atom types from both small models and protein averages reveals the effects of surface charge distribution on solvent density and improves the reconstruction errors relative to simulation. Solvent density reconstructions from the small-molecule models are as effective and less computationally demanding than reconstructions from full macromolecular models in reproducing preferred hydration sites and solvent density fluctuations.

  10. Receptors for short-chain fatty acids in brush cells at the gastric groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Anna-Maria Eberle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the stomach of rodents clusters of brush cells are arranged at the gastric groove, immediately at the transition zone from the non-glandular reservoir compartment to the glandular digestive compartment. Based on their taste cell-like molecular phenotype it has been speculated that the cells may be capable to sense constituents of the ingested food, however, searches for nutrient receptors have not been successful. In this study, it was hypothesized that the cells may express receptors for short-chain fatty acids, metabolites generated by microorganisms during the storage of ingested food in the murine forestomach, which lacks the acidic milieu of more posterior regions of the stomach and is colonized with numerous microbiota. Experimental approaches, including RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemical studies, revealed that the majority of these brush cells express the G-protein coupled receptor types GPR41 (FFAR3 and GPR43 (FFAR2, which are activated by short-chain fatty acids. Both, the GPR41 receptor proteins as well as an appropriate G-protein, α-gustducin, were found to be segregated at the apical brush border of the cells, indicating a direct contact with the luminal content of this gastric region. The exposure of microvillar processes with appropriate receptors and signaling elements to the gastric lumen suggests that the brush cells may in fact be capable to sense the short-chain fatty acids which originate from fermentation processes during the retention of ingested food in the anterior part of the stomach.

  11. [Detection of acid mucins in gastric metaplasia of the gallbladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Salassa, Carolina; Javier Lespi, Pablo

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we present a histological and histochemical study about the metaplastic changes in the gallbladder, and discussed the participation of the antral metaplasia in the genesis of gallbladder cancer. We collected 43 pieces of colecistectomy whit antral metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia and displasia. Presence of mucins were demonstrated by the alcian blue stain to ph 3 and ph 0.5 ph. We found sulphated and not sulphated acid mucins. In all of the forms of antral metaplasia. The not freguent finding coas an intense staining of intracitoplasmie mucins in metaplastic cells. We alsa detected small globular deposits in isolated cells of surface epithelium. This finding seems to associate antral metaplasia with intestinal metaplasia, at least in the mucins production. Antral metaplasia could be one of the first steps involved in the sequence displasia-cancer in the gallbladder.

  12. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Sangita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis.

  13. Inhibition by secretin of the gastric acid responses to meals and to pentagastrin in duodenal ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Biernat, J; Grzelec, T

    1973-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of intravenous secretion on the gastric acid responses to a meal and to pentagastrin were studied in seven duodenal ulcer patients.A test meal of 10% peptone adjusted to pH 5.0 was introduced into the stomach and the Fordtran and Walsh method was used to measure the gastric acid output by monitoring the rate at which a solution of 0.3 M sodium bicarbonate had to be added to keep the pH of the gastric content constant at the value of 5.0. A constant dose of secretin (1 U/kg-hr) significantly depressed the serum gastrin response to a meal and produced an inhibition of acid secretion by about 70% of the control level. Secretin inhibited the acid response induced by pentagastrin by about 60% and simultaneously provoked a pancreatic bicarbonate output sufficient to neutralize about 60% of the gastric acid output to pentagastrin. We conclude that secretin is a strong inhibitor of gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer patients induced by a meal and by pentagastrin.

  14. Calcium [¹³C]carbonate breath test for quantitative measurement of total gastric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Makoto; Kunizaki, Jun-ichi; Tobita, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Suguru; Sato, Hitoshi

    2012-02-01

    A traditional measurement of gastric acid, involving nasogastric intubation of stomach and acid suction, has been suggested as a gold standard. However, this causes the patient discomfort and cost increase, and is 'time-consuming'. A calcium [(13)C]carbonate (Ca(13)CO(3)) breath test was carried out in rats without or with concomitant drugs omeprazole (OMP) and pentagastrin (PG) known as an inhibitor and an inducer of acid, respectively. This test was aimed at evaluating a correlation between the breath response and the total amount of gastric acid. To search for an absorption pathway of (13)CO(2) gas produced by the reaction of Ca(13)CO(3) with hydrochloric acid in the stomach of rats, we compared the breath responses after intra-gastric administration of (13)CO(2) gas and sodium [(13)C]bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). A linear relationship of the breath parameter (breath-C(max)) with the dose of Ca(13)CO(3) was obtained in the range of 4-200 µmol/kg. However, theses parameters were saturated at >200 µmol/kg. The direct correlation between the breath-C(max) and the total amount of gastric acid in rats with or without OMPs or PG (r = 0.994) demonstrated that the change in breath response is an accurate or sensitive indicator of the total amount of gastric acid. (13)CO(2) gas generated in the rat stomach was likely to diffuse across the stomach wall as (13)CO(2) gas directly into the blood plasma. The present study showed that Ca(13)CO(3) breath test is a good tool to accurately predict the total amount of gastric acid.

  15. Teaching the Role of Secretin in the Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion Using a Classic Paper by Johnson and Grossman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of gastric acid secretion has been the subject of investigation for over a century. Inhibition of gastrin-induced acid secretion by the intestine-derived hormone secretin provides a classic physiological example of negative feedback in the gastrointestinal tract. A classic paper by Leonard R. Johnson and Morton I. Grossman clearly…

  16. Effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eun; Koh, Seong-Joon; Chun, Jaeyoung; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2014-07-07

    To investigate the effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritonitis development in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This was a single-center, retrospective study. The medical records of 398 PD patients were collected from January 2000 to September 2012 and analyzed to compare patients with at least one episode of peritonitis (peritonitis group, group A) to patients who never had peritonitis (no peritonitis group, group B). All peritonitis episodes were analyzed to compare peritonitis caused by enteric organisms and peritonitis caused by non-enteric organisms. Among the 120 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 61 patients had at least one episode of peritonitis and 59 patients never experienced peritonitis. Twenty-four of 61 patients (39.3%) in group A and 15 of 59 patients (25.4%) in group B used gastric acid suppressants. Only the use of H2-blocker (H2B) was associated with an increased risk of PD-related peritonitis; the use of proton pump inhibitors, other antacids, and prokinetics was not found to be a significant risk factor for PD-related peritonitis. A total of 81 episodes of peritonitis were divided into enteric peritonitis (EP) or non-enteric peritonitis, depending on the causative organism, and gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics did not increase the risk of EP in PD patients. The use of H2B showed a trend for an increased risk of overall PD-related peritonitis, although further studies are required to clarify the effects of drugs on PD-related peritonitis.

  17. Effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eun; Koh, Seong-Joon; Chun, Jaeyoung; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritonitis development in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study. The medical records of 398 PD patients were collected from January 2000 to September 2012 and analyzed to compare patients with at least one episode of peritonitis (peritonitis group, group A) to patients who never had peritonitis (no peritonitis group, group B). All peritonitis episodes were analyzed to compare peritonitis caused by enteric organisms and peritonitis caused by non-enteric organisms. RESULTS: Among the 120 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 61 patients had at least one episode of peritonitis and 59 patients never experienced peritonitis. Twenty-four of 61 patients (39.3%) in group A and 15 of 59 patients (25.4%) in group B used gastric acid suppressants. Only the use of H2-blocker (H2B) was associated with an increased risk of PD-related peritonitis; the use of proton pump inhibitors, other antacids, and prokinetics was not found to be a significant risk factor for PD-related peritonitis. A total of 81 episodes of peritonitis were divided into enteric peritonitis (EP) or non-enteric peritonitis, depending on the causative organism, and gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics did not increase the risk of EP in PD patients. CONCLUSION: The use of H2B showed a trend for an increased risk of overall PD-related peritonitis, although further studies are required to clarify the effects of drugs on PD-related peritonitis. PMID:25057226

  18. A role for the Ca2+ channel TRPML1 in gastric acid secretion, based on analysis of knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Manjari; Zhou, Hua; Li, Qin; Muallem, Shmuel; Hofmann, Sandra L; Soyombo, Abigail A

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in TRPML1, a lysosomal Ca(2+)-permeable TRP channel, lead to mucolipidosis type IV, a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease. An unusual feature of mucolipidosis type IV is constitutive achlorhydria. We produced Trpml1(-/-) (null) mice to investigate the requirement for this protein in gastric acid secretion. Trpml1-null mice were generated by gene targeting. The expression of Trpml1 and its role in acid secretion by gastric parietal cells were analyzed using biochemical, histologic, and ultrastructural approaches. Trpml1 is expressed by parietal cells and localizes predominantly to the lysosomes; it was dynamically palmitoylated and dephosphorylated in vivo following histamine stimulation of acid secretion. Trpml1-null mice had significant impairments in basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion and markedly reduced levels of the gastric proton pump. Histologic and ultrastructural analyses revealed that Trpml1(-/-) parietal cells were enlarged, had multivesicular and multi-lamellated lysosomes, and maintained an abnormal intracellular canalicular membrane. The intralysosomal Ca(2+) content and receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling were, however, unaffected in Trpml1(-/-) gastric glands, indicating that Trpml1 does not function in the regulation of lysosomal Ca(2+). Loss of Trpml1 causes reduced levels and mislocalization of the gastric proton pump and alters the secretory canaliculi, causing hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia. The lysosomal enlargement and defective intracellular canaliculi formation observed in Trpml1(-/-) parietal cells indicate that Trpml1 functions in the formation and trafficking of the tubulovesicles. This study provides direct evidence for the regulation of gastric acid secretion by a TRP channel; TRPML1 is an important protein in parietal cell apical membrane trafficking. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghali P Nighot

    Full Text Available The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05 and 53% (P<0.001 respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025 lower by 9.4 fold (89% in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84-95%, P<0.005 in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion.

  20. Bile acid profiles over 5 years after gastric bypass and duodenal switch: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risstad, Hilde; Kristinsson, Jon A; Fagerland, Morten W; le Roux, Carel W; Birkeland, Kåre I; Gulseth, Hanne L; Thorsby, Per M; Vincent, Royce P; Engström, My; Olbers, Torsten; Mala, Tom

    2017-09-01

    Bile acids have been proposed as key mediators of the metabolic effects after bariatric surgery. Currently no reports on bile acid profiles after duodenal switch exist, and long-term data after gastric bypass are lacking. To investigate bile acid profiles up to 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and to explore the relationship among bile acids and weight loss, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism. Two Scandinavian University Hospitals. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of 60 patients with body mass index 50-60 kg/m2 operated with gastric bypass or duodenal switch. Repeated measurements of total and individual bile acids from fasting serum during 5 years after surgery were performed. Mean concentrations of total bile acids increased from 2.3 µmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], -.1 to 4.7) at baseline to 5.9 µmol/L (3.5-8.3) 5 years after gastric bypass and from 1.0 µmol/L (95% CI, -1.4 to 3.5) to 9.5 µmol/L (95% CI, 7.1-11.9) after duodenal switch; mean between-group difference was -4.8 µmol/L (95% CI, -9.3 to -.3), P = .036. Mean concentrations of primary bile acids increased more after duodenal switch, whereas secondary bile acids increased proportionally across the groups. Higher levels of total bile acids at 5 years were associated with lower body mass index, greater weight loss, and lower total cholesterol. Total bile acid concentrations increased substantially over 5 years after both gastric bypass and duodenal switch, with greater increases in total and primary bile acids after duodenal switch. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 2017;0:000-000.) © 2017 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, S M; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T; Lapa, A J

    1997-02-01

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastric and intestinal disturbances. The freeze-dried aqueous extract of the whole plant tested to rodents up to the dose of 2 g kg-1, p.o., did not produce signs of toxicity. The extract (0.5-2 g kg-1, p.o.) increased the intestinal motility and protected mice against ulcers induced by restraintin-cold, ethanol or indomethacin. Injected into the duodenal lumen the extract inhibited the basal acid secretion as well as that induced by histamine and bethanecol in pylorus-ligated mice. Partition of the aqueous extract in organic solvents yielded semipurified fractions whose antiacid activity guided further chemical purification. All the fractions were chromatographically characterized, the main substances in the active extract being flavonoids and amines; some substances were revealed only under UV light. The most purified active fraction obtained presented a specific activity 5-10 times higher than that detected in the original extract. Data from pharmacological studies indicate that the antiulcer activity of S. cayennensis is related to a specific inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation of acid secretion were similarly reduced by the extracts suggesting inhibition of common steps in both pathways, possibly at the level of histamine release/H2 receptor interaction, or at the proton pump. Whatever the mechanisms involved, the present data confirm the plant effectiveness as antiacid/antiulcer and laxative.

  2. The gastric acid pocket is attenuated in H. pylori infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David R; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Wirz, Angela A; Orange, Clare; Ballantyne, Stuart A; Going, James J; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2017-09-01

    Gastric acid secretory capacity in different anatomical regions, including the postprandial acid pocket, was assessed in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative volunteers in a Western population. We studied 31 H. pylori positive and 28 H. pylori negative volunteers, matched for age, gender and body mass index. Jumbo biopsies were taken at 11 predetermined locations from the gastro-oesophageal junction and stomach. Combined high-resolution pH metry (12 sensors) and manometry (36 sensors) was performed for 20 min fasted and 90 min postprandially. The squamocolumnar junction was marked with radio-opaque clips and visualised radiologically. Biopsies were scored for inflammation and density of parietal, chief and G cells immunohistochemically. Under fasting conditions, the H. pylori positives had less intragastric acidity compared with negatives at all sensors >1.1 cm distal to the peak lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (pH. pylori positives at sensors 2.2, 3.3 and 4.4 cm distal to the peak LES pressure (pH. pylori positives. The H. pylori positives had a lower density of parietal and chief cells compared with H. pylori negatives in 10 of the 11 gastric locations (pH. pylori positives were CagA-seropositive and showed a more marked reduction in intragastric acidity and increased mucosal inflammation. In population volunteers, H. pylori positives have reduced intragastric acidity which most markedly affects the postprandial acid pocket. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Roles of Renal Proximal Tubule Transport in Acid/Base Balance and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules (PTs plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of systemic acid/base balance. Indeed, mutations in the Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCe1, which mediates a majority of bicarbonate exit from PTs, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis associated with ocular and other extrarenal abnormalities. Sodium transport in PTs also plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. For example, PT transport stimulation by insulin may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with insulin resistance. Type 1 angiotensin (Ang II receptors in PT are critical for blood pressure homeostasis. Paradoxically, the effects of Ang II on PT transport are known to be biphasic. Unlike in other species, however, Ang II is recently shown to dose-dependently stimulate human PT transport via nitric oxide/cGMP/ERK pathway, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in human hypertension. In this paper, we will review the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PT transport.

  4. Nitric oxide antagonizes the acid tolerance response that protects Salmonella against innate gastric defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Bourret

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen species (RNS derived from dietary and salivary inorganic nitrogen oxides foment innate host defenses associated with the acidity of the stomach. The mechanisms by which these reactive species exert antimicrobial activity in the gastric lumen are, however, poorly understood.The genetically tractable acid tolerance response (ATR that enables enteropathogens to survive harsh acidity was screened for signaling pathways responsive to RNS. The nitric oxide (NO donor spermine NONOate derepressed the Fur regulon that controls secondary lines of resistance against organic acids. Despite inducing a Fur-mediated adaptive response, acidified RNS largely repressed oral virulence as demonstrated by the fact that Salmonella bacteria exposed to NO donors during mildly acidic conditions were shed in low amounts in feces and exhibited ameliorated oral virulence. NO prevented Salmonella from mounting a de novo ATR, but was unable to suppress an already functional protective response, suggesting that RNS target regulatory cascades but not their effectors. Transcriptional and translational analyses revealed that the PhoPQ signaling cascade is a critical ATR target of NO in rapidly growing Salmonella. Inhibition of PhoPQ signaling appears to contribute to most of the NO-mediated abrogation of the ATR in log phase bacteria, because the augmented acid sensitivity of phoQ-deficient Salmonella was not further enhanced after RNS treatment.Since PhoPQ-regulated acid resistance is widespread in enteric pathogens, the RNS-mediated inhibition of the Salmonella ATR described herein may represent a common component of innate host defenses.

  5. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  6. Chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasia: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuzo; Eto, Reiko; Kasanuki, Junji; Kondo, Fukuo; Kato, Kazuki; Arai, Makoto; Suzuki, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michiko; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Bekku, Dan; Ito, Kenichi; Nakamoto, Shingo; Tanaka, Takeshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2008-10-01

    Conventional endoscopy and chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine dye are usually performed for recognizing adequate tumor-negative lateral margins for successful endoscopic resection of gastric neoplasia. However, chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid has not been used for this purpose. Our purpose was to compare the diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid with that of conventional endoscopy and chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine dye or acetic acid alone. Prospective study. Social Insurance Funabashi Central Hospital. Forty-seven consecutive patients (53 lesions) with early gastric cancer and gastric adenomas who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) from April 2006 to July 2007 were studied. All the lesions were examined by the endoscopic modalities before ESD, and the resected specimens were analyzed histopathologically. Two endoscopists independently evaluated the diagnostic performance of each image in terms of recognition of tumor borders with reference to macroscopic and histopathologic findings of resected specimens. We also conducted a substudy to assess interobserver variability. There was good interobserver agreement between the 2 endoscopists in this study (kappa index = 0.764). The diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid was significantly greater than that of any of the other modalities (vs each: P indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid was better compared with conventional endoscopy and chromoendoscopy by using only indigo carmine dye or acetic acid. The applicability of this method for gastric neoplasia merits further investigation.

  7. Diffraction enhanced imaging of a rat model of gastric acid aspiration pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Dean M; Zhong, Zhong; Foda, Hussein D; Wiebe, Sheldon; Parham, Christopher A; Dilmanian, F Avraham; Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D

    2011-12-01

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) is a type of phase contrast x-ray imaging that has improved image contrast at a lower dose than conventional radiography for many imaging applications, but no studies have been done to determine if DEI might be useful for diagnosing lung injury. The goals of this study were to determine if DEI could differentiate between healthy and injured lungs for a rat model of gastric aspiration and to compare diffraction-enhanced images with chest radiographs. Radiographs and diffraction-enhanced chest images of adult Sprague Dawley rats were obtained before and 4 hours after the aspiration of 0.4 mL/kg of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid. Lung damage was confirmed with histopathology. The radiographs and diffraction-enhanced peak images revealed regions of atelectasis in the injured rat lung. The diffraction-enhanced peak images revealed the full extent of the lung with improved clarity relative to the chest radiographs, especially in the portion of the lower lobe that extended behind the diaphragm on the anteroposterior projection. For a rat model of gastric acid aspiration, DEI is capable of distinguishing between a healthy and an injured lung and more clearly than radiography reveals the full extent of the lung and the lung damage. Copyright © 2011 AUR. All rights reserved.

  8. Acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity of gastric cancer in mice dependent on c-Myc expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xijing; Kang, Huafeng; Ma, Xiaobin; Wang, Meng; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Dai, Cong; Dai, Zhijun

    2017-04-01

    c-Myc overexpression has been implicated in several malignancies including gastric cancer. Here, we report that acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity in gastric cancer via c-Myc activation both in vivo and in vitro. c-Myc mRNA and protein levels were assessed in ten primary and five local recurrent gastric cancer samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. The gastric cancer cell line MGC803 was exposed to bile salts (100 μmol/L glycochenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) in an acid medium (pH 5.5) for 10 min daily for 60 weeks to develop an MGC803-resistant cell line. Control MGC803 cells were grown without acids or bile salts for 60 weeks as a control. Cell morphology, proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis of MGC803-resistant cells were analyzed after 60 weeks. To determine the involvement of c-Myc in tumor progression and telomere aging in MGC803-resistant cells, we generated xenografts in nude mice and measured xenograft volume and in vivo telomerase activity. The c-Myc and hTERT protein and mRNA levels were significantly higher in local recurrent gastric cancer samples than in primary gastric cancer samples. MGC803-resistant cells showed a marked phenotypic change under normal growth conditions with more clusters and acini, and exhibited increased cell viability and colony formation and decreased apoptosis in vitro. These phenotypic changes were found to be dependent on c-Myc activation using the c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4. MGC803-resistant cells also showed a c-Myc-dependent increase in xenograft growth and telomerase activity in vivo. In conclusion, these observations support the hypothesis that acidified bile acids enhance tumor progression and telomerase activity in gastric cancer and that these effects are dependent on c-Myc activity. These findings suggest that acidified bile acids play an important role in the malignant progression of local recurrent

  9. Effects of all Trans Retinoic Acid Combined with Cisplatin on Survival of Gastric Cancer Cell Line (AGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Najafzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: All-trans retinoic acid, a derivative of retinoids, is widely used to in-duce prolifferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal, precancareous and cancerous cells. Cisplatin, an effective drug for cancer treatment, induces apoptosis via cross-linking to DNA. Previous studies on ovarian and melanoma cancer cells have showed synergistic ef-fects of cisplatin and retinoic acid. Our aim is to study such synergistic effect on gastric de-rived cell line, AGS. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study gastric cancer cell line was cultured with dif-ferent concentration of retinoic acid and cisplatin and their combination. The cell death was evaluated with clonogenic assay and Acridine Orange/ Ethidium Bromide staining. Results: The results showed that all-trans retinoic acid had not significant effect on cell death in gastric cancer. The results showed that high doses of retinoic acid and cisplatin can cause cell death via necrosis and early apoptosis, respectively. The plates were treated with the combination of 10 µM retinoic acid and 5, 10 µg cisplatin, and more cell death were ob-served (P<0.001. It seems that, suseptability of this cell line to retinoic acid is dose depend-ent. Conclusion: In this study, we concluded that the combination of retinoic acid and cisplatin was more effective on cell death than cisplatin and retinoic acid alone. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:207-214

  10. Intracellular calcium-release and protein kinase C-activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Zavros, Yana; Tessier, Art; Waghray, Meghna; Lentz, Steve; Gumucio, Deborah; Todisco, Andrea; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Shh expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through Ca2+i-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-activation. Method We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1 (sHip-1), a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, EGTA+BAPTA, PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC-inhibitors were used to modulate Ca2+i-release, PKC-activity and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H+/K+-β-cholera-toxin overexpressing mice (Ctox). Results Mice that expressed sHip-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression was also repressed in the hyperchlorhydric Ctox model with elevated cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca2+i-release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin- and carbachol-mediated release of Ca2+i induced Shh expression. Ca2+-chelation with BAPTA+EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-α, -β and -δ (but not PKC-ε) induced Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene. Conclusion Secretagogues that stimulate gastric acid secretion induce Shh gene expression through increased Ca2+i-release and PKC activation. Shh might be the ligand transducing changes in gastric acidity to the regulation of G-cell secretion of gastrin. PMID:20816837

  11. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. Tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin, and cholesterol content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duckett, S. K; Neel, J. P. S; Fontenot, J. P; Clapham, W. M

    2009-01-01

    ...{at}clemson.edu Angus-cross steers (n = 198; 270 kg of BW; 8 mo) were used in a 3-yr study to assess the effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on LM proximate, fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin, and mineral composition...

  12. Enhancement of Radiation Effects by Ursolic Acid in BGC-823 Human Adenocarcinoma Gastric Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Recent research has suggested that certain plant-derived polyphenols, i.e., ursolic acid (UA, which are reported to have antitumor activities, might be used to sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting pathways leading to radiation therapy resistance. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects and possible mechanism of radiosensitization by UA in BGC-823 cell line from human adenocarcinoma gastric cancer in vitro. UA caused cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and we used a sub-cytotoxicity concentration of UA to test radioenhancement efficacy with UA in gastric cancer. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Surviving fraction of the combined group with irradiation and sub-cytotoxicity UA significantly decreased compared with the irradiation group. The improved radiosensitization efficacy was associated with enhanced G2/M arrest, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, down-regulated Ki-67 level and improved apoptosis. In conclusion, as UA demonstrated potent antiproliferation effect and synergistic effect, it could be used as a potential drug sensitizer for the application of radiotherapy.

  13. Protective Effect of Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Skin Collagen Peptides on Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huina; Wang, Zhicong; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2016-07-01

    This research was performed to explore the protective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CCP) on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid. The CCP were fractionated into low molecular CCP (LMCCP, Mw 3 kDa). In HMCCP and LMCCP, glycine of accounted for about one-third of the total amino acids without cysteine and tryptophan, and hydrophobic amino acids accounted for about 50%. After 21 d CCP treatment (60 or 300 mg/kg, p.o./daily), the healing effects on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated by macroscopic measure, microscopic measure, and immune histochemistry. Moreover, the expression levels of the growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was detected. The results showed that both LMCCP and HMCCP could significantly decrease the ulcer areas and promote the healing of the lesions. They also could improve the levels of hexosamine, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and reduce the content of malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, the expression level of TGFβ1 gene and HSP70 mRNA was significantly improved by the treatment. It suggested that CCP could be able to improve symptoms of gastric ulcer and probably be used in the treatment of gastric ulcer. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Influence of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Kask, Bartholomaeus

    2006-01-01

    and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Plasma glucose concentrations during the hyperglycaemic clamp experiments were not different between patients with type 2 diabetes and controls. Steady-state GIP plasma levels were 61+/- 8 and 79+/- 12 pmol/l during the low-dose and 327+/- 35 and 327+/- 17 pmol/l during......AIM: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide is secreted from intestinal K-cells in response to nutrient ingestion and acts as an incretin hormone in human physiology. While animal experiments suggested a role for GIP as an inhibitor of gastric secretion, the GIP effects on gastric acid output in humans...... are still controversial. METHODS: Pentagastrin was administered at an infusion rate of 1 microg . kg(-1) . h(-1) over 300 min in 8 patients with type 2 diabetes (2 female, 6 male, 54+/- 10 years, BMI 30.5+/- 2.2 kg/m(2); no history of autonomic neuropathy) and 8 healthy subjects (2/6, 46+/- 6 years., 28...

  15. Validation of 13C-acetic acid breath test by measuring effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tashima, Kimihito; Uchida, Masayuki; Horie, Syunji

    2008-10-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate gastric motility in rodents, but they all have technical limitations. Recent technical developments enable a convenient method to evaluate gastric motility. The (13)C-acetic acid breath test in rodents is a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be used without physical restraints. The present study aimed to validate the (13)C-acetic acid breath test by measuring the effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice. Loperamide (1-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.25-10 mg/kg) slowed gastric emptying and decreased the maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(90 min)) value in a dose-dependent manner. Mosapride (0.2-5 mg/kg) accelerated gastric emptying and increased C(max) value. Mosapride (20 mg/kg) did not accelerate gastric emptying on the (13)C-breath test. Itopride (30 mg/kg, per os) significantly accelerated gastric emptying compared with the vehicle group. In a comparison with the conventional phenol red test, there was a correlation between the C(max) value of breath test and gastric emptying (%) of phenol red tests in treatment with loperamide or mosapride. These results indicate that the (13)C-acetic acid breath test is an accurate, noninvasive, and simple method for monitoring gastric emptying in mice. This method is useful to assess the effect of drugs and gut function pharmacologically.

  16. Amino Acid Changes in the HIV-1 gp41 Membrane Proximal Region Control Virus Neutralization Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bradley

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most HIV-1 vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies that are active against highly sensitive (tier-1 viruses or rare cases of vaccine-matched neutralization-resistant (tier-2 viruses, but no vaccine has induced antibodies that can broadly neutralize heterologous tier-2 viruses. In this study, we isolated antibodies from an HIV-1-infected individual that targeted the gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER that may have selected single-residue changes in viral variants in the MPER that resulted in neutralization sensitivity to antibodies targeting distal epitopes on the HIV-1 Env. Similarly, a single change in the MPER in a second virus from another infected-individual also conferred enhanced neutralization sensitivity. These gp41 single-residue changes thus transformed tier-2 viruses into tier-1 viruses that were sensitive to vaccine-elicited tier-1 neutralizing antibodies. These data demonstrate that Env amino acid changes within the MPER bnAb epitope of naturally-selected escape viruses can increase neutralization sensitivity to multiple types of neutralizing antibodies, and underscore the critical importance of the MPER for maintaining the integrity of the tier-2 HIV-1 trimer.

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells by gastric acid and bile during in vitro gastrointestinal transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus can cause diarrhoeal food poisoning by production of enterotoxins in the small intestine. The prerequisite for diarrhoeal disease is thus survival during gastrointestinal passage. Methods Vegetative cells of 3 different B. cereus strains were cultivated in a real composite food matrix, lasagne verde, and their survival during subsequent simulation of gastrointestinal passage was assessed using in vitro experiments simulating transit through the human upper gastrointestinal tract (from mouth to small intestine). Results No survival of vegetative cells was observed, despite the high inoculum levels of 7.0 to 8.0 log CFU/g and the presence of various potentially protective food components. Significant fractions (approx. 10% of the consumed inoculum) of B. cereus vegetative cells survived gastric passage, but they were subsequently inactivated by bile exposure in weakly acidic intestinal medium (pH 5.0). In contrast, the low numbers of spores present (up to 4.0 log spores/g) showed excellent survival and remained viable spores throughout the gastrointestinal passage simulation. Conclusion Vegetative cells are inactivated by gastric acid and bile during gastrointestinal passage, while spores are resistant and survive. Therefore, the physiological form (vegetative cells or spores) of the B. cereus consumed determines the subsequent gastrointestinal survival and thus the infective dose, which is expected to be much lower for spores than vegetative cells. No significant differences in gastrointestinal survival ability was found among the different strains. However, considerable strain variability was observed in sporulation tendency during growth in laboratory medium and food, which has important implications for the gastrointestinal survival potential of the different B. cereus strains. PMID:23034184

  18. Action of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric acid secretion in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssen, S; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    The action of intragastric ethanol in various concentrations equivalent to those found in alcoholic beverages (1.5-40 v/v), ethanol 96% (v/v) and of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini and sherry) or by fermentation plus distillation (e.g. whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac and rum) on gastric acid output (GAO) was studied in anaesthetized Wistar rats. Ethanol concentrations of 1.5%, 4% and 10% v/v did not significantly alter basal GAO, whereas all higher concentrations of ethanol (20%, 40% and 96% v/v) significantly (P distillation significantly decreased GAO as compared to control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Glucose solutions to which yeast was added, resulting in fermentation, were as potent stimuli of GAO as beer. Lyophilized fermented glucose at different concentrations (dilution of 1:20 to 1:1) dose-dependently stimulated GAO: the highest dilution (1:20) had no effect, the 1:5 dilution significantly increased gastric acid secretion similarly to that of beer and fermented glucose. The highest concentration of lyophilized fermented glucose (1:1) was as potent as the MAO after pentagastrin (90% of MAO). In conclusion, the present investigation shows for the first time that, in rats: (1) ethanol in a concentration > 10% v/v inhibits GAO; (2) lower ethanol concentrations (distillation are powerful stimulants of GAO; (4) the stimulatory non-alcoholic ingredients of these alcoholic beverages are most likely produced during the process of fermentation of carbohydrates and removed during the following process of distillation.

  19. Anti-Warburg effect of rosmarinic acid via miR-155 in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shuai Han,* Shaohua Yang,* Zhai Cai, Dongyue Pan, Zhou Li, Zonghai Huang, Pusheng Zhang, Huijuan Zhu, Lijun Lei, Weiwei Wang Department of General Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Background: The Warburg effect refers to glycolytic production of adenosine triphosphate under aerobic conditions, and is a universal property of most cancer cells. Chronic inflammation is a key factor promoting the Warburg effect. This study aimed to determine whether rosmarinic acid (RA has an anti-Warburg effect in gastric carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism for the anti-Warburg effect was also investigated.Methods: An MTT assay was used to examine MKN45 cell growth in vitro. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect proinflammatory cytokines. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate levels of microRNA expression in cells. Protein expression was determined by Western blotting assay. Mouse xenograft models were established using MKN45 cells to assess the anti-Warburg effect in gastric carcinoma in vivo.Results: RA suppressed glucose uptake and lactate production. It also inhibited expression of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, which affects the glycolytic pathway. Inflammation promoted the Warburg effect in cancer cells. As expected, RA inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and microRNAs related to inflammation, suggesting that RA may suppress the Warburg effect via an inflammatory pathway, such as that involving interleukin (IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3. miR-155 was found to be an important mediator in the relationship between inflammation and tumorigenesis. We further showed that miR-155 was the target gene regulating the Warburg effect via inactivation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, we found that RA suppressed the Warburg effect in vivo.Conclusion: RA might

  20. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p=0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid......The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H-2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high...

  1. Impaired gastric acid secretion in mice with a targeted disruption of the NHE4 Na+/H+ exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawenis, Lara R; Greeb, Jeannette M; Prasad, Vikram; Grisham, Christina; Sanford, L Philip; Doetschman, Thomas; Andringa, Anastasia; Miller, Marian L; Shull, Gary E

    2005-04-01

    The NHE4 Na+/H+ exchanger is abundantly expressed on the basolateral membrane of gastric parietal cells. To test the hypothesis that it is required for normal acid secretion, NHE4-null mutant (NHE4-/-) mice were prepared by targeted disruption of the NHE4 (Slc9a4) gene. NHE4-/- mice survived and appeared outwardly normal. Analysis of stomach contents revealed that NHE4-/- mice were hypochlorhydric. The reduction in acid secretion was similar in 18-day-old, 9-week-old, and 6-month-old mice, indicating that the hypochlorhydria phenotype did not progress over time, as was observed in mice lacking the NHE2 Na+/H+ exchanger. Histological abnormalities were observed in the gastric mucosa of 9-week-old NHE4-/- mice, including sharply reduced numbers of parietal cells, a loss of mature chief cells, increased numbers of mucous and undifferentiated cells, and an increase in the number of necrotic and apoptotic cells. NHE4-/- parietal cells exhibited limited development of canalicular membranes and a virtual absence of tubulovesicles, and some of the microvilli had centrally bundled actin. We conclude that NHE4, which may normally be coupled with the AE2 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, is important for normal levels of gastric acid secretion, gastric epithelial cell differentiation, and development of secretory canalicular and tubulovesicular membranes.

  2. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy.

  3. Amperometric microsensor for direct probing of ascorbic acid in human gastric juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Emily A.; Pauliukaite, Rasa; Hocevar, Samo B. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogorevc, Bozidar, E-mail: bogorevc@ki.s [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smyth, Malcolm R. [National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2010-09-30

    This article reports on a novel microsensor for amperometric measurement of ascorbic acid (AA) under acidic conditions (pH 2) based on a carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) modified with nickel oxide and ruthenium hexacyanoferrate (NiO-RuHCF). This sensing layer was deposited electrochemically in a two-step procedure involving an initial galvanostatic NiO deposition followed by a potentiodynamic RuHCF deposition from solutions containing the precursor salts. Several important parameters were examined to characterize and optimize the NiO-RuHCF sensing layer with respect to its current response to AA by using cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. With the NiO-RuHCF coated CFME, the AA oxidation potential under acidic conditions was shifted to a less positive value for about 0.2 V (E{sub p} of ca. 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl) as compared to a bare CFME, which greatly improves the electrochemical selectivity. Using the hydrodynamic amperometry mode, the current vs. AA concentration in 0.01 M HCl, at a selected operating potential of 0.30 V, was found to be linear over a wide range of 10-1610 {mu}M (n = 22, r = 0.999) with a calculated limit of detection of 1.0 {mu}M. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) ranging from 4% to 5% (n = 6), depending on the AA concentration, and with a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (r.s.d.) of 6.9% at 100 {mu}M AA. The long-term reproducibility, using the same microsensor for 112 consecutive measurements of 20 {mu}M AA over 11 h of periodic probing sets over 4 days, was 16.1% r.s.d., thus showing very good stability at low AA levels and suitability for use over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, using the proposed microsensor, additionally coated with a protective cellulose acetate membrane, the calibration plot obtained in the extremely complex matrix of real undiluted gastric juice was linear from 10 to 520 {mu}M (n = 14, r = 0

  4. The cholecystokinin CCK2 receptor antagonist, JNJ-26070109, inhibits gastric acid secretion and prevents omeprazole-induced acid rebound in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, TD; Lagaud, G; Wagaman, P; Freedman, JM; Yan, W; Andries, L; Rizzolio, MC; Morton, MF; Shankley, NP

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE JNJ-26070109 [(R)4-bromo-N-[1-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(quinoxaline-5-sulfonylamino)-benzamide] is a novel antagonist at cholecystokinin CCK2 receptors with good pharmacokinetic properties and represents a novel mechanism for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic treatment with JNJ-26070109 could prevent, as well as treat, acid rebound in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A chronic fistula was surgically inserted into the stomach of rats to enable the measurement of acid secretion under basal, pentagastrin and histamine-stimulated conditions. JNJ-26070109 and omeprazole were administered separately and in combination. KEY RESULTS Sustained administration of omeprazole alone and in combination with JNJ-26070109 inhibited gastric acid secretion by >90%. However, 3 days after withdrawing treatment, there was a rebound hypersecretion by ∼1.5-fold in omeprazole-treated animals. No such acid rebound was observed with JNJ-26070109 alone or with co-administration of JNJ-26070109 and omeprazole. The anti-trophic effects of JNJ-26070109 in the gastric mucosal paralleled the effects on acid rebound. Administration of JNJ-26070109 for 3 days after cessation of omeprazole prevented the occurrence of acid rebound. Interestingly, chronic, but not acute, treatment with JNJ-26070109 also inhibited histamine-stimulated acid secretion. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Chronic administration of JNJ-26070109 effectively inhibited gastric acid secretion and suppressed proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced acid rebound in the rat. This work advances the field by demonstrating that modest doses of a competitive CCK2 receptor antagonist have significant and functionally important anti-trophic actions in the gastric mucosa. These properties make JNJ-26070109 a suitable candidate for clinical investigation for the treatment of GORD. PMID:22300007

  5. Buffer capacity of food components influences the acid tolerance response in Salmonella Typhimurium during simulated gastric passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Sidsel; Buschhardt, Tasja; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2014-01-01

    Food composition, buffer capacity, and fat and protein content have been shown to effect the gastric acid survival of pathogens (Waterman & Small 1998). In this study, simple food-model substances with different buffer capacities were investigated for their ability to support survival of stationary...... major stationary phase ATR regulators, we found an approx. four-fold increase in expression of ompR and an approx. three-fold increase of rpoS in saline and buffered saline, respectively, after 15 min of gastric acid challenge. The relative expression of these genes, were significantly lower in Brain...... Heart Infusion Broth having a higher buffer capacity. We suggest this to be associated with a varying ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to mount a stationary phase acid tolerance response (ATR) depending on the buffer capacity of the food vehicle....

  6. Uric acid promotes apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells by oxidative stress and the activation of NADPH oxidase NOX 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verzola

    Full Text Available Mild hyperuricemia has been linked to the development and progression of tubulointerstitial renal damage. However the mechanisms by which uric acid may cause these effects are poorly explored. We investigated the effect of uric acid on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2. Increased uric acid concentration decreased tubule cell viability and increased apoptotic cells in a dose dependent manner (up to a 7-fold increase, p<0.0001. Uric acid up-regulated Bax (+60% with respect to Ctrl; p<0.05 and down regulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Apoptosis was blunted by Caspase-9 but not Caspase-8 inhibition. Uric acid induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane, elevations in reactive oxygen species and a pronounced up-regulation of NOX 4 mRNA and protein (p<0.05. In addition, both reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI as well as by Nox 4 knockdown. URAT 1 transport inhibition by probenecid and losartan and its knock down by specific siRNA, blunted apoptosis, suggesting a URAT 1 dependent cell death. In summary, our data show that uric acid increases the permissiveness of proximal tubule kidney cells to apoptosis by triggering a pathway involving NADPH oxidase signalling and URAT 1 transport. These results might explain the chronic tubulointerstitial damage observed in hyperuricaemic states and suggest that uric acid transport in tubular cells is necessary for urate-induced effects.

  7. Intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Zavros, Yana; Tessier, Art; Waghray, Meghna; Lentz, Steve; Gumucio, Deborah; Todisco, Andrea; Merchant, Juanita L

    2010-12-01

    Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through intracellular calcium (Ca2(+)(i))-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation. We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1, a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC inhibitors were used to modulate Ca(2+)(i)-release, PKC activity, and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H(+)/K(+)-β-cholera-toxin-overexpressing mice. Mice that expressed secreted hedgehog-interacting protein-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression also was repressed in the hyperchlorhydric H(+)/K(+)-β-cholera-toxin model with increased cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca(2+)(i) release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin-, and carbachol-mediated release of Ca(2+)(i) induced Shh expression. Ca(2+)-chelation with BAPTA + EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-α, -β, and -δ (but not PKC-ϵ) induced an Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene. Secretagogues that stimulate

  8. Do sensory neurons mediate adaptive cytoprotection of gastric mucosa against bile acid injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D W; Ritchie, W P; Dempsey, D T

    1992-01-01

    Pretreatment with the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate protects the gastric mucosa from the injury induced by the subsequent application of 5 mmol acidified taurocholate, a phenomenon referred to as "adaptive cytoprotection." How this occurs remains an enigma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of sensory neurons and mucus secretion in this phenomenon. Prior to injury with 5 mmol acidified taurocholate (pH 1.2), the stomachs of six groups of rats were subjected to the following protocol. Two groups were topically pretreated with either saline or the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. Two other groups received the topical anesthetic 1% lidocaine prior to pretreatment with either saline or 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. The last two groups got the mucolytic agent 10% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after pretreatment with either saline or 1 mmol acidified taurocholate. Injury was assessed by measuring net transmucosal ion fluxes, luminal appearance of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and gross and histologic injury. Pretreatment with the mild irritant 1 mmol acidified taurocholate significantly decreased bile acid-induced luminal ion fluxes and DNA accumulation, suggesting mucosal protection (corroborated by gross and histologic injury analysis). This effect was negated by lidocaine but not by NAC. Thus, it appears that sensory neurons, and not increased mucus secretion, play a critical role in adaptive cytoprotection.

  9. Amino acid and proximate composition of fish bone gelatin from different warm-water species: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Research on fish bone gelatin has been increased in the last decade. The quality of gelatin depends on its physicochemical properties. Fish bone gelatin from warm-water fishes has a superior amino acid composition than cold-water fishes. The composition of amino acid can determine the strength and stability of gelatin. Thus, it is important to analyze the composition of amino acid as well as proximate composition for potential gelatin material. The warm water fish species used in this study were Grass carp, Pangasius catfish, Catfish, Lizard fish, Tiger-toothed croaker, Pink perch, Red snapper, Brown spotted grouper, and King weakfish. There werre five dominant amino acid in fish bone gelatin including glycine (21.2-36.7%), proline (8.7-11.7%), hydroxyproline (5.3-9.6%), alanine (8.48-12.9%), and glutamic acid (7.23-10.15%). Different warm-water species has some differences in amino acid composition. The proximate composition showed that fishbone gelatin from Pangasius catfish has the highest protein content. The water composition of all fishbone gelatin was well suited to the standard. Meanwhile, based on ash content, only gelatin from gelatin Pangasius catfish met the standard for food industries.

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori- associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection.

  11. Demand for Zn2+ in acid-secreting gastric mucosa and its requirement for intracellular Ca2+.

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    JingJing Liu

    Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that Zn(2+ plays a critical role in regulating acidity within the secretory compartments of isolated gastric glands. Here, we investigate the content, distribution and demand for Zn(2+ in gastric mucosa under baseline conditions and its regulation during secretory stimulation.Content and distribution of zinc were evaluated in sections of whole gastric mucosa using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Significant stores of Zn(2+ were identified in neural elements of the muscularis, glandular areas enriched in parietal cells, and apical regions of the surface epithelium. In in vivo studies, extraction of the low abundance isotope, (70Zn(2+, from the circulation was demonstrated in samples of mucosal tissue 24 hours or 72 hours after infusion (250 µg/kg. In in vitro studies, uptake of (70Zn(2+ from media was demonstrated in isolated rabbit gastric glands following exposure to concentrations as low as 10 nM. In additional studies, demand of individual gastric parietal cells for Zn(2+ was monitored using the fluorescent zinc reporter, fluozin-3, by measuring increases in free intracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ {[Zn(2+](i} during exposure to standard extracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ (10 µM for standard intervals of time. Under resting conditions, demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increased with exposure to secretagogues (forskolin, carbachol/histamine and under conditions associated with increased intracellular Ca(2+ {[Ca(2+](i}. Uptake of Zn(2+ was abolished following removal of extracellular Ca(2+ or depletion of intracellular Ca(2+ stores, suggesting that demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increases and depends on influx of extracellular Ca(2+.This study is the first to characterize the content and distribution of Zn(2+ in an organ of the gastrointestinal tract. Our findings offer the novel interpretation, that Ca(2+ integrates basolateral demand for Zn(2+ with stimulation of secretion of HCl into the lumen of the gastric

  12. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca-Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-07-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids) was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L) were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment. (Author)

  13. Substrate modulation of fatty acid effects on energization and respiration of kidney proximal tubules during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bienholz

    Full Text Available Kidney proximal tubules subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation develop a nonesterified fatty acid-induced energetic deficit characterized by persistent partial mitochondrial deenergization that can be prevented and reversed by citric acid cycle substrates. To further assess the role of competition between fatty acids and substrates on inner membrane substrate carriers in the deenergization and the contribution to deenergization of fatty acid effects on respiratory function, digitonin-permeabilized rabbit and mouse tubules were studied using either addition of exogenous oleate after control normoxic incubation or increases of endogenous fatty acids produced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The results demonstrated major effects of matrix oxaloacetate accumulation on succinate-supported energization and respiration and their modification by fatty acids. Improvements of energization in the presence of fatty acids by glutamate were shown to result predominantly from lowering matrix oxaloacetate rather than from amelioration of transmembrane cycling of fatty acids and uncoupling. Mouse tubules had 2.5 fold higher rates of succinate utilization, which resulted in stronger effects of oxaloacetate accumulation than rabbit tubules. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced respiratory inhibition that was more severe for complex I-dependent substrates. Fatty acids themselves did not acutely contribute to this respiratory inhibition, but lowering them during 60 min. reoxygenation to allow recovery of ATP during that period alleviated it. These data clarify the basis for the nonesterified fatty acid-induced mitochondrial energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules that impairs structural and functional recovery and provide insight into interactions that need to be considered in the design of substrate-based interventions to improve mitochondrial function.

  14. E3710, a new proton pump inhibitor, with a long-lasting inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Kotaro; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Kubota, Atsuhiko; Kato, Hiroshi; Hirota, Kazuo; Kuramochi, Hiroko; Murota, Miki; Tabata, Yoshikuni; Ueda, Masato; Harada, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Masanobu; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Iida, Daisuke; Terauchi, Hiroki; Yasui, Sou; Miyazawa, Shuhei; Nagakawa, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the pharmacology of sodium (R)-2-[4-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl) methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl]methylsulfinyl-1H-benzimidazol (E3710), a new proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and its effect on gastric acid secretion. E3710 irreversibly inhibited H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in pig gastric vesicles with an acidic internal environment with an IC(50) of 0.28 microM. Administration of E3710 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg; n = 6) intraduodenally in a gastric fistula model in dogs inhibited histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion at 0 to 2 and 24 to 26 h after administration with ED(50) values of 0.18 and 0.22 mg/kg, respectively. The inhibition by E3710 was 2.3 times more potent than that of another representative PPI, esomeprazole (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/kg; n = 6) at 0 to 2 h after administration (ED(50) = 0.40 mg/kg) and 2.8 times more potent at 24 to 26 h (ED(50) = 0.71 mg/kg). In the gastric fistula dogs, the intragastric pH was >or=4 for 17% (n = 27) of a 24-h period with vehicle alone, but when E3710 was administered, at 0.2 (n = 4), 0.4 (n = 8), and 0.8 mg/kg (n = 5), the pH was >or=4 for 40, 79, and 88% of a day, respectively. The corresponding values for esomeprazole at 0.8 (n = 4) and 1.6 mg/kg (n = 8) were 55 and 59%, respectively. In a crossover study with vehicle, E3710 at 0.4 mg/kg and esomeprazole at 1.6 mg/kg (n = 6), E3710 increased the intragastric pH to >4 for 82% of a day compared with 61% of a day with esomeprazole. These results show that E3710 is a long-acting inhibitor of gastric acid secretion and a promising novel therapy for acid-related diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  15. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  16. Molecular pharmacological approaches to effects of capsaicinoids and of classical antisecretory drugs on gastric basal acid secretion and on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in human healthy subjects (mini review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Imre Laszlo; Czimmer, Jozsef; Szolcsányi, Janos; Mózsik, Gyula

    2013-01-01

    Actions of various drugs have been tested on the gastric acid basal secretion and on the drug (Indomethacin)- induced gastric mucosal damage; however their physiological and pharmacological mechanisms have not been compared. The effects of capsaicinoids, atropine, cimetidine, omeprazole, famotidine and ranitidine were studied on gastric basal acid output, whereas the gastric mucosal preventive effects of capsaicinoids (capsaicin), atropine and cimetidine were tested on the indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal microbleedings in human healthy subjects. Results were presented by molecular pharmacological method; affinity (pD) and intrinsic activity (α-values) were calculated. Intrinsic activity curves are based on comparison to atropine effect (α(atropine)= 1.00). For evaluation of physiological and pharmacological effects of compounds molar doses of pD(2) (necessary doses to produce 50% inhibition) and pA(2) (50% inhibion on intrinsic activity) were calculated from affinity and intrinsic activity curves. The pD(2) values for compounds were as follows: 5.88 for capsaicinoids, 5.40 for atropine , 2.23 for cimetidine, 3.33 for ranitidine, 3.77 for famotidine and 3.97 for omeprazole. α - value results for compounds were: 0.76 for capsaicinoids, and 1.00 for atropine, cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and omeprazole all equal to 1.00 on gastric acid basal secretion. The pD(2) values on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal microbleeding were found as follows: 6.00 for capsaicinoids, 5.50 for atropine, and 3.50 for cimetidine, meanwhile α-values resulted 0.76 for capsaicinoids, 1.00 for atropine and cimetidine. Comparison classical antisecretory drugs acting on different pathways but in much more higher molar concentrations. The atropine and capsaicinoids act in about the same molar concentration which suggests a significant physiological role for capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves in the regulation of gastric basal acid secretion and in the prevention of chemically

  17. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  18. Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates glucagon secretion, enhances lipid absorption, and inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Pott, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    or placebo during the ingestion of a solid test meal. Gastric emptying was determined using a 13C-sodium-octanote breath test. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-2, free fatty acids, free glycerol, and triglycerides were determined. RESULTS: GLP-2 administration led......BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well...... to a marked increase in glucagon concentrations both in the fasting state and during the meal study (P plasma concentrations of triglycerides and free fatty acids were significantly higher during GLP-2 infusion compared with placebo (P

  19. Chemopreventive effects of rofecoxib and folic acid on gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Su Juan; Xiao, Shu Dong; Peng, Yan Shen; Chen, Xiao Yu; Shi, Yao

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents of gastrointestinal cancers, but few studies on gastric cancer have been carried out. A decrease in folic acid supplement and subsequent DNA hypomethylation are related to gastrointestinal cancers, and it has been shown that high-dose folic acid may interfere with gastric carcinogenesis in dogs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and folic acid on the chemoprevention of gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Wistar rats, and to evaluate the cell proliferation of gastric mucosa in different experimental groups. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (16 rats in each group). In the control group, the rats were given pure water and basal diet. In the MNNG group, the rats received MNNG in drinking water (100 mg/L) and basal diet. In the MNNG + low-dose rofecoxib group, the rats were given MNNG and rofecoxib 5 mg/kg per day with basal diet. In the MNNG + high-dose rofecoxib group, the rats were given MNNG and rofecoxib 15 mg/kg per day with basal diet. In the MNNG + folic acid group, the rats were given MNNG and folic acid 5 mg/kg per day with basal diet. The experiment was terminated at 50 weeks, and all rats were killed. Blood samples of 3 mL were obtained for measurement of serum folic acid concentrations in the control group, the MNNG group and the MNNG + folic acid group by using chemiluminescent method. The stomach was removed from all rats for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical study. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in gastric epithelial cells was also determined. In the MNNG group, five of 11 rats (45.5%) developed gastric cancer, while in all other four groups no gastric cancer was found (P cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that in the non

  20. Minor diterpenoids from cascarilla (Croton eluteria Bennet) and evaluation of the cascarilla extract and cascarillin effects on gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Campagnuolo, Claudio; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Petrucci, Francesca; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2003-11-19

    Three new diterpenoids belonging to the clerodane (2-3) and halimane (4) structural types have been isolated from the bark of Croton eluteria Bennet, commonly known as cascarilla. Their structures have been fully characterized by spectroscopic means. Cascarilla extract and its major component, cascarillin, were found to significantly increase histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in the mouse stomach. These preliminary results provide the first rationale for the use of cascarilla in bitter preparations aimed at improving digestion.

  1. Proximate composition and fatty acid content of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae along the year seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavalcanti Martino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae were collected at the mangrove of "Barra de Guaratiba" district, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the aim to determine the proximate composition and fatty acid content. Along the year seasons no statistical (P>0.05 difference was observed in the values of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash. They were 82.0%; 9.7%; 1.7%; 3.2%, in average, respectively. However, glycogen was significantly (PCom o objetivo de determinar a composição centesimal e de ácidos graxos da ostra de mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae, amostras foram coletadas durante um ano no manguezal localizado na Barra de Guaratiba, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Nenhuma diferença estatística (P>0,05 foi observada para os valores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídio bruto e cinza, que foram em média: 82%; 9,7%; 1,7% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, os valores encontrados para o glicogênio foram significativamente diferentes (P<0,05 para as amostras de primavera (4,4% e inverno (4,2% do que para as amostras de verão (2,7% e outono (2,9%. Os ácidos graxos saturados e poliinsaturados foram respectivamente, os principais grupos de ácidos graxos das ostras, sendo que o ácido palmítico (16:0 foi o ácido graxo mais abundante em todos as amostras de ostras coletadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que esta espécie é caracterizada tanto por uma baixa concentração de lipídios (< 2,0% como também, por uma elevada concentração dos ácidos eicosapentaenóico (20:5n-3, EPA e docosahexaenóico (22:6n-3, DHA. Portanto, baseado no presente resultado é possível concluir que em termos de lipídios e de ácidos graxos a composição nutricional da C.rhizophorae é recomendável para o consumo humano.

  2. Effect of sodium hydrosulfide on mRNA expression of prostaglandin E2 receptors in response to mucosal acidification and distention-induced gastric acid secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Prostaglandins have been shown to mediate the gastro-protective effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS but effect of NaHS on mRNA expression of prostaglandin E2 receptors (EP1, 3-4; EPs has not been investigated. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the effect of NaHS on mRNA expression of EPs receptors in response to mucosal acidification and distention-induced gastric acid secretion in rats. Materials and Methods: Fasted rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=6/group. They were control, and NaHS-treated groups. To evaluate the effect of NaHS on mucosal mRNA expression of EPs receptors, the gastric mucosa exposed to stimulated gastric acid output and mucosal acidification. The pylorus sphincter catheterized for instillation of isotonic neutral saline or acidic solution. Ninety min after beginning the experiments, animals sacrificed and the gastric mucosa collected to determine the pH, mucus secretion and to quantify the mRNA expression of EPs receptors by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: present results showed that a NaHS increased the mucus secretion, mRNA expression of EP3 and EP4 receptors in response to distention-induced expression; b The mRNA expression of EP1 receptors increased while EP4 mRNA receptors decreased in response to mucosal acidification in NaHS-pretreated rats; and c NaHS increased pH of gastric contents both in response to distention-induced gastric acid secretion and mucosal acidification. Conclusion: NaHS behaves in a different manner. It effectively only increased the pH of gastric contents to reinforce the gastric mucosa against a highly acidic solution but modulated both acid and mucus secretion when the rate of acid increase in the stomach was slower.

  3. Measurement of gastric emptying by intragastric gamma scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbert, C H; Mathis, C; Bobillier, E; Laplace, J P; Horowitz, M

    1997-09-01

    Gastric emptying is usually measured in animals and humans by dilution/sampling or external scintigraphy. These methods are either time consuming or require expensive equipment. The capacity of a miniature gamma counter positioned in the stomach to measure emptying of liquid and solid meals was evaluated. In eight conscious pigs fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulae, gastric emptying of saline (500 mL), dextrose (20%, 500 mL), porridge (300 g) and scrambled eggs (300 g), all labelled with 3.5 MBq 99mTC, was evaluated. When positioned in the antrum the probe was unable to quantify gastric emptying. In contrast, measurements of the fractional emptying of saline over 4-min periods by the probe positioned in the corpus and quantification of radioactivity in the duodenal effluent correlated closely (r = 0.88, P < 0.05). Gastric emptying (50% emptying time) of saline and both solid meals measured by the probe was not significantly different from quantification of the duodenal effluent volume. No difference was observed also for the dextrose meal but only while gastric acid secretion was suppressed by omeprazole. We conclude that an intragastric gamma counter permits measurement of gastric emptying of homogeneous meals provided meal stimulation of gastric secretion was not extensive. This was possible probably by monitoring emptying from the proximal stomach.

  4. Gastric acid control with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole: a five-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Philip; Katz, Philip O; Chen, Yusong; Sostek, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors owe their clinical efficacy to their ability to suppress gastric acid production. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare intragastric pH following standard doses of esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. This randomized, open-label, comparative five-way crossover study evaluated the 24-h intragastric pH profile of oral esomeprazole 40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg once daily in 34 Helicobacter pylori-negative patients aged 18-60 yr with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five treatment sequences and study drug was taken on 5 consecutive mornings 30 minutes prior to a standardized breakfast. A washout period of at least 10 days separated each treatment phase. Thirty-four patients provided evaluable data for all five comparators. The mean number of hours of evaluable pH data was > or =23.75 hours. On day 5, intragastric pH was maintained above 4.0 for a mean of 14.0 h with esomeprazole, 12.1 h with rabeprazole, 11.8 h with omeprazole, 11.5 h with lansoprazole, and 10.1 h with pantoprazole (p omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole in patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  5. IL1B promoter polymorphism regulates the expression of gastric acid stimulating hormone gastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Meenakshi; Datta De, Dipanjana; Choudhury, Abhijit; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2009-07-01

    It is important to dissect the effect of the alternative alleles of a functional SNP on the entire biochemical pathway for the complete understanding of the mechanism of the manifestation of complex diseases. IL1B-511C>T and -31C>T promoter polymorphisms have been suggested as potential susceptibility loci for Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal diseases. We report that altered expression of IL1B due to a specific polymorphism in its promoter modulates the expression of gastrin, an acid regulating hormone. Treatment of gastric carcinoma cells, AGS, with IL1B resulted in a 20-fold reduction in gastrin expression. Gastrin promoter assay showed that IL1B inhibits gastrin expression at the transcriptional level and part of this inhibitory process is mediated via activation of NFkappaB and involvement of HDACs. An almost 3-fold increase in IL1B expression was observed when AGS cells were transfected with -31TIL1B expression plasmid in comparison to -31CIL1B. The -31TIL1B induced a 2-fold greater repression of the gastrin luciferase activity compared to -31CIL1B. This signaling of the -31TIL1B variant allele driven IL1B revealed an almost 1.5-fold greater expression of NFkappaB. Thus, this study showed that a single base substitution at the -31 position of the IL1B promoter brought about differential expression of IL1B which differentially altered both NFkappaB activation and gastrin expression.

  6. ε-Acetamidocaproic acid pharmacokinetics in rats with gastric ulcer or small bowel inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, U; Choi, Y H; Kim, Y G; Lee, B K; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) were evaluated after the intravenous and oral administration of an antiulcer agent, zinc acexamate (ZAC) at a dose of 20 mg kg⁻¹ (ion pairing between zinc and AACA) in rats with indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) or indomethacin-induced small bowel inflammation (ISBI). In IAGU rats, the area under the curves (AUCs) of AACA were significantly smaller after both the intravenous (551 versus 1270 μg min ml⁻¹) and oral (397 versus 562 μg min ml⁻¹) administration of ZAC than controls, possible due to the significantly faster CL(R) of AACA. In ISBI rats, however, the AUCs of AACA were comparable with controls after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC. In IAGU rats, the significantly smaller AUCs of AACA were due to the significantly faster CL(R) (due to the decreased urinary pH by indomethacin treatment) than controls. AACA has a basic secondary amine group. On the other hand, the comparable AUCs of AACA in ISBI rats were due to the comparable CL(R)s between ISBI and control rats. AACA was excreted in the urine via active renal tubular secretion in all rats studied.

  7. Performance, carcass quality, and gastric alterations in fattening pigs fed additives containing formic acid either coated with sorbate or mixed with lactic acid

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    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth-promoting effects of two dietary acidifiers based on formic acid were studied with 320 fattening pigs from ca 21 kg to ca 105 kg of body weight. The sorbate-coated formic acid contained formic acid and ammonium formate which were absorbed in diatomaceous earth and coated with potassium sorbate. The investigated liquid blend contained formic and lactic acids as the major components. These acidifiers were added to grower and finisher diets at levels of 3, 6, and 12 g kg-1 of feed. The grower and finisher diets in the negative control treatment contained no growth promoters, but the grower diet in the positive control treatment was supplemented with avilamycin (40 mg kg-1. The investigated acidifiers did not influence the performance of growing pigs (P > 0.05. In finishing pigs, all additions of the sorbate-coated formic acid improved daily weight gain compared to the negative control (P 0.05. The frequency of severe gastric alterations tended to be smaller when the diets contained 12 g kg-of the sorbate-coated formic acid (P = 0.07, but the results of the other acidifier treatments did not differ significantly from those in the negative control. In conclusion, both the sorbate-coated formic acid and the blend of formic and lactic acids have a growth-promoting effect in fattening pigs already in small dosages, but they do not influence carcass quality or cause gastric alterations.;

  8. Acid-gastric antisecretory effect of the ethanolic extract from Arctium lappa L. root: role of H+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+influx and the cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Burci, Ligia de Moura; Crestani, Sandra; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca; Dartora, Nessana; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; André, Eunice; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2017-07-28

    Arctium lappa L., popularly known as burdock, is a medicinal plant used worldwide. The antiulcer and gastric-acid antisecretory effects of ethanolic extract from roots of Arctium lappa (EET) were already demonstrated. However, the mechanism by which the extract reduces the gastric acid secretion remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antisecretory mode of action of EET. The effects of EET on H + , K + -ATPase activity were verified in vitro, whereas the effects of the extract on cholinergic-, histaminergic- or gastrinergic-acid gastric stimulation were assessed in vivo on stimulated pylorus ligated rats. Moreover, ex vivo contractility studies on gastric muscle strips from rats were also employed. The incubation with EET (1000 µg/ml) partially inhibited H + , K + -ATPase activity, and the intraduodenal administration of EET (10 mg/kg) decreased the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by bethanechol, histamine, and pentagastrin. EET (100-1000 µg/ml) did not alter the gastric relaxation induced by histamine but decreased acetylcholine-induced contraction in gastric fundus strips. Interestingly, EET also reduced the increase in the gastric muscle tone induced by 40 mM KCl depolarizing solution, as well as the maximum contractile responses evoked by CaCl 2 in Ca 2+ -free depolarizing solution, without impairing the effect of acetylcholine on fundus strips maintained in Ca 2+ -free nutritive solution. Our results reinforce the gastric antisecretory properties of preparations obtained from Arctium lappa, and indicate that the mechanisms involved in EET antisecretory effects include a moderate reduction of the H + , K + -ATPase activity associated with inhibitory effects on calcium influx and of cholinergic pathways in the stomach muscle.

  9. Effect of Gastric Acid Suppressant Prophylaxis on Incidence of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

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    Tahoora Abdollahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Critically ill children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress related mucosal injury. Reducing gastric acid by acid suppressant medication is the accepted prophylaxis treatment, but there is not any definitive guideline for using prophylaxis in PICU patients. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI and H2 Blocker (H2B prophylaxis on gastrointestinal bleeding in admitted patients of PICU, Mashhad- Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients admitted in PICU divided into two equal groups on the first day of admission. They received ranitidine or pantoprazole as prophylaxis of stress ulcer. Those patients who had history of gastrointestinal bleeding or coagulation disorder were excluded. 100 PICU patients who had not received prophylaxis during last 6 months retrospectively evaluated as control of the study. Data were collected as demographic characteristics, admission reason, definitive diagnosis, receiving corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation in each patient. Gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground aspirate, and melena and clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding were daily monitored. Data analyzed through descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, t-test and using SPSS-16 software.Results: Among 204 patients (control group=105 and case group=99, incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GB was 13.2% in which 6.9% of cases presented with clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding (CSGB. Loss of consciousness and respiratory distress were the main reason of admission. There was no significant differences between the incidence of (GB and (CSGB in experimental and control groups (P>0.05 as well as ranitidine and pantoprazole prophylaxis (P>0.05. Significant risk factors of (GB were mechanical ventilation and loss of consciousness and corticosteroid therapy

  10. The gastric acid secretagogue gastrin-releasing peptide and the inhibitor oxyntomodulin do not exert their effect directly on the parietal cell in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that gastrin-releasing peptide (a neuropeptide found in rat oxyntic mucosa) and oxyntomodulin (a glucagon-containing peptide of mammalian gut) could directly affect the acid secretion of the parietal cells. We therefore studied their effect on gastric acid production...... in vitro by measuring [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation, a reliable index of H+ generation, in isolated rat parietal cells. However, neither gastrin-releasing peptide nor oxyntomodulin influenced basal acid secretion or histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Electron-microscopic studies of unstimulated...

  11. Farnesoid X receptor signal is involved in deoxycholic acid-induced intestinal metaplasia of normal human gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2015-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway is known to be involved in the metabolism of bile acid, glucose and lipid. In the present study, we demonstrated that 400 µmol/l deoxycholic acid (DCA) stimulation promotes the proliferation of normal human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). In addition, DCA activated FXR and increased the expression of intestinal metaplasia genes, including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (Cdx2) and mucin 2 (MUC2). The treatment of FXR agonist GW4064/antagonist guggulsterone (Gug.) significantly increased/decreased the expression levels of FXR, Cdx2 and MUC2 protein in DCA-induced GES-1 cells. GW4064/Gug. also enhanced/reduced the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and binding of the Cdx2 promoter region and NF-κB, the most common subunit p50 protein. Taken together, the results indicated that DCA is capable of modulating the expression of Cdx2 and the downstream MUC2 via the nuclear receptor FXR-NF-κB activity in normal gastric epithelial cells. FXR signaling pathway may therefore be involved in the intestinal metaplasia of human gastric mucosa.

  12. In vitro effects of hydrochloric acid and various concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, or valeric acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Frank M; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Smith, Sionagh H; Elliott, Sarah B; Saxton, Arnold M

    2006-11-01

    To compare the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and various concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on tissue bioelectric properties of equine stomach nonglandular (NG) mucosa. Gastric tissues obtained from 48 adult horses. NG gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured and electrical resistance (R) and conductance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs (5, 10, 20, and 40 mM) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH of 1.5 and, to a lesser extent, 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc, PD, and R, whereas tissues exposed to acetic acid at a pH of acids at a pH of acid at a pH of acid at a pH of acid, in the presence of HCl at a pH of

  13. Bile acid and inflammation activate gastric cardia stem cells in a mouse model of Barrett’s-like metaplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, Michael; Bhagat, Govind; Abrams, Julian; Marache, Frederic; Good, Pamela; Lee, Michele D.; Lee, Yoomi; Friedman, Richard; Asfaha, Samuel; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Mahmood, Umar; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Kitajewski, Jan; Shawber, Carrie; Lightdale, Charles; Rustgi, Anil K.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises from Barrett esophagus (BE), intestinal-like columnar metaplasia linked to reflux esophagitis. In a transgenic mouse model of BE, esophageal overexpression of interleukin-1β phenocopies human pathology with evolution of esophagitis, Barrett’s-like metaplasia and EAC. Histopathology and gene signatures resembled closely human BE, with upregulation of TFF2, Bmp4, Cdx2, Notch1 and IL-6. The development of BE and EAC was accelerated by exposure to bile acids and/or nitrosamines, and inhibited by IL-6 deficiency. Lgr5+ gastric cardia stem cells present in BE were able to lineage trace the early BE lesion. Our data suggest that BE and EAC arise from gastric progenitors due to a tumor-promoting IL-1β-IL-6 signaling cascade and Dll1-dependent Notch signaling. PMID:22264787

  14. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Acuti, G; Marangon, A; Dalle Zotte, A

    2017-07-24

    In the perspective of improving the sustainability of meat production, insects have been rapidly emerging as innovative feed ingredient for some livestock species, including poultry. However, at present, there is still limited knowledge regarding the quality and sensory traits of the derived meat. Therefore, the present study tested the effect of a partial substitution of soya bean meal and oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on meat proximate composition, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents, fatty acid profile, oxidative status and sensory characteristics. To this purpose, three dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively, were fed to growing quails from 10 to 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered and breast meat was used for meat quality evaluations. Meat proximate composition, cholesterol content and oxidative status remained unaffected by H supplementation as well as its sensory characteristics and off-flavours perception. Differently, with increasing the dietary H inclusion, the total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions raised to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction thus lowering the healthiness of the breast meat. The H2 diet increased the contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine and threonine thus further enhancing the biological value of the meat protein. As a direct result of the dietary content of Ca and P, the meat of quails fed with the highest H level, displayed the highest Ca and the lowest P values. Therefore, meat quality evaluations confirmed H to be a promising insect protein source for quails. The only potential drawback from feeding H to broiler quails regarded the fatty acid profile of the meat, therefore requiring further research

  15. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten, and fish protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...... studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......, while the GLU meal caused elevated levels of a number of unidentified hydroxy fatty acids and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Also reported are a number of markers of fish intake unique to the COD meal....

  17. Structural identifiability analysis of pharmacokinetic models using DAISY: semi-mechanistic gastric emptying models for 13C-octanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2011-04-01

    Structural identifiability analysis is necessary for efficient parameter estimation and it is concerned with determination of whether the parameters in a model can be identified from specified experiments with perfect input-output data. Structural identifiability analysis is very important in mathematical modelling of biological and biomedical experiments and should be considered at the design stage of these experiments. There are three possible outcomes from a structural identifiability analysis; globally/uniquely identifiable, locally/non-uniquely identifiable or non-identifiable/unidentifiable. An ideal outcome is a globally/uniquely identifiable model, however a locally/non-uniquely identifiable outcome can help to identify areas of the model or experiment that need improvement. Despite the importance of structural identifiability analysis, it is still not widely used due to the heavy computational burden involved and the lack of software. A new software package, DAISY, that implemented differential algebra for identifiability analysis was recently released. DAISY is freely available, easy to use and does not require any high-level programming skill. The (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is now widely used for assessing the rate of gastric emptying in patients. Unlike scintigraphy, which is the gold standard and is a direct measure of the rate of gastric emptying, the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is an indirect method for assessing the rate of gastric emptying. However the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is cheaper, safer and easy to perform. Because the rate of excretion of (13)CO(2) in breath does not only reflect the rate of gastric emptying but other processes involved between the ingestion of (13)C-octanoic acid and elimination of (13)CO(2) in breath, the parameters commonly derived from the excretion data are not direct measures of gastric emptying. The aim of this paper was to propose a new semi-mechanistic model for the analysis of (13)C-octanoic acid

  18. Gastroprotective effects of sulforaphane and thymoquinone against acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zulfu; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Kocak, Cengiz; Akcılar, Raziye; Bayat, Zeynep; Simsek, Hasan; Duzgun, Sukru Aydin

    2016-06-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly cause gastric ulcers (GUs). We investigated the effects of sulforaphane (SF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in rats with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced GUs. Thirty-five male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: control; ASA; ASA with vehicle; ASA + SF; and ASA + TQ. Compounds were administered by oral gavage before GU induction. GUs were induced by intragastric administration of ASA. Four hours after GU induction, rats were killed and stomachs excised. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, total thiol, nitric oxide, asymmetric dimethylarginine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, superoxide dismutase activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity in tissue were measured. Messenger RNA expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells were analyzed. Renal tissues were evaluated by histopathologic and immunohistochemical means. SF and TQ reduced GU indices, apoptosis, total oxidant status, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions (P < 0.001, P = 0.001). Both examined compounds increased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, total antioxidant status, total thiol, nitric oxide levels, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases, HO-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and HO-1 expressions (P < 0.001). These results suggest that pretreatment with SF or TQ can reduce ASA-induced GUs via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. These compounds may be useful therapeutic strategies to prevent the gastrointestinal adverse effects that limit nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  20. Effect of netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, on gastric acid secretion and rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinaemia in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Malcolm; Dowen, Sally; Turnbull, Gillian; van den Berg, Frans; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan; Black, James

    2015-05-01

    To compare gastric acid suppression by netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, with that by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and to determine if netazepide can prevent the trophic effects of PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia. Thirty healthy subjects completed a double-blind, randomized, parallel group trial of oral netazepide and rabeprazole, alone and combined, once daily for 6 weeks. Primary end points were: basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and 24 h circulating gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA) at baseline, start and end of treatment, gastric biopsies at baseline and end of treatment and basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and dyspepsia questionnaire after treatment withdrawal. All treatments similarly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. All treatments increased serum gastrin, but the combination and rabeprazole did so more than netazepide alone. The combination also reduced basal acid secretion. Rabeprazole increased plasma CgA, whereas netazepide and the combination reduced it. None of the biopsies showed enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia. Withdrawal of treatments led neither to rebound hyperacidity nor dyspepsia. Netazepide suppressed pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion as effectively as did rabeprazole. The reduction in basal acid secretion and greater increase in serum gastrin by the combination is consistent with more effective acid suppression. Despite our failure to show rabeprazole-induced ECL cell hyperplasia and rebound hyperacidity, the increase in plasma CgA after rabeprazole is consistent with a trophic effect on ECL cells, which netazepide prevented. Thus, netazepide is a potential treatment for the trophic effects of hypergastrinaemia and, with or without a PPI, is a potential treatment for acid-related conditions. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of diglycolic acid exposure to human proximal tubule cells in vitro and rat kidneys in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Mossoba

    Full Text Available Diglycolic acid (DGA is present in trace amounts in our food supply and is classified as an indirect food additive linked with the primary GRAS food additive carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Carboxymethyl starches are used as a filler/binder excipient in dietary supplement tablets and a thickening ingredient in many other processed foods. We sought to utilize the human proximal tubule HK-2 cell line as an in vitro cellular model system to evaluate its acute nephrotoxicity of DGA. We found that DGA was indeed toxic to HK-2 cells in all in vitro assays in our study, including a highly sensitive Luminex assay that measures levels of an in vitro biomarker of kidney-specific toxicity, Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1. Interestingly, in vitro KIM-1 levels also correlated with in vivo KIM-1 levels in urine collected from rats treated with DGA by daily oral gavage. The use of in vitro and in vivo models towards understanding the effectiveness of an established in vitro system to predict in vivo outcomes would be particularly useful in rapidly screening compounds that are suspected to be unsafe to consumers. The merit of the HK-2 cell model in predicting human toxicity and accelerating the process of food toxicant screening would be especially important for regulatory purposes. Overall, our study not only revealed the value of HK-2 in vitro cell model for nephrotoxicity evaluation, but also uncovered some of the mechanistic aspects of the human proximal tubule injury that DGA may cause. Keywords: Kidney proximal tubule, HK-2 cells, Diglycolic acid, Nephrotoxicity

  3. Adaptations in the physiological heterogeneity and viability of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium, after exposure to simulated gastric acid fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atheesha; Barnard, Tobias George

    2017-12-01

    Stomach acidity is an important barrier of the human body to protect itself from microbial pathogens entering the small intestine and causing infection. This study examined the survival adaptations of non-acid adapted diarrheal Shigella and Salmonella strains in an environment mimicking the human stomach. The bacterial responses to the challenge of acidic simulated gastric fluid were studied using flow cytometry physiological heterogeneity, membrane integrity and survival (culturability) respectively. Flow cytometry showed that bacterial cells, when exposed to gastric fluid, transformed distinctly, into physiologically heterogeneous sub-populations: intact, stressed and damaged cells, when stained with propidium iodide and thiazole orange. Shigella and Salmonella cells became membrane compromised during initial acid shock (0-30 min), and 80% of these cells shifted to the stressed state throughout gastric fluid exposure. Approximately 10-30% of bacterial strains remained culturable after 60 min of gastric fluid exposure at pH 2.5-4.5, with the percentage increasing with an inoculum size of 102 CFU/ml. This ability of non-acid adapted Shigella and Salmonella sp. to adapt and survive low pH gastric fluid, even though the bacterial numbers decreased or changed to a stressed state, further supports the possible risk of infection when consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acid and low temperature treatments on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in pork and its subsequent survival in simulated gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Quintão Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis in stored pork and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. A culture of S. Enteritidis was subjected to acid treatment prior to inoculation into pork, stored under refrigeration at frozen temperatures and exposed to SGF. The S. Enteritidis CCS3 and ATCC 13076 strains previously subjected to acid treatment (at pH 4.0-5.0 were inoculated in pork and stored at 4°C and -18°C. Storage at 4ºC did not affect the populations of both S. Enteritidis strains. After 84 days at -18°C, the mean population of both CCS3 and ATCC strains were reduced by 0.8 and 1.5 log cycles, respectively. Prior acid treatment did not enhance the survival of both strains at low temperatures. After acid treatment and low temperature storage, S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 lost culturability after being exposed to SGF for 10 minutes. In contrast, S. Enteritidis CCS3 was tolerant until three hours of SGF exposure. S. Enteritidis CCS3 submitted to pH 4.0 was more tolerant to SGF exposure than when submitted to pH 4.5, 5.0 and without acid treatment. Therefore, this study indicates that exposure to an acidic and cold environment during processing enhanced the ability of S. Enteritidis to survive in the gastric environment of the human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella infection after consumption of pork.

  5. Mitochondria-mediated disturbance of fatty acid metabolism in proximal tubule epithelial cells leads to renal interstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Jiang, X-X; Li, Y-W; He, Q

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of mitochondria-mediated fatty acid metabolism in proximal tubule cells in renal interstitial fibrosis. Intraperitoneal injection of folate was performed to induce renal interstitial fibrosis in mice. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4IL) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) in samples. Electron microscope was used to detect the activity of mitochondria. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were chosen as evaluation criteria for renal function. Western-blotting was used to detect protein expression of cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to test renal structure and deposition of collagen. In renal interstitial fibrosis, mitochondria mediated the dysfunction and the promotion of tubulointerstitial fatty acid metabolism. Besides, it could also reduce renal interstitial fibrosis and alleviate the fatty acid metabolism of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced fatty acid metabolism is an important factor to promote the progress of renal interstitial fibrosis. Intervention of related targets of fatty acid metabolism is expected to become a new treatment for renal interstitial fibrosis.

  6. Gastric acid secretion in relation to personality, affect and coping ability in duodenal ulcer patients. A multivariate analysis. Hvidovre Ulcer Project Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, P

    1994-01-01

    The role of personality, mood state (affect) and coping ability (ego strength) on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion were assessed in 56 duodenal ulcer patients using the Minnesota, Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The patients had high scores on most MMPI scales, but basal acid output...... disorders found in peptic ulcer patients may evidently be consequences of the disease rather than causal factors....

  7. Treatment with ghrelin accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranowicz, P; Warzecha, Z; Dembinski, A; Sendur, R; Cieszkowski, J; Ceranowicz, D; Pawlik, W W; Kuwahara, A; Kato, I; Konturek, P C

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits gastroprotective effects. The aim of present study was to examine the influence of ghrelin administration on the healing of chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers and to evaluate the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this process. In pituitary-intact or hypophysectomized rats, chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers were induced by acetic acid. After induction of ulcers, rats were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline, ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose) or IGF-1 (20 nmol/kg/dose) for six or ten days. In animals with intact pituitary, treatment with ghrelin increased serum level of GH and IGF-1. These effects were accompanied by the increase in mucosal cell proliferation, mucosal blood flow and healing rate of gastric and duodenal ulcers. After hypophysectomy, the significant increase in serum level of endogenous ghrelin was observed, but the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers was delayed. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in serum concentration of endogenous GH and IGF-1, and reduction in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. In hypophysectomized rats, administration of exogenous ghrelin was without any effect on serum level of GH and IGF-1, healing rate of gastroduodenal ulcers or mucosal cell proliferation. In contrast to this effect, administration of IGF-1 increased mucosal cell proliferation, healing rate of gastroduodenal ulcers and mucosal blood flow in hypophysectomized rats. Treatment with ghrelin accelerates healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers and this effect is mediated by the release of endogenous GH and IGF-1.

  8. Effects of gastric acid on euro coins: chemical reaction and radiographic appearance after ingestion by infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, S; Scharitzer, M; Cengiz, K; Jetzinger, E; Rupprecht, L

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated whether coins of the new European currency (euro) corrode when they are exposed to gastric acid, and whether this change can be detected radiographically. The eight different denominations of coins were immersed for seven days in 0.15 N hydrochloride acid (HCl), which corresponds to the level of post-prandial gastric acid. A Swedish crown coin and three different Austrian schilling coins were used as controls. The coins were weighed and radiographed daily to evaluate visible corrosions and HCl was analysed daily for possible dissolved substances. All coins lost weight within 24 hours after exposure to HCl. The 1, 2, and 5 euro cent coins developed changes that were visible on radiographs. The weights of all coins decreased by 0.43% to 11.30% during one week. The dissolved substances measured in the HCl corresponded to the different metals and alloys of the coins, except for copper, which does not dissolve in HCl. The highest absolute weight loss was observed in the Swedish crown coin (0.67 g), and the highest relative weight loss in the 1 Austrian schilling coin (11.30%). The two coins that showed the highest absolute and relative weight losses were the 2 euro (0.54 g or 6.35%) and the 1 euro (0.48 g or 6.39%) coin. A higher rate of toxicity for the new European coins compared with coins of other currencies is not expected, unless a massive coin ingestion occurs.

  9. Gastric heterotopia causing jejunal ulceration and obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... meal and follow-through study showed a proximal near-complete jejunal obstruction (Fig. ... gastric heterotopia. Sections of the resected small intestine showed ... gastric heterotopia in the small bowel is rare, and to our knowledge this is the first report of jejunal gastric heterotopia resulting in ulceration with ...

  10. Proximate composition, minerals and fatty acid composition of Juglans Regia L. genotypes and cultivars grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Yerlikaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of eleven walnut (Juglans regia L. genotypes (28 ŞK 010, 28 ŞK 055, 28 ŞK 041, 28 ŞK 601, 28 ŞK 925, 28 ŞK 028, 28 ŞK 118, 28 ŞK 350, 28 ŞK 930, 28 ŞK 850, 28 ŞK 036 and three walnut cultivars (Şebin, Bilecik, Kaman 1 produced in Turkey were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 61.32 to 69.35%, corresponding to an energy value of approximately 710 kcal per 100 g of kernel. The protein content ranged from 10.58 to 18.19%, and the carbohydrate composition was between 9.05 and 18.92%. The ash content ranged from 1.53 to 1.99%, and the moisture content of the kernels was between 1.91 and 4.48% the oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 17.90 to 33.35% of the total fatty acids. The linoleic acid content ranged from 43.15 to 60.20%. The linolenic acid content ranged from 9.98 to 13.00%. The palmitic acid content was between 5.21 and 8.40%. Stearic acid ranged from 2.36 to 4.25%. Potassium was the major mineral in all the samples, ranging from 359.73 to 482.97 mg/100 g. Calcium was the next most abundant mineral, ranging from 109.45 to 335.97 mg/100 g, followed by magnesium, ranging from 126.01 to 165.15 mg/100 g.

  11. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass...

  12. Indole-3-propionic acid suppresses indoxyl sulfate-induced expression of fibrotic and inflammatory genes in proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Saito, Shinichi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2017-11-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) induces fibrosis and inflammation in kidneys via oxidative stress through the induction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Furthermore, IS is a potent endogenous agonist for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which regulates the transcription of genes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) is an antioxidant and has been reported to be neuroprotective. We determined whether IPA suppresses IS-induced expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 in proximal tubular cells. The effects of IS on the expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 were studied using normotensive rats and hypertensive rats. The effects of IPA on IS-induced expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 were studied using proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Furthermore, the effects of IPA on IS-induced expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) were studied in HK-2 cells. Administration of IS induced the expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 in the tubular cells of rat kidneys. IPA significantly suppressed IS-induced mRNA and protein expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 in HK-2 cells. IPA suppressed the IS-induced expression and phosphorylation of Stat3 in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Stat3 inhibited the IS-induced mRNA and protein expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 in HK-2 cells. In conclusion, IPA suppressed the IS-induced expression of AHR, CYP1A1, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 through suppression of Stat3 in proximal tubular cells. Thus, IPA suppresses IS-induced expression of fibrotic and inflammatory genes in proximal tubular cells.

  13. Effect Of Processing On Proximate Energy Anti-Nutritional Factor Amino Acid And Mineral Composition Of Lablab Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was conducted to assess the effect of various techniques of processing decortication toasting and boiling in tap water on proximate anti-nutritional factor ANF amino acid and mineral composition of Highworth variety of Lablab purpureus seed. Processing reduced the levels of all the ANFs evaluated in the present study. Boiling in water was determined to be the best method reduced tannins alkaloids oxalates Trypsin inhibitors and HCN by 37 33 38 100 and 89 respectively. Processing also resulted in reductions in crude protein crude fibre ether extracts ash and gross energy by 8 14 17 23 10 and 8 while NFE increased by 10. The levels of nutrients in boiled lablab however compared favourably with feed grade soybean while being likely to be much cheaper.

  14. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 suppression rescues human proximal tubular cells from palmitic acid induced lipotoxicity via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wei; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Lei; Xu, Ying; Li, Zhaoping; Chen, Liyong; Wang, Xiaojie; Yi, Fan; Wan, Qiang

    2015-07-31

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades damaged proteins and organelles in mammalian cells. Although acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) plays a crucial role in the fatty acid metabolism, it keeps unknown whether ACC2 is associated with autophagic activity. The present work was designed to investigate the effects of ACC2 on palmitic acid (PA) induced lipotoxicity in human proximal tubular cells and the putative role of autophagy in this process. Here we show that autophagy was induced by PA in HK-2 cells. Moreover, the PA induced autophagy was regulated both by ACC2 suppression and CPTI inhibitor treatment, which represent an altered fatty acid β-oxidation. And the knockdown of ACC2 reduced PA-induced autophagy and thus protects the cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity with attenuated lipid accumulation and rescued cell viability. Collectively, the present study proposed a novel autophagy-involved mechanism of PA-induced renal lipotoxicity and provided potential therapeutic strategy by modulating lipid β-oxidation for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Gongronema latifolium ethanol leaf extract on gastric acid secretion and cytoprotection in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owu, D U; Nwokocha, C R; Obembe, A O; Essien, A D; Ikpi, D E; Osim, E E

    2012-12-01

    Gongronema latifolium leaves have been used in folklore medicine to manage diabetes mellitus and alleviate dyspepsia. This study aimed to provide a pharmacological basis to the medicinal use ofGongronema latifolium as an antidiabetic and antiulcerogenic agent in diabetes mellitus. Ethanol extract from the leaf (200 mg/kg bodyweight) of Gongronema latifolium was administered to both streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control groups orally for 14 days. Gastric acid secretion was measured and ulcer was induced using ethanol and four-hour pyloric ligation. The mean bodyweight was significantly lower (p diabetic groups compared to control. Extract significantly (p diabetic control. Basal and stimulated acid secretion in diabetic control rats was significantly (p mucus weight in the diabetic group. These results suggest that Gongronema latifolium antiulcerative activity is due to its prevention of chemical-induced stomach injury.

  16. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi waste from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretton, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi. The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia, together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz, in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC. Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0, oleic acid (18:1 n9, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3 and palmitoleic acid (16:1 were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment.El procesamiento de pescados en Patagonia produce gran cantidad de residuos. El recurso de pesca más importante en la Argentina es la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. En Patagonia

  17. Validation of a conscious rat model for the discovery of novel agents that inhibit gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin A; Gaskin, Pamela J; Darton, Jill; Chiu, Peter; Lee, Kevin; McLean, Peter G

    2008-07-28

    Identification of novel drug molecules requires the extensive evaluation in vitro and in vivo. Following in vitro evaluation it is necessary to efficiently screen numerous novel molecules in vivo using relatively simple methodology that requires small numbers of animals, is rapid to perform, and provides results that can definitely discriminate potential candidates for further investigation. Herein, we describe the results of three standard compounds (omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor; cimetidine, an histamine H(2) receptor antagonist; and AR-H047108, a potassium competitive acid blocker) in the rat aspiration model (under both basal and stimulated conditions), and compared the effects with those in the pyloric ligation model with a view to comparing the results in terms of sensitivity, robustness and simplicity of the methodology. In the aspiration model, drug or vehicle was administered orally 1 h prior to administration of pentagastrin or dimaprit. Ten minutes later 0.9% NaCl was administered orally and immediately recovered by aspiration. In the pyloric ligation model, drugs or vehicle were administered orally 2 h before ligation in a volume of 10 ml/kg. For each model, the volume of each sample was measured and the acidity was determined. In the aspiration model under basal acid secretion or following stimulation with pentagastrin omeprazole, cimetidine and AR-H047108 produced dose related inhibition of acidity. Omeprazole and cimetidine inhibited acid secretion following stimulation with dimaprit. In the pyloric ligation model omeprazole, cimetidine and AR-H047108 inhibited acid secretion. The profile of each of 3 inhibitors of acid secretion exhibited similar effects irrespective of the degree of stimulation (dimaprit, pentagastrin or pyloric ligation). Thus, based on these robust effects and ease of methodology we would recommend the use of the rat aspiration model with pentagastrin stimulation of gastric acid secretion as the primary in vivo methodology

  18. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.

  19. Proximate Amino Acid Anti-Nutritional Factor And Mineral Composition Of Different Varieties Of Raw Lablab Purpureus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proximate chemical amino acid anti- nutritional factors ANF and mineral composition of Highworth Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23 of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g100g. The ether extract EE content 2.99-5.87 of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high mean value is above FAO reference pattern in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids lysine histidine valine methionine isoleucine leucine and phenylalanine in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors hydrogen cyanide phytate tannin oxalates alkaloids saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g100g of major and 14.9-54.5mgkg of minor minerals assayed and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

  20. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA, a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori- infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole; and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14±0.08 versus 3.17±0.23, P<0.05, erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P<0.05, and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P<0.05 compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug.

  2. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients on Pharmacokinetics of (Acetyl)Salicylic Acid and Omeprazole : the ERY-PAO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrov-Winkelmolen, Lieke; van Buul-Gast, Marie-Christine W; Swank, Dingeman J; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van Schaik, Ron H N; Touw, Daan J

    Data on the absorption of orally administered drugs following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese patients are limited and inconclusive. As it is difficult to predict changes in absorption, studies on frequently used drugs in this population are necessary. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and

  3. [Impact of glutamine, eicosapntemacnioc acid, branched-chain amino acid supplements on nutritional status and treatment compliance of esophageal cancer patients on concurrent chemoradiotherapy and gastric cancer patients on chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Minghua; Song, Chenxin; Zou, Baohua; Deng, Yingbing; Li, Shuluan; Liu, Xuehui; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Jinying; Yu, Lei; Xu, Binghe

    2015-03-17

    To explore the effects of glutamine, eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA) and branched-chain amino acids supplements in esophageal cancer patients on concurrent chemoradiotherapy and gastric cancer patients on chemotherapy. From April 2013 to April 2014, a total of 104 esophageal and gastric carcinoma patients on chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy were recruited and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both groups received dietary counseling and routine nutritional supports while only experimental group received supplements of glutamine (20 g/d), EPA (3.3 g/d) and branched-chain amino acids (8 g/d). And body compositions, blood indicators, incidence of complications and completion rates of therapy were compared between two groups. After treatment, free fat mass and muscle weight increased significantly in experiment group while decreased in control group (P nutrition status, decrease the complications and improve compliance for esophageal cancer patients on concurrent chemo-radiotherapy and gastric cancer patients on postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. The influence of gastric distension and the duodenal infusate on the pattern of stomach (abomasal) emptying in the preruminant calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F R; Watson, D J

    1976-07-01

    1. In the conscious calf it is possible to use duodenal re-entrant cannulae to measure the output of a gastric test meal directly from the proximal cannula placed near the pylorus. At the same time the duodenum can be isolated from the stomach and maintained under constant stimulus by a continual infusion at regulated pressure, volume and temperature into the distal cannula. 2. Under these experimental conditions the pattern of gastric emptying is exponential in form. Thus direct recording of gastric emptying validates indirect methods, such as the serial test meal, where volume markers are used. It appears likely that the exponential pattern of gastric emptying is common to man, dog, cat and calf. 3. When the isolated duodenum was infused with water, the exponential pattern of gastric emptying was maintained even when the volume of meal instilled was increased substantially from 1 to 41. 4. Distension of the stomach by larger test meals did not affect the relative rate of emptying so that the half-time of emptying of all meals was about the same. 5. When the isolated duodenum was infused with 0-06 M-HCl gastric emptying of the smaller meals was almost completely inhibited. The inhibition of gastric evacuation was accompanied by inhibition of the gastric e.m.g. 6. Infusion of the duodenum with acid also produced marked, but not complete, inhibition of emptying the larger test meals but the distension produced by the larger meals appeared to partially overcome the inhibitory effect of the acid duodenal infusate so that a small efflux occurred from the stomach. This small efflux was usually associated with some slight degree of gastric e.m.g. activity. 7. We are still investigating the mechanisms whereby the duodenum affects gastric emptying, but it is clearly demonstrable from our present results that the inhibitory effects of acid duodenal infusate are sufficiently powerful to overcome the forces, both physical and reflex, which normally aid gastric evacuation.

  5. Renal uptake of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid is dependent on normal proximal tubule receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Nielsen, Rikke; Petersen, Steen V; Christensen, Erik I; Rehling, Michael; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    (99m)Tc-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) accumulates in the kidney cortex and is widely used for imaging of the renal parenchyma. Despite its extensive clinical use, the mechanism for renal targeting of the tracer is unresolved. Megalin and cubilin are cooperating receptors essential to the proximal tubule endocytic uptake of proteins from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We have used megalin/cubilin-deficient mice produced by gene knockout to determine whether receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Control or megalin/cubilin-deficient mice were injected intravenously with 0.5 MBq of (99m)Tc-DMSA or (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). Whole-body scintigrams and the activity in plasma, urine, and the kidneys were examined 6 h after injection. The size and identity of (99m)Tc-DMSA-bound proteins in urine were analyzed by fractionation by centrifugation and separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography and mass spectrometry. No renal accumulation of (99m)Tc-DMSA was identified in scintigrams of megalin/cubilin-deficient mice. The renal accumulated activity of the tracer was reduced to 11.4% (± 2.5%, n = 7) of the normal uptake in control mice, correlating with a reduction in renal megalin/cubilin expression in knockout mice to about 10% of normal. The reduced renal uptake in megalin/cubilin-deficient mice was accompanied by an increase in the urinary excretion of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Size separation of the urine by ultracentrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that in megalin/cubilin-deficient mice an increased amount of (99m)Tc-DMSA was excreted in an approximately 27-kDa form, which by mass spectrometry was identified as the plasma protein α1-microglobulin, an established megalin/cubilin ligand. (99m)Tc-DMSA is filtered bound to α1-microglobulin and accumulates in the kidneys by megalin

  6. EGFR kinase inhibitors and gastric acid suppressants in EGFR-mutant NSCLC: a retrospective database analysis of potential drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarakulasinghe, Nesaretnam Barr; Syn, Nicholas; Soon, Yu Yang; Asmat, Atasha; Zheng, Huili; Loy, En Yun; Pang, Brendan; Soo, Ross Andrew

    2016-12-20

    Erlotinib and gefitinib are weak base drugs whose absorption and clinical efficacy may be impaired by concomitant gastric acid suppressive (AS) therapy, yet proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2As) are widely indicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for the prevention and treatment of erlotinib-induced gastrointestinal injury and corticosteroid-associated gastric irritation. We assessed the clinical relevance of this potential drug-drug interaction (DDI) in a retrospective cohort of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. The AS usage rate was 35%. In the overall cohort, AS users did not experience poorer OS (HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.92 - 2.35, P = 0.10; median, 11.4 versus 17.5 months) or PFS (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.89 - 2.12, P = 0.16; median, 7.6 versus 8.7 months) compared with non-users in multivariate Cox regression analysis. However, subgroup analyses indicated that AS usage was associated with significantly poorer OS and PFS in patients who had fewer or milder comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index ≤ 2), those with Karnofsky performance status < 90, and never-smokers. A retrospective database analysis of 157 patients given erlotinib or gefitinib for EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC from two institutions was conducted. Patients were classified as AS-users if the periods of AS and anti-EGFR therapy overlapped by ≥ 30%. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed according to AS usage. Concomitant AS therapy did not have an adverse impact on OS and/or PFS in the overall cohort. Our subgroup findings should be regarded exploratory and require replication in a large prospective cohort.

  7. Effect of deoxycholic acid on Ca2+ movement, cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jau-Min; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Kuo, Soong-Yu; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Pochuen; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DOA) is one of the secondary bile acids used as a mild detergent for the isolation of membrane associated proteins. This study examined whether the secondary bile acid, DOA, altered Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca(2+)]i. DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises concentration dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). DOA-evoked Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365), the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, treatment with DOA abolished TG-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. At 100-500 μM, DOA decreased cell viability, which was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). DOA between 100 and 300 μM also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in SCM1 cells, DOA-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DOA also caused Ca(2+)-independent apoptosis.

  8. Open Tracheostomy Gastric Acid Aspiration Murine Model of Acute Lung Injury Results in Maximal Acute Nonlethal Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Ravi; Kutscher, Hilliard L; Mullan, Barbara A; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R

    2017-02-26

    Acid pneumonitis is a major cause of sterile acute lung injury (ALI) in humans. Acid pneumonitis spans the clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by neutrophilic alveolitis, and injury to both alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium. Clinically, ARDS is defined by acute onset of hypoxemia, bilateral patchy pulmonary infiltrates and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Human studies have provided us with valuable information about the physiological and inflammatory changes in the lung caused by ARDS, which has led to various hypotheses about the underling mechanisms. Unfortunately, difficulties determining the etiology of ARDS, as well as a wide range of pathophysiology have resulted in a lack of critical information that could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies. Translational animal models are valuable when their pathogenesis and pathophysiology accurately reproduce a concept proven in both in vitro and clinical settings. Although large animal models (e.g., sheep) share characteristics of the anatomy of human trachea-bronchial tree, murine models provide a host of other advantages including: low cost; short reproductive cycle lending itself to greater data acquisition; a well understood immunologic system; and a well characterized genome leading to the availability of a variety of gene deletion and transgenic strains. A robust model of low pH induced ARDS requires a murine ALI that targets mainly the alveolar epithelium, secondarily the vascular endothelium, as well as the small airways leading to the alveoli. Furthermore, a reproducible injury with wide differences between different injurious and non-injurious insults is important. The murine gastric acid aspiration model presented here using hydrochloric acid employs an open tracheostomy and recreates a pathogenic scenario that reproduces the low pH pneumonitis injury in humans. Additionally, this model can be used to examine interaction of a

  9. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of sildenafil citrate, heparin and neuropeptides in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Mehmet; Kocdor, Mehmet Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Sahin, İbrahim; Sarac, Mehmet; Aksoy, Aziz; Yardim, Meltem; Dalkilic, Semih; Gursu, Onur; Aydin, Suna; Akkoc, Ramazan Fazil; Ugras, Meltem; Artas, Gokhan; Ozercan, İbrahim Hanifi; Ugur, Kader; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of our investigative work has been to determine whether there can be therapeutic roles in the administration of sildenafil citrate, heparin and several neuropeptides on an animal model where gastric ulcers were induced with acetic acid, and to compare their efficacy. The animals were divided into 13 groups, with 4 animals in each. Gastric ulcers was induced in the animals of 12 groups with one untreated group being left as the control (Group I - control; given normal saline (NS)). The other groups were: Group II (ulcer+NS); Group III (5mg/kg sildenafil citrate, low dose); Group IV (10mg/kg sildenafil citrate, high dose); Group V (0.6mg/kg heparin, low dose); Group VI (6mg/kg heparin, high dose); Group VII (20nmol/kg des-acyl ghrelin); Group VIII (40nmol/kg des-acyl ghrelin); Group IX (4nmol/kg acyl ghrelin); Group X (8nmol/kg acly ghrelin); Group XI (20pmol/kg Nesfatin-1); Group XII (15nmol/kg Obestatin) and Group XIII (5nmol/kg Neuropeptide Y). Gastric neuropeptide expression was measured using an immunohistochemical method, and the amount in circulation was detected using ELISA. To compare with no treatment, the controls and other treatment groups, we recorded loss of the surface epithelium of the stomach, erosion, bleeding and inflammatory cell infiltration in the upper halves of the gastric glands. The muscularis and the layers beneath it were, however, apparently normal. The gastric mucosa healed with little or no inflammation when sildenafil citrate, low dose heparin, ghrelin, NUCB2/Nesfatin-1, obestatin, Neuropeptide Y were administered. Overall the data indicate that low dose heparin, and especially sildenafil citrate and neuropeptides, can be used clinically as an alternative approach in the treatment of the gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  11. A novel K+ competitive acid blocker, YH4808, sustains inhibition of gastric acid secretion with a faster onset than esomeprazole: randomised clinical study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S; Lee, H; Jang, S B; Byun, H M; Yoon, S H; Cho, J-Y; Jang, I-J; Yu, K-S

    2017-08-01

    YH4808, a K+ -competitive acid blocker, is under clinical development for the treatment of acid-related disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. To determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of YH4808, compared to placebo and esomeprazole. This double-blind, randomised, placebo- and active comparator (esomeprazole)-controlled study was conducted with 123 healthy male volunteers. We evaluated YH4808 (30-800 mg) properties, administered in single (N=55) and multiple (N=24) oral doses, and recorded the effects on 24-hour intragastric acidity. Results were compared to placebo (N=20) and esomeprazole 40 mg (N=24). Plasma YH4808 exposure increased dose-proportionally and declined in a multi-phasic manner. YH4808 ≥200 mg/d maintained intragastric acidity at pH >4 for longer times than esomeprazole during both day and night (%Time at pH >4: >70% vs 58% of a 24-hour period, respectively; and >50% vs 33% of a 9-hour night respectively). A twice-daily regimen of YH4808 more effectively controlled intragastric pH at night than a once-daily regimen. In evaluating the mean areas under the intragastric pH-time curves in 15-minute intervals for 2 hours after dosing, we found that YH4808 had a faster onset than esomeprazole. Moreover, unlike esomeprazole, YH4808 PK and PD were not significantly affected by the CYP2C19 genotype of the subjects. YH4808 was well-tolerated at all doses administered. This study showed that YH4808 produced a rapid, sustained suppression of gastric secretion with good tolerability. The results at YH4808 ≥200 mg/d provide a rationale for further clinical investigations in populations with acid-related diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of the effects of immediate-release omeprazole oral suspension, delayed-release lansoprazole capsules and delayed-release esomeprazole capsules on nocturnal gastric acidity after bedtime dosing in patients with night-time GERD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P O; Koch, F K; Ballard, E D; Bagin, R G; Gautille, T C; Checani, G C; Hogan, D L; Pratha, V S V

    2007-01-15

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients on proton pump inhibitors before breakfast or dinner have acid recovery at night. Bedtime immediate-release omeprazole (IR-OME) demonstrated better control of nocturnal pH than pantoprazole before dinner. To compare repeated once daily bedtime dosing of IR-OME, lansoprazole and esomeprazole on nocturnal gastric acidity. Open-label, randomized, crossover study enrolling 54 patients with nocturnal GERD symptoms comparing IR-OME, lansoprazole and esomeprazole at steady state for nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB), percentage of time with gastric pH > 4 and median gastric pH. Onset of nocturnal acid control with IR-OME was rapid. During the first half of the night, percentage of time with gastric pH > 4 and median gastric pH were significantly higher after IR-OME compared to esomeprazole or lansoprazole (P < 0.001, both comparisons). Over the 8-h night-time period, acid control with IR-OME was significantly better than lansoprazole (P < 0.001), and comparable to esomeprazole. IR-OME reduced NAB compared with esomeprazole and lansoprazole (61% vs. 92% and 92%; P < 0.001, both comparisons). Bedtime IR-OME provided more rapid control of night-time gastric pH and decreased NAB compared with esomeprazole and lansoprazole. Nocturnal acid control with IR-OME was superior to lansoprazole and comparable to esomeprazole. Bedtime dosing with IR-OME may be effective for patients with night-time heartburn.

  13. A current view of gastric cancer in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, W P

    1993-11-01

    In the US, the remarkable decline in the incidence of gastric cancer during the mid-portion of this century has leveled off during the last two decades as an equally remarkable and poorly understood increase in the percentage of the generally more unfavorable cardia cancers has become apparent. The importance of H. pylori infection is being actively investigated and treatment to reduce the infection may offer a means of decreasing the disease, particularly in areas of high incidence. The potential danger of inciting gastric cancer by the prolonged use of drugs that severely reduce or eliminate gastric acid has been mentioned, but the degree of risk must await the passage of years before it can be properly evaluated. "Early gastric cancer" or, probably more appropriately, "superficial gastric adenocarcinoma" continues to comprise a relatively small segment of gastric cancers in the US and most Western countries. Seventeen per cent of cases in the ACS series were classified as stage I, a much higher incidence than reported for early gastric cancer in most individual North American series. The ACS report suggests "special education of the surgeon in the requisites for adequate gastrectomy with node dissection, coupled with effective adjuvant therapy" as a means of improving results in the US. This is a significant consideration because, unfortunately, gastric surgery for ulcer or cancer no longer plays the important role it did in past decades in many US surgical training programs. As has been demonstrated in Japan and in certain larger US series, excellent surgical technique, particularly for cardia tumors, plays an important role in obtaining improved results. The value of radical lymph node dissection continues to be controversial in US cases, and a successful chemotherapeutic regimen has yet to be found. Subtotal gastric resection, as noted in the ACS report, continues to be the procedure of choice in the US for most gastric cancers, even for cardia cancers

  14. Comparison of the anti-ulcer activity between the crude and bran-processed Atractylodes lancea in the rat model of gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Cai, Qian; Jiang, Ning; Ma, Ming-Yue; Min, Dong-Yu; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-02-03

    The rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (AL, Compositae, Chinese name: Cangzhu; Japanese name: Sou-ju-tsu) has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases such as digestive disorders, rheumatic diseases, and influenza in China, Korea and Japan. The crude AL and AL bran-processed are both listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, the differences between the effects of the crude and AL bran-processed on gastric ulcer were poorly understood, and the mechanisms for the treatment of gastric ulcer were not clear. This study aimed at comparing the anti-ulcer effects between the crude AL and AL processed in acetic acid induced model in rats and evaluating the mechanisms of action involved in the anti-ulcer properties of AL. The model of gastric ulcer was imitated by acetic acid in rats, and AL was gavaged. The serum and gastric tissues were collected. The levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), trefoil factor2 (TFF2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6, 8 (IL-6, 8) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in serum and gastric tissues were determined by the double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the mRNA expressions of EGF, TFF2, TNF-α, and IL-8 in stomach were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain. The protein expressions of EGF, TFF2, TNF-α, and IL-8 were examined by immunohistochemistry in stomach. The results demonstrated that the damage of gastric tissue was obviously alleviated and the productions of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, and PGE2 and the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, and IL-8 were notably inhibited. Furthermore, the productions of EGF and TFF2 and the mRNA expressions of EGF and TFF2 were significantly stimulated by both crude AL and AL processed in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the crude AL, the processed AL was more effective. The AL processed had more satisfactory

  15. Identification of critical amino acids in the proximal C-terminal of TREK-2 K+ channel for activation by acidic pHi and ATP-dependent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joohan; Jun, Young Keul; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Nam, Joo Hyun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sung Joon

    2018-02-01

    TWIK-related two-pore domain K+ channels (TREKs) are regulated by intracellular pH (pHi) and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). Previously, Glu306 in proximal C-terminal (pCt) of mouse TREK-1 was identified as the pHi-sensing residue. The direction of PI(4,5)P2 sensitivity is controversial, and we have recently shown that TREKs are inhibited by intracellular ATP via endogenous PI(4,5)P2 formation. Here we investigate the anionic and cationic residues of pCt for the pHi and ATP-sensitivity in human TREK-2 (hTREK-2). In inside-out patch clamp recordings (ITREK-2,i-o), acidic pHi-induced activation was absent in E332A and was partly attenuated in E335A. Neutralization of cationic Lys (K330A) also eliminated the acidic pHi sensitivity of ITREK-2,i-o. Unlike the inhibition of wild-type (WT) ITREK-2,i-o by intracellular ATP, neither E332A nor K330A was sensitive to ATP. Nevertheless, exogenous PI(4,5)P2 (10 μM) abolished ITREK-2 i-o in all the above mutants as well as in WT, indicating unspecific inhibition by exogenous PI(4,5)P2. In whole-cell recordings of TREK-2 (ITREK-2,w-c), K330A and E332A showed higher or fully active basal activity, showing attenuated or insignificant activation by 2-APB, arachidonic acid, or acidic pHe 6.9. ITREK-1,w-c of WT is largely suppressed by pHe 6.9, and the inhibition is slightly attenuated in K312A and E315A. The results show concerted roles of the oppositely charged Lys and Glu in pCt for the ATP-dependent low basal activity and pHi sensitivity.

  16. Manuka Honey Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities That Promote Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasaudi, Saad B.; Al-Hindi, Rashad R.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Ali, Soad S.; Saleh, Rasha M.; Al Jaouni, Soad K.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric ulcers are a major problem worldwide with no effective treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of manuka honey in the treatment of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Different groups of rats were treated with three different concentrations of honey. Stomachs were checked macroscopically for ulcerative lesions in the glandular mucosa and microscopically for histopathological alterations. Treatment with manuka honey significantly reduced the ulcer index and maintained the glycoprotein content. It also reduced the mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) as compared to untreated control group. In addition, honey-treated groups showed significant increase in enzymatic (GPx and SOD) and nonenzymatic (GSH) antioxidants besides levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Flow cytometry studies showed that treatment of animals with manuka honey has normalized cell cycle distribution and significantly lowered apoptosis in gastric mucosa. In conclusion, the results indicated that manuka honey is effective in the treatment of chronic ulcer and preservation of mucosal glycoproteins. Its effects are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that resulted in a significant reduction of the gastric mucosal MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and caused an elevation in IL-10 levels. PMID:28250794

  17. In vivo evaluation of cetuximab-conjugated poly(γ-glutamic acid)-docetaxel nanomedicines in EGFR-overexpressing gastric cancer xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeranganathan, Maya; Uthaman, Saji; Sarmento, Bruno; Mohan, Chethampadi Gopi; Park, In-Kyu; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upregulated in gastric cancer patients, is an oncogene of interest in the development of targeted cancer nanomedicines. This study demonstrates in silico modeling of monoclonal antibody cetuximab (CET MAb)-conjugated docetaxel (DOCT)-loaded poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) nanoparticles (Nps) and evaluates the in vitro/in vivo effects on EGFR-overexpressing gastric cancer cells (MKN-28). Nontargeted DOCT-γ-PGA Nps (NT Nps: 110±40 nm) and targeted CET MAb-DOCT-γ-PGA Nps (T Nps: 200±20 nm) were prepared using ionic gelation followed by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide–N-Hydoxysuccinimide (EDC–NSH) chemistry. Increased uptake correlated with enhanced cytotoxicity induced by targeted Nps to EGFR +ve MKN-28 compared with nontargeted Nps as evident from MTT and flow cytometric assays. Nanoformulated DOCT showed a superior pharmacokinetic profile to that of free DOCT in Swiss albino mice, indicating the possibility of improved therapeutic effect in the disease model. Qualitative in vivo imaging showed early and enhanced tumor targeted accumulation of CET MAb-DOCT-γ-PGA Nps in EGFR +ve MKN-28–based gastric cancer xenograft, which exhibited efficient arrest of tumor growth compared with nontargeted Nps and free DOCT. Thus, actively targeted CET MAb-DOCT-γ-PGA Nps could be developed as a substitute to conventional nonspecific chemotherapy, and hence could become a feasible strategy for cancer therapy for EGFR-overexpressing gastric tumors. PMID:29033568

  18. In vivo evaluation of cetuximab-conjugated poly(γ-glutamic acid)-docetaxel nanomedicines in EGFR-overexpressing gastric cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeranganathan, Maya; Uthaman, Saji; Sarmento, Bruno; Mohan, Chethampadi Gopi; Park, In-Kyu; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), upregulated in gastric cancer patients, is an oncogene of interest in the development of targeted cancer nanomedicines. This study demonstrates in silico modeling of monoclonal antibody cetuximab (CET MAb)-conjugated docetaxel (DOCT)-loaded poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) nanoparticles (Nps) and evaluates the in vitro/in vivo effects on EGFR-overexpressing gastric cancer cells (MKN-28). Nontargeted DOCT-γ-PGA Nps (NT Nps: 110±40 nm) and targeted CET MAb-DOCT-γ-PGA Nps (T Nps: 200±20 nm) were prepared using ionic gelation followed by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide-N-Hydoxysuccinimide (EDC-NSH) chemistry. Increased uptake correlated with enhanced cytotoxicity induced by targeted Nps to EGFR +ve MKN-28 compared with nontargeted Nps as evident from MTT and flow cytometric assays. Nanoformulated DOCT showed a superior pharmacokinetic profile to that of free DOCT in Swiss albino mice, indicating the possibility of improved therapeutic effect in the disease model. Qualitative in vivo imaging showed early and enhanced tumor targeted accumulation of CET MAb-DOCT-γ-PGA Nps in EGFR +ve MKN-28-based gastric cancer xenograft, which exhibited efficient arrest of tumor growth compared with nontargeted Nps and free DOCT. Thus, actively targeted CET MAb-DOCT-γ-PGA Nps could be developed as a substitute to conventional nonspecific chemotherapy, and hence could become a feasible strategy for cancer therapy for EGFR-overexpressing gastric tumors.

  19. Suppression of gastric acid with intravenous esomeprazole and omeprazole: results of 3 studies in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhss, K; Wilder-Smith, C; Kilhamn, J; Fjellman, M; Lind, T

    2007-06-01

    To identify the optimal pharmacodynamic dosing regimen for esomeprazole administered intravenously (i.v.) and to compare acid suppression with various esomeprazole i.v. and omeprazole i.v. dosing regimens. A total of 90 healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative subjects participated in three randomized, crossover studies of esomeprazole i.v. Comparative acid output study: an open-label study that compared single 40 mg i.v. doses (administered over 30 min) of esomeprazole and omeprazole. Dose-ranging study: an open-label study that compared acid control with five different doses of esomeprazole i.v., administered over 24 h. Comparative pH study: a double-blind study that compared esomeprazole i.v. and omeprazole at doses of 80 mg (over 30 min) + 8 mg/h (for 23.5 h). In the comparative acid output study, estimated mean pentagastrin-stimulated acid output was reduced from 33.9 mmol/h at baseline to 5.4 mmol/h at 4 - 5.5 h with esomeprazole vs. 9.5 mmol/h with omeprazole (p 6 (12.6 h) than the lower doses (11.0 and 10.7 h for 40 + 8 mg/h and 80 + 4 mg/h, respectively) and significantly more time with pH > 4 (21.5 vs. 19.7 and 19.2 h, respectively; p 4 was similar between esomeprazole (21.4 h) and omeprazole (21.1 h). Esomeprazole was superior to omeprazole in reducing stimulated acid secretion. Control of intragastric pH was similar for esomeprazole and omeprazole at a dose of 80 + 8 mg/h. An esomeprazole i.v. dosage regimen of 80 + 8 mg/h appeared to be optimal for acid suppression in healthy subjects under study.

  20. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Y gastric bypass; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Gastric bypass surgery - discharge Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge ...

  1. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX- dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL. Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio.

  2. Acetic acid-indigo carmine chromoendoscopy for delineating early gastric cancers: its usefulness according to histological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong Eun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Kim, Dae Hwan; Jeon, Tae Yong; Park, Su Bum; You, Hyun Seok; Ryu, Dong Yup; Kim, Dong Uk; Song, Geun Am

    2010-08-23

    Endoscopic treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and laparoscopic gastrectomy, are increasingly used to treat a subset of patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). To achieve successful outcomes, it is very important to accurately determine the lateral extent of the tumor. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid (AI chromoendoscopy) in delineating differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinomas in patients with EGC. We prospectively included 151 lesions of 141 patients that had an endoscopic diagnosis of EGC. All the lesions were examined by conventional endoscopy and AI chromoendoscopy before ESD or laparoscopic gastrectomy. The border clarification between the lesion and the normal mucosa was classified as distinct or indistinct before and after AI chromoendoscopy. The borders of the lesions were distinct in 66.9% (101/151) with conventional endoscopy and in 84.1% (127/151) with AI chromoendoscopy (P < 0.001). Compared with conventional endoscopy, AI chromoendoscopy clarified the border in a significantly higher percentage of differentiated adenocarcinomas (74/108 [68.5%] vs 97/108 [89.8%], respectively, P < 0.001). However, the border clarification rate for undifferentiated adenocarcinomas did not differ between conventional endoscopy and AI chromoendoscopy (27/43 [62.8%] vs 30/43 [70.0%], respectively, P = 0.494). AI chromoendoscopy is useful in determining the lateral extent of EGCs. However, its usefulness is reduced in undifferentiated adenocarcinomas.

  3. Acetic acid-indigo carmine chromoendoscopy for delineating early gastric cancers: its usefulness according to histological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD and laparoscopic gastrectomy, are increasingly used to treat a subset of patients with early gastric cancer (EGC. To achieve successful outcomes, it is very important to accurately determine the lateral extent of the tumor. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic performance of chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid (AI chromoendoscopy in delineating differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinomas in patients with EGC. Methods We prospectively included 151 lesions of 141 patients that had an endoscopic diagnosis of EGC. All the lesions were examined by conventional endoscopy and AI chromoendoscopy before ESD or laparoscopic gastrectomy. The border clarification between the lesion and the normal mucosa was classified as distinct or indistinct before and after AI chromoendoscopy. Results The borders of the lesions were distinct in 66.9% (101/151 with conventional endoscopy and in 84.1% (127/151 with AI chromoendoscopy (P P P = 0.494. Conclusions AI chromoendoscopy is useful in determining the lateral extent of EGCs. However, its usefulness is reduced in undifferentiated adenocarcinomas.

  4. Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ananya; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Biswas, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K.

    2012-01-01

    The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla) against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX-) dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose) administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS) were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day) and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day) for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio. PMID:22966242

  5. Preventive Effect of Quercetin(A Flavonoid on Ulcerogenic of Acetyl Salisylic Acid in Rat’s Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malek

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesion of the gastric mucosa is the most prevalent side effect of aspirin. Flavonoids with actions such as antioxidant, free radical scavenger and lipid peroxidant inhibitor can prevent mucosal lesion caused by aspirin. In this research effect of quercetin, as the most abundant flavonoid in human diet, was investigated on preventing ulcerogenic effect of aspirin or Acetyl Salisylic Acid(ASA.Eighteen male Wistar rats (220-330gr were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 in each group. In all groups consumption materials were adminstrated only once in acute form. First and second groups, as control groups, received ASA vehicle (1ml, orally and ASA suspension (300mg/kg, 1ml, orally respectively. The third group had a pretreatment with quercetin (200mg/kg half an hour before consumption of 300mg/kg ASA. After consumptiom the materials animals were kept 3hours, after that stomach was removed and was assessed for macroscopic and microscopis stomach mucosal lesions. Our results showed that, oral adminstration of ASA (300mg/kg caused considerable stomach mucosal lesions (P<0.05 and pretreatment with quercetin decreased the lesions (P<0.05. Therefore quercetin can be effecttive in protecting stomach mucosa against ulcers caused by ASA. Although the mechanism of quercetin action is not known, it might be used for mucosal protection with further investigations.

  6. Gastric xanthomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, A S; Rowland, R; Labrooy, J T

    1985-07-01

    Gastric xanthomas (GX) are uncommon intramucosal lesions which can be misinterpreted as early or signet ring adenocarcinoma. The histological features of eight gastric xanthomas are described. Mucin and Masson trichrome strains were valuable in distinguishing GX from adenocarcinoma.

  7. The human sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 do not mediate ascorbic acid release in the proximal renal epithelial cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Peter; Kwon, Oran; Chen, Shenglin; Mian, Omar; Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Sodium-dependent ascorbic acid membrane transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate ascorbic acid (vitamin C) transport into cells. However, it is unknown how ascorbic acid undergoes cellular release, or efflux. We hypothesized that SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 could serve a dual role, mediating ascorbic acid cellular efflux as well as uptake. Renal reabsorption is required for maintaining systemic vitamin C concentrations. Because efflux from nephron cells is necessary for reabsorption, we studied whether SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate efflux of ascorbic acid in the human renal nephron. We found high gene expression of SLC23A1 but no expression of SLC23A2 in the proximal convoluted and straight tubules of humans. These data rule out SLC23A2 as the ascorbic acid release protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelia cell. We utilized a novel dual transporter-based Xenopus laevis oocyte system to investigate the function of the SLC23A1 protein, and found that no ascorbate release was mediated by SLC23A1. These findings were confirmed in mammalian cells overexpressing SLC23A1. Taken together, the data for SLC23A1 show that it too does not have a role in cellular release of ascorbic acid across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cell, and that SLC23A1 alone is responsible for ascorbic acid uptake across the apical membrane. These findings reiterate the physiological importance of proper functioning of SLC23A1 in maintaining vitamin C levels for health and disease prevention. The ascorbate efflux mechanism in the proximal tubule of the kidney remains to be characterized. PMID:24400138

  8. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  9. Effects of a new effervescent cimetidine formulation on gastric acidity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, V.; Fellinger, H. W.; Breumelhof, R.; Smout, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a new effervescent formulation of 800 mg cimetidine on intragastric acidity was studied in 10 fasting healthy male volunteers. Using a randomised, cross-over design, the effect of this new cimetidine formulation was compared with that of a standard dose of a liquid aluminium/magnesium

  10. Improvements in glucose metabolism early after gastric bypass surgery are not explained by increases in total bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) have been suggested as key mediators of the improvements in glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objective: To describe fasting and postprandial state total bile acid (TBA) and FGF19 concentrations before and after...... (T2D) patients and 12 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects participated in the study. Intervention: A 4-hour liquid meal test was performed before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting and postprandial TBA and FGF19 concentrations. Results: Fasting...... TBA concentrations decreased in NGT subjects (P

  11. A Study of the Effect of Omega-3, -6 and -9 Fatty Acids on Bcl-xL Gene Expression in the Cancerous Gastric Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Taniya Bagheri; Mohammadreza Mashayekhi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein that its overexpression in cancer patients results in reduced level of apoptosis in cells and resistance to chemotherapy. If they are used as food supplements with chemotherapy, omega-3, -6 and -9 fatty acids can induce apoptosis. In this study, we aim to examine the effect of omega-3, -6 and -9 fatty acids on Bcl-xL gene expression in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and methods: In the study, which is a clinical trial, ...

  12. Elevated alpha1-acid glycoprotein in gastric cancer patients inhibits the anticancer effects of paclitaxel, effects restored by co-administration of erythromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbatake, Yoshinao; Fushida, Sachio; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Hayashi, Hironori; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kousei; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-11-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) which easily elutes into ascites is widely used to treat gastric cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), but clinical outcomes are suboptimal. Increased concentrations of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), an important drug-binding protein, have been reported in the plasma and ascites of cancer patients. This study sought to clarify whether AGP binds to PTX and alters its anticancer effects. AGP concentrations were measured in the serum and ascites of gastric cancer patients with PC and in the serum of healthy volunteers. The in vitro effects of AGP and AGP plus erythromycin (EM) on PTX were evaluated by MTT assays in the gastric cancer cell lines. We also measured AGP concentrations in the ascites of PC model mice and examined the effects of EM plus PTX on PC. The mean AGP concentrations in the serum and ascites of gastric cancer patients with PC were 1524 and 834 μg/mL, respectively, higher than the mean AGP concentration of 650 μg/mL observed in the sera of healthy volunteers. AGP > 400 μg/mL significantly suppressed the cell growth inhibitory effect of PTX in vitro, but the co-administration of EM restored it. Elevated AGP concentrations were observed in the ascites of PC model mice. Administration of PTX alone did not markedly diminish PC, whereas co-administration of PTX and EM significantly reduced PC (p = 0.011). AGP is an important regulatory factor modulating the anticancer activity of intraperitoneal PTX. The co-administration of PTX and EM may be effective in treating gastric cancer patients with PC.

  13. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  14. Potent Gastric Acid Inhibition Over 24 Hours by 4-Times Daily Dosing of Esomeprazole 20 mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Shu; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Uotani, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Yamade, Mihoko; Kagami, Takuma; Hamaya, Yasushi; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Furuta, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    When administered at a standard dose, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) do not always provide sufficient acid inhibition for all subjects, particularly in extensive metabolizers (EMs) of CYP2C19. Whether esomeprazole at a dose of 20 mg four times daily dosing (q.i.d.) can attain sufficient acid inhibition throughout 24 h in EMs remains unclear. We therefore investigated the efficacy of esomeprazole q.i.d. for acid inhibition. In a randomized cross-over design, 30 Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy young Japanese volunteers received esomeprazole at a dose of 20 mg two times a day (b.i.d.) or q.i.d. for 7 days. A pH monitoring was conducted before the trial as a control and on day 7 of both regimens. Median pH values in the q.i.d. regimen were significantly higher than those with the b.i.d. regimen in EMs (b.i.d.: 5.3, q.i.d.: 6.6, p = 0.022), intermediate metabolizer (IM) (b.i.d.: 5.5, q.i.d.: 6.8, p = 0.005) and poor metabolizer (PM) (b.i.d.: 6.2, q.i.d.: 7.0, p = 0.047), respectively. Median pH with the b.i.d. regimen differed significantly by CYP2C19 genotypes (p = 0.004), but not the q.i.d. regimen (p = 0.384). Esomeprazole q.i.d. achieved potent acid inhibition in all Helicobacter pylori-negative subjects, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, which might be one of the rescue regimens for patients' refractory to PPI treatment.

  15. Antidiabetic and antiulcer effects of extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in mild diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes has been reported to increase propensity to peptic ulceration through its effect both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. Seeds of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) have been reported to have both antidiabetic as well as ulcer protective effects. The present study evaluates the antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of dried seed kernel of Eugenia jambolana (EJE) and its comparative effect on gastric ulceration and acid-pepsin secretion with standard antisecretory FL-blocker. Ranitidine and antidiabetic glibenclamide with a premise that Eugenia jambolana may show better ulcer healing effects by promoting defensive or reducing offensive mucosal factors in mild diabetes (MD) rats. MD was produced in adult rats by administration of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, ip). EJE was given orally in the doses of 100-400 mg/kg for 10 days and in the dose of 200 mg/kg for 30 days respectively to study its dose- and time-dependent effects on various diabetic parameters like blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, insulin level and glycosylated hemoglobin. For ulcer protective and gastric secretion studies, EJE (200 mg/kg) was given orally for 10 days against 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS)-, 4 h pylorus ligation (PL), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h)--and 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h)-induced gastric ulcers and offensive acid-pepsin secretion after 4 h PL with co-occurring MD in rats. EJE showed dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose level in MD rats. Blood glucose level remained stable in mild diabetic rats from 3rd day onwards after streptozotocin administration (taken as 1st day for treatment) and EJE (200 mg/kg) showed anti-hyperglycemic effect on 10th day of its administration. Further, EJE in the above dose also decreased cholesterol level with little or no effect on triglycerides level and reversed the decrease and increase in insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin level near to the normal level as observed alter 30 days treatment in MD rats. MD rats

  16. Irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil-co-loaded, hyaluronic acid-modified layer-by-layer nanoparticles for targeted gastric carcinoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Z

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhuanglei Gao,1 Zhaoxia Li,2 Jieke Yan,3 Peilin Wang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Renal Transplantation, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: For targeted gastric carcinoma therapy, hyaluronic acid (HA-modified layer-by-layer nanoparticles (NPs are applied for improving anticancer treatment efficacy and reducing toxicity and side effects. The aim of this study was to develop HA-modified NPs for the co-loading of irinotecan (IRN and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. A novel polymer–chitosan (CH–HA hybrid formulation (HA–CH–IRN/5-FU NPs consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and IRN as the core, CH and 5-FU as a shell on the core and HA as the outmost layer was prepared. Its morphology, average size, zeta potential and drug encapsulation ability were evaluated. Human gastric carcinoma cells (MGC803 cells and cancer-bearing mice were used for the testing of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor efficiency of NPs. HA–CH–IRN/5-FU NPs displayed enhanced antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo than non-modified NPs, single drug-loaded NPs and drugs solutions. The results demonstrate that HA–CH–IRN/5-FU NPs can achieve impressive antitumor activity and the novel targeted drug delivery system offers a promising strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. Keywords: gastric carcinoma, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, hyaluronic acid, layer-by-layer nanoparticles

  17. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G-H; Fratamico, P; Breidt, F; Oh, D-H

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the ability of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups to survive with exposure to synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) at room and refrigerated temperatures compared to E. coli O157:H7 and to examine the relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA. Resistant and sensitive strains belonging to five different STEC serogroups (O26, O103, O104, O111 and O157; n = 10) were used in this study. All strains were adapted in PJ (pH 3·8) stored at 4 and 20°C for 24 h, and then the relative transcription levels of genes in all strains were quantified using a real-time quantitative-PCR assay. After adaptation in PJ, the STEC strains were exposed to SGF (pH 1·5 and 2·0) at 37°C for 2 h. Generally, the STEC adapted in PJ at 4°C displayed enhanced survival compared to acid adaptation in PJ at 20°C and nonadapted controls with exposure to SGF (P < 0·05). Moreover, resistant strains exhibited higher survival rates compared to sensitive strains (P < 0·05). Overall, adaptation at 4°C resulted in significantly (P < 0·05) enhanced gene expression levels in PJ, and transcript levels of gadA were higher than those of the rpoS and adiA genes. The up-regulation of AR genes due to adaptation in PJ at low temperature may increase STEC survival in acidic environments such as the gastrointestinal tract. Some non-O157 STEC strains, including serotypes O103:H2 and O111:H8, showed relatively high AR levels similar to those of STEC O157:H7. Induction of AR genes in acidic fruit juice, and potentially in other acidic foods may increase the risk of foodborne illness by non-O157 STEC serogroups. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  19. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Bakteri Asam Laktat dari Cairan Rumen Sapi Bali sebagai Kandidat Biopreservatif ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ACID LACTIC BACTERIA FROM BALI CATTLE’S GASTRIC FLUID AS A POTENTIAL CANDIDATE OF BIOPRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suardana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify of lactic acid bacteria originated from gastric fluid of bali cattle, and to determine their potential as the candidates of biopreservative. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated by culturing the gastric fluid of bali cattle in de Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS medium; screening the bacteria, and identification of bacteria species by Analytical Profile Index (API 50 CHL Kit. The results showed that, the new species of lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified as Lactococcus lactis spp lactis 1 (SR21 isolate and Lactobacillus brevis 1 (SR54 isolate that have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. It is clear from this study that a potential lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial agent can be isolated from the gastric fluid of bali cattle.

  20. Comparison of fatty acid and proximate compositions of the body and claw of male and female blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from different regions of the Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuley, Esmeray; Ozoğul, Fatih; Ozogul, Yesim; Olgunoglu, A Ilkan

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid and proximate compositions of the body and claw of male and female blue crabs from Akyatan Lagoon and Hurma strait were investigated. Male blue crab meat had a higher protein and fat content, and lower moisture and ash content, than that of the female from Akyatan Lagoon. Moreover, there were variations of protein and fat amounts in both female crab meats between Akyatan Lagoon and Hurma strait. The dominant saturated fatty acids were palmitic acid (16:0; range from approximately 12% to 15%) and stearic acid (18:0; range from approximately 7.5% to 16.1%) for all samples. The total monounsaturated fatty acid content in the body of female crabs from Akyatan Lagoon was higher than those of Hurma Strait (22.04% versus 7.55%). There were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in body meat of the male crab than those of female crab meat from Akyatan Lagoon (Pcrabs from Akyatan Lagoon and those of female crabs from Hurma strait. The total n3 was detected as 27.33% in body meat whereas it was 24.39% in claw meat of the male crab from Akyatan Lagoon. Those values were almost similar in the body and claw meat of female crab from Akyatan Lagoon.

  1. Effects of ensiling cereal grains (barley, wheat, triticale and rye) on total and pre-caecal digestibility of proximate nutrients and amino acids in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, W; Pieper, B; Pieper, R; Korn, U; Zeyner, A

    2010-12-01

    Inclemency of weather frequently causes critical water contents in cereal grains above 15%. Ensiling in pre-mature condition may be an alternative to other techniques of preservation. Aim of this study was to compare apparent total tract digestibility (D(t) ; barley, wheat, triticale, rye) of proximate nutrients and pre-caecal digestibility (D(pc); barley, wheat) of amino acids (AA), respectively, from cereal grains in ensiled and almost dry condition. Moistly harvested cereal grains (67-73% dry matter) were milled through a 4-mm sieve and ensiled with lactic acid bacteria (LAB, 3 × 10(5) colony forming units/g Lactobacillus plantarum DSMZ 8862 and 8866). To investigate D(t), two trials were conducted with six Mini-Lewe pigs and four German Landrace pigs, respectively. D(pc) of AA was determined using four German Landrace pigs with ileo-rectal anastomosis. D(t) of proximate nutrients did not differ between cereal grains and their silages, except for ether extract, which was more digestible in ensiled than dry wheat, triticale and rye (p barley and wheat. In barley, ensiling was accompanied by reduced D(pc) of lysine and histidine (p nutritional value as indicated, for example, by the lysine content and the D(pc) of certain AA. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. A novel synthetic Asiatic acid derivative induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and mobility of gastric cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gang Wang,1 Yue Jing,2 Lingsen Cao,3 Changchang Gong,1 Zhunan Gong,1,3 Xiangrong Cao3 1Center for New Drug Research and Development, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, 2Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, 3Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Activation of the transcription factor, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3, has been linked to the proliferation and migration of a variety of human cancer cells. These actions occur via the upregulation or downregulation of cell survival and tumor suppressor genes, respectively. Importantly, agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have the potential for use in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. In this study, an Asiatic acid (AA derivative, N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl-L-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe, is reported to dose dependently suppress constitutive STAT3 activation in gastric cancer cells. This inhibition was mediated by blockade of Janus-activated kinase 2. Additionally, AA-PMe regulated the expression of STAT3-modulated gene products, including cyclin D1, Bax, Bcl-2, c-Myc, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9. Finally, transfection with both a STAT3 mimic and an inhibitor reversed the AA-PMe-driven modulation of STAT3 downstream gene products. Overall, these results suggest that AA-PMe is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation and has the potential for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer. Keywords: gastric cancer, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Asiatic acid derivative, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion

  3. Effects of boiling and roasting on proximate composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame varieties commercialized and consumed in Far-North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenyang, Noël; Ponka, Roger; Tiencheu, Bernard; Djikeng, Fabrice T; Azmeera, Thirupathi; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Womeni, Hilaire M

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of boiling and roasting on the proximate, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame seeds varieties. The proximate composition was significantly affected (Psesame oil after processing was significantly increased (Psesame varieties. C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important fatty acids in sesame oil. Boiling appeared to be the best processing method for cooking the two sesame varieties concerning oxidative stability and fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  5. [Effects of aloe extracts, aloctin A, on gastric secretion and on experimental gastric lesions in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H; Imanishi, K; Okabe, S

    1989-05-01

    Effect of aloctin A, glycoprotein isolated from leaves of Aloe arborescens MILL, on gastric secretion and on acute gastric lesions in rats were examined. Aloctin A given intravenously dose-dependently inhibited the volume of gastric juice, acid and pepsin output in pylorus-ligated rats. Aloctin A given intravenously significantly inhibited the development of Shay ulcers and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. It also inhibited water-immersion stress lesions induced in pylorus-ligated rats.

  6. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  7. Effect of formulation parameters on the drug release and floating properties of gastric floating two-layer tablets with acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasçiçek, Canan; Yüksel-Tilkan, Günseli; Türkmen, Berna; Ozdemir, Nurten

    2011-09-01

    Floating dosage forms of acetylsalicylic acid, used for its antithrombotic effect, were developed to prolong gastric residence time and increase bioavailability. In the two-layer tablet formulation, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of high viscosity and an effervescent mixture of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate formed the floating layer. The release layer contained the drug, direct tableting agent and different types of matrix-forming polymers such as HPMC of low viscosity, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression technique. The effect of formulation variables on physicochemical and floating properties and the drug release from tablets were investigated. Floating ability was dependent on the amount of effervescent agent and gel-forming polymer of the floating layer. Drug release was prolonged to 8 hours by changing the type and viscosity of the matrix-forming polymer in the drug-loading layer and all formulations showed a diffusion release mechanisms.

  8. Gastric Plication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic gastric plication techniques are effective for weight loss. These procedures offer the potential for higher efficacy than conservative modalities, such as medications and lifestyle modifications, and lower invasiveness than bariatric surgery. Gastric plication techniques include endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty, primary obesity surgery endolumenal, transoral gastroplasty, and plication with the Articulating Endoscopic Circular (ACE) stapler. Currently, primary obesity surgery endolumenal is under review by the US Food and Drug Administration, and endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is gaining acceptance. Gastric plication procedures, as with any endoscopic bariatric therapy, should be applied in the setting of a multidisciplinary weight management program with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acid suppression by proton pump inhibitors enhances aquaporin-4 and KCNQ1 expression in gastric fundic parietal cells in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Minegishi, Yuriko; Sugai, Etsuko; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Yasui, Masato; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-12-01

    The widespread use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is known to cause sporadic gastric fundic gland polyps (FGPs). Altered expression and localization of the water or ion transport proteins might contribute to the excess fluid secretion into the cystic lumen for the development of FGPs. We investigated the alteration of the murine gastric fundic mucosa after PPI treatment, and examined the expression of water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and potassium channel KCNQ1, which are expressed only in the parietal cells in the gastric mucosa. Male 5-week-old C57BL/6J mice were administered lansoprazole (LPZ) by subcutaneous injection for 8 weeks. The expression of AQP4 and KCNQ1 were investigated by Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The expression of mucin-6 (Muc6), pepsinogen, and sonic hedgehog (Shh) were also investigated as mucosal cell lineage markers. Gastric mucosal hyperplasia with multiple cystic dilatations, exhibiting similar histological findings to the FGPs, was observed in the LPZ-treated mice. An increase in the number of AQP4-positive parietal cells and KCNQ1-positive parietal cells was observed. The extension of the distribution of AQP4-positive cells toward the surface of the fundic glands was also observed. The expression levels of AQP4 mRNA and protein were significantly enhanced. The expression of KCNQ1 mRNA was correlated with that of AQP4 mRNA in the LPZ-treated mice. Mucous neck-to-zymogenic cell lineage differentiation was delayed in association with decreased expression of Shh in the LPZ-treated mice. PPI administration increased the number of parietal cells with enhanced expression of AQP4 and KCNQ1.

  10. Impaired gastric relaxation in patients with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, F; Papo, M; Malagelada, J R

    1995-03-01

    Achalasia is considered a primary motility disorder confined to the oesophagus. The lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) in achalasia is frequently hypertonic and manifests absent or incomplete relaxation in response to deglution. On the other hand, the LOS and the proximal stomach act physiologically as a functional unit whereby relaxation of the LOS during deglution is associated with receptive relaxation of the proximal stomach. Thus, this study investigated the hypothesis that impaired LOS relaxation in patients with achalasia might be associated with impaired relaxation of the proximal stomach. The study consisted of 20 patients with achalasia and 10 healthy controls. Gastric tone variations were quantified using an electronic barostat. Firstly, the study established the basal gastric tone (intragastric volume at the minimal distending pressure+1 mm Hg) and gastric compliance (volume/pressure relation) during isobaric distension (increasing stepwise the intragastric pressure from 0 to 20 mm Hg up to 600 ml). Secondly, the gastric tone response to cold stress (hand immersion into ice water for five minutes) or to control stimuli (water at 37 degrees) was determined. Basal gastric tone mean (SEM) was similar in achalasia and in healthy controls (125 (9) ml v 138 (9) ml, respectively). Compliance was linear and similar in both groups, which also showed similar gastric extension ratios (58 (7) ml/mm Hg v 57 (6) ml/mm Hg). Cold stress induced a gastric relaxatory response that, as a group, was significantly lower in achalasia than in healthy controls (volume: 43 (20) ml v 141 (42) ml; p 100 ml) relaxatory responses whereas four of the 10 healthy controls did not. In conclusion, reflex gastric relaxation is impaired in most patients with achalasia showing that the proximal stomach, and not exclusively the oesophagus, may be effected by the disease.

  11. Useful condition of chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine and acetic acid for identifying a demarcation line prior to endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Norifumi; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Yoshifuku, Yoshikazu; Miwata, Tomohiro; Sanomura, Yoji; Arihiro, Koji; Shimamoto, Fumio; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-07-19

    Identifying a precise demarcation line (DL) is indispensable for pathological complete en bloc endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC). We evaluated the useful condition of chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine and acetic acid for marking dots around lesions before ESD for EGC. We examined 98 consecutive patients with 109 intramucosal EGCs (mean diameter, 17.8 ± 12.4 mm; main histologic type, 96 intestinal and 13 diffuse) resected by en bloc ESD after chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine and acetic acid between December 2012 and February 2014. The DL was identified by this technique just before ESD (mean chromoendoscopy observation time, 71.6 s); subsequently, marking dots were placed around the EGC. EGCs were classified into two groups: useful for identifying the DL or useless. Clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were evaluated in each group. Forty-two of the 109 cases (38.5 %) were determined useful for chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine and acetic acid. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression showed that macroscopic type (protruded or flat elevated-type) and atrophic border (the oral side of tumor) were independently associated with the usefulness of chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine and acetic acid for identifying the DL of EGCs (P indigo carmine and acetic acid can be used for creating precise markings in protruded or flat elevated-type EGC or at the atrophic border on the oral side of EGCs.

  12. Gastric schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sung; Hsu, Han-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Ho; Li, Wing-Yin; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2004-11-01

    Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors are a group of tumors originated from the mesenchymal stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract, consisting of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), leiomyomas or leiomyosarcomas or schwannomas. Gastric schwannoma is a very rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor, which represents only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 4% of all benign gastric neoplasms. We report a 24-year-old girl who suffered from an episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The endoscopic examination showed a round submucosal tumor with a central ulceration and bleeding over the high body of the stomach. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed. The pathological examination revealed a picture of spindle cell tumor that was strongly positive for S-100 protein stain, and non-reactive for CD34, CD117, actin, HHF-35, desmin, melan-A and HMB-45, consistent with gastric schwannoma. The literature is reviewed.

  13. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the ... Cancer Home Page Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Lasers in Cancer ...

  14. Effect of repeated doses of netazepide, a gastrin receptor antagonist, omeprazole and placebo on 24 h gastric acidity and gastrin in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Aim To administer repeated oral doses of netazepide to healthy subjects for the first time, to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and effect on 24 h gastric pH and plasma gastrin. Method We did two randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies. The first compared netazepide 25 and 100 mg 12 hourly, omeprazole 20 mg once daily and placebo for 7 days. On day 7 only, we measured pH and assayed plasma gastrin. The second study compared netazepide 5, 10 and 25 mg and placebo once daily for 14 days. We measured pH on days 1, 7 and 14 and assayed plasma gastrin on days 1 and 14. We compared treatments by time gastric pH ≥ 4 during 0–4, 4–9, 9–13 and 13–24 h after the morning dose, and by plasma gastrin. P gastrin significantly. Netazepide had linear pharmacokinetics. In the second study, netazepide caused dose-dependent, sustained increases in pH on day 1, but as in the first study, netazepide had little effect on pH on days 7 and 14. Again, netazepide increased plasma gastrin significantly. Conclusion Although repeated doses of netazepide led to tolerance to its effect on pH, the accompanying increase in plasma gastrin is consistent with continued inhibition of acid secretion, via gastrin receptor antagonism and gene up-regulation. PMID:23432415

  15. Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ∼20% of total anthocyanins to ∼30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria.

  16. The effects of balanced versus saline-based hetastarch and crystalloid solutions on acid-base and electrolyte status and gastric mucosal perfusion in elderly surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, N J; Woolf, R; Mutch, M; Mallett, S V; Peachey, T; Stephens, R; Mythen, M G

    2001-10-01

    The IV administration of sodium chloride solutions may produce a metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal dysfunction. We designed this trial to determine whether, in elderly surgical patients, crystalloid and colloid solutions with a more physiologically balanced electrolyte formulation, such as Hartmann's solution and Hextend, can provide a superior metabolic environment and improved indices of organ perfusion when compared with saline-based fluids. Forty-seven elderly patients undergoing major surgery were randomly allocated to one of two study groups. Patients in the Balanced Fluid group received an intraoperative fluid regimen that consisted of Hartmann's solution and 6% hetastarch in balanced electrolyte and glucose injection (Hextend). Patients in the Saline group were given 0.9% sodium chloride solution and 6% hetastarch in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (Hespan). Biochemical indices and acid-base balance were determined. Gastric tonometry was used as a reflection of splanchnic perfusion. Postoperative chloride levels demonstrated a larger increase in the Saline group than the Balanced Fluid group (9.8 vs 3.3 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Postoperative standard base excess showed a larger decline in the Saline group than the Balanced Fluid group (-5.5 vs -0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Two-thirds of patients in the Saline group, but none in the Balanced Fluid group, developed postoperative hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (P = 0.0001). Gastric tonometry indicated a larger increase in the CO2 gap during surgery in the Saline group compared with the Balanced Fluid group (1.7 vs 0.9 kPa, P = 0.0394). In this study, the use of balanced crystalloid and colloid solutions in elderly surgical patients prevented the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and resulted in improved gastric mucosal perfusion when compared with saline-based solutions. This prospective, randomized, blinded trial showed that, in elderly surgical patients, the use of balanced IV solutions can

  17. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie On-On Chan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing views of gastric cancer and the latest developments.

  18. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  19. Controlling on-demand gastric acidity in obese subjects: a randomized, controlled trial comparing a single dose of 20 mg rabeprazole and 20 mg omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocine, Kafia; Vavasseur, Fabienne; Volteau, Christelle; Flet, Laurent; Touchefeu, Yann; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

    2014-07-15

    Obesity is associated with a risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The pharmacodynamic efficacy of proton pump inhibitors has not been specifically evaluated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the antisecretory response to a single oral dose of 20 mg rabeprazole, 20 mg omeprazole and placebo in obese subjects. Gastric pH was monitored for 24 hours on three separate occasions in eighteen H. pylori-negative, asymptomatic obese subjects. Subjects were given omeprazole, rabeprazole or placebo in a randomized order and in a double-blind fashion. The main analysis criterion was 24-h percent of time post dose with intragastric pH above 3; secondary criteria were percentage of time above pH 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations and nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Results were analyzed using linear mixed models and Wilks test comparing variances. 24-h median [IQ] percentages of time with gastric pH above 3 and 4 were higher with rabeprazole than omeprazole (46 [37-55] vs. 30 [15-55] %, 9 [5-11] % for placebo) but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.11 and 0.24, respectively). Median acid concentrations were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole and placebo (22 [14-53] vs. 54 [19-130] and 95 [73-170] mmoles/l, p omeprazole (median 1 [1,2] vs. 2 [1-3], p = 0.04). Variances of 24-h data (pH above 3 and 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations) were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole (p omeprazole was strong and not significantly different between drugs despite a significantly more homogeneous response with rabeprazole. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01136317.

  20. Inhibition of Gastric Acid Secretion by H2 Receptor Antagonists Associates a Definite Risk of Enteric Peritonitis and Infectious Mortality in Patients Treated with Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fontan, Miguel; Machado Lopes, Daniela; García Enríquez, Alba; López-Calviño, Beatriz; López-Muñiz, Andrés; García Falcón, Teresa; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Evidences linking treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion (IGAS) and an increased risk of serious infections are inconclusive, both in the population at large and in the particular case of patients with chronic kidney disease. We have undertaken an investigation to disclose associations between treatment with IGAS and infectious outcomes, in patients undergoing chronic Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). Observational, historic cohort, single center design. Six hundred and ninety-one patients incident on PD were scrutinized for an association among treatment with IGAS (H2 antagonists H2A or proton pump inhibitors PPI) (main study variable), on one side, and the risks of enteric peritoneal infection (main outcome), overall peritoneal infection, and general and infectious mortality (secondary outcomes). We applied a three-step multivariate approach, based on classic Cox models (baseline variables), time-dependent analyses and, when appropriate, competing risk analyses. The clinical characteristics of patients treated with H2A, PPI or none of these were significantly different. Multivariate analyses disclosed a consistently increased risk of enteric peritonitis in patients treated with IGAS (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.55, p = 0.018, Cox). Stratified analysis indicated that patients treated with H2A, rather than those on PPI, supported the burden of this risk. Similar findings applied for the risk of infectious mortality. On the contrary, we were not able to detect any association among the study variables, on one side, and the general risks of peritonitis or mortality, on the other. Treatment with IGAS associates increased incidences of enteric peritonitis and infectious mortality, among patients on chronic PD. The association is clear in the case of H2A but less consistent in the case of PPI. Our results support the convenience of preferring PPI to H2A, for gastric acid inhibition in PD patients.

  1. Fatty acid, sterol and proximate compositions of peanut species (Arachis L. seeds from Bolivia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The oil, protein, ash and carbohydrates contents, iodine value, fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis correntina, A. durannensis, A. monticola, A. batizocoi, and A. cardenasii originating from Bolivia and Argentina. Oil content was greatest in A. batizocoi (mean value 53,35%. The protein level was higher in A. monticola (mean value 29,40% and A. durannensis (29,13%. Mean value of oleic acid varied between 34,91% (A. durannensis and A. cardenasii and 42,60% (Arachis correntina, and linoleic acid oscilated between 40,23% (A. correntina and 45,86% (A. durannensis. The better oleic to linoleic ratio was exhibited by A. correntina (1,06. Iodine value was lower in A. batizocoi (106,0. The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of β-sitosterol (mean values oscilated between 55,70-58,70% following by campesterol (15,18-16,47%, stigmasterol (10,67- 12,27% and Δ5-avenasterol (10,80-12,13%.

    Los contenidos en aceite, proteína, ceniza e hidratos de carbono, índice de acidez, composiciones en ácidos grasos y esteroles fueron estudiadas en semillas de Arachis correntina, A. durannensis, A. Monticola, A. batizocoi, y A. cardenasii originaria de Bolivia y Argentina. El contenido en aceite fue mayor en A. batizocoi (valor medio 53,35%. El nivel de proteína fue más alto en A. monticoia (valor medio 29,40% y A. durannensis (29,13%. El valor medio del ácido oleico varió entre 34,91% (A. Durannensis y A. cardenasii y 42,60% (Arachis correntina, y el ácido linoleico osciló entre 40,23% (A. correntina y 45,86% (A.durannensis. La mejor relación oleico a linoleico fue exhibida por A. correntina (1.06. El índice de iodo fue más bajo en A. batizocoi (106,0. La composición esterólica en las diferentes especies de

  2. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Duodenal control of gastric emptying in the milk-fed calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F R; Mostaghni, K

    1975-01-01

    1. It has been ascertained experimentally that an open duodenal cannula does not cause any marked variation in emptying of the abomasum when compared to the rate of emptying of the normal viscus or when the cannulae are closed. 2. Duodenal re-entrant cannulae provide a preparation whereby it is possible to infuse the duodenum via the distal cannula and to collect simultaneously the effluent fluid of the abomasum from the proximal arm of the cannula (Fig. 1). 3. With this preparation the duodenal infusate is not contaminated by the gastric effluent and thus the duodenal stimulus can be restricted to the single non-varying effect of the infusate. 4. In the milk-fed calf using this preparation the following facts have been established. (a) On infusion into the duodenum, hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying; bicarbonate being the more effective stimulus. (b) Potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose and hydrochloric acid inhibit gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. (c) Ammonium chloride, urea, lactose and acetic acid have little effect. (d) Hypertonic solutions of all substances tested were inhibitory to gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. 5. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that it is the effect of the infusate in the duodenum which controls gastric emptying for when the stomach is isolated from the duodenum, gastric emptying can be manipulated from the duodenum whatever the stomach contents may be. 6. Our results bring firm experimental confirmation of the views discussed by Hunt & Knox (1968) that gastric outflow is regulated by mechanisms initiated from receptors situated in the duodenum. PMID:1142171

  4. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist ramosetron on duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Fukuda, Mari; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Toshihide; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2014-05-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) are both functional gastrointestinal disorders and frequently co-occur in patients. While one cause of FD appears to be gastric hypersensitivity, whether the hypersensitivity is affected by IBS treatments remains unclear, given the lack of appropriate animal models for testing. Here, we established an experimental model of duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in conscious rats. The model involved duodenal acidification induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid into the proximal duodenum, with the nociceptive response being determined as the change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during gastric distension via an indwelling latex balloon. Using our model we evaluated the effects of duodenal acidification, increased distension pressure, and orally administered therapeutic agents for IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D). Duodenal acidification enhanced the pressor response during gastric distension, and pretreatment with the opioid κ-receptor agonist fedotozine (10mg/kg, intra-arterial) inhibited the pressor response. Pressure levels of 15-60 mm Hg increased MAP in response to gastric distension. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ramosetron (30 μg/kg) inhibited MAP increase induced by duodenal acidification, with no other IBS-D therapeutic agents showing any effect. In contrast, the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (1mg/kg) significantly enhanced the pressor response during gastric distension. These findings indicate that the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor plays a key role in duodenal acidification-induced gastric hypersensitivity in rats, suggesting that ramosetron may reduce FD symptoms by ameliorating sensitized gastric perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High oesophageal web formation in association with heterotopic gastric mucosa (the gastric inlet patch): a small case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Background Upper oesophageal webs or rings have rarely been reported in association with heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM). Objective To describe the finding of oesophageal webs in association with HGM. Design Small case series. Setting Patients presenting with dysphagia to an open access hospital dysphagia clinic. Patients Six cases were found. Interventions Symptomatic improvement is demonstrated with oesophageal dilatation in symptomatic patients. Main outcome measurements Symptomatic improvement. Results The six cases which are described here demonstrate that a web or ring exactly matches the distribution of the heterotopic mucosa, can occur at both proximal and distal squamo-columnar junctions and the inlet patches may be multiple with multiple rings. A radiological double web sign is described. Limitations A rare condition with a small number of patients. Conclusions Effective treatment can be by oesophageal dilatation and acid suppression. The cause of web formation is thought to be due to heterotopic acid production and is analogous to the Schatzki ring. PMID:28839593

  7. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C

    2009-01-01

    thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We...

  8. The effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and type of food on gastric content volume and acidity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, Ioannis; Rallis, Timoleon; Raptopoulos, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and variety of food on gastric content (GC) volume and pH in dogs. Randomized, cross-over, prospective experimental study. Fifteen mongrel dogs (nine females and six males 1-4 years old, weighing 10-24.5 kg). Each dog received the same seven treatments in random order: dry food 3 hours before anaesthesia (BA) (treatment 3D), canned food (half daily rate) 3 hours BA (treatment 3C), 0% fat cow milk 3 hours BA (treatment 3M), dry food 10 hours BA (treatment 10D), canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10C), low fat canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10F) and low protein canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10P). All animals were pre-medicated with propionyl promazine and anaesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and maintained with halothane. GC was aspirated using an orogastric catheter and its volume and pH were measured. Treatment 10F had significantly lower GC pH than all the 3-hour treatments. Treatments 10D and 10P had significantly lower pH than treatments 3D and 3C. Treatment 3M had significantly lower pH than the other 3-hour treatments. Treatment 3D had significantly greater gastric volume than treatments 3M, 10C, 10F and 10P. Canned food at half the daily rate administered 3 hours before anaesthesia did not increase significantly the GC volume compared to the other types of food used. The GC pH was also high. This type of food fed 3 hours before induction of anaesthesia may be of benefit in reduction of the incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux during anaesthesia in dogs.

  9. Activation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 4 is Essential for Cholinergic Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion - Relation To D Cell/Somatostatin -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Takeuchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground/Aim: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in five subtypes (M1~M5, and they are widely expressed in various tissues to mediate diverse autonomic functions, including gastric secretion. In the present study, we demonstrated, using M1~M5 KO mice, the importance of M4 receptors in carbachol (CCh stimulation of acid secretion and investigated how the secretion is modulated by the activation of M4 receptors. Methods: C57BL/6J mice of wild-type (WT and M1-M5 KO were used. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was measured in the stomach equipped with an acute fistula. CCh (30 µg/kg was given s.c. to stimulate acid secretion. Atropine or octreotide (a somatostatin analogue was given s.c. 20 min before the administration of CCh. CYN154806 (a somatostatin SST2 receptor antagonist was given i.p. 20 min before the administration of octreotide or CCh. Results: CCh caused an increase of acid secretion in WT mice, and the effect was totally inhibited by prior administration of atropine. The effect of CCh was similarly observed in the animals lacking M1, M2 or M5 receptors but significantly decreased in M3 or M4 KO mice. CYN154806, the SST2 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently and significantly reversed the decreased acid response to CCh in M4 but not M3 KO mice. Octreotide, the somatostatin analogue, inhibited the secretion of acid under CCh-stimulated conditions in WT mice. The immunohistochemical study showed the localization of M4 receptors on D cells in the stomach. Serum somatostatin levels in M4 KO mice were higher than WT mice under basal conditions, while those in WT mice were significantly decreased in response to CCh. Conclusions: These results suggest that under cholinergic stimulation the acid secretion is directly mediated by M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. It is assumed that the activation of M4 receptors inhibits the release of somatostatin from D cells and minimizes the acid inhibitory effect

  10. Gastric Epithelial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLS, JASON C.; SHIVDASANI, RAMESH A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells. PMID:21144849

  11. Effect of repeated doses of netazepide, a gastrin receptor antagonist, omeprazole and placebo on 24 h gastric acidity and gastrin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve

    2013-11-01

    To administer repeated oral doses of netazepide to healthy subjects for the first time, to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and effect on 24 h gastric pH and plasma gastrin. We did two randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies. The first compared netazepide 25 and 100 mg 12 hourly, omeprazole 20 mg once daily and placebo for 7 days. On day 7 only, we measured pH and assayed plasma gastrin. The second study compared netazepide 5, 10 and 25 mg and placebo once daily for 14 days. We measured pH on days 1, 7 and 14 and assayed plasma gastrin on days 1 and 14. We compared treatments by time gastric pH ≥ 4 during 0-4, 4-9, 9-13 and 13-24 h after the morning dose, and by plasma gastrin. P gastrin significantly. Netazepide had linear pharmacokinetics. In the second study, netazepide caused dose-dependent, sustained increases in pH on day 1, but as in the first study, netazepide had little effect on pH on days 7 and 14. Again, netazepide increased plasma gastrin significantly. Although repeated doses of netazepide led to tolerance to its effect on pH, the accompanying increase in plasma gastrin is consistent with continued inhibition of acid secretion, via gastrin receptor antagonism and gene up-regulation. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Helicobacter pylori-Induced Oncogene Expression and Hyperproliferation by Suppressing the Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Byun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori- infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as β-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. α-Lipoic acid (α-LA, a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of α-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits, activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1, expression of oncogenes (β-catenin, c-myc, and nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, α-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-κB and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by α-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

  13. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  14. [Acid-base blood balance in patients with ulcer under treatment by the gastric secretion inhibitors and antacids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, V B; Sablin, O A; Uspenskiĭ, Iu L

    2002-01-01

    There was an analysis of the results of the study of intragastric acidity and acid-base balance (ABB) of the blood in 25 patients with duodenal ulcer. The patients were examined before and against the background of the 14-day monotherapy with one of the following preparations: Losec, 40 mg (omeprazole), famotidine, 80 mg (Quamatel), Phosphalugel, or placebo.

  15. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous catecholam...... antral motility through dopaminergic receptors. beta-Adrenergic receptors, which are active in the impairment of gastric acid secretion, seem not to be involved in the motility response....

  16. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases...... control meals (F-20; saturated fatty acids/monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids [S/M/P] ratio, 3:4:3) with 20 energy (E) % fat, followed by 2 isoenergetic experimental meals for 7 days each. These meals comprised 60 E% carbohydrate, 15 E% protein, and 30 E% fat (FB-30; high saturated...... fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 5:4:1; F-30: reduced saturated fatty acid meal; S/M/P, 3:4:3). On the second day of the F-20 and the last day of F-30 and FB-30, blood samples were taken before and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose responses did not differ between F-20...

  17. Sequential chemotherapy with dose-dense docetaxel, cisplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (TCF-dd) followed by combination of oxaliplatin, folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan (COFFI) in metastatic gastric cancer: results of a phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Chiesa, Matteo; Tomasello, Gianluca; Buti, Sebastiano; Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; Brighenti, Matteo; Lazzarelli, Silvia; Donati, Gianvito; Passalacqua, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate a new strategy of two sequential, intensified chemotherapy regimens in metastatic gastric cancer. Chemo-naïve patients with metastatic gastric cancer were enrolled to receive 4 cycles of TCF-dd (docetaxel initially 85 mg/m(2) and cisplatin initially 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 [later modified due to toxicity: 70 and 60 mg/m(2) respectively], l-folinic acid 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2, 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2) bolus and then 600 mg/m(2) as a 22 h continuous infusion on day 1 and 2, every 14 days). Subsequently, patients with CR, PR or SD received 4 cycles of COFFI (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2), irinotecan 140 mg/m(2), l-folinic acid 200 mg/m(2), 5-fluorouracil bolus 400 mg/m(2) on day 1 followed by 2,400 mg/m(2) as a 48 h continuous infusion, every 14 days). In both regimens pegfilgrastim 6 mg subcutaneously on day 3 was included. Forty consecutive patients were enrolled. TCF-dd regimen achieved an ORR of 55% (95% CI, 40-70). Twenty-three patients proceeded to COFFI. After this regimen the ORR was then increased to 60% (95% CI, 45-75). Among the 21 patients treated with TCF-dd after the protocol amendments, main grade 3-4 toxicities were: neutropenia (29%), thrombocytopenia (19%), asthenia (24%) and diarrhea (14%). COFFI caused grade 3-4 neutropenia (all not febrile) and diarrhea in 35% and 17% of patients respectively. A sequential strategy with TCF-dd followed by COFFI is very active and may be of special interest in selected patients.

  18. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  19. Gastric cancer missed at endoscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2012-09-21

    Sep 21, 2012 ... fore endoscopy taking into account risk factors for cancer and the clinical presentation. Careful examination of the stomach during endoscopy should be performed in order not to miss any lesion. All gastric ulcers must be biopsied and a repeat endoscopy be performed following a course of acid suppres-.

  20. Gastric electrical stimulation optimized to inhibit gastric motility reduces food intake in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng-Qing; Zhu, Hongbing; Lei, Yong; Yuan, Charlene; Starkebaum, Warren; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that that a method of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) optimized to inhibit gastric motility was effective in reducing food intake in dogs. Female dogs with a gastric cannula and gastric serosal electrodes were studied in three experiments: (1) to determine the best parameters and locations of GES in inhibiting gastric tone, slow waves, and contractions in dogs;( 2) to investigate the reproducibility of the inhibitory effects of GES; and (3) to study the effect of the GES method on food intake in dogs. (1) For GES to exert significant effects on gastric motility, a pulse width of ≥2 ms was required, and with other appropriate inhibitory parameters, GES was able to increase gastric volume by 190.4 %, reduce antral contractions by 39.7 %, and decrease the percentage of normal slow waves by 47.6 %. In addition, the inhibitory effect of GES was more potent with the stimulation electrodes placed along the lesser or greater curvature than placed in the middle, and more potent with the electrodes placed in the distal stomach than in the proximal stomach; (2) the inhibitory effects of GES on gastric motility were reproducible; (3) the GES method optimized to inhibit gastric motility produced a 20 % reduction in food intakes in non-obese dogs. GES with appropriate parameters inhibits gastric motility, and the effects are reproducible. The GES method optimized to inhibit gastric motility reduces food intake in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for treating obesity.

  1. Comparative study of pathological findings and trace elements profiles of gastric mucosa in benign gastric disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, N.; Ito, M.; Sakurai, S.; Yukawa, M [Digestive Disease Center, Nippon Medical Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify how trace elements in gastric mucosa, reflex bile acid and inflammation of gastric mucosa relate to environment of Helicobacter Pylori. Subjects were 33 patients who had colonic endoscopic examination. 11 gastric ulcer and 14 duodenal ulcer patients were chosen as subjects of the study. The control group had 8 members who had no localized lesions. Trace elements were measured by PIXE analysis which use Pd as internal standard. Cu and Zn, especially Zn, were found in large amount in gastric body and antrum. Zn value for the antrum was higher than that for the gastric body. Especially, the values of Zn for antrum showed significant differences between grade I, II and III of inflammatory cell infiltration. In gastric ulcer group, the value of Cu indicated high at gastric body and low at antrum. On the other hand, the values of Zn were low at both gastric body and antrum. Particularly, development of atrophy in antrum requires less than one in gastric body; therefore, trace elements decreased in gastric ulcer group. (author)

  2. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...

  4. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...

  5. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-04-30

    Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 +/- 8.5 days versus only 23.3 +/- 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further

  6. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT

  7. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (Pinfrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  8. Inhibition of gastric lipase as a mechanism for body weight and plasma lipids reduction in Zucker rats fed a rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Romo Vaquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts (REs exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40% modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+ and obese (fa/fa female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption.

  9. Expression of the Fatty Acid Receptors GPR84 and GPR120 and Cytodifferentiation of Epithelial Cells in the Gastric Mucosa of Mouse Pups in the Course of Dietary Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Widmayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR120 (FFAR4, which are considered to be receptors for medium and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs, respectively. We found that the mRNA levels for GPR84 and GPR120 were high during the suckling period and progressively decreased in the course of weaning. Visualization of the receptor-expressing cells in 2-week-old mice revealed a high number of labeled cells, which reside in the apical as well as in the basal region of the gastric glands. At the base of the gastric glands, all GPR84-immunoreactive cells and some of the GPR120-positive cells also expressed chromogranin A (CgA, suggesting that they are enteroendocrine cells. We demonstrate that the majority of the CgA/GPR84 cells are X/A-like ghrelin cells. The high degree of overlap between ghrelin and GPR84 decreased post-weaning, whereas the overlap between ghrelin and GPR120 increased. At the apical region of the glands the fatty acid receptors were mainly expressed in unique cell types. These contain lipid-filled vacuole- and vesicle-like structures and may have absorptive functions. We detected decreased immunoreactivity for GPR84 and no lipid droplets in surface cells post-weaning. In conclusion, expression of GPR84 in ghrelin cells as well as in surface cells suggests an important role of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs in the developing gastric mucosa of suckling mice.

  10. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Have Distinct Effects on Gallbladder Motility and Gastric Acid Secretion in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaj; Bomgren, Peter; Holmgren, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Many regulatory peptides form families with at least two homologous members. For several such families the divergence of the individual members from a common ancestor can be dated to early in vertebrate history. Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin were originally identified in mammals. Recently, two...... distinct members of the CCK/gastrin family were identified in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), termed CCK and gastrin. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied...... in typical target organs. While porcine gallbladder responded equally to frog gastrin-8 and CCK-8, EC50 values for stimulation of bullfrog gallbladder contractions were 490 nM (gastrin) and 69 nM (CCK). In contrast, gastrin appeared to be a more potent stimulant of acid secretion than CCK; the estimated EC50...

  11. [Mechanism of alcohol action on gastric secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskaia, L S; Skurikhin, I M; Guliev, R R

    2001-01-01

    In chronic experiment on dogs (3 dogs with Pavlov's miniature stomach, 3 dogs with Heidenhain's miniature stomach) the mechanism of action of alcohol (8%-150 ml) on gastric secretion was clarified. For this purpose the new inhibitor of gastric secretion--glycopeptide was utilized, which action was preset in laboratory of G.K. Shlygin. Was shown, that in effect of alcohol on gastric secretion take place the complicated mechanism including as a nervous regulation (vagus nerves), and humoral: participation of gastrin and histamine in secretory effect of a stomach, and also immediate effect of ethanol on acid glands.

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the ... Cancer Home Page Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Lasers in Cancer ...

  13. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the ... Cancer Home Page Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Lasers in Cancer ...

  14. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Expression of IL-8 by Suppressing Activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Hyun; Cho, Soon Ok; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cytokine response, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced inflammation. H. pylori induces the production of ROS, which may be involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/Stat), and oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and thus, expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in gastric epithelial cells. α-lipoic acid, a naturally occurring thiol compound, is a potential antioxidant. It shows beneficial effects in treatment of oxidant-associated diseases including diabetes. The present study is purposed to investigate whether α-lipoic acid inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by suppressing activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pretreated with or without α-lipoic acid for 2 h and infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate (HP99) at a ratio of 300:1. IL-8 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. IL-8 levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-κB-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Phospho-specific and total forms of MAPK and Jak/Stat were assessed by Western blot analysis. ROS levels were determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. As a result, H. pylori induced increases in ROS levels, mRNA, and protein levels of IL-8, as well as the activation of MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38], Jak/Stat (Jak1/2, Stat3), and NF-κB in AGS cells, which was inhibited by α-lipoic acid. In conclusion, α-lipoic acid may be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of H. pylori infection-associated gastric inflammation.

  15. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bizzaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms.

  16. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  17. Gastrin and Gastric CancerSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P. Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in understanding its development, challenges with treatment remain. Gastrin, a peptide hormone, is trophic for normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin also has been shown to play an important role in the stimulation of growth of several gastrointestinal cancers including gastric cancer. We sought to review the role of gastrin and its pathway in gastric cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target in the management of gastric cancer. In the normal adult stomach, gastrin is synthesized in the G cells of the antrum; however, gastrin expression also is found in many gastric adenocarcinomas of the stomach corpus. Gastrin’s actions are mediated through the G-protein–coupled receptor cholecystokinin-B (CCK-B on parietal and enterochromaffin cells of the gastric body. Gastrin blood levels are increased in subjects with type A atrophic gastritis and in those taking high doses of daily proton pump inhibitors for acid reflux disease. In experimental models, proton pump inhibitor–induced hypergastrinemia and infection with Helicobacter pylori increase the risk of gastric cancer. Understanding the gastrin:CCK-B signaling pathway has led to therapeutic strategies to treat gastric cancer by either targeting the CCK-B receptor with small-molecule antagonists or targeting the peptide with immune-based therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of gastrin in gastric adenocarcinoma, and strategies to block its effects to treat those with unresectable gastric cancer. Keywords: G17DT, CCK-B Receptor, Proton Pump Inhibitors, PPIs

  18. Phase and size controllable synthesis of NaYbF4 nanocrystals in oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system for targeted fluorescent imaging of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liyuan; He, Meng; Ma, Jiebing; Tang, Wei; Gao, Guo; He, Rong; Su, Haichuan; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-01-01

    Upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals own great potential in applications such as biomolecule-labeling, in vivo tracking and molecular imaging. Herein we reported that NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with small size and strong fluorescent signals were controllably synthesized by oleic acid (OA)/ ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for targeted fluorescent imaging of gastric cancer in vivo. The optimal synthesis condition of NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals by OA/IL two-phase system was established, adding more metal ion such as Na(+) ion could facilitate the size control and crystal-phase transition, more importantly, markedly enhancing fluorescent intensity of beta-phase nanocrystals compared with traditional methods. Alpha-phase NaYbF4, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with less than 10nm in diameter and beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals with 30 nm or so in diameter and strong fluorescent signals were obtained, these synthesized nanocrystals exhibited very low cytotoxicity. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified beta-phase NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals were prepared, could actively target gastric cancer tissues implanted into nude mice in vivo, and realized targeted fluorescent imaging. Folic acid-conjugated silica-modified NaYbF4: 25%Gd, 2%Tm upconversion nanocrystals show great potential in applications such as targeted near infared radiation fluorescent imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and targeted therapy of gastric cancer in the near future.

  19. Gastric Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    induce early satiety possibly due to inhibitory effects on gastric motility and effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and hormones related to satiety and/or appetite. Possible advantages to GES for the treatment of morbid obesity include reversibility of the procedure, less invasiveness than some bariatric procedures, e.g., gastric bypass, and less side effects (e.g., dumping syndrome). The Device Electrical stimulation is delivered via an implanted system that consists of a neurostimulator and 2 leads. The surgical procedure can be performed via either an open or laparoscopic approach. An external programmer used by the physician can deliver instructions to the GES, i.e., adjust the rate and amplitude of stimulation (Figure 1). GES may be turned off by the physician at any time or may be removed. The battery life is approximately 4-5 years For treatment of GP, the GES leads are secured in the muscle of the lower stomach, 10 cm proximal to the pylorus (the opening from the stomach to the intestine), 1 cm apart and connected to an implantable battery-powered neurostimulator which is placed in a small pocket in the abdominal wall For treatment of morbid obesity, GES leads are implanted along the lesser curvature of the stomach where the vagal nerve branches spread, approximately 8 cm proximal to the pylorus. However, the implant positioning of the leads has been variably reported in the literature. Regulatory Status The Enterra Therapy System and the Transcend II Implantable Gastric Stimulation System (Medtronic Inc.) are both licensed as class 3 devices by Health Canada (license numbers 60264 and 66948 respectively). The Health Canada indications for use are: Enterra Therapy System “For use in the treatment of chronic intractable (drug-refractory) nausea and vomiting.” Transcend II Implantable Gastric Stimulation System “For use in weight reduction for obese adults with a body mass index greater than 35.” The GES device that is licensed by Health Canada for

  20. Comparision of the Cytotoxic Effects of Birch Bark Extract, Betulin and Betulinic Acid Towards Human Gastric Carcinoma and Pancreatic Carcinoma Drug-sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Lage

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Betulin and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes showing cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. These compounds can be found in the bark of the many plants. In this report we have compared the cytotoxic activity of crude birch bark extract and purified betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma (EPG85-257 and human pancreatic carcinoma (EPP85-181 drug-sensitive and drug-resistant (daunorubicin and mitoxantrone cell lines. Our results show significant differences in sensitivity between cell lines depending on the compound used, and suggest that both betulin and betulinic acid can be considered as a promising leads in the treatment of cancer.

  1. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  3. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease Gastric bypass surgery Laparoscopic gastric banding Obesity Obstructive sleep apnea - adults Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Weight-loss surgery - after - what to ask your doctor Weight- ...

  4. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease Gastric bypass surgery Laparoscopic gastric banding Obesity Obstructive sleep apnea - adults Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Getting out of bed after surgery Weight-loss surgery - after - what to ask your doctor Weight- ...

  5. Epigenetics of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingzhou; Yan, Wenji

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes frequently occur in human gastric cancer. Gene promoter region hypermethylation, genomic global hypomethylation, histone modifications, and alterations of noncoding RNAs are major epigenetic changes in gastric cancer. As a key risk factor of gastric cancer, H. pylori infection is an independent predictive indicator of gene methylation. A growing number of epigenetic studies in gastric cancer have provided lots of potential diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  6. Dose-Finding Study of Omeprazole on Gastric pH in Neonates with Gastro-Esophageal Acid Reflux Using a Bayesian Sequential Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaguelidou, Florentia; Alberti, Corinne; Biran, Valerie; Bourdon, Olivier; Farnoux, Caroline; Zohar, Sarah; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are frequently administered on clinical symptoms in neonates but benefit remains controversial. Clinical trials validating omeprazole dosage in neonates are limited. The objective of this trial was to determine the minimum effective dose (MED) of omeprazole to treat pathological acid reflux in neonates using reflux index as surrogate marker. Double blind dose-finding trial with continual reassessment method of individual dose administration using a Bayesian approach, aiming to select drug dose as close as possible to the predefined target level of efficacy (with a credibility interval of 95%). Neonatal Intensive Care unit of the Robert Debré University Hospital in Paris, France. Neonates with a postmenstrual age ≥ 35 weeks and a pathologic 24-hour intra-esophageal pH monitoring defined by a reflux index ≥ 5% over 24 hours were considered for participation. Recruitment was stratified to 3 groups according to gestational age at birth. Five preselected doses of oral omeprazole from 1 to 3 mg/kg/day. Primary outcome, measured at 35 weeks postmenstrual age or more, was a reflux index omeprazole initiation. Fifty-four neonates with a reflux index ranging from 5.06 to 27.7% were included. Median age was 37.5 days and median postmenstrual age was 36 weeks. In neonates born at less than 32 weeks of GA (n = 30), the MED was 2.5mg/kg/day with an estimated mean posterior probability of success of 97.7% (95% credibility interval: 90.3-99.7%). The MED was 1mg/kg/day for neonates born at more than 32 GA (n = 24). Omeprazole is extensively prescribed on clinical symptoms but efficacy is not demonstrated while safety concerns do exist. When treatment is required, the daily dose needs to be validated in preterm and term neonates. Optimal doses of omeprazole to increase gastric pH and decrease reflux index below 5% over 24 hours, determined using an adaptive Bayesian design differ among neonates. Both gestational and postnatal ages account for these

  7. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  8. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-α associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically.

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  10. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  11. Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter. Identification of a conserved glutamic acid as a third coordinate in the endogenous Zn(2+)-binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løland, Claus Juul; Norregaard, L; Gether, U

    1999-01-01

    , high affinity Zn(2+)-binding site. To achieve further insight into the tertiary organization of hDAT, we set out to identify additional residues involved in Zn(2+) binding and subsequently to engineer artificial Zn(2+)-binding sites. Ten aspartic acids and glutamic acids, predicted...

  12. Gastric Autoantigenic Proteins in Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Sook; Lee, Su-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Yeom, Jeongsuk; Park, Eun-Sil; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Jun, Jin-Su; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Ko, Gyung-Hyuck; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study tried to identify novel gastric autoimmune antigens that might be involved in aggravating the atrophic gastritis among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection using two-dimensional immunoblotting analysis. Materials and Methods Proteins from gastric mucosal antrectomy specimens and AGS cells (gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from a Caucasian patient who had received no prior therapy) were 2-dimensionally immunoblotted separately with a pool of 300 sera from H. pylroi-infected patients at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Results Thirty-eight autoantigenic proteins including alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP+], alpha enolase, gastrokine-1, gastric triacylglycerol lipase, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, and peroxiredoxin-2 were identified in the gastric mucosal tissue. Fourteen autoantigenic proteins including programmed cell death 6-interacting protein, serum albumin and T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma were identified in the AGS cells. Albumin, alpha-enolase, annexin A3, cytoplasmic actin 1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein and leukocyte elastase inhibitor were commonly observed autoantigenic proteins in both gastric mucosal tissue and AGS cells. Alpha-enolase, glutathione S-transferase P, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, human mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATP) subunit beta, mitochondrial 60 kDa heat shock protein, peroxiredoxin-2, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 and Tryptophan-Aspartic acid (WD) repeat-containing protein 1 showed 60% or higher amino acid positivity. Conclusion These newly identified gastric autoimmune antigens might be useful in the control and prevention of gastroduodenal disorders, and might be valuable in breaking the vicious circle that exists in gastroduodenal disorders if their pathophysiological roles could be understood in the progress of chronic atrophic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, intestinal

  13. Gastric secretagogue action of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta caused dose-dependent increase in gastric acid secretion. This secretagogue effect was augmented by histamine. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta also significantly increased food intake, body weight gain, and the sizes and number of gastric parietal cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that ...

  14. Catatonia, gastric hyperacidity, and fatal aspiration: a preventable syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort, R F

    1976-04-01

    Sudden death from aspiration pneumonitis during acute catatonia is a generally recognized but poorly understood occurrence. The author describes a case in which a schizophrenic patient died following aspiration of gastric contents. In view of findings that suggest that the acidity of gastric contents is related to morbidity following aspiration, he recommends that liquid antacid medication be given routinely to catatonic patients.

  15. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres...... for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. The defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection.......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...

  16. Gastric pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes, viral illness or drugs. Nausea, bloating and fullness. Oesophageal spasm. Substernal chest pain, with or without dysphagia for liquids and solids. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. • Heartburn. • Occasional reflux of acid or the stomach contents into the mouth. • Symptoms occasionally triggered by lying down.

  17. Effect of proximal gastric volume on hiatal hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, R. C. H.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Hebbard, G. S.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Samsom, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatial separation of the diaphragm and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) occurs frequently and intermittently in patients with a sliding hiatus hernia and favors gastro-esophageal reflux. This can be studied with high-resolution manometry. Although fundic accommodation is associated

  18. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Asmari

    2016-01-01

    Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture.

  19. [Somatic pain sensitivity of conscious rats with chronic gastric ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarushkina, N I; Bogdanov, A I; Filaretova, L P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gastric ulcers on somatic nociception in conscious rats. The formation of kissing gastric ulcers was induced by luminal application of 60% acetic. Somatic pain sensitivity was tested by tail flick latency. Application of acetic acid resulted in gastric ulcer formation, somatic hyperalgesia and the appearance of typical signs of chronic stress (a long-lasting increase of plasma corticosterone level, adrenal gland hypertrophy and thymus gland involution). Natural healing of gastric ulcers was accompanied by restoration of pain sensitivity and attenuation of typical signs of chronic stress. Both natural healing of gastric ulcers and restoration of pain sensitivity were prevented by daily indomethacin administration. The results suggest that the formation of chronic gastric ulcers may trigger somatic hypersensitivity.

  20. Gastric Hypochlorhydria in Ferret Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, C. J.

    1967-01-01

    In the present investigation 42 female ferrets were studied in regard to the influence of canine distemper in this species on gastric acid secretion. A total of fifteen naturally-infected and 27 non-infected ferrets were fasted and pylorus-ligated, and were either injected with corticosterone (10 or 50 mg/kg, s.c. one injection/day for 4 days) suspended in corn oil, injected with corn oil, on non-injected. Prior to autopsy blood samples were acquired for corticosterone analysis, and at autopsy the volume, pH, free and combined acidity of the gastric contents were evaluated. It was apparent that distemper induced hypochlorhydria in ferrets under the conditions of these experiments, an effect which was probably mediated through the central nervous system, but may also relate to a direct effect of distemper virus upon the gastric mucosa. Administration of corticosterone did not prevent hypochlorhydria in distemperous ferrets. Blood levels of corticosterone were elevated due to the stress effect of distemper infection, and also as a reflection of exogenous corticosterone administration. Prior immunization against canine distemper failed to immunize the ferrets in this study against the natural precipitation of this disease. PMID:4226681

  1. [THE HUMORAL, NEUROHORMONAL VEGETATIVE AND HYDRAULIC REGULATION OF METABOLISM. THE DISTAL AND PROXIMAL SECTIONS OF ARTERIAL BLOODSTREAM. THE FATTY ACIDS AND METABOLIC ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION (A LECTURE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev V A

    2015-04-01

    The regulation of metabolism formed sequentially in phylogenesis at three levels separately: autocrine level--in cell; in paracrin cell cenosis--structural and functional units of organs; at organism level. The interrelated variants of regulation: humoral; neurohumoral; neurohormonal; vegetative-sympathetic; parasympathetic--conduction of nervous impulse is to be evaluated in consequence of becoming of stages of phylogenesis. The becoming of hydrodynamic regulation is early even. The impact by pressure (blood flow) in paracrin cell cenosis is implemented by local peristaltic pumps in open-ended system of lymph and blood circulation. In closed system of circulation occurred separation of arterial flow on two functional sections. Phylogenetically early distal with regulation of hydrodynamic pressure by arterioles of muscular type in paracrin cell cenosis and compensation of disorders of biological reaction metabolism-micro-circulation (MM). In later proximal section, arteries of elastic type arterial pressure forms heart as a central pump under sympathetic innervation at level of organism from vasomotor center. The physical factor--pressure--became regulator of reaction M M. Increasing of arterial pressure in proximal systemically increases blood pressure in distal and all paracrin cell cenosises compensating alteration of reaction M M. The systemic non-optimal increasing of hydrodynamic pressure invoke negative reaction of organs controlling hydrodynamics in local pools of intercellular medium: kidneys with pool of primary urine; brain with spinal fluid; lungs with pulmonary circulation; placenta with pool of amniotic medium. All of them tend to decrease blood flow in organs. The activation of synthesis of angiotensin-II forms pathologic compensation and their secondary damage as organs-targets. The sympathetic stimulation of heart forces it to work at full capacity. No humoral mediator or internal organ can regulate arterial pressure.

  2. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Al?n, Bego?a O.; Leal-L?pez, Sa?l; Al?n, Mar?a Otero; Via?o, Patricia; Garc?a-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S.; Beiras, Andr?s; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Gallego, Rosal?a; Garc?a-Caballero, Tom?s; Cami?a, Jes?s P.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarc...

  3. The role of an alginate suspension on pepsin and bile acids - key aggressors in the gastric refluxate. Does this have implications for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugala, Vicki; Avis, Jeanine; Jolliffe, Ian G; Johnstone, Lesley M; Dettmar, Peter W

    2009-08-01

    During a reflux event the oesophagus is exposed to a heterogeneous mixture of gastric juice components. The role of non-acid components of the refluxate in causing damage to the oesophagus is now well established but no therapeutic option exists to address this. The role of Gaviscon Advance (GA), a raft-forming alginate suspension, in protecting the oesophagus from damage by pepsin and bile acids (aggressors) was investigated using a series of in-vitro models. GA was able to dose-dependently inhibit pepsin activity over and above the neutralisation effect of the formulation. This was evident against both protein and collagen substrates using two distinct colorimetric assays. GA was able to retard the diffusion of pepsin and multiple bile acids using a Franz cell model. Using the raft-forming mode of action GA was able to remove both pepsin and multiple bile acids from a simulated reflux event. There was capacity in the GA raft to accommodate aggressors from multiple reflux events. GA can specifically remove both pepsin and bile acids from the refluxate, limit their diffusion and affect enzymatic activity of pepsin. There is a role for GA to reduce the damaging potential of the refluxate and thus protect the oesophagus.

  4. Nebivolol prevents indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-07-01

    Gastric ulcer is a very common gastrointestinal disease that may lead to dangerous complications and even death. This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of nebivolol against indomethacin [INDO]-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normal control, ulcer control (INDO only), omeprazole before INDO and nebivolol before INDO. Each rat to receive nebivolol and omeprazole was given the agent orally (by gavage) daily for 10 days prior to induction of ulcer by oral dosing with INDO. Four hours after INDO treatment, all rats were euthanized and their stomachs obtained for measures of gastric acidity, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, as well as cytoprotective mediators. The results showed that a single oral dose of INDO (100 mg/kg) induced gastric acidity, an ulcer index of 2900 and significantly increased levels of gastric tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly decreased levels of gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO), compared to in normal control counterpart stomachs. Giving nebivolol before INDO corrected the gastric acidity and resulted in a significant increase in GSH, PGE2 and NO and a significant decrease in TNFα and MDA gastric levels, compared to ulcer control values. Results obtained with nebivolol were comparable to those with omeprazole; the preventive index in the nebivolol group was 90.7% compared to 94.5% in rats in the omeprazole group. These studies showed that nebivolol provided a valuable role in preventing gastric ulcers induced by INDO and provided a promise for potentially protecting hypertensive patients from experiencing gastric ulcer. Thus, it is possible that, pending further studies, nebivolol could be used for pre-exposure prophylaxis from gastric ulcer in these patients.

  5. Molecular Classification of Gastric Cancer: A new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A.; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Klimstra, David S.; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer may be subdivided into three distinct subtypes –proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer– based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Experimental Design Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (NCI 5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. 4–6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was performed to ensure >80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Results Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the three gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross validation error was 0.14, suggesting that >85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the False Discovery Rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Conclusions Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinction are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. PMID:21430069

  6. Molecular classification of gastric cancer: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Klimstra, David S; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P

    2011-05-01

    Gastric cancer may be subdivided into 3 distinct subtypes--proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer--based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (National Cancer Institute, NCI #5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. Four to 6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was carried out to ensure more than 80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the 3 gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross-validation error was 0.14, suggesting that more than 85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the false discovery rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinctions are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. ©2011 AACR.

  7. of the stomach (ID 345), neutralisation of gastric acid (ID 345), contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue (ID 287, 288, 333, 334, 335, 1405, 1652, 1718, 1719, 1945), maintenance of normal bone (ID 287, 335, 1652, 1718, 1945), maintenance of normal joints (ID 1405, 1652, 1945

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to silicon and protection against aluminium accumulation in the brain, cardiovascular health, forming a protective coat on the mucous membrane of the stomach, neutralisation of gastric acid, contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue, maintenance of normal bone...

  8. ERR gamma Regulates Cardiac, Gastric, and Renal Potassium Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaynick, William A.; Way, James M.; Wilson, Stephanie A.; Benson, William G.; Pei, Liming; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth; Jonker, Johan W.; Holt, Jason A.; Rajpal, Deepak K.; Li, Hao; Stuart, Joan; McPherson, Ruth; Remlinger, Katja S.; Chang, Ching-Yi; McDonnell, Donald P.; Evans, Ronald M.; Billin, Andrew N.

    Energy production by oxidative metabolism in kidney, stomach, and heart, is primarily expended in establishing ion gradients to drive renal electrolyte homeostasis, gastric acid secretion, and cardiac muscle contraction, respectively. In addition to orchestrating transcriptional control of oxidative

  9. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  10. Probing the O-glycoproteome of Gastric Cancer Cell Lines for Biomarker Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira Campos, Diana Alexandra; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana

    2015-01-01

    biomarker assays. However, the current knowledge of secreted and circulating O-glycoproteins is limited. Here, we used the COSMC KO "SimpleCell" (SC) strategy to characterize the O-glycoproteome of two gastric cancer SC lines (AGS, MKN45) as well as a gastric cell line (KATO III) which naturally expresses...... at least partially truncated O-glycans. Overall we identified 499 O-glycoproteins and 1,236 O-glycosites in gastric cancer SCs, and a total 47 O-glycoproteins and 73 O-glycosites in the KATO III cell line. We next modified the glycoproteomic strategy to apply it to pools of sera from gastric cancer...... with the STn glycoform were further validated as being expressed in gastric cancer tissue. A proximity ligation assay was used to demonstrate that CD44 was expressed with the STn glycoform in gastric cancer tissues. The study provides a discovery strategy for aberrantly glycosylated O-glycoproteins and a set...

  11. Moderate exercise of rainbow trout induces only minor differences in fatty acid profile, texture, white muscle fibres and proximate chemical composition of fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Heinrich, Maike Timm; Hyldig, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    g after nine weeks of experiment at 15.0 °C. The fatty acid composition in fillets differed only marginally between exercised fish (excF) and control fish (ctrlF) kept in standing water. ExcF fillets had a significantly lower content of fatty acids 16:0 (Pb0.05) and 18:1 (n−7) (Pb0.01) and a higher...... significantly among the two groups (Pb0.01). Moreover, moderate exercise induced small but significant changes in fibre circularity (excF: circ.=0.724; ctrlF:=0.720, Pb0.05) but neither muscle fibre diameter nor circularity was significantly related to fillet texture. Altogether, the results suggest...

  12. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Summary: The effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion was tested in rats. Twenty (20) Wistar .... temperature was 37oC, the temperature of liquid going into the stomach was maintained at this temperature. This was done by using an organ bath whose thermostat was set at 37oC.

  13. Gastric emptying in patients with chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizu, Hirotaka; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawamura, Etsushi; Iwata, Yoshinori; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kawabe, Joji; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    There have been a number of reports of gastric emptying in cirrhosis, all with unconfirmed results. Moreover, the mechanism for delayed emptying in cirrhotic patients in unclear. We evaluated gastric emptying in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis by means of gastric emptying scintigraphy. The subjects were 18 normal controls and 75 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (50 patients had chronic hepatitis and 25 patients had cirrhosis). Tc-99m diethyltriamine pentaacetic acid labeled solid meals were used to evaluate gastric emptying; the half-time (T 1/2) of which was calculated. Digestive symptom scores were determined at the time of gastric emptying tests. Fourteen (28%) of 50 patients with chronic hepatitis and 16 (64%) of 25 patients with cirrhosis had delayed gastric emptying. T 1/2 in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than that in normal controls and patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). The difference between T 1/2 in patients with chronic hepatitis and that in normal controls was not significant. On regression analysis, two indices, the serum albumin level and platelet count, were found to be significantly related to delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was more delayed in cirrhotic patients than in those with chronic hepatitis and normal controls. Delayed gastric emptying may be related to liver function and portal hypertension. (author)

  14. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) and cimetidine in indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer and control rats: inhibition of active renal secretion of AACA by cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Lee, U; Suh, J H; Kim, Y G; Lee, M; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2011-05-01

    After both the intravenous and oral administration of zinc acexamate [ZAC; ion-pairing between zinc and ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA)] and cimetidine together, the areas under the curve (AUCs) of AACA were significantly greater [by 28.2 and 98.9% after the intravenous and oral administration, respectively, for control rats and 13.5 and 16.9% for indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) rats, respectively] than those of ZAC alone due to the significantly slower renal clearance (CL(R)). The significantly greater AUCs of AACA after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC and cimetidine together in control and IAGU rats could have been due to the inhibition of active renal tubular secretion of AACA by cimetidine. After the intravenous and oral administration of both drugs together, the AUCs of cimetidine in control and IAGU rats were not different compared with those with cimetidine alone.

  15. Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral gastrin cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Ghrelin and coffee also stimulate acid secretion whereas somatostatin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and atrial natriuretic peptide inhibit acid secretion. Although 95% of parietal cells are contained within the oxyntic mucosa (fundus and body), 50% of human antral glands contain parietal cells. Proton pump inhibitors are considered well tolerated drugs, but concerns have been raised regarding dysbiosis, atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia, hypomagnesemia, and enteritis/colitis. Our understanding of the functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved management of acid-peptic disorders, prevention and management of neoplasia, and the development of novel medications.

  16. Gastrin and gastric epithelial physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockray, G J

    1999-01-01

    Transepithelial transducing cells, particularly the gastrin (G) cell, co-ordinate gastric acid secretion with the arrival of food in the stomach. Recent work suggests that multiple active products are generated from the gastrin precursor, and that there are multiple control points in gastrin biosynthesis. Biosynthetic precursors and intermediates (progastrin and Gly-gastrins) are putative growth factors; their products, the amidated gastrins, regulate epithelial cell proliferation, the differentiation of acid-producing parietal cells and histamine-secreting enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, and the expression of genes associated with histamine synthesis and storage in ECL cells, as well as acutely stimulating acid secretion. Gastrin also stimulates the production of members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, which in turn inhibit parietal cell function but stimulate the growth of surface epithelial cells. Plasma gastrin concentrations are elevated in subjects with Helicobacter pylori, who are known to have increased risk of duodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Studies of the physiology of gastrin may therefore contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms relevant to major upper gastrointestinal tract disease. PMID:10381581

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  18. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  19. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  20. Obesity and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is an important public health problem worldwide. It increases the risk of many chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, obesity is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. Possible mechanisms linking obesity with gastric cancer may include obesity associated gastro-oesophageal reflux, insulin resistance, altered levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and an abnormally increased blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have revealed an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese patients, providing another clue for the increased incidence of gastric cancer in obese population. If this connection can be confirmed in animal models and a large cohort of patients, then eradicating H. pylori together with life style modification in obese individuals may help prevent the development of gastric cancer in the increasingly obese population.

  1. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  2. Acute Gastric Dilatation Resulting in Gastric Emphysema Following Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Aslam Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare entity, with varying aetiologies the majority of which are benign. Delay in diagnosis and treatment could result in sequelae such as gastric emphysema (pneumatosis, emphysematous gastritis, gangrene, and perforation. Gastric emphysema as a result of a benign nongangrenous condition such as gastroparesis, adynamic ileus can be successfully managed conservatively. Here, we present an interesting case of acute gastric dilatation resulting in gastric emphysema following massive postpartum hemorrhage.

  3. Effects of lipopolysaccharide and phenylbutazone on gastric contents in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T J; Andrews, F M; Blackford, J T; Rohrbach, B W; Sandin, A; Saxton, A M

    2003-07-01

    Endotoxaemia causes a disruption of gastrointestinal motility in the horse but there is no information on its effects on gastric secretion. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration is known to affect gastric secretion in other species. That LPS, a toxic component of Gram-negative bacteria, would reduce gastric acid secretion and that pretreatment with phenylbutazone (PBZ) would block the effects of LPS. The effects of LPS and PBZ on gastric contents were investigated in fasted, mature horses, with permanent gastric cannulae. Horses were pretreated with either saline or PBZ 15 mins before a 60 min infusion of either LPS or saline. Gastric contents were collected at 15 min intervals for 3 h, beginning 15 mins after the start of the LPS or saline infusion. Lipopolysaccharide significantly decreased gastric acid output, [K+] and potassium output and increased [Na+] and sodium output. Phenylbutazone did not affect basal gastric acid secretion but decreased LPS-induced changes in the secreted volume, [Na+] and sodium output. This study provides evidence that LPS affects gastric acid secretion in the horse and that these LPS-induced changes are mediated, in part, by prostaglandins. Lipopolysaccharide administration can induce changes in the composition of gastric contents in the horse but further work is needed to determine the source of these changes.

  4. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  5. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  6. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  7. Measurement of gastric pH in ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Shahin; Leers, Jessica M; Oezcelik, Arzu; Abate, Emmanuele; Peyre, Christian G; Hagen, Jeffrey A; DeMeester, Steven R; Banki, Farzaneh; Lipham, John C; DeMeester, Tom R; Crookes, Peter F

    2009-09-01

    Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is the method used most widely to quantify gastroesophageal reflux. The degree of gastroesophageal reflux may potentially be underestimated if the resting gastric pH is high. Normal subjects and symptomatic patients undergoing 24-h pH monitoring were studied to determine whether a relationship exists between resting gastric pH and the degree of esophageal acid exposure. Normal volunteers (n = 54) and symptomatic patients without prior gastric surgery and off medication (n = 1,582) were studied. Gastric pH was measured by advancing the pH catheter into the stomach before positioning the electrode in the esophagus. The normal range of gastric pH was defined from the normal subjects, and the patients then were classified as having either normal gastric pH or hypochlorhydria. Esophageal acid exposure was compared between the two groups. The normal range for gastric pH was 0.3-2.9. The median age of the 1,582 patients was 51 years, and their median gastric pH was 1.7. Abnormal esophageal acid exposure was found in 797 patients (50.3%). Hypochlorhydria (resting gastric pH >2.9) was detected in 176 patients (11%). There was an inverse relationship between gastric pH and esophageal acid exposure (r = -0.13). For the patients with positive 24-h pH test results, the major effect of gastric pH was that the hypochlorhydric patients tended to have more reflux in the supine position than those with normal gastric pH. There is an inverse, dose-dependent relationship between gastric pH and esophageal acid exposure. Negative 24-h esophageal pH test results for a patient with hypochlorhydria may prompt a search for nonacid reflux as the explanation for the patient's symptoms.

  8. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    and approached normal values again after 12 h. Because of complete gastric retention the acid gastric secretions provoked by cysteamine probably accumulate in the stomach during the first 4 h after cysteamine administration, and because of the absence of peristalsis they are not mixed with gastric contents...... and measurements of gastric acid secretions after cysteamine. Vagotomy augmented the inhibitory effect of cysteamine on gastric motility. The relaxation was even more pronounced, and contrast medium was not discharged from the stomach within 24 h. In these rats cysteamine induced ulcerations in the stomach....... gastric empyting was due to a pronounced relaxation of the stomach and a complete blocking of gastric peristalsis. These effects have their maximum within the first 4 h after administration of cysteamine. Thereafter peristalsis and gastric empyting slowly return. In controls contrast medium administered...

  9. Familial gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of gastric cancer has pointed out to a possible hereditary and genetic factor involved in the carcinogenesis of this disease. The diffuse type gastric cancer patients are frequently younger and the tumor has locally infiltrative growth pattern early in its development. Observation of families with frequent early onset gastric cancer has led to the identification of a novel gene implicated in gastric cancer susceptibility: CDH1/E-cadherin. Diffuse familiar gastric cancer is defined as any family presenting: two first-degree relatives with diffuse gastric cancer, one of them with age under 50 years or at least 3 first-degree relatives irrespective age of onset. CASE REPORT: The family reported by us does not fit in any of the classification proposed. The precise identification of these families by clinical and molecular tools is of great importance. The case reported is an example of a family that probably is a form of hereditary gastric cancer not yet fully understood. CONCLUSION: Soon there will be new criteria, possibly including genetic and molecular characteristics.

  10. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  11. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and

  12. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa

    Full Text Available The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU. Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th day though on the 14(th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the

  13. Mechanisms of mono- and poly-ubiquitination: Ubiquitination specificity depends on compatibility between the E2 catalytic core and amino acid residues proximal to the lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Martin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ubiquitination involves the attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues on substrate proteins or itself, which can result in protein monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination. Ubiquitin attachment to different lysine residues can generate diverse substrate-ubiquitin structures, targeting proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection are not well understood. Ubiquitination by the largest group of E3 ligases, the RING-family E3 s, is catalyzed through co-operation between the non-catalytic ubiquitin-ligase (E3 and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, where the RING E3 binds the substrate and the E2 catalyzes ubiquitin transfer. Previous studies suggest that ubiquitination sites are selected by E3-mediated positioning of the lysine toward the E2 active site. Ultimately, at a catalytic level, ubiquitination of lysine residues within the substrate or ubiquitin occurs by nucleophilic attack of the lysine residue on the thioester bond linking the E2 catalytic cysteine to ubiquitin. One of the best studied RING E3/E2 complexes is the Skp1/Cul1/F box protein complex, SCFCdc4, and its cognate E2, Cdc34, which target the CDK inhibitor Sic1 for K48-linked polyubiquitination, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Our recent studies of this model system demonstrated that residues surrounding Sic1 lysines or lysine 48 in ubiquitin are critical for ubiquitination. This sequence-dependence is linked to evolutionarily conserved key residues in the catalytic region of Cdc34 and can determine if Sic1 is mono- or poly-ubiquitinated. Our studies indicate that amino acid determinants in the Cdc34 catalytic region and their compatibility to those surrounding acceptor lysine residues play important roles in lysine selection. This may represent a general mechanism in directing the mode of ubiquitination in E2 s.

  14. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

    2008-12-01

    Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats.

  16. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of 4 different dietary fats (rapeseed oil (RO), rapeseed oil interesterified with decanoic acid (R/C10), olive oil (OO), and butter) after feeding a high-fat (30 wt-%) diet rich in trans-fatty acids (mainly trans-C18:1) for 3 weeks. The trans-fatty...... artery were divided into 4 groups after a 24 h fast and fed intragastrically with a fat load. Blood samples were collected regularly and fatty acid compositions as well as insulin and glucagon concentrations were determined (experiment 1). In 2 other groups of rats the mesenteric lymph duct...... was cannulated and they were fed intragastrically either R/C10 or butter. Lymph was collected and analyzed for fatty acid composition (experiment 2). The fatty acid composition of plasma lipids changed rapidly according to the administered fats and a biphasic response was observed for nearly all fatty acids...

  17. Gas production after reaction of sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordtran, J S; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C A; Rector, F C

    1984-11-01

    Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate has been implicated as one of the proximate causes of spontaneous gastric rupture. However, the volume and rate of gas released from the reaction of ingested sodium bicarbonate and gastric acid has not been previously studied in detail. We, therefore, developed an in vitro method for measuring gas release after addition of sodium bicarbonate to a solution containing hydrochloric acid. From the results of our studies, we conclude that even though hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate react instantaneously, the resulting gas production is slow, mainly because CO2 produced from the dehydration of carbonic acid dissolves in water and is only slowly released into the gas phase. The major exogenous factors that determine the rate of gas release are the volume of the solution, the quantity of reactants, the air volume over the reaction mixture, the partial pressure of CO2 of the acid solution before the addition of bicarbonate, and the stirring rate. The presence of food, alcohol, and carbonic anhydrase had relatively little if any effect. Based on our results, we believe that ingestion of the recommended dose of sodium bicarbonate (one-half teaspoon) would result in only small amounts of sudden gas release, probably not enough to be an important factor in causing spontaneous gastric rupture. On the other hand, we measured the amount of sodium bicarbonate that people actually select to take for indigestion, and all exceeded the recommended dose. Some people selected doses of bicarbonate that would result in several hundred milliliters of gas release within 3 min; it seems likely that such injudicious ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, if taken when the stomach was distended with air, food, and liquid, could be an important factor in spontaneous gastric rupture.

  18. Potential role of probiotics in the management of gastric ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHODER, GHALIA; AL-MENHALI, ASMA A.; AL-YASSIR, FARAH; KARAM, SHERIF M.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases characterized by a significant defect in the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the frequent long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are major factors involved in gastric ulcer development. Acid inhibitors and antibiotics are commonly used to treat gastric ulcer. However, in the last few decades, the accumulating evidence for resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of antibiotics and acid inhibitors have drawn attention to the possible use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Currently, the available experimental and clinical studies indicate that probiotics are promising for future applications in the management of gastric ulcers. This review aims to provide an overview of the general health benefits of probiotics on various systemic and gastrointestinal disorders with a special focus on gastric ulcer and the involved cellular and molecular mechanisms: i) Protection of gastric mucosal barrier; ii) upregulation of prostaglandins, mucus, growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines; iii) increased cell proliferation to apoptosis ratio; and iv) induction of angiogenesis. Finally, some of the available data on the possible use of probiotics in H. pylori eradication are discussed. PMID:27347010

  19. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  20. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastric cancer in the world are in China, Japan, and other countries in Southeast Asia, as well ... of people with this syndrome. Additional screening for women: Women at risk for HDGC are at high ...

  1. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens With Diabetes Protecting Your Online Identity and Reputation ADHD Medicines Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > ... foods don't have a lot of nutritional value (dietitians sometimes call them "empty calories"). In addition ...

  2. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  3. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  4. Performance of microbial phytases for gastric inositol phosphate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Nyffenegger, Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial phytases catalyze dephosphorylation of phytic acid, thereby potentially releasing chelated iron and improving human iron absorption from cereal-based diets. For this catalysis to take place in vivo, the phytase must be robust to low pH and proteolysis in the gastric ventricle. This study...... compares the robustness of five different microbial phytases, evaluating thermal stability, activity retention, and extent of dephosphorylation of phytic acid in a simulated low-pH/pepsin gastric environment and examines secondary protein structural changes at low pH via circular dichroism. The Peniophora...... lycii phytase was found to be the most thermostable, but the least robust enzyme in gastric conditions, whereas the Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytases proved to be most resistant to gastric conditions. The phytase from Citrobacter braakii showed intermediate robustness. The extent of loss...

  5. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  6. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Bizzaro; Antonio Antico; Danilo Villalta

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastri...

  7. GASTRIC CANCER - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme parooei, Mahmood Anbari, Morteza Salarzaei *

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gastric cancer in most cases is diagnosed in symptomatic patients with an advanced disease lacking a definite treatment. The common symptoms of the primary diagnosis include weight loss (0.62), stomachache (0.52), nausea (0.34), and swallowing disorder (dysphagia) (0.26). Methods: In this review article, the databases Medline, Cochrane, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were thoroughly searched to identify the Gastric cancer. In this review, the papers published until early Jan...

  8. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  9. Assessment of Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acids in gastric but not in breast cancer by next-generation sequencing of pooled Mexican samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Larios-Serrato, Violeta; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Arias, Carlos F; Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Gastric (GC) and breast (BrC) cancer are two of the most common and deadly tumours. Different lines of evidence suggest a possible causative role of viral infections for both GC and BrC. Wide genome sequencing (WGS) technologies allow searching for viral agents in tissues of patients with cancer. These technologies have already contributed to establish virus-cancer associations as well as to discovery new tumour viruses. The objective of this study was to document possible associations of viral infection with GC and BrC in Mexican patients. In order to gain idea about cost effective conditions of experimental sequencing, we first carried out an in silico simulation of WGS. The next-generation-platform IlluminaGallx was then used to sequence GC and BrC tumour samples. While we did not find viral sequences in tissues from BrC patients, multiple reads matching Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) sequences were found in GC tissues. An end-point polymerase chain reaction confirmed an enrichment of EBV sequences in one of the GC samples sequenced, validating the next-generation sequencing-bioinformatics pipeline. PMID:26910355

  10. Assessment of Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acids in gastric but not in breast cancer by next-generation sequencing of pooled Mexican samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric (GC and breast (BrC cancer are two of the most common and deadly tumours. Different lines of evidence suggest a possible causative role of viral infections for both GC and BrC. Wide genome sequencing (WGS technologies allow searching for viral agents in tissues of patients with cancer. These technologies have already contributed to establish virus-cancer associations as well as to discovery new tumour viruses. The objective of this study was to document possible associations of viral infection with GC and BrC in Mexican patients. In order to gain idea about cost effective conditions of experimental sequencing, we first carried out an in silico simulation of WGS. The next-generation-platform IlluminaGallx was then used to sequence GC and BrC tumour samples. While we did not find viral sequences in tissues from BrC patients, multiple reads matching Epstein-Barr virus (EBV sequences were found in GC tissues. An end-point polymerase chain reaction confirmed an enrichment of EBV sequences in one of the GC samples sequenced, validating the next-generation sequencing-bioinformatics pipeline.

  11. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-08-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed.

  12. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2017-05-10

    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  13. Elevated risk for gastric adenocarcinoma can be predicted from histomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Michael; Stolte, Mandred

    2006-01-01

    The number of patients with gastric cancer has more than doubled since 1985 in developing countries. Thus, the questions of whether it can be predicted from gastritis morphology, who is at risk and who has a lower risk of developing gastric carcinoma are raised. H pylori-infection leads to erosions, ulcerations, carcinoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma and extragastric diseases only in some individuals. The frequency of ulcerations among H pylori-infected individuals is estimated to be 13%, gastric cancer about 1% and MALT lymphoma around 0.1%. In the literature a multistep model from chronic active H pylori-infection through multifocal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia (intraepithelial neoplasia) and carcinoma has been described. But this model cannot be applied to all routine cases. Since risk factors such as metaplasia and atrophy are paracancerous rather than precancerous conditions, this raises the question whether there is a better morphological marker. Differences in topography, grade and activity of Helicobacter gastritis in the antrum and corpus might be good markers for identifying those who are at risk of developing gastric cancer. It is known that the so-called corpus dominant H pylori gastritis is found more frequently among individuals with early and advanced gastric cancer and within high risk populations. This is valid both for first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients and for patients with gastric adenoma and hyperplastic polyps. In conclusion, corpus-dominant H pylori gastritis is significantly more common in patients with advanced and early gastric cancer, first-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer, patients with gastric adenoma and gastric hyperplastic polyps. Therefore, all these patients are at risk of developing gastric cancer. Next, the question of who is at risk of developing corpus-dominant gastritis is raised. It appears that patients with a low acid output more frequently develop gastric

  14. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  15. [The effect of proximal-selective vagotomy in gastroduodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C; Martinoli, S; Allgöwer, M

    1984-05-26

    In a recently concluded prospective multicenter trial, pyloric (PU) and prepyloric (PPU) ulcers showed a significantly higher recurrence rate after proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) without drainage than duodenal (DU) or gastric ulcers (GU). The secretory pattern of the PU and PPU cannot explain the failure of PGV. However, PU and PPU (and some GU) exhibit a distinct and probably irreversible alteration of the muscular layer at the pylorus and distal antrum. This could be one factor which helps to explain the failure of vagotomy alone in these ulcer types. To deal with this antropyloric distrophy, addition of drainage or antrectomy to PGV must be considered. A refined concept for surgical treatment of peptic ulcer is proposed.

  16. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  17. Proximate composition, amino acid profile and phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are large varieties of legumes and oil seeds in tropical Africa which are part of traditional food systems but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determined and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Lophira lanceolata ...

  18. Importance of gastrin in the pathogenesis and treatment of gastric tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Michael D; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark

    2009-01-01

    In addition to regulating acid secretion, the gastric antral hormone gastrin regulates several important cellular processes in the gastric epithelium including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, tissue remodelling and angiogenesis. Elevated serum concentrations of this hormone are caused by many conditions, particularly hypochlorhydria (as a result of autoimmune or Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-induced chronic atrophic gastritis or acid suppressing drugs) and gastrin producing tumors (gastrinomas). There is now accumulating evidence that altered local and plasma concentrations of gastrin may play a role during the development of various gastric tumors. In the absence of H pylori infection, marked hypergastrinemia frequently results in the development of gastric enterochromaffin cell-like neuroendocrine tumors and surgery to remove the cause of hypergastrinemia may lead to tumor resolution in this condition. In animal models such as transgenic INS-GAS mice, hypergastrinemia has also been shown to act as a cofactor with Helicobacter infection during gastric adenocarcinoma development. However, it is currently unclear as to what extent gastrin also modulates human gastric adenocarcinoma development. Therapeutic approaches targeting hypergastrinemia, such as immunization with G17DT, have been evaluated for the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma, with some promising results. Although the mild hypergastrinemia associated with proton pump inhibitor drug use has been shown to cause ECL-cell hyperplasia and to increase H pylori-induced gastric atrophy, there is currently no convincing evidence that this class of agents contributes towards the development of gastric neuroendocrine tumors or gastric adenocarcinomas in human subjects. PMID:19115463

  19. Food deprivation depletes gastric mucus glycoprotein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, S; Kume, E; Narita, H; Kinoshita, M

    2000-09-01

    Fasting causes gastric mucosal damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, but its pathogenic mechanism remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alteration of gastric mucosal mucin, one of the gastric defensive factors against the development of such damage. Diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection of STZ (65 mg/kg). The experiments were performed using 4-week STZ-diabetic rats with blood glucose levels above 350 mg/dl. The amount of gastric mucus glycoprotein was determined by gel filtration, and the distribution of neutral and acidic mucins in the stomach epithelium was examined by histochemical analysis. In normal rats, 24-h fasting neither affected the gastric mucin content nor caused any macroscopic gastric mucosal injury. In contrast, starvation significantly reduced the amount of total gastric mucus glycoprotein prior to the formation of mucosal lesions in the STZ-diabetic rats. Nine hours after food deprivation, the gastric damage developed in about 70% of the diabetic rats, the amount of mucus glycoprotein markedly decreased, and both the neutral and acidic mucins diminished in the epithelium. Taken together, in STZ-diabetic rats, fasting by itself depletes gastric mucus glycoprotein, and this depletion may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of the formation of gastric mucosal lesions.

  20. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  1. [Clinical and pathologic features of gastric schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-bo; Shi, Huai-yin; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Wei; Wei, Li-xin

    2012-02-01

    To study the clinical and pathologic features of gastric schwannomas. The macroscopic and microscopic features of 9 cases of gastric schwannoma were analyzed. Immunohistochemical study for S-100 protein, CD117, CD34, neurofilament, desmin, nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, platelet derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFR-α) and vimentin was carried out. Mutation analysis of c-kit gene (exon 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFR-α gene (exon 12 and 18) in 1 case was examined by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. The patients included 5 males and 4 females. The age of patients ranged from 42 to 81 years (median = 56.5 years). The size of the tumors ranged from 2 to 9 cm in greatest diameter. Follow-up data in 8 cases (from 1 month to 65 months) showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Gross examination showed that gastric schwannomas were homogeneous, firm, yellow-white and bore no true fibrous capsule. Histologically, all cases were composed of fascicles of spindle cells associated with nuclear palisading, Verocay body formation and peripheral cuff of reactive lymphoid aggregates. Some of them showed degenerative changes including cyst formation, calcification, hemorrhage, necrosis and hyalinization. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were strongly positive for S-100 protein and vimentin. There was various degree of staining for nestin (8/9) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (6/9). They were negative for CD117, CD34, neurofilament, desmin and smooth muscle actin. One case showed focal positivity for PDGFR-α (1/9), with no mutations found. Gastric schwannomas share similar histologic features with conventional soft tissue schwannomas, in addition to the presence a reactive lymphoid cuff. The clinical, macroscopic, histologic and immunohistochemical features of gastric schwannomas were different from those of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyomas.

  2. Functional and in vitro gastric digestibility of the whey protein hydrogel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers and gelled via citric acid-mediated crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Behnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Salami, Maryam

    2017-12-15

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with mean size of 347nm were fabricated and added into a heat-denatured whey protein solution. The subsequent crosslinking of proteins by citric acid or CaCl2 resulted in the formation of cold-set hydrogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proposed formation of more hydrogen bonds in gel due to NLC loading or citric acid-mediated gelation. It was also found based on FITR spectroscopy that citric acid crosslinking disordered whey proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed a non-porous and finely meshed microstructure for the crosslinked gels compared to non-crosslinked counterparts. Crosslinking also increased the firmness and water-holding capacity of gels. In pepsin-free fluid, a strong correlation existed between reduction in gel swellability and digestibility over periods up to 60min due to NLC loading and citric acid gelation. However, in peptic fluid, NLC loading and citric acid crosslinking brought about much higher decrease in digestibility than swellability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant activity of olive phenols and other dietary phenols in model gastric conditions: Scavenging of the free radical DPPH and inhibition of the haem-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, Sabiha; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Madani, Khodir; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of dietary phenols in humans (direct reduction of radicals and other highly oxidizing species) could be largely restricted to fighting postprandial oxidative stress in the gastric compartment. Hence, the development of chemical tests simply modelling this situation is pertinent. In this work, the antioxidant properties of the olive phenols hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are investigated in pH 5-6 micellar solutions through the reduction of the DPPH radical and the inhibition of the metmyoglobin-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid. In the first test, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein proved as efficient as common polyphenols and their reactivity was only moderately affected by β-cyclodextrin and bovine serum albumin, taken as models of food macromolecules. In the second test, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein by themselves came up as relatively weak inhibitors, despite their efficiency at reducing hypervalent haem iron. However, hydroxytyrosol was able to act in synergy with the typical chain-breaking antioxidant α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rocket “Eruca sativa”: A salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasoumi, Saleh; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To validate gastric anti-ulcer properties of Rocket “Eruca sativa” on experimentally-induced gastric secretion and ulceration in albino rats. METHODS: Gastric acid secretion studies were undertaken using pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric lesions in the rats were induced by noxious chemicals including ethanol, strong alkalis, indomethacin and hypothermic restraint stress. The levels of gastric wall mucus (GWM), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol administration. The gastric tissue was also examined histologically. The extract was used in two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments. RESULTS: In pylorus-ligated Shay rats, the ethanolic extract of Rocket “Eruca sativa L.” (EER) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the basal gastric acid secretion, titratable acidity and ruminal ulceration. Rocket extract significantly attenuated gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl), indomethacin and hypothermic restraint stress. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. On the other hand, the extract significantly replenished GWM and NP-SH levels, as well as the MDA level significantly reduced by extract pretreatment. CONCLUSION: Rocket extract possesses anti-secretory, cytoprotective, and anti-ulcer activities against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer effect is possibly through prostaglandin-mediated activity and/or through its anti-secretory and antioxidant properties. PMID:19399927

  5. gastric pneumatosis or emphysematous gastritis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plain abdominal X-rays, fluoroscopy (water-soluble contrast meal), and on an abdominal CT scan. Introduction. Gastric pneumatosis (also known as gastric emphysema) and emphy- sematous gastritis are terms describing air in the wall of the stomach. Intramural gastric air is a rare clinical condition. It was first described.

  6. Hereditary gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Seruca, Raquel; Carneiro, Fátima

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous and highly prevalent disease, being the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer associated death worldwide. Most cases are sporadic and familial clustering is observed in about 10% of the cases. Hereditary gastric cancer accounts for a very low percentage of cases (1-3%) and a single hereditary syndrome - Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) - has been characterised. Among families that fulfil the clinical criteria for HDGC, about 40% carry CDH1 germline mutations, the genetic cause of the others being unknown. The management options for CDH1 asymptomatic germline carriers are intensive endoscopic surveillance and prophylactic gastrectomy. In this chapter we review the pathophysiology and clinicopathological features of HDGC and discuss issues related with genetic testing and management of family members.

  7. Optimizing postoperative outcomes after gastric bypass surgery-the influence of dietary protein and its amino acid composition: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, M.; De Heide, L.J.M.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Van Der Wal-Oost, A.M.; Van Beek, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective method to reduce morbid obesity. Nutritional counseling is essential in order to achieve maximal treatment success and to avoid long term complications. Increased dietary protein intake or its amino acid composition could have

  8. The Binding of Folic Acid and 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate to Folate-Binding Proteins during Gastric Passage Differs in a Dynamic in Vitro Gastrointestinal Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.; Arkbåge, K.; Mocking, H.; Havenaar, R.; Groten, J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite its low natural folate concentration, milk is responsible for 10-15% of the daily folate intake in countries with a high dairy consumption. Milk products can be considered as a potential matrix for folate fortification, e.g., with synthetic folic acid, to enhance the daily intake of folate.

  9. Gastric Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Acosta, Juan Carlos; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Lotero Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world, being more common in developing countries. An early detection of the disease and an early treatment are key strategies to reduce mortality. in this review will present recent data regarding epidemiology and the most effective methods for screening of gastric cancer, which remain subject to review and ongoing controversy in the world due to the emergence of new techniques...

  10. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Won Min

    Full Text Available Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal. Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV, proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal.Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively. However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034. In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures.Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.

  11. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Seonwoo; Choi, Dongil; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal). Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV), proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal. Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively). However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034). In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures). Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.

  12. The effects of gastric surgery on systemic ghrelin levels in the morbidly obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Edward; Gletsu, Nana; Fugate, Kim; McClusky, David; Gu, Li H; Zhu, Juan-Li; Ramshaw, Bruce J; Papanicolaou, Dimitris A; Ziegler, Thomas R; Smith, C Daniel

    2004-07-01

    Circulating ghrelin, produced primarily in the stomach, is a powerful orexigen. Ghrelin levels are elevated in states of hunger, but rapidly decline postprandially. Early alterations in ghrelin levels in morbidly obese patients undergoing weight reduction surgery may be attributed to gastric partitioning. Thirty-four patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a completely divided gastroplasty to create a 15-mL vertically oriented gastric pouch. Eight other patients underwent other gastric procedures that did not involve complete division of the stomach, including 4 vertical banded gastroplasties and 4 antireflux surgical procedures. Six additional patients undergoing antireflux surgery served as lean control subjects. Plasma samples were obtained before surgery and immediately after surgery. In a substudy, plasma was collected after Roux-en-Y limb formation and after dividing the stomach to identify any changes in plasma ghrelin levels. Tertiary university medical center. Ghrelin levels at different stages of surgical intervention. Mean +/- SEM preoperative and postoperative ghrelin levels in the gastric bypass group were 355 +/- 20 and 246 +/- 13 pg/mL, respectively (Pgastroplasty group and in all patients undergoing antireflux surgery, ghrelin levels were not significantly changed. Compared with morbidly obese humans, lean controls had significantly higher plasma ghrelin levels at baseline. A divided gastroplasty creating a small proximal gastric pouch results in significant early declines in circulating ghrelin levels that are not observed with other gastric procedures. This may explain, in part, the loss of hunger sensation and rapid weight loss observed following gastric bypass surgery.

  13. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  14. Sphingosine kinase 1 is a relevant molecular target in gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Hoeflmayer, Doris; Jaeger-Lansky, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    as a novel molecular target for gastric cancer by using an antisense oligonucleotide approach in vitro and in vivo. Gastric cancer cell lines (MKN28 and N87) were treated with Sphk1 with locked nucleic acid-antisense oligonucleotides (LNA-ASO). Sphk1 target regulation, cell growth, and apoptosis were...

  15. Allium Cepa Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats Via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACER

    Connor and. O'Moráin, 2014). It is opened to wide range of injurious substances such as gastric acid,. Helicobacter pylori, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs and excessive alcohol. (Mowat et al., 1997) which affect the gastric tissue layers.

  16. Effect of sialoadenectomy and synthetic human urogastrone on healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    administration of synthetic human EGF/URO and cimetidine further increased healing of gastric ulcers compared with administration of each substance. Neither synthetic human EGF/URO, nor removal of the submandibular glands had any influence on gastric acid secretion. This study showed that the submandibular...

  17. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  18. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations.

  19. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  20. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are peptide hormones from the gut that enhance nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (the 'incretin' effect). Judging from experiments in mice with targeted deletions...

  1. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  2. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of gastric secretion on gastric physiology and emptying in the fasted and fed state assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, O; Treier, R; Fox, M; Steingoetter, A; Fried, M; Boesiger, P; Schwizer, W

    2009-07-01

    Conventional measurement of gastric secretion is invasive and cannot assess the intra-gastric distribution of gastric contents or the effects of secretion on gastric function. This study assessed the effect of gastric secretion on gastric volume responses and emptying (GE) using a validated fast T(1) mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Twelve healthy participants were studied in the fasted state and after 200 kcal Gadolinium-DOTA labelled glucose meal during intravenous infusion of pentagastrin or placebo in double-blind, randomized order. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) was assessed by MRI volume scans and secretion by fast T(1) mapping. Data was described by the kappa-coefficient (volume change after meal ingestion), by GE half time (T(50)) and maximal GE rate (GER(max)) derived all from a GE model. Pentagastrin increased GCV and TGV compared to placebo [kappa(GCV):1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1; kappa(TGV): 1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.7 +/- 0.1; P TGV and GCV change were similar in both conditions (kappa; P = ns). T(50) was higher for pentagastrin than for placebo (84 +/- 7 vs 56 +/- 4min, P TGV accommodation without evidence of a direct effect of pentagastrin or excess acid on gastric function. Secretion increases GCV thus prolongs GE as assessed by T(50); however, GE rate is unchanged.

  4. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-07

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  5. [Gastric secretory function and the energy component of the mixtures used in parenteral feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, Iu A; Kremer, Iu N; Shlygin, G K

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on dogs with a gastric fustula and Pavlov's (miniature) isolated pouch, kept on a high-standard mixed ration evidenced that intravenous administration of various substances acts on the fundal gastric glands differently. Some of such substances stimulate the secretion of an acid gastric juice (xylitol and ethyl alcohol), while others are inert in this respect (sorbitol, 1.2-propandiol, 1.3-butandiol, fatty intralipid emulsion). Five percent solutions of glucose and fructose do not provoke any significant secretion of juice, although also lead to a short-lived pH fall in the gastric secretion. At the same time the action of the said substances is markedly less intensive than the caseine hydrolysate (TSOLIPK) has an effect on the gastric juice. In the practice of parenteral nutrition with the preparation of nutrative mixtures the ability to provoke the gastric secretion by the ethyl alcohol and xylitol an account should be taken of.

  6. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  7. The effect of incremental distal gastric myotomy lengths on EGJ distensibility during POEM for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Sternbach, Joel M; El Khoury, Rym; Soper, Nathaniel J; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S

    2016-02-01

    During peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM) for the treatment of achalasia, the optimal distal gastric myotomy length is unknown. In this study, we used a functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) to intraoperatively measure the effect of variable distal myotomy lengths on esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility. EGJ distensibility index (DI) (minimum cross-sectional area divided by intrabag pressure) was measured with FLIP after each operative step. Each patient's myotomy was performed in four increments from proximal to distal: (1) an esophageal myotomy (from 6 cm proximal to the EGJ to 1 cm proximal to it), (2) a myotomy ablating the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) complex (from 1 cm proximal to the EGJ to 1 cm distal to it), (3) an initial gastric extension (from 1 cm distal to the EGJ to 2 cm distal), and (4) a final gastric extension (from 2 cm distal to the EGJ to 3 cm distal). Measurements were taken in 16 achalasia patients during POEM. POEM resulted in an overall increase in DI (pre 1.2 vs. post 7.2 mm(2)/mmHg, p POEM, creation of the submucosal tunnel prior to myotomy resulted in a marked improvement in EGJ physiology. Myotomy extension across the LES complex and to 2 cm onto the gastric wall resulted in the normalization of EGJ distensibility, whereas subsequent extension to 3 cm distal to the EGJ did not increase compliance further.

  8. Acid-suppressing therapies and subsite-specific risk of stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerström, E Christina M; Simonsen, Jacob; Camargo, M Constanza; Rabkin, Charles S

    2017-04-25

    Associations of stomach cancer risk with histamine type-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) are controversial. We hypothesised that proximal extension of Helicobacter pylori infection from acid suppression would disproportionately increase cancers at proximal subsites. A total of 1 563 860 individuals in the Danish Prescription Drug Registry first prescribed acid-suppressive drugs 1995-2011 were matched to unexposed population-based controls. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression for stomach cancers diagnosed more than one year after first prescription. There were 703 stomach cancers among H2RA-exposed individuals and 1347 among PPI-exposed. Restricted to individuals with five or more prescriptions, subsite-specific HRs for H2RA and PPI were 4.1 and 6.4 for proximal subsites vs 8.0 and 10.3 for distal subsites, respectively. Moderate exposures to acid-suppressive drugs did not favour proximal tumour localisation. Given confounding by indication, these findings do not resolve potential contribution to gastric carcinogenesis overall.

  9. Gastritis and gastric ulcers in working dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eDavis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies.

  10. Incidence of gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of gastric adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Bae; Park, Jae Myung; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, Bo-In; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The annual incidence of metachronous cancer after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer (EGC) is approximately 3%. However, the incidence of gastric cancer after ER of a gastric adenoma is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of gastric cancer after ER of a gastric adenoma was different compared with that of metachronous cancer after ER of EGC. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who underwent ER for gastric neoplasia from January 2005 to August 2013. Enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with low-grade dysplasia were included in the adenoma group and patients with high-grade dysplasia or invasive neoplasia were included in the EGC group. The main outcome was the incidence of gastric cancer after ER. At a median follow-up of 28 months, gastric cancer newly developed in 13 adenoma patients (3.6%) and in 30 EGC patients (5.1%). The incidence rate of gastric cancer after ER was 14.4 cases per 1000 person-years in adenoma patients and 18.4 cases per 1000 person-years in EGC patients (P = .309 by the log-rank test). The hazard ratio of metachronous neoplasia in adenoma patients compared with EGC patients was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.53). Metachronous tumors with invasion beyond the muscularis mucosa were more frequent in adenoma patients than in EGC patients (7/35 [20.0%] vs 3/63 [4.8%], P = .017). The incidence of gastric cancer after ER for gastric adenoma was not significantly different from that of EGC. If further prospective studies confirm these findings, careful endoscopic surveillance with the same level of intensity should be considered for both gastric adenoma and EGC patients after ER. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activity of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Al Omani, Saud; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Malki, Ahmed; Al Asmary, Saeed

    2013-06-07

    To investigate gastric antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of bovine hemoglobin (B-Hb) in rats. Adult Albino-Wistar rats were divided into groups of 6 animals each. B-Hb in doses of 100, 300 and 900 mg/kg body weight was tested for gastric acid secretion and antiulcer activity. Gastric secretions were measured 6 h after pylorus ligation in rats pretreated with B-Hb. The acidity was measured by titrating gastric contents against 0.01 mol/L NaOH to pH 7. Indomethacin ulcers were produced by oral administration of 30 mg/kg bw in the rats pretreated with B-Hb one hour before indomethacin. Six hours after indomethacin stomach removed and ulcer index was recorded. Ethanol ulcer were produced by 1 mL of ethanol in the rats pretreated with B-Hb 30 min before the ethanol. One hour after ethanol stomach were cut open to score ulcers. Histological examination and analysis of gastric wall mucus, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were carried in gastric tissue following ethanol administration. In control rats pylorus ligation for 6 h resulted in the accumulation of 8.1 ± 0.61 mL of gastric secretion. The treatment of the rats with 100, 300 and 900 mg/kg of B-Hb produced a significant decrease in the volume of gastric secretion 5.6 ± 0.63, 5.5 ± 0.75 and 4.7 ± 0.58 mL respectively as compared to the control group [analysis of variance (ANOVA) F = 4.77, P formation of gastric lesions (ANOVA F = 63.26, P < 0.0001). Histological examination of gastric mucosa following ethanol showed significant lesions in the form of gastric pits with detachment of the surface epithelium; vacuolation of epithelial cells and elongation of microvessels. The changes were dose-dependently attenuated by B-Hb. The treatment of rats with ethanol significantly decreased the Alcian blue binding capacity of gastric wall mucus (480 ± 25.6 μg Alcian blue/g of tissue) as compared to control rats (667 ± 25.8 μg). Pretreatment of rats with B-Hb at the doses of 100 mg

  12. Genetic Alterations in Gastric Cancer Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a world health problem and depicts the fourth leading mortality cause from malignancy in Mexico. Causation of gastric cancer is not only due to the combined effects of environmental factors and genetic variants. Recent molecular studies have transgressed a number of genes involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to understand the recent basics of gene expression in the development of the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants, polymorphisms, desoxyribonucleic acid methylation, and genes involved in mediating inflammation have been associated with the development of gastric carcinogenesis. Recently, these genes (interleukin 10, Il-17, mucin 1, β-catenin, CDX1, SMAD4, SERPINE1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 subunit alpha, GSK3β, CDH17, matrix metalloproteinase 7, RUNX3, RASSF1A, TFF1, HAI-2, and COX-2 have been studied in association with oncogenic activation or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. All these mechanisms have been investigated to elucidate the process of gastric carcinogenesis, as well as their potential use as biomarkers and/or molecular targets to treatment of disease.

  13. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  14. Antiulcer activity and the mechanism of action of magaldrate in gastric ulceration models of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A V; Santani, D D; Goyal, R K

    2000-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of cytoprotective effects of magaldrate in aspirin plus pylorus-ligation model and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Magaldrate (60 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant reduction in the ulcer index and significant increase in mucus content in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in rats. In aspirin plus pylorus-ligation model magaldrate produced significant decrease in ulcer index, total acidity and protein content (PR). It did not produce any significant change in volume of gastric secretion. However, it produced significant increase in total carbohydrate (TC) level but not in ratio between TC and proteins. It also produced a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (as expressed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance). Our data suggests the cytoprotective action of magaldrate on gastric mucosal cells which may be due to protection of gastric mucosa from lipid peroxidation.

  15. The clinical meaning of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.; Dumont, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: christian.cote@chuq.qc.ca

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the incidence and clinical meaning, if any, of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This phenomenon is completely different from the well-known intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. A group of 819 patients who underwent sestamibi cardiac SPECT was studied from January 2000 to October 2000. Gastric-wall activity was graded qualitatively. Only patients with gastric-wall activity near or equivalent to their heart activity were considered for subsequent analysis. The medical records of patient candidates were reviewed, and their family physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire by telephone when further information was needed. We identified 13 patients with significant gastric-wall hyperactivity, which was more intense on rest images. Our review of the clinical data shows that all these patients were suffering from dyspepsia and were taking gastric medication. These 13 cases were assigned to 3 groups: gastroesophageal reflux, chronic functional dyspepsia and nonspecific gastritis. Significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is an infrequent observation on sestamibi cardiac SPECT. Our results indicate that the presence of significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is associated with dyspepsia. It is important to realize that this gastric-wall hyperactivity by its proximity to the inferior myocardial wall could in some circumstances lead to either false-negative or false-positive findings, representing a diagnostic problem. Although infrequent, this situation could be avoided by proper quality control, including a systematic review of the raw cine data before reading the images. (author)

  16. [H. pylori-negative gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mototsugu; Ono, Shouko; Shimizu, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mabe, Katsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Broad category of H. pylori-negative gastric cancer includes true gastric cancer without history of H. pylori infection, gastric cancer after successful eradication of H. pylori, and H. pylori-negative gastric cancer with history of H. pylori infection. The frequency of gastric cancer without history of H. pylori infection was less than 1% in Japan. Although preventive effect for gastric cancer of H. pylori eradication can be expected, risk of gastric cancer incidence continues after eradication of H. pylori. The frequency of gastric cancer after successful eradication has been increasing, since eradication treatment was widely spread in Japan. The features of H. pylori-negative gastric cancer were reported to be different from conventional H. pylori-positive gastric cancer. Endoscopic screening of gastric cancer requires to understand the characteristics of gastric cancer based on status of H. pylori infection.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder that greatly increases ...

  18. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Chen, Hongda; Castro, Felipe A.; Hu, Jian-Kun; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is found in a subset of gastric cancers. Previous reviews have exclusively focused on EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) positivity in gastric cancer tissues, but a comprehensive evaluation of other type of studies is lacking. We searched the PubMed database up to September, 2014, and performed a systematic review. We considered studies comparing EBV nucleic acids positivity in gastric cancer tissue with positivity in either adjacent non-tumor tissue of cancer patients or non-tumor mucosa from healthy individuals, patients with benign gastric diseases, or deceased individuals. We also considered studies comparing EBV antibodies in serum from cancer patients and healthy controls. Selection of potentially eligible studies and data extraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, we did not perform formal meta-analysis. Forty-seven studies (8069 cases and 1840 controls) were identified. EBER positivity determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) was significantly higher in cancer tissues (range 5.0%–17.9%) than in adjacent mucosa from the same patients or biopsies from all control groups (almost 0%). High EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) positivity by PCR was found in gastric cancer tissues, but most were not validated by ISH or adjusted for inflammatory severity and lymphocyte infiltration. Only 4 studies tested for EBV antibodies, with large variation in the seropositivities of different antibodies in both cases and controls, and did not find an association between EBV seropositivity and gastric cancer. In summary, tissue-based ISH methods strongly suggest an association between EBV infection and gastric cancer, but PCR method alone is invalid to confirm such association. Very limited evidence from serological studies and the lack of novel antibodies warrant further investigations to identify potential risk factors of EBV for gastric cancer. PMID:25997049

  19. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3......) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50). Additionally, CDH1 testing could be considered in patients with bilateral or familial LBC before the age of 50, patients with DGC and cleft lip/palate, and those with precursor lesions for signet ring cell carcinoma. Given...

  20. The Effect of Lactulose on the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota and Short-chain Fatty Acid Production in Human Volunteers and a Computer-controlled Model of the Proximal Large Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Nuenen, M.H.M.C. van; Heuvel, E.G. van den; Pool, W.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the in vivo effect of lactulose on faecal parameters with the effect in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the proximal large intestine (TIM-2). Faecal samples from 10 human volunteers collected before (non-adapted) and after 1 week of

  1. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  2. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  3. Restrictive techniques: gastric banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina da Cunha

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for the treatment of severe obesity has a definite role onthe therapeutic armamentarium all over the world. Initiated 40years ago, bariatric surgery has already a long way thanks tohundred of surgeons, who had constantly searched for the besttechnique for the adequate control of severe obesity. Among theimportant breakthroughs in obesity surgery there is theadjustable gastric band. It is a sylastic band, inflatable andadjustable, which is placed on the top of the stomach in order tocreate a 15-20 cc pouch, with an outlet of 1.3cm. The adjustablegastric band has also a subcutaneous reservoir through whichadjustments can be made, according to the patient evolution.The main feature of the adjustable gastric band is the fact thatis minimal invasive, reversible, adjustable and placedlaparoscopically. Then greatly diminishing the surgical traumato the severe obese patient. Belachew and Favretti’s techniqueof laparoscopic application of the adjustable gastric band isdescribed and the evolution of the technique during this years,as we has been practiced since 1998. The perioperative care ofthe patient is also described, as well as the follow-up and shortand long term controls.

  4. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn [Dankook University Cellege of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of gastric secretory function in centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tursi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric acid secretion is believed to decrease in the aging stomach, but the number of elderly patients on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy is increasing. The aim was to assess gastric function by means of serology (PGI, PGII, G17 and IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in centenarians. Twenty-five centenarians (2 males, 23 females, mean age 101.3 years, range 100- 106 years underwent to serological gastric markers assessment by means of Gastropanel®. Patients with laboratory signs of severe oxyntic gastric atrophy (OGA underwent gastroscopy with biopsy samples. Twelve patients (48.0% had serological values according to normal gastric secretion; 3 patients (12% had serological values according to severe OGA, confirmed by histology; 21 patients (84.0% had serological values according to H. pylori infection. Acid secretion seems to be preserved in a large part of centenarians. Serological markers may be helpful to identify patients affected by OGA, in whom the administration of PPI is inappropriate.

  6. Studies on the regulation of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by acid in the esophagus and stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovcin, P; Halicka, J; Halickova, M; Duricek, M; Hyrdel, R; Tatar, M; Kollarik, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux, but the regulation of TLESR by stimuli in the esophagus is incompletely understood. We have recently reported that acid infusion in the esophagus substantially (by 75%) increased the number of meal-induced TLESR in healthy subjects. We concluded that the TLESR reflex triggered by gastric distention with meal was enhanced by the stimulation of esophageal nerves by acid. However, the possibilities that the acid infused into the esophagus acts after passing though lower esophageal sphincter in stomach to enhance TLESR, or that the acid directly initiates TLESR from the esophagus were not addressed. Here, we evaluated the effect of acid infusion into the proximal stomach on meal-induced TLESR (study 1) and the ability of acid infusion into the esophagus to initiate TLESR without prior meal (study 2). We analyzed TLESRs by using high-resolution manometry in healthy subjects in paired randomized studies. In study 1, we found that acid infusion into the proximal stomach did not affect TLESRs induced by standard meal. The number of meal-induced TLESRs following the acid infusion into the proximal stomach was similar to the number of meal-induced TLESRs following the control infusion. In study 2, we found that acid infusion into the esophagus without prior meal did not initiate TLESRs. We conclude that the increase in the meal-induced TLESRs by acid in the esophagus demonstrated in our previous study is not attributable to the action of acid in the stomach or to direct initiation of TLESR from the esophagus by acid. Our studies are consistent with the concept that the stimuli in the esophagus can influence TLESRs. The enhancement of TLESR by acid in the esophagus may contribute to pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux in some patients. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion......, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may...

  9. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  10. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. ... mouth into the stomach, approximately about 60 cm from the upper incisor. Accurate placement of the ... The patients were slightly tilted to both sides to maximize the emptying of the stomach.

  11. Effects of different monosaccharides on histamine-stimulated gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose and galactose have been established as the main energy source for physiological activities in the body. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different monosaccarides on histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion and also to investigate whether acute ...

  12. Gastric ulceration in diabetes mellitus: protective role of vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owu, Daniel U; Obembe, Agona O; Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Edoho, Ime E; Osim, Eme E

    2012-01-01

    The effect of vitamin C administration on gastric acid secretion and ulcer in diabetic rats was studied. Vitamin C (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to both streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control groups orally for 28 days. Gastric acid secretion was measured and ulcer was induced using ethanol. Histological changes were observed in the stomach. Basal and stimulated acid secretion in diabetic control rat was significantly (P diabetic group and control. Administration of vitamin C significantly (P diabetics than control while reduction in gastric secretion by ranitidine was similar compared with control. Vitamin C treatment significantly (P diabetic group and increased mucus weight when compared with diabetic group which was also confirmed with photomicrographs. The mean body weight of diabetic rats treated with vitamin C was comparable to the control. The blood glucose level was significantly (P diabetic group given vitamin C (8.9 ± 1.8 mMol/L) compared to the diabetic control (32.2 ± 2.1 g). It is concluded that vitamin C is beneficial in improving gastric acid secretion and protects against ulceration in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats due to its antioxidant potential.

  13. Effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and reserpine on gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... was assessed by the alcian blue binding technique while erosion of the surface gel was assessed from the appearance of sialic acids ... area of gastric mucosa damage. The amount of alcian blue bound to adherent mucus ... brain and adrenal medulla (Sikiric et al., 2000). An in vivo infusion of dopamine ...

  14. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alén, Begoña O; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-02-02

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  15. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. The surgical strategy for gastric perforation in contrast with duodenal perforations often requires consilium and intraoperative debates. The subject of the debate is a 59‑year‑old male patient.

  16. Gastric Schistosomiasis Mimicking Gastric Cancer - A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These parasites cause hepatosplenic and hepatointestinal schistosomiasis associated with significant morbidity and mortality especially in children and young people. We report a case of middle aged northern Nigerian farmer who had gastric schistosomiasis that mimicked an ulcerated gastric tumor at endoscopy with good ...

  17. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  18. Targeted deletion of Kcne2 causes gastritis cystica profunda and gastric neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten K Roepke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Predisposing factors include achlorhydria, Helicobacter pylori infection, oxyntic atrophy and TFF2-expressing metaplasia. In parietal cells, apical potassium channels comprising the KCNQ1 alpha subunit and the KCNE2 beta subunit provide a K(+ efflux current to facilitate gastric acid secretion by the apical H(+K(+ATPase. Accordingly, genetic deletion of murine Kcnq1 or Kcne2 impairs gastric acid secretion. Other evidence has suggested a role for KCNE2 in human gastric cancer cell proliferation, independent of its role in gastric acidification. Here, we demonstrate that 1-year-old Kcne2(-/- mice in a pathogen-free environment all exhibit a severe gastric preneoplastic phenotype comprising gastritis cystica profunda, 6-fold increased stomach mass, increased Ki67 and nuclear Cyclin D1 expression, and TFF2- and cytokeratin 7-expressing metaplasia. Some Kcne2(-/- mice also exhibited pyloric polypoid adenomas extending into the duodenum, and neoplastic invasion of thin walled vessels in the sub-mucosa. Finally, analysis of human gastric cancer tissue indicated reduced parietal cell KCNE2 expression. Together with previous findings, the results suggest KCNE2 disruption as a possible risk factor for gastric neoplasia.

  19. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  20. Superiority of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with hand-sewn esophagogastrostomy over total gastrectomy in improving postoperative body weight loss and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Tatsuto; Okabe, Hiroshi; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Shinohara, Hisashi; Obama, Kazutaka; Hosogi, Hisahiro; Hisamori, Shigeo; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2017-09-01

    Proximal gastrectomy is not widely performed because the procedure is complicated, particularly under laparoscopy. We developed a simple laparoscopic technique of hand-sewn esophagogastrostomy with an anti-reflux mechanism. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the postoperative body weight loss (BWL) and quality of life (QOL) following laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) and laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) in patients with upper gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed patients with stage I upper gastric cancer undergoing LPG or LTG at Kyoto University Hospital between March 2006 and June 2014. The main outcome measures were the % BWL 1 year after gastrectomy, postoperative anastomotic stricture, and reflux esophagitis. Additionally, patient-reported outcomes were evaluated using the Post-Gastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale (PGSAS)-45 in patients presenting at the outpatient clinic and exhibiting no recurrence. A total of 62 patients were included in this study (LTG, n = 42 vs. LPG, n = 20). The % BWL at 12 months in the LPG group was less than that in the LTG group (-16.3 vs. -10.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed that LPG was associated with less BWL (P = 0.003). Anastomotic stricture occurred more frequently in the LPG group than in the LTG group (0 vs. 25%). One patient in each group exhibited grade B severity of reflux esophagitis (based on the Los Angeles classification). In the questionnaire survey, LPG was better than LTG in terms of diarrhea and dissatisfaction with symptoms. In terms of reflux symptoms, patients in the LPG group experienced less acid and bile regurgitation symptoms compared with those in the LTG group. LPG with hand-sewn esophagogastrostomy results in less postoperative BWL and better QOL than LTG despite higher rates of anastomotic stricture.

  1. Protective effect of Calotropis procera latex extracts on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, S; Wahane, V D; Kumar, V L

    2010-02-03

    Calotropis procera is a wild growing plant with multifarious medicinal properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera and its methanol extract (MeDL) against gastric ulcers induced in rats. Aqueous suspension of DL (20 and 100mg/kg) and MeDL (10 and 50mg/kg) were given orally to 36h fasted rats and ulcers were induced by ethanol, pyloric ligation and aspirin. Parameters like ulcer score and levels of oxidative stress markers were measured in all the models. The effect on gastric hemorrhage and tissue histology was studied in ethanol model and on acidity, pH and volume of gastric secretion was evaluated in pyloric ligation model. The protective effect of DL and MeDL was compared with that of standard anti-ulcer drug famotidine (20 mg/kg). DL and MeDL produced 85-95% inhibition of gastric mucosal damage in ethanol model and 70-80% inhibition in aspirin model. The protective effect of these extracts was associated with marked reduction in gastric hemorrhage, maintenance of tissue integrity and normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers like glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. Like famotidine, DL and MeDL decreased the gastric acidity from 376.17+/-21.47 mequiv./l to 163.88+/-6.86 and 201.48+/-8.86 mequiv./l respectively in pyloric ligation model. These extracts increased the gastric pH without affording any protection to gastric mucosa in this model. The latex of Calotropis procera has the therapeutic potential to relieve gastric hyperacidity and to prevent gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Early gastric cancer. Clinical contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitu, A; Carletti, N; Durzi, S; Terzi, G; Menghini, L; Degli Albizi, S

    1992-01-01

    The authors report their experience on 37 cases of Early Gastric Cancer on 1978-1990 period. They underline the excellent results obtained with subtotal gastrectomy and lynphectomy without deaths neither returns. They stress the diagnostic precision of endoscopic exam now of first choice in the early diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer.

  3. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  4. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in a Neonate Presenting as Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Aslanabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric perforation in neonates is a rare but frequently fatal condition which is associated with massive pneumoperitoneum in radiography. Here, we report a case of neonatal spontaneous gastric perforation presenting as gastric outlet obstruction rather than pneumoperitoneum. Physical examination and imaging modalities were indicative of abdominal distension and gastric outlet obstruction. With diagnosis of gastric perforation at laparotomy, subtotal gastric resection was performed and a feeding jejunostomy was placed. The present report highlights that gastric perforation should be of clinical suspicion in neonates with abdominal distension and unusual imaging findings rather than pneumoperitoneum. Keywords: Spontaneous gastric perforation; gastric outlet obstruction; pneumoperitoneum

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  6. Effect of Native Gastric Mucus on in vivo Hybridization Therapies Directed at Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Xiong, Ranhua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the worldwide population. It is mostly found deep in the gastric mucus lining of the stomach, being a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma. To face the increasing resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics, antimicrobial nucleic acid...... mimics are a promising alternative. In particular, locked nucleic acids (LNA)/2'-OMethyl RNA (2'OMe) have shown to specifically target H. pylori, as evidenced by in situ hybridization. The success of in vivo hybridization depends on the ability of these nucleic acids to penetrate the major physical...... barriers-the highly viscoelastic gastric mucus and the bacterial cell envelope. We found that LNA/2'OMe is capable of diffusing rapidly through native, undiluted, gastric mucus isolated from porcine stomachs, without degradation. Moreover, although LNA/2'OMe hybridization was still successful without...

  7. Gastric hypersecretion after formation of small bowel conduits: a common factor in several clinical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J F; Longmire, W P

    1979-01-01

    As a preliminary step in studying the effect on gastric acid secretion in dogs following biliary diversion through isolated intestinal conduits, blind-ended intestinal conduits were constructed and the biliary channel was left undisturbed at this time. The results were surprising in that a significant absolute increase in gastric acid secretion occurred in all dogs, within the range of 65-286%, by merely disconnecting a segment of small bowel from the mainstream of flow of intestinal contents. This effect may be due to the "intestinal phase of gastric secretion hormone" and may in itself provide a partial explanation for the well-documented increase in gastric acid production caused by the Exalto-Mann-Williamson procedure and by choledochoenterostomy utilizing a Roux loop. PMID:426562

  8. Features of Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Gastric Juice in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Mosiichuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There were studied the features of changes in the factors of aggression and protection in the gastric juice of 91 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD combined with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. It was determined the pH, concentration of pepsin, glycoproteins, bile acids, sialic acids, fucose, hexosamines, the level of nitric oxide metabolites. It has been found that increased levels of nitric oxide metabolites and bile acids in gastric juice enhances the inflammatory processes in the gastric mucosa irrespective of the functional state of the sphincter of Oddi. Aggressive properties of gastric contents were increased in patients with GERD associated with both hypertonic and hypotonic sphincter of Oddi. The deficit and imbalance of protection factors in most patients in all groups were manifested by reduction in the concentration of carbohydrate terminal residues of glycoproteins as compared to the control group.

  9. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of alpha-, beta- and dopaminergic receptors on gastric mucosal blood flow during "high", "normal", and "low" vagal conditions obtained by stimulation with bethanechol and pentagastrin and by parietal cell vagotomy respectively. During pentagastri...... increasing effect on mucosal blood flow. One may conclude that blood flow and acid secretion are not unconditionally linked and that at least two different mechanisms are involved in blood flow changes in the stomach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...... and bethanechol stimulation, a linear relationship between gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow was observed. During pentagastrin stimulation, dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min) did not change the blood flow values while a decrease in acid secretion was found. During bethanechol stimulation dopamine (10...... micrograms/kg/min) induced an increase in mucosal blood flow and a similar increase in acid secretion. If the dopamine infusion was preceded by alpha-receptor blockade, a pronounced increase in mucosal blood flow was observed without a similar increase in acid secretion. beta-adrenergic stimulation...

  10. Distinctive microbiomes and metabolites linked with weight loss after gastric bypass, but not gastric banding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan, Zehra Esra; DiBaise, John K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Hoyt, David W.; Marcus, Andrew K.; Kang, Dae-Wook; Crowell, Michael D.; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2017-05-26

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss. Using multi-omic approaches, we analyzed fecal microbial community structure and metabolites of pre-bariatric surgery morbidly obese (PreB-Ob), normal weight (NW), post-RYGB, and post-LAGB participants. RYGB microbiomes were significantly different from those from NW, LAGB and PreB-Ob. Microbiome differences between RYGB and PreB- Ob populations were mirrored in their metabolomes. Diversity was higher in RYGB compared with LAGB, possibly because of an increase in the abundance of facultative anaerobic, bile-tolerant and acid-sensible microorganisms in the former. Possibly because of lower gastric acid exposure, phylotypes from the oral cavity, such as Escherichia, Veillonella and Streptococcus, were in greater abundance in the RYGB group, and their abundances positively correlated with percent excess weight loss. Many of these post-RYGB microorganisms are capable of amino-acid fermentation. Amino-acid and carbohydrate fermentation products—isovalerate, isobutyrate, butyrate and propionate—were prevalent in RYGB participants, but not in LAGB participants. RYGB resulted in greater alteration of the gut microbiome and metabolome than LAGB, and RYGB group exhibited unique microbiome composed of many amino-acid fermenters, compared with nonsurgical controls.

  11. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma

  12. Gastric outlet obstruction in Northwestern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. Gastric outlet obstruction in Northwestern Ethiopia. Rerhanu Kotisso MD. Associale Professor of Surgey. 1:;iculry of Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Key Words: Gastric outlet obstruction, peptic ulcer, tuberculosis, gastric cancer. This was a three-year prospective study to assess the magnitude and spectrum of gastric.

  13. [Preventive resection of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancers are rare, accounting for at most 1-3% of gastric cancers. It can be caused by a mutation in the tumour-suppressor gene CDH1. A healthy person carrying a CDH1 mutation has a cumulative risk of developing gastric cancer of 70-80%. In most cases, gastric cancer is

  14. Gastric hypochlorhydria is associated with an exacerbation of dyspeptic symptoms in female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Wataru; Abe, Yasuhiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Uno, Kaname; Asano, Naoki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-02-01

    Gender and gastric acid have been suggested to be independently involved in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia, but the interrelationship among gender, dyspeptic symptoms, and gastric acid secretion remains to be evaluated. We sought to explore this issue in dyspeptic patients. A total of 89 outpatients (male, 36; mean age, 55.6 years) with dyspeptic symptoms were analyzed. The degree of dyspeptic symptoms was evaluated and scored using a symptom questionnaire consisting of 3 subcategories: dysmotility-related symptoms, reflux-related symptoms, and epigastric pain-related symptoms. Stimulated gastric acid secretion was directly measured using an endoscopic gastrin test. The total symptom scores and the epigastric pain-related symptom scores were significantly higher in female patients than in male patients. The dysmotility-related and reflux-related symptom scores were also higher, but not significantly, in the female patients. Multiple regression analysis of age, gender, habitual drinking, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastric acid secretion revealed that gender and gastric hypochlorhydria, defined as less than 2.1 mEq/10 min in the endoscopic gastrin test, were significantly associated with higher dyspeptic symptom scores. The total scores and the dysmotility-related scores were significantly higher in the patients with gastric hypochlorhydria than in those with gastric non-hypochlorhydria, and this difference was found to be present only in females. Gastric hypochlorhydria in female dyspeptic patients may be involved in the exacerbation of dyspeptic symptoms. Differences in the responsiveness to gastric hypochlorhydria between males and females may be partly responsible for the gender differences in the prevalence and severity of dyspeptic symptoms.

  15. Gastric histopathology, iron status and iron deficiency anemia in children with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysoy, Gökhan; Ertem, Deniz; Ademoğlu, Evin; Kotiloğlu, Esin; Keskin, Sabiha; Pehlivanoğlu, Ender

    2004-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been established as a major cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in adults and children. H. pylori infection may also have a role in the development of some extra-gastrointestinal diseases, including iron deficiency anemia. The aim of this study is to investigate H. pylori-related changes in gastric physiology and histology and the relationship of these changes to iron deficiency anemia in children. Fifty-two patients with gastrointestinal complaints were studied. Hematologic parameters, 3-day vitamin C and iron consumption, serum gastrin levels, and gastric juice ascorbic acid levels were compared in patients with and without H. pylori infection. Dietary intake of vitamin C and iron, serum gastrin, gastric juice ascorbic acid content, and gastric histology were compared in patients with H. pylori infection and anemia and in patients with H pylori infection and no anemia. The CagA status of the H. pylori organisms was evaluated. Twenty-eight of 52 patients had H. pylori. Thirty-one patients had iron deficiency anemia. H. pylori infection was associated with low serum iron levels. H. pylori gastritis was associated with a decrease in the gastric juice ascorbic acid level. Infection with CagA-positive strains was associated with a greater decrease in gastric juice ascorbic acid than infection with CagA-negative strains. However, the gastric juice ascorbic acid levels of patients with H. pylori and anemia were not different from those of non-anemic patients with H. pylori. Among patients with H. pylori infection, pangastritis was twice as common in those with anemia than in those without anemia. H. pylori infection was associated with a decrease in gastric juice ascorbic acid concentration, and this effect was more pronounced in patients with the CagA-positive strain. Pangastritis was more common in patients whose H. pylori.infection was accompanied by anemia.

  16. Effect of Native Gastric Mucus on in vivo Hybridization Therapies Directed at Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Xiong, Ranhua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the worldwide population. It is mostly found deep in the gastric mucus lining of the stomach, being a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma. To face the increasing resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics, antimicrobial nucleic acid...... barriers-the highly viscoelastic gastric mucus and the bacterial cell envelope. We found that LNA/2'OMe is capable of diffusing rapidly through native, undiluted, gastric mucus isolated from porcine stomachs, without degradation. Moreover, although LNA/2'OMe hybridization was still successful without...... permeabilization and fixation of the bacteria, which is normally part of in vitro studies, the ability of LNA/2'OMe to efficiently hybridize with H. pylori was hampered by the presence of mucus. Future research should focus on developing nanocarriers that shield LNA/2'OMe from components in the gastric mucus...

  17. Magaldrate stimulates endogenous prostaglandin E2 synthesis in human gastric mucosa in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Baumeister, B; Kipnowski, J; Miederer, S E; Vetter, H

    1998-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in the inhibition of gastric acid production and exerts cytoprotective action. The in vitro and in vivo effect of magaldrate, an aluminum containing antacid, on PGE2 synthesis in the gastric mucosa was investigated. In the first part of the study, magaldrate was added to a suspension of isolated gastric mucosal cells. In the second part, the antacid gel was applied to the gastric mucosa during gastroscopy and biopsies were taken from the same site 5 and 10 min later. The antacid significantly stimulated PGE2 release from the suspension of isolated gastric cells in vitro. The biopsies obtained after the application of magaldrate showed an increased PGE2 production compared to specimens obtained before. The data suggest that in addition to its neutralizing capacity as an antacid, magaldrate contributes to the cytoprotective activity of the mucosa by stimulating endogenous PGE2 synthesis.

  18. Rapid Development of Intestinal Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Oh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma is felt to develop over a protracted time period through a series of defined steps. Several potential risk factors for the development of gastric cancer have been identified, including a family history of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. We present the case of a patient with neither risk factor who progressed in a 14 month time frame from histologically normal gastric mucosa to early stage intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma in the setting of diffuse gastric intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis. This patient’s presentation conflicts with our current understanding of the development of intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  19. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  20. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  1. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... ascorbic acid and palpable concentration of trace minerals (Prakash and Pal, ... vegetables plays a crucial role in assessing their nutri- tional significance .... Table 4. Correlation matrix of the various parameters studied for the proximate analysis of selected plant species. Moisture. (wet). Moistures. (dry). Ash.

  2. The guggulsterone derivative GG-52 inhibits NF-κB signaling in gastric epithelial cells and ameliorates ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Su Hyun; Ko, Su Hyuk; Jung, Jireh; Chun, Jaeyoung; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Kim, Joo Sung

    2013-01-15

    Gastric mucosal inflammation can develop after challenge with noxious stimuli such as alcohol. Specially, alcohol stimulates the release of inflammatory cytokines but does not increase gastric acid secretion, leading to gastric mucosal damage. The plant sterol guggulsterone and its novel derivative GG-52 have been reported to inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and experimental colitis. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of GG-52 on gastric epithelial cells and on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal inflammation in mice. GG-52 inhibited the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in gastric epithelial AGS and MKN-45 cell lines stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with GG-52 suppressed TNF-α-induced activation of IκB kinase (IKK) and NF-κB signaling in MKN-45 cells. In contrast, the inactive analog GG-46 did not produce significant changes in IL-8 expression or NF-κB activation. In a model of ethanol-induced murine gastritis, administration of GG-52 significantly reduced the severity of gastritis, as assessed by macroscopic and histological evaluation of gastric mucosal damage. In addition, the ethanol-induced upregulation of chemokine KC, a mouse homolog of IL-8, and phosphorylated p65 NF-κB signals were significantly inhibited in murine gastric mucosa pretreated with GG-52. These results indicate that GG-52 suppresses NF-κB activation in gastric epithelial cells and ameliorates ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in mice, suggesting that GG-52 may be a potential gastroprotective agent.

  3. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  4. The effect of intravenous omeprazole on the gastric and duodenal potential difference and pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Højgaard, L

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intravenous omeprazole (40 and 80 mg) on the gastric and duodenal potential difference (PD) and pH was investigated in 9 healthy volunteers. Gastric PD and pH increased significantly (p omeprazole, and the increases were equal following the two doses. No changes were...... found in duodenal PD or pH. It has been claimed that gastric PD changes following acid secretion inhibition with cimetidine and glucagon might be due to changes in the parietal cell surface area. Omeprazole causes no changes in the parietal cell structure, and the changes in gastric PD following...... omeprazole might therefore be ascribed to changes in mucosal electrophysiologic transport or resistance....

  5. Nutrient dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccio, Paola; Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Negri, Eva; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-11-01

    There have been several studies on diet and gastric cancer, but only a few investigations have considered the role of dietary patterns. We investigated gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary patterns in a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1997 and 2007, including 230 patients with incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 547 frequency-matched controls, admitted to the same hospitals as cases, with acute nonneoplastic conditions. Dietary habits were investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 foods and beverages. We identified a posteriori dietary patterns on a selected set of 28 micro- and macro-nutrients through an exploratory principal component factor analysis. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using conditional logistic regression models on quartiles of factor scores. We identified four major dietary patterns, named "animal products", "vitamins and fiber", "vegetable unsaturated fatty acids", and "starch-rich". We observed a positive association between gastric cancer risk and the "animal products" (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.34-3.40, for the highest versus the lowest score quartile) and the "starch-rich" (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.01-2.77) dietary patterns. The "vitamins and fiber" pattern (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.99) was inversely associated with gastric cancer, whereas no significant association emerged with the "vegetable unsaturated fatty acids" pattern (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.56-1.42). Our analysis suggests a protective effect against gastric cancer risk of dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, and a positive association of dietary patterns rich in meats and animal fats and starchy foods.

  6. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  7. [Molecular biology in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Ueda, M; Kitajima, M

    1999-12-01

    In gastric cancer, the process of carcinogenesis is thought to occur as a stepwise accumulation of genetic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms of the process of multistage carcinogenesis is still unknown for gastric cancer. Gene abnormalities seen in gastric cancer, including ras, myc, c-erbB-2, met, K-sam and cript are summarized herein. Abnormalities of cancer suppressor genes, including p53, RB and APC are also described. In our studies, the biological malignancy of patients with c-erbB-2 amplification was higher than that of patients without amplification. Moreover, the cases with amplification of c-erbB-2 were found to be highly correlated with distant organ metastasis. However, very little is currently known of the molecular abnormalities leading to gastric cancer. In order to clarify the multiple gene abnormalities in gastric cancer, we used the method of restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS). RLGS provides a useful method for genomic analysis of gastric cancer. In the future, new analytical methods that will permit screening of all gene abnormalities at once promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of gastric cancer.

  8. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  9. Pattern recognition receptors and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eCastaño-Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric cancer (GC. Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and finally intestinal-type GC.Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC.Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs (NOD1, NOD2 and NLRP3, a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5, are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9 and CD14 and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC and CARD8 signalling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signalling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy.

  10. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    butter as well as different structured lipids containing decanoic acid (10:0) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin. Overall, these fats had wide variations in fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol structures. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed...... of this fat as compared with the other fats, because similar weights of fat were administered. Conclusion: The gastric emptying of fat was not influenced by fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol structure of the fats administered.......Aim: To investigate the gastric emptying upon administration of ten different fats in order to determine whether major differences in fatty acid profiles resulted in differences in gastric emptying. Methods: Gastric emptying was measured as the appearance of acetaminophen in plasma which represents...

  11. Loss of gastrokine-2 drives premalignant gastric inflammation and tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menheniott, Trevelyan R.; O’Connor, Louise; Chionh, Yok Teng; Scurr, Michelle; Rollo, Benjamin N.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Jacobs, Shelley; Catubig, Angelique; Kurklu, Bayzar; Mercer, Stephen; Minamoto, Toshinari; Ong, David E.; Ferrero, Richard L.; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Judd, Louise M.; Giraud, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mucosal inflammation is associated with a greater risk of gastric cancer (GC) and, therefore, requires tight control by suppressive counter mechanisms. Gastrokine-2 (GKN2) belongs to a family of secreted proteins expressed within normal gastric mucosal cells. GKN2 expression is frequently lost during GC progression, suggesting an inhibitory role; however, a causal link remains unsubstantiated. Here, we developed Gkn2 knockout and transgenic overexpressing mice to investigate the functional impact of GKN2 loss in GC pathogenesis. In mouse models of GC, decreased GKN2 expression correlated with gastric pathology that paralleled human GC progression. At baseline, Gkn2 knockout mice exhibited defective gastric epithelial differentiation but not malignant progression. Conversely, Gkn2 knockout in the IL-11/STAT3-dependent gp130F/F GC model caused tumorigenesis of the proximal stomach. Additionally, gastric immunopathology was accelerated in Helicobacter pylori–infected Gkn2 knockout mice and was associated with augmented T helper cell type 1 (Th1) but not Th17 immunity. Heightened Th1 responses in Gkn2 knockout mice were linked to deregulated mucosal innate immunity and impaired myeloid-derived suppressor cell activation. Finally, transgenic overexpression of human gastrokines (GKNs) attenuated gastric tumor growth in gp130F/F mice. Together, these results reveal an antiinflammatory role for GKN2, provide in vivo evidence that links GKN2 loss to GC pathogenesis, and suggest GKN restoration as a strategy to restrain GC progression. PMID:26974160

  12. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Woo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101 on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.

  13. Variable picture of gastric carcinoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyer, P.P.; Rosenbusch, G.; Yap, S.H.; Boer, H.H.M. de

    1987-02-01

    Carcinoids are endocrine tumors which develop from enterochromaffin cells and will be found in more than 80% in the gastrointestinal tract. Only 2-3% of these carcinoids is located in the stomach. The rarity of their occurrence and the wide variety of radiographic features (intramural defects, multiple gastric polyps, large gastric ulcers and polypoid intraluminal lesions) make their recognition difficult. We report 3 cases of gastric carcinoid, one of them presented with pernicious anemia, which has been reported more frequently in literature. One patient showed the unusual combination of adenocarcinoma and a carcinoid with a stalk in the stomach.

  14. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia A. Hiruma-Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

  15. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  16. Healing and Antisecretory Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amang, A. P.; Mezui, C.; Siwe, G. T.; Emakoua, J.; Mbah, G.; Nkwengoua, E. Z.; Enow-Orock, G. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on “unhealed gastric ulcers” associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. Materials and Methods “Unhealed gastric ulcers” were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously). The effects of the extract on both basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion were determined. Mucus secretion and oxidative stress parameters were measured, and histological assessment of ulcer healing was carried out. Results The extract significantly promoted the healing process in rats subjected to “unhealed gastric ulcers” (82.4–88.5% healing rates). Treatment with the extract significantly reduced the basal (25.95–49.51% reduction rates) and histamine-stimulated (24.25–47.41%) acid secretions. The healing effect of the extract was associated with a significant (p ulcers.” PMID:29234676

  17. [AFP-producing gastric cancer and hepatoid gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y K; Zhang, X T

    2017-11-23

    AFP-producing gastric cancer(AFPGC) and hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) are two special subtypes of gastric cancer. There are both correlation and difference between them. AFPGC is usually identified as primary gastric cancer with serum AFP level more than 20 ng/ml or showed AFP positive staining by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of HAS is mainly dependent on the pathological character of hepatocellular carcinoma-like differentiation of gastric cancer. The morbidity of AFPGC and HAS are rather low, especially the incidence of HAS is about 1%. The prognoses of these two subtypes are poorer than that of common gastric adenocarcinoma, due to a high incidence rate of liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis. With the development of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, gastric cancers, including these two rare subtypes, are now being investigated in more detail at the molecular level. Treatment remains the biggest challenge, early diagnosis and radical resection can dramatically improve patients'prognosis. Monitoring serum AFP and abdominal imaging examination during follow-up is important for early detection of liver metastasis. In combination with local treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of liver may further extend patients'survival time. Targeted therapy owes a great potential value in the future.

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  19. Impairment of the proximal to distal tonic gradient in the human diabetic stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y W; Hong, Y S; Ko, E-J; Lee, J Y; Min, B-H; Sohn, T S; Kim, J J; Rhee, P-L

    2014-02-01

    Little has been known about the contractile characteristics of diabetic stomach. We investigated spontaneous contractions and responses to acetylcholine in the gastric muscle in diabetic patients and non-diabetic control subjects according to the region of stomach. Gastric specimens were obtained from 26 diabetics and 55 controls who underwent gastrectomy at Samsung Medical Center between February 2008 and November 2011. Isometric force measurements were performed using circular muscle strips from the different regions of stomach under basal condition and in response to acetylcholine. Basal tone of control was higher in the proximal stomach than in the distal (0.63 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.027). However, in diabetics, basal tone was not significantly different between the proximal and distal stomach (0.75 g vs 0.62 g, p = 0.32). The distal stomach of diabetics had higher basal tone and lower frequency than that of control (0.62 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.049 and 4.0/min vs 4.9/min, p = 0.049, respectively). After exposure to acetylcholine, dose-dependent increases of basal tone, peak, and area under the curve (AUC) were noticed in both proximal and distal stomach of the two groups. In the proximal stomach, however, the dose-dependent increase of basal tone and AUC was less prominent in diabetics than in control. On the contrary to control, the proximal to distal tonic gradient was not observed in diabetic stomach. Diabetic stomach also had lower frequency of spontaneous contraction in the distal stomach and less acetylcholine-induced positive inotropic effect in the proximal stomach than control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Effect of adrenalectomy on the gastric juice secretion evoked by food or histamine in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegel', V A; Gridneva, V I; Krivova, N A

    1978-05-01

    Comparison was made of the effect of total adrenalectomy on the gastric secretion in chronic experiments on dogs with the Pavlov's stomach and Basov's fistula. A decrease of the maximal secretion level of gastric juice was associated with the alteration of the organ hemodynamics. A tendency to reduction of the acid production in the stomach was revealed. Essential differences were noted in the character of proteolytic enzymes secretion with different agents stimulating the secretion. Specific nature of the gastric secretory system for each stimulant, and different effects of adrenalectomy on the secretion induced by these stimulants was shown.