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Sample records for proximal forearm presenting

  1. Intramuscular myxoid lipoma in the proximal forearm presenting as an olecranon mass with superficial radial nerve palsy: a case report

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    Hildebrand Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extremity lipomas may occur in any location, including the proximal forearm. We describe a case of a patient with an intramuscular lipoma presenting as an unusual posterior elbow mass. Case presentation We discuss the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a tender, posterior elbow mass initially diagnosed as chronic olecranon bursitis. A minor sensory disturbance in the distribution of the superficial radial nerve was initially thought to be unrelated, but was likely caused by mass effect from the lipoma. No pre-operative advanced imaging was obtained because the diagnosis was felt to have already been made. At the time of surgery, a fatty mass originating in the volar forearm muscles was found to have breached the dorsal forearm fascia and displaced the olecranon bursa. Tissue diagnosis was made by histopathology as a myxoid lipoma with no aggressive features. Post-operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion We present a case of an unusual elbow mass presenting with symptoms consistent with chronic olecranon bursitis, a relatively common condition. The only unexplained pre-operative finding was the non-specific finding of a transient superficial radial nerve deficit. We remind clinicians to be cautious when diagnosing soft tissue masses in the extremities when unexplained physical findings are present.

  2. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  3. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

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    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

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    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (phandle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

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    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonographic diagnostics of pain in the lateral cubital compartment and proximal forearm

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    Anna Dębek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the lateral compartment of the elbow joint and decreased strength of the extensor muscle constitute a fairly common clinical problem. These symptoms, occurring in such movements as inverting and converting the forearm, pushing, lifting and pulling, mostly affect people who carry out daily activities with an intense use of wrist, e.g. work on computer. Strains in this area often result from persistent overload and degeneration processes of the common extensor tendon and the radial collateral ligament. Similar symptoms resulting from the compression of deep branch of the radial nerve in radial nerve tunnel should be remembered as well. It happens that both conditions occur simultaneously. A proper diagnosis is essential in undertaking an effective treatment. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive method and the application of high-end apparatus with heads of frequencies exceeding 12 MHz allows for a precise evaluation of joint structures, tendons and nerves. In case of the so-called tennis elbow, the examination allows for evaluation of the degree and extent of injury to the radial collateral ligament and common extensor tendon, in addition to the presence of blood vessels in inflicted area. Administration of autologous blood platelets concentrate containing growth factors, used in treatment of tennis elbow, is performed under ultrasound image control conditions. This allows for a precise incision of scar whilst keeping a healthy (unaffected tissue margin to form fine channels enabling the penetration of growth factors. Post-surgery medical check-up allows for the evaluation of treatment effectiveness. In radial nerve tunnel syndrome, the ultrasound examination can reveal abnormalities in the deep branch of the radial nerve and within the anatomical structures adjacent to the nerve in the radial nerve tunnel. Furthermore, the ultrasound examination allows for detection of other articular and extraarticular pathologies, which affect the

  7. Anatomic relationships of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints articulating surface areas, and of the radius and ulna bone volumes – implications for biomechanical studies of the distal and proximal radioulnar joints and forearm bones

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    Paul S C Malone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious work from this laboratory has evidenced the biomechanical role of forearm osseoligamentous structures in load transfer of applied forces. It has shown that transmitted forces across the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ and proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ are similar though not identical under axial loading conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess the articulating surface areas of the radioulnar joints and the volumes of the forearm bones addressing the hypothesis that there may be anatomic adaptations that reflect the biomechanical function of the integrated forearm unit.MethodsThe articulating surface areas of PRUJ and DRUJ were assessed using a laser scanner in 24 cadaver forearms. The articulating joint surfaces were additionally delineated from standardized photographs assessed by three observers. The surface areas of matched pairs of joints were compared on the null hypothesis that these were the same within a given forearm specimen. An additional 44 pairs of matched forearm bone volumes were measured using water displacement technique and again compared through statistical analysis (paired sample t-test, and Bland Altman analysis.ResultsThe findings of this study are that the articulating surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ as well as the bone volumes are significantly different and yet strongly correlated. The paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the surface areas of the DRUJ and PRUJ (p<0.05. The PRUJ articulating surface area was marginally larger than the DRUJ with a PRUJ : DRUJ ratio of 1.02. Paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between the two bone volumes (p<0.01 with a radius to ulna bone volume ratio of 0.81. When the olecranon was disregarded, radius volume was on average 4% greater than ulna volume.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated defines the anatomical relationships between the two forearm bones and their articulating joints when matched for specimen. The data

  8. Systemic calciphylaxis presenting as a painful, proximal myopathy.

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    Edelstein, C. L.; Wickham, M. K.; Kirby, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A renal transplant patient who presented with a painful, proximal myopathy due to systemic calciphylaxis is described. The myopathy preceded the characteristic skin and soft tissue necrosis. Systemic calciphylaxis should be considered in a dialysis or a renal transplant patient presenting with a painful proximal myopathy even in the absence of necrotic skin lesions.

  9. RARE PRESENTATION OF SYMPTOMATIC BILATERAL PROXIMAL POPLITEAL ARTERY ANEURYSM

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    Thulasikumar Ganapathy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available True Popliteal artery aneurysm is the most common of all the peripheral artery aneurysms. We present a case of proximal popliteal artery aneurysm involvement both lower limb presented with gangrene in one lower limb and incapacitating claudication pain on the other lower limb. We have successfully repaired both sides aneurysm in the same sitting with Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE graft, as the patient also had multiple venous perforators’ involvement on both sides, which left us only with synthetic graft repair option rather than venous graft repair.

  10. The oblique cord of the forearm in man.

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    Tubbs, R Shane; O'Neil, James T; Key, Christopher D; Zarzour, Jessica G; Fulghum, Sarah B; Kim, Eugenia J; Lyerly, Michael J; Shoja, Mohammadali M; George Salter, E; Jerry Oakes, W

    2007-05-01

    There is minimal and often conflicting data in the literature regarding the oblique cord of the forearm. The current study seeks to elucidate further the anatomy of this structure of the upper extremity. In adult cadavers, the oblique cord was observed for and, when found, measurements were made of it. Ranges of motion were carried out while observation of the oblique cord was made. An oblique cord was found on 52.6% of sides. Gantzer's muscle was found on 55% of sides and, when present, had attachment into the oblique cord on five sides. The oblique cord was present on 13 sides with a Gantzer's muscle. Of the 20 sides with an oblique cord, no Gantzer's muscle was found on 10. The mean length of the oblique cord was 3.4 cm. In the majority of specimens, this cord tapered from proximal to distal. The proximal, middle, and distal widths of this structure had means 9, 7, and 4 mm, respectively. The oblique cord was found to travel approximately 45 degrees from a line drawn through the ulna and more or less traveled perpendicular to the insertion site of the bicipital tendon. This ligament was lax in the neutral position and with pronation became lax in all specimens. The oblique cord progressively became taut with increased supination from the neutral position and was maximally taut with the forearm fully supinated. Tautness of this cord was also found with distal distraction of the radius. Following the transection of the oblique cord, no discernable difference was observed in regard to maximal supination of the forearm or distal distraction of the radius. No obvious instability of the proximal forearm was found following transection of the oblique cord. Functionally, although the oblique cord may resist supination, it is unlikely that this structure affords significant stability to the proximal forearm, as it was often absent, of a very small caliber, and based on our observations, following its transection, the amount of supination of the forearm did not increase

  11. The posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap: anatomical study and clinical application.

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    Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Lin, Jian; Fu, Fei-Huan; Cai, Zhen-De; Huang, Hui-Mei; Zheng, He-Ping

    2013-11-01

    Defects sustained at the distal forearm are common and pedicled perforator flaps have unique advantages in resurfacing it. The purpose of this study is to reappraise the anatomy of the perforator in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm and present our clinical experience on using perforator flaps based on it for reconstruction of defects in the distal forearm. This study was divided into anatomical study and clinical application. In the anatomical study, 30 preserved upper limbs were used. Clinically, 11 patients with defects at the forearm underwent reconstruction with the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flaps. The defects, ranging from 4.5 × 2.5 cm to 10.5 × 4.5 cm, were located at the dorsal aspect of the distal forearm in 6 cases and at the volar aspect of the distal forearm in 5 cases. Three patterns of the perforator were observed in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm, which originated from the posterior interosseous artery, the proximal segment of the radial artery or the radial recurrent artery, and the middle segment of the radial artery, respectively. The perforator was located 11.8 ± 0.2 cm to 15.8 ± 0.4 cm inferior to the lateral humeral epicondyle. Clinically, flaps in 8 cases survived uneventfully, while the other 3 cases suffered mild marginal epidermal necrosis, which was cured with continuous dress changing. The location of the perforator at the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm is consistent; the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap is particularly suitable to cover defects in the distal one-third of the forearm. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Brachial Plexus Injury in a 6-Year-Old Boy with 100% Displaced Proximal Humeral Metaphyseal Fracture: A Case Presentation.

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    Jovanovich, Elizabeth Nora; Howard, James F

    2017-12-01

    Posttraumatic brachial plexopathies can occur following displaced proximal humeral fractures, causing profound functional deficits. Described here is an unusual case of a displaced proximal humeral metaphyseal fracture in a young child. The patient underwent closed reduction and serial casting, but hand weakness and forearm sensory loss persisted. Needle electromyography localized the injury to the mid/proximal arm near the fracture site, resulting in damage to the posterior and medial cords of the brachial plexus with profound involvement of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves and sparing of the axillary nerve. After months of occupational therapy, hand strength improved, with a nearly full return of function. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  14. Familial aggregation of forearm bone mineral density in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xiumei; Niu Tianhua; Chen Changzhong; Wang Binyan; Venners, Scott A.; Fang Zhian; Xu Xiping

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern and its prevalence can be predicted based on forearm bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to investigate the familial aggregation of forearm BMD in a population-based, cross-sectional study in Anhui, China. Information on sociodemographic and environmental variables was obtained from 1,636 subjects from 409 nuclear families (including mother, father, and their first two children) by a standardized questionnaire. The forearm BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDXA). Using generalized additive models with a sequential adjustment for covariates, it was clearly indicated that the forearm BMD of the mother, the father, and the first sibling each had a significant and independent relation to the forearm BMD of the second sibling. Furthermore, using multiple logistic regression, the second sibling had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.3 (95%CI: 2.0-14.5) of having an extremely low (bottom 10th percentile) proximal forearm BMD and an OR of 4.3 (95%CI: 1.6-12.0) of having an extremely low distal forearm BMD when the parental mean forearm BMD was low and the first sibling's forearm BMD was low. Our findings showing strong familial aggregation of both proximal and distal forearm BMD values suggest that genetic factors play a significant role in determining both traits

  15. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm.

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    Atoni, Atoni Dogood; Oyinbo, Charles Aidemise

    2017-03-01

    Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  16. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm

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    Atoni Atoni Dogood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  17. The forearm complex: anatomy, biomechanics and clinical considerations.

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    LaStayo, Paul C; Lee, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The forearm complex is comprised of the proximal radioulnar joint, middle radioulnar joint/interosseous membrane, and the distal radioulnar joint. These three areas function in a coordinated manner to rotate the hand in space and allow performance of functional tasks. If a structure or structures in one of these three areas is disrupted, this can adversely affect the function at any of the other two remaining areas. Surgical intervention focuses on restoring anatomical alignment to preserve the function of the forearm complex. Rehabilitation is guided by the relationships between the three areas of the forearm complex and the awareness of clinical signs, symptoms, and complications. The purposes of this paper are to 1) describe the anatomy and biomechanical function of the forearm complex and 2) discuss clinical correlates pertaining to select forearm injuries (excluding peripheral nerve injuries) that may affect forearm function.

  18. Osteoradionecrosis of the olecranon: treatment by radial forearm flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.W.; Stevenson, T.R.; VanderKolk, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the olecranon is an unusual pathologic entity, treated best by debridement and wound closure using vascularized tissue. Local skin is often unavailable for flap design and transposition. The radial forearm flap can be isolated on a proximal vascular pedicle and transposed to cover the wound. In the case presented, healing was brisk and complete, allowing early elbow mobilization. Although the donor site is not easily concealed, no functional impairment results from flap elevation and all full-thickness wounds are confined to the involved extremity

  19. Proximal weakness of lower limbs as the sole presentation of hyperthyroidism: report of one case.

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    Chen, Chu-Chin; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Shih, Chen-Houng; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Most children with acute or chronic flaccid limb weakness have a disorder of motor unit. However, it is very important to exclude cerebral or other upper motor neuron disorders before we approach such patients as pure muscle disorders. In general, neuropathy results in distal limb weakness, myopathy manifests with proximal weakness. There are exceptions, however. Accurate diagnosis in this wide array of disorders is dependent on a careful clinical assessment followed by the appropriate investigations. Here we report a 14-year-old girl who presented with progressive difficulty in rising up from the floor for one month. Neurological examination revealed an obese, clumsy but clear girl with stable vital signs. The muscle power of neck and upper limbs was normal. There was positive Gower sign, but the toe and heel gaits were acceptable. The initial blood work and motor/sensory nerve conduction velocity were unremarkable. Further study for thyroid function showed a hyperthyroid state. The proximal myopathy recovered soon after medical treatment. There were no other symptoms, and signs indicating hyperthyroidism and proximal myopathy of lower limbs was the isolated clinical feature. Hyperthyroid myopathy is common in hyperthyroidism, but is unusual as the sole presenting symptom.

  20. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  1. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy.

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    McGinley, Joseph C; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P; Kozin, Scott H

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18+/-0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86+/-0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93+/-0.77 mm and 3.30+/-1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r(2)=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation.

  2. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gaughan, John P. [Temple University, Department of Biostatistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospitals for Children, Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Philadelphia (United States); Temple University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18{+-}0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86{+-}0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93{+-}0.77 mm and 3.30{+-}1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r{sup 2}=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p<0.05). The ulnar slope was not significantly different from zero (r{sup 2}=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  3. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P.; Kozin, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18±0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86±0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93±0.77 mm and 3.30±1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r 2 =0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p 2 =0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  4. Combined Endovascular Treatment with Distal Radial Artery Coil Embolization and Angioplasty in Steal Syndrome Associated with Forearm Dialysis Fistula

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    Tercan, Fahri, E-mail: ftercan@yahoo.com; Koçyiğit, Ali, E-mail: alkoc@yahoo.com [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Güney, Bünyamin [Muğla Sıtkı Kocman University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    PurposeThe present study was performed to define the results of the endovascular treatment with angioplasty and distal radial artery embolization in ischemic steal syndrome associated with forearm arteriovenous accesses.MethodThe cases referred to our interventional radiology unit with symptoms and physical examination findings suggestive of ischemic steal syndrome were retrospectively evaluated first by Doppler ultrasonography, and then by angiography. Cases with proximal artery stenosis were applied angioplasty, and those with steal syndrome underwent coil embolization to distal radial artery.ResultsOf 589 patients who underwent endovascular intervention for dialysis arteriovenous fistulae (AVF)-associated problems, 6 (1.01 %) (5 female, 1 males; mean age 62 (range 41–78) with forearm fistula underwent combined endovascular treatment for steal syndrome. In addition to steal phenomenon, there were stenosis and/or occlusion in proximal radial and/or ulnar artery in 6 patients concurrently. Embolization of distal radial artery and angioplasty to proximal arterial stenoses were performed in all patients. Ischemic symptoms were eliminated in all patients and the AVF were in use at the time of study. In one patient, ischemic symptoms recurring 6 months later were alleviated by repeat angioplasty of ulnar artery.ConclusionIn palmar arch steal syndrome affecting forearm fistulae, combined distal radial embolization and angioplasty is also an effective treatment method in the presence of proximal radial and ulnar arterial stenoses and occlusions.

  5. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction.

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    Hekner, D D; Roeling, T A P; Van Cann, E M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were injected with epoxy resin (Araldite) and the perforating arteries were dissected. The number of clinically relevant perforators from the radial and ulnar arteries was not significantly different in the distal forearm. Most perforators were located in the proximal half of the distal one third, making this part probably the safest location for flap harvest. Close to the wrist, i.e. most distally, there were more perforators on the ulnar side than on the radial side. The ulnar artery stained 77% of the skin surface area of the forearm, showing the ulnar forearm free flap to be more suitable than the radial forearm free flap for the restoration of large defects. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Elderly with proximal hip fracture present significantly lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels, a serum marker of vitamin D3, between patients with and without proximal hip fracture. METHODS: This was a case-control study in which serum samples of 25(OHD were obtained from 110 proximal hip fracture inpatients and 231 control patients without fractures, all over 60 years of age. Levels of 25(OHD lower than or equal to 20 ng/mL were considered deficient; from 21 ng/mL to 29 ng/mL, insufficient; and above 30 ng/mL, sufficient. Sex, age, and ethnicity were considered for association with the study groups and 25(OHD levels. RESULTS: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels (21.07 ng/mL than controls (28.59 ng/mL; p = 0.000. Among patients with proximal hip fracture, 54.5% had deficient 25(OHD levels, 27.2% had insufficient levels, and only 18.2% had sufficient levels. In the control group, 30.3% of patients had deficient 25(OHD levels, 30.7% had insufficient levels, and 38.9% had sufficient levels. Female patients had decreased serum 25(OHD levels both in the fracture group and in the control group (19.50 ng/mL vs. 26.94 ng/mL; p = 0.000 when compared with male patients with and without fracture (25.67 ng/mL vs. 33.74 ng/mL; p = 0.017. Regarding age, there was a significant association between 25(OHD levels and risk of fracture only for the age groups 71-75 years and above 80 years. CONCLUSION: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly decreased serum 25(OHD levels when compared with the control group. Female patients had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels in both groups.

  7. Epidemiology of forearm fractures in adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2015-01-01

    with less detailed information. Rates were higher than previously estimated. INTRODUCTION: Despite a significant contribution to the overall burden of osteoporotic, nonvertebral fractures, relatively little information is available about age- and gender-specific incidence rates for many countries including...... Denmark. METHODS: We used national individual patient data on inpatient and outpatient treatment to calculate rates of forearm fractures, taking readmissions into account, with subtables for distal and proximal fractures. We also calculated ratios of forearm to hip fractures that may be useful when...

  8. Anatomy and biomechanics of the forearm interosseous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Leela D; Werner, Frederick W; McGrattan, Michael L; Zwerling, Sierra R; Harley, Brian J

    2015-06-01

    To examine the anatomy and function of the forearm interosseous membrane by exploring the anatomical insertions of the central band (CB) on the radius and the ulna and by quantifying the length of the intact ligament and replacement grafts located at the original CB attachment sites and alternative locations. Eight fresh cadaver forearms were supinated and pronated and the wrist was extended and flexed while the motion between the distal radius and ulna were recorded. The length of the CB was computed for the intact CB as well for several alternative graft orientations and positions. The maximum length of the CB did not significantly change among different wrist motions. However, with the wrist in a static neutral position, the CB length was significantly shorter in forearm supination than in neutral. During active forearm rotation when CB replacement grafts were positioned distal or proximal to the original CB site, yet still parallel to it, each had a similar trend to be longer in neutral than in supination. If a graft was more transversely oriented, the computed CB length would be 1.6 mm shorter in supination than in neutral. These results support tensioning a CB graft with the forearm in supination if the goal is to maximize graft tension and to maintain the native 22° angle for a CB graft between the radius and ulna. The results also suggest that the CB graft can probably be located slightly distal or slightly proximal to its original attachment sites. Reconstruction of the interosseous membrane has been hampered by a lack of understanding of its length changes with forearm or wrist motion. These results provide a starting point in helping clinicians understand how to more precisely reconstruct this ligament in an anatomical manner. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Forearm diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population: treatment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Vopat, Matthew L; Kane, Patrick M; Christino, Melissa A; Katarincic, Julia; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures are commonly treated in a variety of clinical settings. Most often, closed reduction followed by immobilization leads to satisfactory results. However, in the adolescent population (10-16 years of age), forearm fractures are more challenging due to less remodeling potential. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy, biomechanics, and treatment options relevant to adolescent patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts related to the treatment for pediatric both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in adolescents was carried out. Forearm fractures in the pediatric population are most common following indirect blows to the forearm. When treating these fractures using closed reduction, it is important to recognize the muscular attachments of the forearm. In roughly 70-90% of cases, closed reduction leads to adequate alignment. In all cases, return to function is the primary goal; however, exact alignment parameters remain controversial. In the adolescent population, surgical treatment has risen substantially in the last few decades. Intramedullary nailing and open reduction using plate fixation are the two most common operative techniques. Unfortunately, recent results have shown that nonunion, malunion, and overall complication rates are higher in older pediatric patients. Moreover, no consensus exists regarding one technique over another. Both-bone diaphyseal fractures in the adolescent population present unique challenges regarding optimal treatment, especially when considering surgical intervention. Further research is necessary to better understand indications for specific surgical treatment.

  10. Perforator anatomy of the ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Jon A; Moaveni, Zachary; Tan, Swee T

    2012-08-01

    The ulnar forearm fasciocutaneous flap (UFFF) is a favourable alternative to the radial forearm flap when thin and pliable tissue is required. The precise anatomy of the cutaneous perforators of UFFF has not been previously reported. The position of cutaneous perforators>0.5 mm was recorded while raising 52 consecutive free UFFFs in 51 patients at our Centre. Three (6%) UFFFs in two patients demonstrated direct cutaneous supply through a superficial ulnar artery, a known anatomic variance. There was no cutaneous perforator>0.5 mm in one flap. Among the remaining 48 dissections, an average of 3 (range, 1-6) cutaneous perforators were identified. Ninety-four percent of these forearms demonstrated at least one perforator>0.5 mm within 3 cm, and all had at least one perforator within 6 cm of the midpoint of the forearm. Proximal perforators were more likely to be musculo-cutaneous through the edge of flexor carpi ulnaris or flexor digitorum superficialis, while mid- to distal perforators were septo-cutaneous. UFFF skin paddle designed to overlie an area within 3 cm of the midpoint between the medial epicondyle and the pisiform is most likely to include at least one cutaneous perforator from the ulnar artery, without a need for intra-operative skin island adjustment. This novel anatomic finding and other practical generalisations are discussed to facilitate successful elevation of UFFF. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. Median nerve neuropathy in the forearm due to recurrence of anterior wrist ganglion that originates from the scaphotrapezial joint: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Median nerve neuropathy caused by compression from a tumor in the forearm is rare. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates despite surgical treatment. Here, we report the recurrence of an anterior wrist ganglion that originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint due to incomplete resection and that caused median nerve neuropathy in the distal forearm. Case presentation A 47-year-old right-handed housewife noted the appearance of soft swelling on the volar aspect of her left distal forearm, and local resection surgery was performed twice at another hospital. One year after the last surgery, the swelling reappeared and was associated with numbness and pain in the radial volar aspect of the hand. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the multicystic lesion originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint and had expanded beyond the wrist. Exploration of the left median nerve showed that it was compressed by a large ovoid cystic lesion at the distal forearm near the proximal end of the carpal tunnel. We resected the cystic lesion to the Scaphotrapezial joint. Her symptoms disappeared 1 week after surgery, and complications or recurrent symptoms were absent 13 months after surgery. Conclusions A typical median nerve compression was caused by incomplete resection of an anterior wrist ganglion, which may have induced widening of the cyst. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates and require extra attention in their treatment.

  13. Measurement of forearm oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1988-01-01

    The classical forearm technique widely used for studies of skeletal muscle metabolism requires arterial cannulation. To avoid arterial puncture it is becoming more common to arterialize blood from a contralateral hand vein by local heating. This modification and the classical method have produced...... blood flow and decreases skeletal muscle blood flow. This facilitates mixing of superficial blood with deep venous blood. Contralateral heating increased deep venous oxygen saturation and abolished the pronounced glucose-induced increase in oxygen consumption observed in the control experiments after...... contradictory results regarding the contribution of skeletal muscle to glucose-induced thermogenesis. The effect on forearm circulation and the metabolism of heating the contralateral hand was examined before and after an oral glucose load. The results suggest that contralateral heating increases subcutaneous...

  14. Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Nybonde, T.; Karlsson, G.; St. Goeran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm

    1990-01-01

    Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.)

  15. Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekloef, O.; Nybonde, T.; Karlsson, G. (St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery)

    1990-03-01

    Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.).

  16. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  17. The role of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the forearm interosseous membrane. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Martin, Juan; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The interosseous membrane of the forearm is an important structure to consider in cases of elbow and forearm trauma; it can be injured after elbow or forearm fractures, leading to longitudinal forearm instability. Diagnosis of interosseous membrane injuries is challenging, and failure in diagnosis may result in poor clinical outcomes and complications. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have shown to be valuable methods for the evaluation of this important structure. Both techniques have advantages and limitations, and its use should be adapted to each specific clinical scenario. This article presents an up-to-date literature review regarding the use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the forearm interosseous membrane evaluation. (orig.)

  18. The role of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the forearm interosseous membrane. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Martin, Juan [Infanta Leonor University Hospital, Trauma and Orthopaedics, Shoulder and Elbow Unit, Madrid (Spain); Pretell-Mazzini, Juan [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellow, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The interosseous membrane of the forearm is an important structure to consider in cases of elbow and forearm trauma; it can be injured after elbow or forearm fractures, leading to longitudinal forearm instability. Diagnosis of interosseous membrane injuries is challenging, and failure in diagnosis may result in poor clinical outcomes and complications. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have shown to be valuable methods for the evaluation of this important structure. Both techniques have advantages and limitations, and its use should be adapted to each specific clinical scenario. This article presents an up-to-date literature review regarding the use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the forearm interosseous membrane evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Squared ligament of the elbow: anatomy and contribution to forearm stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otayek, Salma; Tayeb, Abd-el-Kader Ait; Assabah, Bouchra; Viard, Brice; Dayan, Romain; Lazure, Thierry; Soubeyrand, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the macroscopic and microscopic features of the squared ligament of the elbow (SLE). In addition, the SLE biomechanical behavior and contribution to the forearm stability were also examined. Ten forearms from freshly frozen cadavers were used for this work. Each forearm was mounted in an experimental frame for quantification of longitudinal and transverse stability. Macroscopic features and biomechanical behavior were analyzed on dynamic videos obtained during forearm rotation. Then, the SLE was harvested from the 10 forearms for microscopic analysis on histological slices stained with hematoxylin-eosin-saffron. Two main SLE configurations were identified. One in which the SLE had three distinct bundles (anterior, middle, posterior) and another in which it was homogeneous. The anterior part of the SLE had a mean length of 11.2 mm (±2.4 mm) and a mean width of 1.2 mm (±0.2 mm) while the posterior part had a mean length of 9.9 mm (±2.2 mm) and a mean width of 1 mm (±0.2 mm). Microscopic examination showed that the SLE is composed of a thin layer of arranged collagen fibers. During forearm rotation, the SLE progressively tightens upon pronation and supination by wrapping around the radial neck. Tightening of the SLE during forearm rotation provides transverse and longitudinal stability to the forearm, mainly in maximal pronation and supination. The SLE is a true ligament and provides forearm stability when it is stretched in pronation and supination.

  20. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  1. Subcutaneous Injection of Oxyfluorfen Herbicide to the Forearm: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, José; Garcia-Portal, Gonzalo; Garcia, Olga

    2017-10-01

    Background  Oxyfluorfen, a commercially available pesticide, commonly used for weed control in crop production, has been studied in terms of its toxicity, its carcinogenic properties, and its teratogenicity. We have found no reports, however, of the effects produced by an oxyfluorfen injection to the upper limb. Methods  We present the case of a 40 years old psychiatric patient, who reportedly injected her forearm accidentally while fumigating her garden. She was treated with irrigation and open forearm fasciectomy. Results  At 6 months, the patient had some tenderness at the scar; she wanted no further procedures done. Conclusion  Oxyfluorfen appeared to produce a chemical burn to the forearm tissues including the fascia, removal of the chemical product, and a limited fasciectomy, resulted in a favorable outcome.

  2. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  3. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  4. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  5. Traumatic bowing of forearm and lower leg in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, R.; Gripenberg, L.; Bergius, A.-R.

    1978-01-01

    Traumatic bowing of the forearm or lower leg is reported in 31 children. It is a relatively rare condition. Bowing occurs most frequently in combination with fracture of the other bone in the same extremity. In a minority of cases a bowing deformity is a single lesion. Age distribution, degree of deformity, mechanism of origin and therapy are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Donor-site morbidity of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekner, Dominique D; Abbink, Jan H; van Es, Robert J; Rosenberg, Antoine; Koole, Ronald; Van Cann, Ellen M

    2013-08-01

    Donor-site morbidity following harvest of the radial forearm free flap was compared with that following harvest of the ulnar forearm free flap. Twenty-eight radial forearm and 27 ulnar forearm flaps were harvested in 55 patients with head and neck defects. Pressure perception was measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Cold perception was tested with chloroethyl. Donor-site healing was evaluated. Patients were interviewed about grip and pinch strength and donor-site appearance. In the radial forearm free flap group, pressure perception and cold perception were reduced in the donor hand, whereas in the ulnar group, no differences were observed between the donor and unoperated hands. In the radial forearm group, 15 percent of patients experienced reduced strength in the donor hand, whereas in the ulnar forearm group, none of the patients reported reduced strength in the donor hand. In the radial forearm group, 14 percent had partial or complete loss of the skin graft, whereas in the ulnar forearm group, 4 percent had partial loss of the skin graft. In the radial forearm group, 18 percent of patients were dissatisfied with the appearance of the donor site, and no complaints were reported in the ulnar forearm group. The authors' study shows less donor site-morbidity following harvest of the ulnar forearm free flap than following harvest of the radial forearm free flap. These results emphasize that the ulnar forearm free flap should be considered as an alternative for the radial forearm free flap for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects. Therapeutic, III.

  7. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  8. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in

  9. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald

    2004-01-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in those cases

  10. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  11. Initial Misdiagnosis of Proximal Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Is Associated with Delay in Diagnosis and Advanced Stage at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Mone, Mary C; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P; Mulvihill, Sean J; Scaife, Courtney L

    2015-10-01

    Delay in diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with decreased survival. The effect of an initial misdiagnosis on delay in diagnosis and stage of PDAC is unknown. This study is a retrospective review (2000-2010) from a University-based cancer center of new diagnoses of proximal PDAC. Of 313 patients, 98 (31.3 %) had an initial misdiagnosis. Misdiagnosed patients were younger, 62.8 ± 12.6 vs. 68.0 ± 10.1 (p < 0.001). The most common initial misdiagnoses were: gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and peptic ulcer disease. After excluding patients with prior cholecystectomy, 14.2 % were misdiagnosed with gallbladder disease and underwent cholecystectomy before PDAC diagnosis. Misdiagnosed patients had higher rates of abdominal pain (p < 0.001), weight loss (p = 0.04), and acute pancreatitis (p < 0.001) and lower rate of jaundice (p < 0.001). Median time between symptoms to PDAC diagnosis was longer in misdiagnosed: 4.2 months vs. 1.4 (p < 0.001). Median time from contact with medical provider to axial imaging was longer in misdiagnosed (p < 0.001). Rate of stages III-IV disease at diagnosis was higher in misdiagnosed: 61.2 vs. 43.7 % (p = 0.004), with a 1.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.12-1.74) higher risk of stages III-IV disease at diagnosis; however, there was no difference in median overall survival in misdiagnosed patients (9.6 months in misdiagnosed vs. 10.3 months in correctly diagnosed, p = 0.69). Initial misdiagnosis of patients with proximal PDAC is associated with delay in diagnosis and higher risk of locally advanced or advanced disease at time of PDAC diagnosis.

  12. Forearm Compartment Syndrome: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Ilyas, Asif M; Thoder, Joseph J

    2018-02-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is uncommon but can have devastating consequences. Compartment syndrome is a result of osseofascial swelling leading to decreased tissue perfusion and tissue necrosis. There are numerous causes of forearm compartment syndrome and high clinical suspicion must be maintained to avoid permanent disability. The most widely recognized symptoms include pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretch of the wrist and digits. Early diagnosis and decompressive fasciotomy are essential in the treatment of forearm compartment syndrome. Closure of fasciotomy wounds can often be accomplished by primary closure but many patients require additional forms of soft tissue coverage procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Versatility of radial forearm free flap for intraoral reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Jelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The radial forearm free flap has an important role in reconstruction of the oncologic defects in the region of head and neck. Objective. The aim was to present and evaluate clinical experience and results in the radial forearm free transfer for intraoral reconstructions after resections due to malignancies. Methods. This article illustrates the versatility and reliability of forearm single donor site in 21 patients with a variety of intraoral oncologic defects who underwent immediate (19 patients, 90.5% or delayed (2 patients, 9.5% reconstruction using free flaps from the radial forearm. Fascio-cutaneous flaps were used in patients with floor of the mouth (6 cases, buccal mucosa (5 cases, lip (1 case and a retromolar triangle (2 cases defects, or after hemiglossectomy (7 cases. In addition, the palmaris longus tendon was included with the flap in 2 patients that required oral sphincter reconstruction. Results. An overall success rate was 90.5%. Flap failures were detected in two (9.5% patients, in one patient due to late ischemic necrosis, which appeared one week after the surgery, and in another patient due to venous congestion, which could not be salvaged after immediate re-exploration. Two patients required re-exploration due to vein thrombosis. The donor site healed uneventfully in all patients, except one, who had partial loss of skin graft. Conclusion. The radial forearm free flap is, due to multiple advantages, an acceptable method for reconstructions after resection of intraoral malignancies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41006

  14. Reversed Palmaris Longus Muscle Causing Volar Forearm Pain and Ulnar Nerve Paresthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhashyam, Abhiram R; Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    A case of volar forearm pain associated with ulnar nerve paresthesia caused by a reversed palmaris longus muscle is described. The patient, an otherwise healthy 46-year-old male laborer, presented after a previous unsuccessful forearm fasciotomy for complaints of exercise exacerbated pain affecting the volar forearm associated with paresthesia in the ulnar nerve distribution. A second decompressive fasciotomy was performed revealing an anomalous "reversed" palmaris longus, with the muscle belly located distally. Resection of the anomalous muscle was performed with full relief of pain and sensory symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Congenital Deficiency of Distal Ulna and Dislocation of the Radial Head Treated by Single Bone Forearm Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paragjyoti Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital deficiency of part of distal ulna affecting the distal radio-ulnar joint is a rare disorder. It is even rarer to find the association of proximal radio-ulnar joint dislocation along with distal ulnar deficiency. This type of congenital forearm anomaly is difficult to treat. Conversion to a single bone forearm in the expense of pronation-supination movement is a viable option. By doing so the elbow and wrist can be stabilized; however movement is possible in only one plane. We are describing here a girl of 8 years having proximal radio-ulnar joint dislocation along with deficiency of distal ulna treated by converting into a single bone forearm.

  16. New-born born with patent vitellointestinal duct with prolapsed (intussusceptions of proximal and distal ileal loop: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Akil Fazal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Failure of obliteration of vitellointestinal duct (VID can present with a wide variety of congenital intestinal malformations. Patient can present with the anomaly itself or due to complications secondary to the anomaly like intestinal obstruction due to volvulus, intussusception or adhesions. Prolapsed ilial loops through a patent VID is a rare presentation of the above. To date only fourteen cases of this presentation have been reported in the English medical literature. We are reporting a case of the same in a new-born presenting with it from the time of birth, which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported before and therefore this the youngest reported case of its nature in the current English medical literature.

  17. Subcutaneous Injection of Oxyfluorfen Herbicide to the Forearm: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Couceiro, José; Garcia-Portal, Gonzalo; Garcia, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Background  Oxyfluorfen, a commercially available pesticide, commonly used for weed control in crop production, has been studied in terms of its toxicity, its carcinogenic properties, and its teratogenicity. We have found no reports, however, of the effects produced by an oxyfluorfen injection to the upper limb. Methods  We present the case of a 40 years old psychiatric patient, who reportedly injected her forearm accidentally while fumigating her garden. She was treated with irrigation and o...

  18. Open segmental fracture of both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow with extruded middle segment radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded middle segment of radius with open segmental fracture both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow is a rare injury. A 12-year-old child presented to us within 4 hours following fall from tree. The child′s mother was carrying a 12-cm-long extruded soiled segment of radius. The extruded bone was thoroughly washed. The medullary cavity was properly syringed with antiseptic solution. The bone was autoclaved and put in the muscle plane of the distal forearm after debridement of the wound. After 5 days, a 2.5-mm K-wire was introduced by retrograde method into the proximal radius by passing through the extruded segment. Another 2.5-mm K-wire was passed in ulna. The limb was evaluated clinicoradiologically every 2 weeks. The wound was healed by primary intention. At 4 months, the reposed bone appeared less dense radiologically and K-wire seemed to be out of the bone. In the subsequent months, the roentgenograms show remodeling of the extruded fragment. After 20 weeks, the K-wires were removed (first ulnar and then radial. Complete union was achieved with full range of movement except loss of few degrees of extension of elbow and thumb. This case is reported to show a good outcome following successful incorporation of an extruded segment of radius in an open fracture.

  19. Epidemiology of distal forearm fractures in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthus, C M; Frihagen, F; Meyer, H E; Nordsletten, L; Melhuus, K; Falch, J A

    2008-06-01

    The population of Oslo has the highest incidence of hip fracture reported. The present study shows that the overall incidence of distal forearm fractures in Oslo is higher than in other countries and has not changed significantly when comparing the incidence of 1998/99 with 1979. The population of Oslo has the highest incidence of hip fracture reported. The present study reports the incidence of distal forearm fracture in Oslo and the fracture rates of immigrants. Patients aged > or = 20 years resident in Oslo sustaining a distal forearm fracture in a one-year period in 1998/99 were identified using electronic diagnosis registers, patient protocols, and/or X-ray registers of the clinics in Oslo. Medical records were obtained and the diagnosis verified. The age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and compared with those for 1979. Data on immigrant category and country of origin of the patients were obtained. The age-adjusted fracture rates per 10,000 for the age group > or = 50 years were 109.8 and 25.4 in 1998/99 compared with 108.3 and 23.5 in 1979 for women and men, respectively (n.s.). The relative risk of fracture in Asians was 0.72 (95% CI 0.53-1.00) compared with ethnic Norwegians. The overall incidence of distal forearm fractures in Oslo is higher than in other countries and has not changed significantly when comparing the incidence of 1998/99 with 1979. Furthermore, the present data suggest that Asian immigrants in Oslo have a slightly lower fracture risk than ethnic Norwegians.

  20. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  1. Ulnar nerve paralysis after forearm bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paralysis or nerve injury associated with fractures of forearm bones fracture is rare and is more common in exposed fractures with large soft-tissue injuries. Ulnar nerve paralysis is a rare condition associated with closed fractures of the forearm. In most cases, the cause of paralysis is nerve contusion, which evolves with neuropraxia. However, nerve lacerations and entrapment at the fracture site always need to be borne in mind. This becomes more important when neuropraxia appears or worsens after reduction of a closed fracture of the forearm has been completed. The importance of diagnosing this injury and differentiating its features lies in the fact that, depending on the type of lesion, different types of management will be chosen.

  2. Etiology and mechanisms of ulnar and median forearm nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. Most often injuries of brachial plexus and its branches disable the injured from using their arms and/or hands. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and mechanisms of median and ulnar forearm nerves injuries. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 99 patients surgically treated in the Clinic of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2010. All data are obtained from the patients' histories. Results. The majority of the injured patients were male, 81 (81.8%, while only 18 (18.2% were females, both mainly with nerve injuries of the distal forearm - 75 (75.6%. Two injury mechanisms were present, transection in 85 patients and traction and contusion in 14 of the patients. The most frequent etiological factor of nerve injuries was cutting, in 61 of the patients. Nerve injuries are often associated with other injuries. In the studied patients there were 22 vascular injuries, 33 muscle and tendon injuries and 20 bone fractures. Conclusion. The majority of those patients with peripheral nerve injuries are represented in the working age population, which is a major socioeconomic problem. In our study 66 out of 99 patients were between 17 and 40 years old, in the most productive age. The fact that the majority of patients had nerve injuries of the distal forearm and that they are operated within the first 6 months after injury, promises them good functional prognosis.

  3. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  4. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities’ compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy.

  5. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekner, D.D.; Roeling, TAP; van Cann, EM

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were

  6. Comparative Anatomical Analyses of the Forearm Muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000): Manipulatory Behavior and Tool Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Maior, Rafael Souto; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use) between Cebus genus and apes. PMID:21789230

  7. Tracking blood vessels in human forearms using visual servoing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Hansen, Morten

    compensation. By using images taken with near-infrared light to locate the blood vessels in a human forearm and using the same images to detects movements of the arm, this paper shows that it is possible make a robot arm, potentially equipped with a needle for drawing the blood, compensate for the movements......Drawing an average of more than 2 blood sample per Danish citizen per year increases the demand for an automatic blood sampling method. This paper presents a proof of concept to one of the main challenges in making a fully automated blood sampling procedure, namely: the patient movement...

  8. Preoperative assessment of the cancellous bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Roth, Tobias; Gschwentner, Martin; Suckert, Armin; Blauth, Michael; Hengg, Clemens; Kralinger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus show an increasing incidence. Osteoporosis not only influences the fracture risk after low-energy trauma, but also affects the mechanical stability of internal fixation. Preoperative assessment of the local bone quality may be useful in the surgical treatment of patients sustaining these injuries. The aim of the present study was to present a method for the preoperative assessment of the local cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus using CT data. In the first part of the study, CT scans of 30 patients with unilateral fractures of the proximal humerus after low-energy trauma were used. The local BMD was assessed on the contralateral uninjured side. All 30 patients additionally underwent dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm of the side of the uninjured proximal humerus within 6 weeks after trauma. Three independent trauma surgeons performed measurements on the uninjured proximal humerus twice with a time interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the method. In the second part of the study, the local BMD of 507 patients with either proximal humerus fractures or chronic shoulder instability was assessed by a single trauma surgeon. In both parts, the average HU values in standardized ROIs of the humeral head were automatically calculated after correcting for HU values below the water equivalent. A linear calibration equation was computed for the calculation from HU to BMD using a calibration device (EFP). The intra- and interobserver reliability was high (ICC > 0.95). Correlation coefficients between the local BMD of the proximal humerus and other anatomical sites were between 0.35 (lumbar spine) and 0.64 (forearm). We found a high correlation between the local BMD and age. The BMD in the fracture group was significantly lower than in the instability group. These patients were significantly older and more

  9. Preoperative assessment of the cancellous bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Roth, Tobias; Gschwentner, Martin; Suckert, Armin; Blauth, Michael; Hengg, Clemens; Kralinger, Franz [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus show an increasing incidence. Osteoporosis not only influences the fracture risk after low-energy trauma, but also affects the mechanical stability of internal fixation. Preoperative assessment of the local bone quality may be useful in the surgical treatment of patients sustaining these injuries. The aim of the present study was to present a method for the preoperative assessment of the local cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus using CT data. In the first part of the study, CT scans of 30 patients with unilateral fractures of the proximal humerus after low-energy trauma were used. The local BMD was assessed on the contralateral uninjured side. All 30 patients additionally underwent dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm of the side of the uninjured proximal humerus within 6 weeks after trauma. Three independent trauma surgeons performed measurements on the uninjured proximal humerus twice with a time interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the method. In the second part of the study, the local BMD of 507 patients with either proximal humerus fractures or chronic shoulder instability was assessed by a single trauma surgeon. In both parts, the average HU values in standardized ROIs of the humeral head were automatically calculated after correcting for HU values below the water equivalent. A linear calibration equation was computed for the calculation from HU to BMD using a calibration device (EFP). The intra- and interobserver reliability was high (ICC > 0.95). Correlation coefficients between the local BMD of the proximal humerus and other anatomical sites were between 0.35 (lumbar spine) and 0.64 (forearm). We found a high correlation between the local BMD and age. The BMD in the fracture group was significantly lower than in the instability group. These patients were significantly older and more

  10. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...

  11. Description of the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of proximal limb and pelvic fractures in Hong Kong racehorses during 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, L; Hurley, M J; Riggs, C M; Rosanowski, S M

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have described incidences of proximal limb and pelvic fracture (PLPF) in Thoroughbred racehorses occurring on race day and during training. Information regarding clinical presentations and future racing careers in cases of PLPF is limited. To describe the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of PLPF sustained by horses in racing and training at the Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC) between 2003 and 2014. Retrospective cohort study. Horses with PLPF confirmed by nuclear scintigraphy, ultrasonography, radiography or post-mortem examination were identified using veterinary clinical records. Training and racing data for case horses were described. Incidences of fractures were estimated per 1000 horses in training and per 1000 race starts for fractures sustained during racing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population. A total of 129 instances of PLPF were sustained by 108 racehorses. The most commonly fractured bone was the humerus (49.6%), followed by the tibia (29.4%). Nine horses sustained fatal fractures, eight of which occurred during racing. The incidence of fracture during racing was 0.30 per 1000 starts. Two-thirds of fractures occurred during training. The majority of horses presented with grade 3 lameness (n = 42 of 119 injury events, 35.3%). All horses presenting with grade 5 lameness sustained fatal injuries. Following noncatastrophic injury, all horses underwent box rest and 81 horses subsequently resumed racing; 45 of these won a race. Horses were retired at a median of 25 months (interquartile range: 15-36 months) after injury. Protocols for resting non-training racehorses at the HKJC and for recording rehabilitation regimens post-injury prevented the calculation of horse days at risk. The incidence of PLPF at the HKJC is low. Non-fatal PLPF is not necessarily a career-ending injury and many horses resume racing successfully following conservative treatment. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Atypical presentation of GNE myopathy with asymmetric hand weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, John Karl L.; Shrader, Joseph A.; Joe, Galen O.; McClean, Jeffrey C.; Williams, Kayla; Evers, Robert; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Ciccone, Carla; Mankodi, Ami; Huizing, Marjan; McKew, John C.; Bluemke, David A.; Gahl, William A.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    GNE myopathy is a rare autosomal recessive muscle disease caused by mutations in GNE, the gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis. GNE myopathy usually manifests in early adulthood with distal myopathy that progresses slowly and symmetrically, first involving distal muscles of the lower extremities, followed by proximal muscles with relative sparing of the quadriceps. Upper extremities are typically affected later in the disease. We report a patient with GNE myopathy who presented with asymmetric hand weakness. He had considerably decreased left grip strength, atrophy of the left anterior forearm and fibro-fatty tissue replacement of left forearm flexor muscles on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was an endoscopist and thus the asymmetric hand involvement may be associated with left hand overuse in daily repetitive pinching and gripping movements, highlighting the possible impact of environmental factors on the progression of genetic muscle conditions. PMID:25182749

  13. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  14. Motor branches of the ulnar nerve to the forearm: an anatomical study and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Renata; Leclercq, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Precise knowledge of motor nerve branches is critical to plan selective neurectomies for the treatment of spastic limbs. Our objective is to describe the muscular branching pattern of the ulnar nerve in the forearm and suggest an ideal surgical approach for selective neurectomy of the flexor carpi ulnaris. The ulnar nerve was dissected under loop magnification in 20 upper limbs of fresh frozen cadavers and its branches to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) and to the flexor digitorum profundus muscle (FDP) were quantified. We measured their diameter, length and distance between their origin and the medial epicondyle. The point where the ulnar artery joined the nerve was observed. The position in which the ulnar nerve gave off each branch was noted (ulnar, posterior or radial) and the Martin-Gruber connection, when present, had its origin observed and its diameter measured. The ulnar nerve gave off two to five muscular branches, among which, one to four to the FCU and one or two to the FDP. In all cases, the first branch was to the FCU. It arose on average 1.4 cm distal to the epicondyle, but in four specimens it arose above or at the level of the medial epicondyle (2.0 cm above in one case, 1.5 cm above in two cases, and at the level of the medial epicondyle in one). The first branch to the FDP arose on average 5.0 cm distal to the medial epicondyle. All the branches to FDP but one arose from the radial aspect of the ulnar nerve. A Martin-Gruber connection was present in nine cases. All motor branches arose in the proximal half of the forearm and the ulnar nerve did not give off branches distal to the point where it was joined by the ulnar artery. The number of motor branches of the ulnar nerve to the FCU varies from 2 to 4. An ideal approach for selective neurectomy of the FCU should start 4 cm above the medial epicondyle, and extend distally to 50% of the length of the forearm or just to the point where the ulnar artery joins the nerve.

  15. Radial forearm free flap morbidity: A rare case of a normal preoperative arteriogram and acute intraoperative hand ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Terrence W; Hanasono, Matthew M; Skoracki, Roman J

    2011-01-01

    The radial forearm free flap is ideal for reconstructive microsurgery due to its thin, pliable fasciocutaneous tissue, reliable anatomy and ease and simplicity of flap elevation. However, one of the major complications is hand ischemia due to sacrifice of the radial artery, although it is a rare occurrence. A case involving a 73-year-old man who developed intraoperative hand ischemia after elevation of a radial forearm free flap is presented.

  16. [Walking with canes and forearm-crutches (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, G; Kölbel, R; Rauschenbach, N; Rohlmann, A

    1978-02-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently prescribed but cannot be controlled adequately. In a previous paper the change of forces at the hip joint as effected by a one sided cane was determined by instrumentation of the cane and a mechanical analysis of gait on a walkway. In the present study we looked at the conditions for control of partial weightbearing when two forearm crutches are used. Instrumented crutches and a forceplate were used. In walking with two forearm crutches the total of the ground reaction forces and the force pattern differ from those in free walking. The total of two crutch forces plus the force at the leg with partial weightbearing exceeds that caused by body weight alone. This is due to mass accelerations in a changed gait pattern. When the maximal leg force is reduced from 100% body weight to zero, the additional dynamic forces exceed those caused by body weight alone by 4%-19%. Only 2% of the additional dynamic forces act on the controlateral crutch while the rest is transmitted through the ipsilateral crutch. The crutch force pattern on the ipsilateral side depends more on individual gait characteristics than does that on the controlateral side. Load reduction is more pronounced in the late stages of the stand phase than in the early ones.

  17. Microwave Imaging of Human Forearms: Pilot Study and Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Gilmore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI. T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer’s forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial “blind” imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm’s peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure.

  18. Anatomical and biomechanical study on the interosseous membrane of the cadaveric forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Xian-hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the anatomical and biomechanical features of the interosseous membrane (IOM of the cadaveric forearm. Methods: Ten radius-IOM-ulna structures were har- vested from fresh-frozen cadavers to measure the length, width and thickness of the tendinous portion of IOM. Then, the tendinous portion was isolated along with the ulnar and radial ends to which the tendon attached after measurement. The proximal portion of the radius and the distal portion of the ulna were embedded and fixed in the dental base acrylic resin powder. The embedded specimen was clamped and fixed by the MTS 858 test machine using a 10 000 N load cell for the entire tensile test. IOM was stretched at a speed of 50 mm/min until it was ruptured. The load-displacement curve was depicted with a computer and the maximum load and stiffness were recorded at the same time. Results: The IOM of the forearm was composed of three portions: central tendinous tissue, membranous tis- sue and dorsal affiliated oblique cord. IOM was stretched at a neutral position, and flexed at pronation and supination positions. The tendinous portion of IOM was lacerated in 6 specimens when the point of the maximum load reached to 1 021.50 N± 250.13 N, the stiffness to 138.24 N/m±24.29 N/m, and the length of stretch to 9.77 mm±1.77 mm. Fracture occurred at the fixed end of the ulna before laceration of the tendinous portion in 4 specimens when the maximum load was 744.40 N±109.85 N, the stiffness was 151.17 N/m±30.68 N/m, and the length of the stretch was 6.51 mm±0.51 mm. Conclusions: The IOM of the forearm is a structure having ligamentous characteristics between the radius and the ulna. It is very important for maintenance of the longitu- dinal stability of the forearm. The anatomical and biome- chanical data can be used as an objective criterion for evalu- ating the reconstructive method of IOM of the forearm. Key words: Forearm; Anatomy; Biomechanics

  19. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: A report on 5 limbs in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Suzue, Naoto; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Radioulnar length discrepancy causes pain and decreases function of the wrist, forearm, and elbow. Limb lengthening, which has been used in the treatment of various deformities of the forearm, is necessary to restore balance between the ulna and radius. We treated 5 limbs in 3 patients (2 boys, 1 girl; mean age 9.3 years old) with radioulnar length discrepancy by distraction osteogenesis of either the ulna or radius using external fixators. We dissected the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius in 3 limbs in 2 cases and did not do so in 2 limbs of 1 case. These cases include 2 cases with hereditary multiple exostoses, and 1 case with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. The results were investigated and evaluated in this study, using appropriate clinical and radiographic parameters, noting the state of the interosseous membrane, which has an important role in forearm stability. The mean fixation period was 113 days. The mean distraction distance was 22.8 mm. The mean follow-up period was 637.7 days. The mean ulnar shortening and radial articular angle respectively improved from 7.4 mm and 30.2° preoperatively to -0.1 mm and 34.8° postoperatively. Balance between the ulna and radius was restored, and the results showed significant improvements in range of motion of the joints. However, 2 unintended radial head subluxations occurred in 2 limbs without dissection of the interosseous membrane. In addition, a keloid remained in 1 limb due to pin site infection. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was useful in our cases. It is important to recognize the function of the interosseous membrane when lengthening is performed by osteotomy of the proximal ulna by gradual distraction with an external fixator.

  20. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of cooling forearm/hand and gender on estimation of handgrip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chan; Shih, Yuh-Chuan; Tsai, Yue-Jin; Chi, Chia-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Handgrip strength is essential in manual operations and activities of daily life, but the influence of forearm/hand skin temperature on estimation of handgrip strength is not well documented. Therefore, the present study intended to investigate the effect of local cooling of the forearm/hand on estimation of handgrip strength at various target force levels (TFLs, in percentage of MVC) for both genders. A cold pressor test was used to lower and maintain the hand skin temperature at 14°C for comparison with the uncooled condition. A total of 10 male and 10 female participants were recruited. The results indicated that females had greater absolute estimation deviations. In addition, both genders had greater absolute deviations in the middle range of TFLs. Cooling caused an underestimation of grip strength. Furthermore, a power function is recommended for establishing the relationship between actual and estimated handgrip force. Statement of relevance: Manipulation with grip strength is essential in daily life and the workplace, so it is important to understand the influence of lowering the forearm/hand skin temperature on grip-strength estimation. Females and the middle range of TFL had greater deviations. Cooling the forearm/hand tended to cause underestimation, and a power function is recommended for establishing the relationship between actual and estimated handgrip force. Practitioner Summary: It is important to understand the effect of lowering the forearm/hand skin temperature on grip-strength estimation. A cold pressor was used to cool the hand. The cooling caused underestimation, and a power function is recommended for establishing the relationship between actual and estimated handgrip force. Manipulation with grip strength is essential in daily life and the workplace, so it is important to understand the influence of lowering the forearm/hand skin temperature on grip-strength estimation. Females and the middle range of TFL had greater deviations. Cooling the

  2. Bone mineral content of the forearm in healthy Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barentsen, R.; Raymakers, J.A.; Landman, J.O.; Duursma, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Single energy photon absorptiometry is a reliable technique for assessing the bone mineral content (BMC) of cortical bone in the forearm. It can also be used for BMC measurement in the ultradistal part of the forearm, where there is a considerable proportion of trabecular bone. The results of a BMC

  3. Teaching Strategies for the Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebolt, Kevin; Zhang, Peng; Brett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article shares teaching strategies for the forearm pass in the game of volleyball and identifies how they will help students improve their performance and development of forearm passing skills. The article also provides an assessment rubric to facilitate student understanding of the skill.

  4. Flexor digitorum profundus tendon anatomy in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoman Dogan

    2012-04-01

    Methods: We used 11 forearms belonging to cadavers and fixed with formaldehyde. The forearms numbered 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11 were the left and right arms of the same cadavers. Those numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 belonged to different cadavers. Dissections were made by using the atraumatic surgical technique. The tendons were studied to identify the structure and number of the fibers forming them. Results: The presence of a large common tendon was found in 10 of the 11 forearms. In 4 of these, the common tendon included the tendons of all four fingers. While the common tendon included 3 fingers in four forearms, it only included tendons belonging to 2 fingers in two forearms. It was not possible in one forearm to separate the common tendon into its fibers. In another forearm, tendons belonging to each digit were separate and independent starting at the muscle-tendon junction to the attachment points. Conclusion: The majority of the cadaver forearms used in the study displayed a single large FDP tendon in the zone between the muscle-tendon joint to the carpal tunnel entry prior to being distributed into each index. This anatomical feature should be considered in choosing materials and surgical technique for Zone V FDP tendon injuries, as well as in planning the rehabilitation process. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(1.000: 25-29

  5. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability...

  6. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  7. Changes in forearm muscle temperature alter renal vascular responses to isometric handgrip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of heating and cooling the forearm muscles on renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip (IHG). It was hypothesized that heating and cooling the forearm would augment and attenuate, respectively, renal vascular responses to IHG. Renal vascular responses to IHG were studied during forearm heating at 39 degrees C (n = 15, 26 +/- 1 yr) and cooling at 26 degrees C (n = 12, 26 +/- 1 yr). For a control trial, subjects performed the experimental protocol while the forearm was normothermic (approximately 34 degrees C). Muscle temperature (measured by intramuscular probe) was controlled by changing the temperature of water cycling through a water-perfused sleeve. The experimental protocol was as follows: 3 min at baseline, 1 min of ischemia, ischemic IHG to fatigue, and 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. At rest, renal artery blood velocity (RBV; Doppler ultrasound) and renal vascular conductance (RVC = RBV/mean arterial blood pressure) were not different between normothermia and the two thermal conditions. During ischemic IHG, there were greater decreases in RBV and RVC in the heating trial. However, RBV and RVC were similar during postexercise muscle ischemia during heating and normothermia. RVC decreased less during cooling than in normothermia while the subjects performed the ischemic IHG protocol. During postexercise muscle ischemia, RVC was greater during cooling than in normothermia. These results indicate that heating augments mechanoreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction whereas cooling blunts metaboreceptor-mediated renal vasoconstriction.

  8. Elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries among sport rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, L M; Noakes, T D

    1996-07-01

    Sport rock climbing with its repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of a rock face or wall, often in steep overhanging positions, is associated with a unique distribution and form of upper limb injuries. In this article, we review the biomechanical aspects of sport rock climbing and the types of injuries commonly encountered in the forearm, wrist, and hand regions of elite sport rock climbers. Because elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries predominate, representing 62% of the total injuries encountered, these anatomical areas have been selected for review. The predominant source of data are the published work of Bollen et al. The remaining sources were obtained through electronic search of the Medline and Current Contents Databases (last searched May 1995). German and French articles were included in the search criteria. Only studies dealing with acute soft tissue and overuse injuries amongst sport rock climbers were selected. Data were extracted directly from the sourced articles. The following injuries have been described in detail with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention amongst sport rock climbers: medial epicondylitis, brachialis tendonitis, biceps brachii tendonitis, ulnar collateral ligament sprain of the elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, digital flexor tendon pulley sheath tears, interphalangeal joint effusions, fixed flexion deformities of the interphalangeal joints, and collateral ligament tears of the interphalangeal joints. Many of the injuries are specific to the handhold types used by the rock climber. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these unique injuries will be facilitated by a wider understanding of the biomechanical aspects of rock climbing and an awareness of the patterns and incidence of injuries in this sport.

  9. Forearm Range of Motion in Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt A White

    Full Text Available The hypertrophied manual claws and modified manus of megaraptoran theropods represent an unusual morphological adaptation among carnivorous dinosaurs. The skeleton of Australovenator wintonensis from the Cenomanian of Australia is among the most complete of any megaraptorid. It presents the opportunity to examine the range of motion of its forearm and the function of its highly modified manus. This provides the basis for behavioural inferences, and comparison with other Gondwanan theropod groups. Digital models created from computed tomography scans of the holotype reveal a humerus range of motion that is much greater than Allosaurus, Acrocanthosaurus, Tyrannosaurus but similar to that of the dromaeosaurid Bambiraptor. During flexion, the radius was forced distally by the radial condyle of the humerus. This movement is here suggested as a mechanism that forced a medial movement of the wrist. The antebrachium possessed a range of motion that was close to dromaeosaurids; however, the unguals were capable of hyper-extension, in particular manual phalanx I-2, which is a primitive range of motion characteristic seen in allosaurids and Dilophosaurus. During flexion, digits I and II slightly converge and diverge when extended which is accentuated by hyperextension of the digits in particular the unguals. We envision that prey was dispatched by its hands and feet with manual phalanx I-2 playing a dominant role. The range of motion analysis neither confirms nor refutes current phylogenetic hypotheses with regards to the placement of Megaraptoridae; however, we note Australovenator possessed, not only a similar forearm range of motion to some maniraptorans and basal coelurosaurs, but also similarities with Tetanurans (Allosauroids and Dilophosaurus.

  10. The anatomy of forearm free flap phalloplasty for transgender surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Dennis, M; Holland, J; Terrell, M; Loukas, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    Transgender surgeries are becoming more frequent and visual interpretation of anatomy is essential for both surgeons and patients. Since the forearm free flap phalloplasty was introduced in 1984, it has been known to provide reliable cosmetic and functional results for transitioning men compared with phalloplasty by different flaps. Surgical text descriptions were enhanced by the creation of new anatomic illustrations. The forearm free flap consists of the anterior forearm skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia containing the radial artery as the perforator and its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves are demonstrated in relation to the surgically derived flap. Song's forearm free flap phalloplasty requires two surgical stages with a three-month interval between the stages: prelamination of a neourethra and construction of a neophallus. The neophallus created by forearm flap phalloplasty is reported to achieve acceptable aesthetical and psychological satisfaction, appropriate size and shape, and satisfying sexual intercourse. Despite increasing experiences in gender confirming surgery with modifications made by many authors, urethral complications including fistula and/or stricture formation are the leading causes of reoperation. The poor esthetic outcome of the forearm donor site and a decrease in rigidity of the neophallus are the main limitations. Illustrations of anatomy help inform surgical choice and understanding of risks and benefits by patients. The anatomy of the free forearm flap phalloplasty supports creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Clin. Anat. 31:145-151, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Interosseous Ligament and Transverse Forearm Stability: A Biomechanical Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Christina J; Darvish, Kurosh; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M

    2017-02-01

    The interosseous ligament (IOL) is known to be an important longitudinal stabilizer of the forearm. We hypothesize that it may also contribute to transverse stability, with pronosupination tensioning of the radius relative to the ulna. Therefore, when injured, we predict the interosseous space should widen in the transverse plane, enough to be appreciable on plain radiographs. A measurable difference in interosseous space, comparing an injured with an uninjured forearm, can potentially be of diagnostic and clinical value. Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms (from 5 individuals) were radiographed in 6 different positions of forearm supination, first in an uninjured state and then with the IOL sectioned, both partially (central band only) and completely. The transverse interosseous distance was measured on radiographs using edge detection software and compared using analysis of variance and contrast analysis. The maximum range of pronosupination was also compared before and after injury, using a paired t test. Average maximum supination increased from 84° to 106°, and pronation from 69° to 84°, after the IOL was sectioned completely. Sectioning of the IOL led to a statistically significant increase in the interosseous distance, a minimum of 2 mm, in all but one forearm position. The IOL of the forearm plays an important role in providing transverse stability to the radius and ulna. When the IOL is sectioned, the forearm exhibits increased pronosupination range of motion. Radiographs of bilateral forearms taken in identical rotational position can reliably differentiate between an intact and torn IOL in cadavers. The IOL's stabilizing role during forearm rotation suggests a novel strategy for diagnosing forearm IOL injury using comparative radiographic measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [True/Flex intramedullary nailing for forearm shaft fractures. Long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlica, J; Počepcov, I; Kočí, J; Frank, M; Holeček, T; Dědek, T

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of technical experience and the clinical and functional results of intramedullary fixation of forearm shaft fractures. Between January 1994 and December 2009, a total of 96 patients with 144 radial and/or ulnar fractures (ulna, 33; radius,15; both, 48) were treated by nailing (True/Flex®). According to the AO classification there were 22-A, 22-B and 22-C type fractures in 39 (41%), 44 (46%) and 13 (13%).cases, respectively. Of these, 82 (85%) were closed (types: 0, 48; I, 33; II, 1) and 14 (15%) were open (types: I, 13; II, 1; III, 0) fractures. Seventy-eight patients (81%) were followed up and their functional outcomes were evaluated according to the criteria of Anderson et al. The average interval between the operation and final follow-up was 28 months (15 to 96 months) The average time to surgery was 2.2 days (0 to 25 days). Early complications were recorded in 4% of the patients (1x bursitis olecrani; 1x end cup replacement; 1x bending of nails) and late complications in 15% (5x non-union; 2x delay union; 4x bursitis olecrani; 1x ruptured tendon). Bone healing was achieved in 95% of the cases and took on average 16 weeks (7 to 34 weeks). No infection, refracture or synostosis occurred. Primary loss of reduction was recorded in four cases due to distraction in one, bent nails in two and a wrong size of the implant in one; secondary loss of reduction was found in three cases, with two cases of radius shortening and one 10°malrotation. No primary malrotation was recorded, but secondary loss of alignment was seen in the distal part of the radius and the proximal part of the ulna. Functional results according to the Anderson criteria were excellent and good in 87% of the cases. Intramedullary mailing provides good stability to mid- and distal-third shaft fractures of the ulna and mid- and proximalthird shaft fractures of the radius, particularly in AO type A and type B fractures. The technical aspects of the method are analysed in detail in this paper

  13. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  14. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning enhances ergometer cycling and swimming performance. We evaluated whether ischemic preconditioning of one forearm (four times for 5 min) also affects static breath hold and underwater swimming, whereas the effect of similar preconditioning on ergometer rowing...... preconditioning reduced the forearm oxygen saturation from 65% ± 7% to 19% ± 7% (mean ± SD; P right thigh.......05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while the effect of ischemic preconditioning (of one forearm) on ergometer rowing was minimal, probably because of reduced muscle oxygenation during the warm-up, ischemic preconditioning does enhance both static and dynamic apnea, supporting that muscle ischemia is an important...

  15. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  16. Testing Tactile Masking between the Forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-10

    Masking, in which one stimulus affects the detection of another, is a classic technique that has been used in visual, auditory, and tactile research, usually using stimuli that are close together to reveal local interactions. Masking effects have also been demonstrated in which a tactile stimulus alters the perception of a touch at a distant location. Such effects can provide insight into how components of the body's representations in the brain may be linked. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at corresponding contralateral locations. To explore the matching of corresponding points across the body, we can measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on contralateral masking. Careful controls are required to rule out direct effects of the remote stimulus, for example by mechanical transmission, and also attention effects in which thresholds may be altered by the participant's attention being drawn away from the stimulus of interest. The use of this technique is beneficial as a behavioural measure for exploring which parts of the body are functionally connected and whether the two sides of the body interact in a somatotopic representation. This manuscript describes a behavioural protocol that can be used for studying contralateral tactile masking.

  17. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  18. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT) and ante......Diminution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and forearm was studied cross-sectionally in 363 women who were 6 months to 10 years postmenopausal. BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-2000) in the lumbar spine, in both the supine lateral (LAT......) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...

  19. Reconstruction of malunited diaphyseal fractures of the forearm

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2014-01-01

    The forearm is a complex anatomical and functional unit with unique osseous, soft tissue and articular relationships. Disruption of these important relations can have a significant impact, leading to pain, instability of the radio-ulnar articulation and reduced range of motion. The gold standard for treating forearm fractures in adults remains anatomic reduction, stable plate fixation and preservation of the surrounding blood supply. Failure to achieve these goals may lead to malunion, requir...

  20. Does fluoroscopy improve outcomes in paediatric forearm fracture reduction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menachem, S.; Sharfman, Z.T.; Perets, I.; Arami, A.; Eyal, G.; Drexler, M.; Chechik, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the radiographic results of paediatric forearm fracture reduced with and without fluoroscopic enhancement to investigate whether fractures reduced under fluoroscopic guidance would have smaller residual deformities and lower rates of re-reduction and surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted comparing paediatric patients with acute forearm fracture in two trauma centres. Demographics and radiographic data from paediatric forearm fractures treated in Trauma Centre A with the aid of a C-arm fluoroscopy were compared to those treated without fluoroscopy in Trauma Centre B. Re-reduction, late displacement, post-reduction deformity, and need for surgical intervention were compared between the two groups. Results: The cohort included 229 children (175 boys and 54 girls, mean age 9.41±3.2 years, range 1–16 years) with unilateral forearm fractures (83 manipulated with fluoroscopy and 146 without). Thirty-four (15%) children underwent re-reduction procedures in the emergency department. Fifty-three (23%) children had secondary displacement in the cast, of which 18 were operated on, 20 were re-manipulated, and the remaining 15 were kept in the cast with an acceptable deformity. Twenty-nine additional children underwent operation for reasons other than secondary displacement. There were no significant differences in re-reduction and surgery rates or in post-reduction deformities between the two groups. Conclusion: The use of fluoroscopy during reduction of forearm fractures in the paediatric population apparently does not have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Reductions performed without fluoroscopy were comparably accurate in correcting deformities in both coronal and sagittal planes. - Highlights: • Compared outcomes of pediatric forearm fracture reduction with and without fluoroscopy. • The use of fluoroscopy during reduction of forearm fractures in the pediatric population apparently does not have a

  1. The transverse force experienced by the radial head during axial loading of the forearm: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbay, Jorge L; Mijares, Michael R; Berriz, Cecilia G

    2016-01-01

    When designing a radial head replacement, the magnitude and direction of forces applied across the proximal radio-ulnar joint (PRUJ) and the radiocapitellar joint must be included. These designs often focus on axial loads transmitted to the radial head by the capitellum; however, the radial head also bears a significant transverse force at the PRUJ. Load transmission by the central band of the interosseous ligament induces a force component in a lateral direction perpendicular to the axis of the limb, which is borne by the articular surfaces of the proximal and distal radio-ulnar joints. The objective of this study is to establish the relationship between distally applied axial forces and proximal transverse reaction forces. Five cadaveric, human forearms with intact interosseous membranes were used to measure the magnitude of transversely-directed forces experienced by the radial head during axial loading of the forearm at the lunate fossa. A Mark-10 test stand applied a gradual and continuous axial load on the articular surface of the distal radius. A Mark-10 force gauge measured the resultant transverse force experienced by the radial head in the proximal radioulnar joint. Classical mechanics and static force analysis were applied in order to predict lateral force values that would occur when the interosseous ligament is treated as the major load transmitter between the radius and ulna. Acquired data show that the radial head bears a force in the transverse direction that averages 18% (SD 3.89%) in magnitude of the axial force applied at the wrist. This figure is in close accordance with the predicted value of 22% that was calculated by way of free-body plotting. Physiologic forearm loading results in a clinically significant transverse force component transmitted through the interosseous ligament complex. The existence of transverse forces in the human forearm may explain clinical problems seen after radial head resection and suggest that radial head implants

  2. Forearm Compartment Syndrome of a Newborn Associated with Extravasation of Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Altan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extravasation of contrast agents is a possible complication of imaging studies. Although extravasations typically cause minimal swelling or erythema, they can lead to compartment syndrome when the volume of extravasation is high. In this article, we will present an exceptional case where an insignificant amount of contrast agent extravasation led to a forearm compartment syndrome in a newborn, who was treated with an extended fasciotomy. We would like to emphasize the preventive techniques and treatment options of this iatrogenic complication in newborns. Close followup of the patient by the nurses, awareness of the parents and the personnel in the radiology department are the most important preventive measures in this extremity-threatening complication. Forearm compartment syndrome due to contrast agent extravasation may progress more rapidly in newborns even with smaller amounts of extravasation and prompt recognition of the pathology and immediate intervention are unevitable.

  3. Intermuscular aponeuroses between the flexor muscles of the forearm and their relationships with the ulnar nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Liu, Hong-Fu; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological characteristics of the intermuscular aponeurosis between the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS; IMAS), and that between the FCU and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP; IMAP), and their topographic relationships with the ulnar nerve. Fifty limbs of 38 adult cadavers were studied. The IMAS extended along the deep surface of the FCU adjoining the FDS, having the appearance of a ladder, giving off "steps" that decreased in width from superficial to deep around the middle of the forearm. Its proximal part divided into two bands connected by a thin membrane, and was attached to the medial epicondyle and the tubercle (the most medial prominent part of the coronoid process of the ulna), respectively. The IMAP extended deep between the FCU and FDP from the antebrachial fascia, and its distal end was located on the posterior border of the FCU. The IMAP became broader toward its proximal part, and its proximal end was attached anterior and posterior to the tubercle and the olecranon, respectively. The ulnar nerve passed posterior to the medial epicondyle and then medial to the tubercle, and was crossed by the deep border of the IMAS at 58.3 ± 14.1 mm below the medial epicondyle. The deep border of the IMAS and aberrant tendinous structure passing across the ulnar nerve, or the parts of the IMAS and IMAP passing posterior to the ulnar nerve are potential causes of ulnar nerve compression.

  4. Epithelioid Sarcoma of the Forearm Arising from Perineural Sheath of Median Nerve Mimicking Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Fujii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of epithelioid sarcoma in the forearm of a 33-year-old male presenting with symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome originating from the direct involvement of the median nerve. Due to the slow growing of the tumor, the patient noticed the presence of tumor mass in his forearm after several months from the initial onset of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8×4 cm mass involving the median nerve in the middle part of the forearm, and histological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma. Radical surgical resection was performed in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy. The function of the flexors were restored by the multiple tendon transfers (EIP→FDS; ECRL→FDP; BrR→FPL; EDM→opponens with superficial cutaneous branch of radial nerve transfer to the resected median nerve. The function of the affected hand showed excellent with the DASH disability/symptom score of 22.5, and both the grasp power and sensory of the median nerve area has recovered up to 50% of the normal side. The patient returned to his original vocation and alive with continuous disease free at 3.5-year follow-up since initial treatment.

  5. Long-term outcome of forearm flee-flap phalloplasty in the treatment of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leriche, Albert; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Morel-Journel, Nicolas; Bouillot, André; Dembele, Diala; Ruffion, Alain

    2008-05-01

    To assess the long-term outcome of forearm free-flap phalloplasty in transsexuals, as obtaining a satisfying neophallus in female-to-male transsexuals is a surgical challenge. We analysed retrospectively 56 transsexuals who had a phalloplasty using a radial forearm free-flap in our department from 1986 to 2002. The complication rate was assessed by regular examination. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by a questionnaire about cosmetic aspects, sexual life and overall satisfaction. The mean follow up was 110 months; 53 of the 56 patients (95%) currently have a neophallus, after a mean of six surgical procedures. Satisfaction was assessed in 53 patients using a specific questionnaire: 51 (93%) of the patients reported that the phalloplasty allowed them to accord their physical appearance with their feeling of masculinity. There were flap complications in 14 patients (25%); three (5%) flaps were lost, with one each due to early haematoma, cellulitis and late arterial thrombosis. The other 11 flap complications were all transitory, e.g. infection, haematomas and vascular thrombosis. There were prosthesis complications in 11 of 38 patients (29%). Moreover, seven of 19 patients (37%) who had a urethroplasty presented with complex strictures and fistulae that led to perineal urethrostomy. Our study shows that phalloplasty with a forearm free-flap leads to good results in term of flap survival and patient satisfaction. However, there was a high rate of complications. Patients must be clearly informed that the procedure can seldom be achieved in one stage.

  6. Supinator Extender (SUE): a pneumatically actuated robot for forearm/wrist rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, James; Spencer, Steven J; Klein, Julius; Buell, Meghan; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Bobrow, James

    2011-01-01

    The robot described in this paper, SUE (Supinator Extender), adds forearm/wrist rehabilitation functionality to the UCI BONES exoskeleton robot and to the ArmeoSpring rehabilitation device. SUE is a 2-DOF serial chain that can measure and assist forearm supination-pronation and wrist flexion-extension. The large power to weight ratio of pneumatic actuators allows SUE to achieve the forces needed for rehabilitation therapy while remaining lightweight enough to be carried by BONES and ArmeoSpring. Each degree of freedom has a range of 90 degrees, and a nominal torque of 2 ft-lbs. The cylinders are mounted away from the patient's body on the lateral aspect of the arm. This is to prevent the danger of a collision and maximize the workspace of the arm robot. The rotation axis used for supination-pronation is a small bearing just below the subject's wrist. The flexion-extension motion is actuated by a cantilevered pneumatic cylinder, which allows the palm of the hand to remain open. Data are presented that demonstrate the ability of SUE to measure and cancel forearm/wrist passive tone, thereby extending the active range of motion for people with stroke.

  7. 3D Measurement of Forearm and Upper Arm during Throwing Motion using Body Mounted Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Hideharu; Sagawa, Koichi; Kuroshima, Kouta; Tsukamoto, Toshiaki; Urita, Kazutaka; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    The aim of this study is to propose the measurement method of three-dimensional (3D) movement of forearm and upper arm during pitching motion of baseball using inertial sensors without serious consideration of sensor installation. Although high accuracy measurement of sports motion is achieved by using optical motion capture system at present, it has some disadvantages such as the calibration of cameras and limitation of measurement place. Whereas the proposed method for 3D measurement of pitching motion using body mounted sensors provides trajectory and orientation of upper arm by the integration of acceleration and angular velocity measured on upper limb. The trajectory of forearm is derived so that the elbow joint axis of forearm corresponds to that of upper arm. Spatial relation between upper limb and sensor system is obtained by performing predetermined movements of upper limb and utilizing angular velocity and gravitational acceleration. The integration error is modified so that the estimated final position, velocity and posture of upper limb agree with the actual ones. The experimental results of the measurement of pitching motion show that trajectories of shoulder, elbow and wrist estimated by the proposed method are highly correlated to those from the motion capture system within the estimation error of about 10 [%].

  8. The effect of a forearm/hand splint compared with an elbow band as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, M.D.; van der Schans, C.P.; de Greef, M.H.G.; Postema, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a new prefabricated Thamert forearm/hand splint with the effect of a simple elbow band as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis. Forty-three (43) patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to the elbow band group and the

  9. Does a distal forearm fracture lead to evaluation for osteoporosis? A retrospective cohort study in 147 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Bo; Greibe, Rasmus; Hyldstrup, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, a low-trauma distal forearm fracture is a risk factor for osteoporosis and future fracture, which indicates osteoporosis follow-up according to prevailing guidelines. We decided to determine how often women over 45 yr presenting with a low-trauma distal forearm fracture t......, and it emphasizes the need to decide on a local level how to provide osteoporosis follow-up for women with fragility fractures. Udgivelsesdato: 2005 Spring......In postmenopausal women, a low-trauma distal forearm fracture is a risk factor for osteoporosis and future fracture, which indicates osteoporosis follow-up according to prevailing guidelines. We decided to determine how often women over 45 yr presenting with a low-trauma distal forearm fracture...... to a Danish emergency department during a 1-yr period were followed up for osteoporosis. We performed a retrospective review of hospital records and we sent the women and their general practitioners (GPs) questionnaires regarding the follow-up undertaken in primary care. Finally, we invited the women...

  10. Treatment of Wound Healing Disorders of Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Sites Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Stefan; Doll, Christian; Voss, Jan Oliver; Hertel, Moritz; Preissner, Saskia; Raguse, Jan Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of wound healing disturbances of the radial forearm free flap donor site after reconstructive surgery is typically long and burdensome and often requires additional surgery. Cold atmospheric plasma is a promising approach to overcome these impairments. The aim of this proof of concept study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of plasma irradiation in patients with wound healing disorders with exposed brachial tendons of the radial forearm. Four patients (mean age 64.2 years, range 44 to 80) who had undergone radial forearm free flap procedures and developed wound healing disturbance leading to exposed flexor tendons were included in the present prospective case series. In addition to routine wound care, all sites were irradiated with cold atmospheric plasma. The primary outcome variable was complete wound closure. In all patients, complete wound repair in terms of the absence of tendon exposure was observed within a mean treatment time of 10.1 weeks (range 4.9 to 16). No undesirable side effects were observed, and no inflammation or infection occurred. Cold atmospheric plasma could offer a reliable conservative treatment option for complicated wound healing disturbances. This was exemplarily shown in the case of radial forearm free flap donor site morbidity with exposed flexor tendons in the present study. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  12. Forearm interosseous membrane trauma: MRI diagnostic criteria and injury patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hopgood, Brendon C. [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Limmer, Karl [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospital for Children, Temple University and Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgeon, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Define criteria for interosseous membrane (IOM) injury diagnosis using MRI, and characterize patterns of IOM disruption following forearm trauma. Our hypothesis is that most IOM injuries occur along the ulnar insertion, and MRI should be obtained following forearm trauma to assess IOM competency. Sixteen cadaver forearms were subjected to longitudinal impact trauma. Prior to and following injury, MR images were examined by a board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist using pre-defined criteria for determining IOM integrity. Each specimen was dissected and the viability/pattern of injury examined. The MRI and dissection results were compared using a double-blinded methodology. Eight of the 16 specimens demonstrated IOM trauma. Seven specimens demonstrated complete IOM disruption from the ulnar insertion, and one revealed a mid-substance tear with intact origin and insertion. The dorsal oblique bundle was disrupted in four specimens. MRI analysis identified IOM injury in seven of the eight forearms. The injury location was correctly identified in six specimens when compared to dissection observations. MRI determination of IOM injury demonstrated a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 89%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100%. (orig.)

  13. Forearm interosseous membrane trauma: MRI diagnostic criteria and injury patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Hopgood, Brendon C.; Limmer, Karl; Kozin, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Define criteria for interosseous membrane (IOM) injury diagnosis using MRI, and characterize patterns of IOM disruption following forearm trauma. Our hypothesis is that most IOM injuries occur along the ulnar insertion, and MRI should be obtained following forearm trauma to assess IOM competency. Sixteen cadaver forearms were subjected to longitudinal impact trauma. Prior to and following injury, MR images were examined by a board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist using pre-defined criteria for determining IOM integrity. Each specimen was dissected and the viability/pattern of injury examined. The MRI and dissection results were compared using a double-blinded methodology. Eight of the 16 specimens demonstrated IOM trauma. Seven specimens demonstrated complete IOM disruption from the ulnar insertion, and one revealed a mid-substance tear with intact origin and insertion. The dorsal oblique bundle was disrupted in four specimens. MRI analysis identified IOM injury in seven of the eight forearms. The injury location was correctly identified in six specimens when compared to dissection observations. MRI determination of IOM injury demonstrated a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 89%, a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100%. (orig.)

  14. Monoaxial distraction of ulna to second metacarpal followed by single bone forearm in massive post infective radial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra N Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial bone loss associated with gross manus valgus deformity can be managed by open reduction internal fixation using intervening strut bone graft, callus distraction using ring or monoaxial fixator, and achieving union by distraction histogenesis. These methods are particularly suitable when bone loss is small. Single or staged procedure is described for congenital as well as in acquired extensive bone loss of radius. Distraction through radial proximal to distal segments, to achieve reduction of distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ, is also described in acquired cases. In the present series, functional results of distraction through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal is studied alongwith, functional status of hand, stability of wrist, level of patient′s satisfaction are also studied. Materials and Methods: 7 unilateral cases of radial loss (M = 5, F = 2 affecting 4 right hands of mean age 17 years (range 9 to 24 years were included in this study. They were treated by distracting through ulna to 2 nd metacarpal to achieve DRUJ alignment in first stage. Subsequently ulna was osteotomised and translated to distal stump of radius. It was then fixed to the distal radial remnant in 30° pronation in dominant and 30° supination non dominant hands. Results: Union was achieved in all cases associated with beneficial cross union of distal ulna. Hand functions improved near to normal, with fully corrected stable wrist joint, hypertrophied ulna and without recurrence. All of them had practically complete loss of forearm rotations, however patients were fully satisfied. Conclusion: This method is particularly suitable when associated with 6 cm or more radial bone loss. But when loss is small, sacrifice of one bone may not be justifiable.

  15. File list: Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 TFs and others Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200048,...SRX200052,SRX200050,SRX200046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 Histone Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200044,SRX2000...42,SRX200038,SRX200036 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  17. Clinical application of advances in elbow and forearm anatomy and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neal B

    2002-02-01

    The static and dynamic stabilizers of the elbow and forearm axis are closely interrelated in elbow and forearm unit motion and load handling. An [figure: see text] understanding of elbow and forearm anatomy is crucial to the surgeon evaluating and treating complex pathologies resulting from acute or remote trauma.

  18. File list: His.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 Histone Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200044,SRX2000...38,SRX200036,SRX200042 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 All antigens Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200048,SR...X200036,SRX200052,SRX200038,SRX200044,SRX200042,SRX200050,SRX200046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin hg19 TFs and others Epidermis Forearm skin SRX200046,...SRX200052,SRX200048,SRX200050 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Oth.Epd.05.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Epd.20.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Epd.50.AllAg.Forearm_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  9. A 61-year-old man with erythematous forearm papules three months after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Mesrop; Googe, Paul B; Jolly, Puneet; Levinson, Kara; Popowitch, Elena; Lachiewicz, Anne M

    2018-06-01

    A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with papules on his left forearm and hand three months after liver transplantation: images from physical exam, pathology, and microbiology are presented. Skin biopsy confirmed the presence of fungal elements within the hair shaft, which is consistent with Majocchi granuloma, also known as nodular granulomatous perifolliculitis. A combination of fungal culture, microscopic morphology, and gene sequencing was used to identify the causative organism. The patient recovered with appropriate systemic antifungal therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous and superficial radial nerves in the forearm: a cadaveric and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldner, Steven; Zlotolow, Dan A; Melone, Charles P; Agnes, Ann Marie; Jones, Morgan H

    2005-11-01

    To define the anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) and the superficial radial nerve (SRN) in relation to easily identifiable landmarks in the dorsoradial forearm to minimize the risk to both nerves during surgical approaches to the dorsal radius. In this study 37 cadaveric forearms and 20 patients having distal radius external fixation were dissected to identify these nerves in relation to various anatomic landmarks. Based on these dissections the anatomy was divided into 2 zones that can be identified by easily visible and palpable landmarks. Zone 1 extends from the elbow to the cross-over of the abductor pollicis longus with the extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus. Zone 2 is distal to the cross-over. In zone 1 the 2 nerves can be differentiated through limited incisions based on their depth and anatomic location. Within this zone the SRN is deep to the brachioradialis until 1.8 cm proximal to zone 2 (9 cm proximal to the radial styloid), where it becomes superficial and pierces the fascia of the mobile wad and then remains deep to the subcutaneous fat. In contrast the LACN pierces the fascia between the brachialis and biceps muscles at the level of the elbow. In all specimens the LACN ran parallel to the cephalic vein within the subcutaneous fat. In 31 specimens it ran volar to the vein and in 5 specimens the nerve crossed under the cephalic vein at the elbow and ran dorsal to the vein in the forearm. One specimen had 2 branches with 1 on either side of the vein. Differentiation of these nerves was found to be possible through limited incisions in zone 1 during placement of external fixation pins for distal radius fractures. The LACN always was located in the superficial fat running with the cephalic vein, whereas the SRN was deeper to this nerve either covered by the brachioradialis or closely adherent to it within the investing fascia of the mobile wad. In zone 2 the nerves arborized and ran in the same tissue plane, making

  11. Does computer use pose an occupational hazard for forearm pain; from the NUDATA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Ann Isabel; Andersen, JH; Lassen, C. F.

    2003-01-01

    was associated with use of a mouse device for more than 30 hours per week, and with keyboard use more than 15 hours per week. High job demands and time pressure at baseline were risk factors for onset of forearm pain; women had a twofold increased risk of developing forearm pain. Self reported ergonomic......AIMS: To determine the occurrence of pain conditions and disorders in the forearm and to evaluate risk factors for forearm pain in a cohort of computer workers. METHODS: A total of 6943 participants with a wide range of computer use and work tasks were studied. At baseline and at one year follow up...... to severe forearm pain was 4.3%. Sixteen of 296 symptom cases met criteria for being a clinical forearm case, and 12 had signs of potential nerve entrapment. One year incidence of reported symptom cases was 1.3%; no subjects developed new signs of nerve entrapment. Increased risk of new forearm pain...

  12. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  13. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  14. Non-contact wearable single forearm cardiac biopotential acquisition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Sérgio; Martins, Raul Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    In this work the authors propose a novel approach to obtain the electrocardiogram in the forearm using non-contact sensing. This new solution should be at same time portable, ergonomic and robust, enabling its use in different set of applications. A system of four electrodes was used in an adjustable sleeve to be wrapped in the forearm. No additional electrode references were used in other body parts. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, an harmonium like approach was used in the design of the electrodes. The prototype was then compared with a similar system with a flat conformation. The developed prototype enabled the acquisition of an ECG signal in the forearm and the inclusion of the harmonium like electrode conformation resulted in a considerable increase of the sensitivity of the system. The acquired signal did not enable the identification of all characteristic cardiac waves. However, it was possible to identify clearly a signal pattern, characteristic of the QRS complex. The properties of the acquired signal restrict their use in rigorous electrocardiographic studies, allowing, however, its application in heart rate variability monitoring and biometric identification without the disadvantages usually associated with conventional electrodes. This makes it specially useful for man-machine interfaces and automated identification

  15. Augmenting forearm crutches with wireless sensors for lower limb rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, Geoff V; Ettabib, Mohamed A; White, Neil M; Peters, Christian; Hallett, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    Forearm crutches are frequently used in the rehabilitation of an injury to the lower limb. The recovery rate is improved if the patient correctly applies a certain fraction of their body weight (specified by a clinician) through the axis of the crutch, referred to as partial weight bearing (PWB). Incorrect weight bearing has been shown to result in an extended recovery period or even cause further damage to the limb. There is currently no minimally invasive tool for long-term monitoring of a patient's PWB in a home environment. This paper describes the research and development of an instrumented forearm crutch that has been developed to wirelessly and autonomously monitor a patient's weight bearing over the full period of their recovery, including its potential use in a home environment. A pair of standard forearm crutches are augmented with low-cost off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes and electronic components to provide indicative measurements of the applied weight, crutch tilt and hand position on the grip. Data are wirelessly transmitted between crutches and to a remote computer (where they are processed and visualized in LabVIEW), and the patient receives biofeedback by means of an audible signal when they put too much or too little weight through the crutch. The initial results obtained highlight the capability of the instrumented crutch to support physiotherapists and patients in monitoring usage

  16. Augmenting forearm crutches with wireless sensors for lower limb rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Geoff V.; Ettabib, Mohamed A.; Peters, Christian; Hallett, Georgina; White, Neil M.

    2010-12-01

    Forearm crutches are frequently used in the rehabilitation of an injury to the lower limb. The recovery rate is improved if the patient correctly applies a certain fraction of their body weight (specified by a clinician) through the axis of the crutch, referred to as partial weight bearing (PWB). Incorrect weight bearing has been shown to result in an extended recovery period or even cause further damage to the limb. There is currently no minimally invasive tool for long-term monitoring of a patient's PWB in a home environment. This paper describes the research and development of an instrumented forearm crutch that has been developed to wirelessly and autonomously monitor a patient's weight bearing over the full period of their recovery, including its potential use in a home environment. A pair of standard forearm crutches are augmented with low-cost off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes and electronic components to provide indicative measurements of the applied weight, crutch tilt and hand position on the grip. Data are wirelessly transmitted between crutches and to a remote computer (where they are processed and visualized in LabVIEW), and the patient receives biofeedback by means of an audible signal when they put too much or too little weight through the crutch. The initial results obtained highlight the capability of the instrumented crutch to support physiotherapists and patients in monitoring usage.

  17. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  18. Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes.

  19. Comparison of upper arm and forearm blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiano, Kathy L; Hinck, Susan M; Savinske, Debra L; Hope, Kathryn L

    2008-11-01

    The upper arm is the primary site used to obtain a blood pressure measurement (BPM); however, when it is not possible to use the upper arm, the forearm is a commonly used alternate site. This study determines if there is a significant difference between upper arm and forearm BPMs among adults and examines the relationship of participant characteristics to the BPM difference. A convenience sample was recruited from a low-income, independent-living, 104-apartment complex in the Midwest. Of the 106 participants, 64% were female and 89% were White. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years (M = 50.7). The investigators calculated the BMIs (range = 18 to 42, M = 29.3, SD = 5.4) for the 89% (n = 94) of participants who reported their weight. The forearm tended to have higher BPMs than the upper arm (M difference = 4.0 mm Hg systolic, 2.3 mm Hg diastolic). However, site differences were greatest for men, obese adults, and middle aged (36 to 65) adults.

  20. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  1. The Etiology and Treatment of the Softened Phallus after the Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap is considered to be the standard technique for penile construction. One year after their operation, most patients experience a softened phallus, so that they suffer from difficulties in sexual intercourse. In this report, we present our experience with phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap, as well as an evaluation of the etiology and treatment of the softened phallus.MethodsBetween March 2005 and February 2010, 58 patients underwent phalloplasty by radial forearm osteocutaneous free flap. Most of their neophallus had been softened subjectively and among them, 12 patients who wanted correction were investigated. We performed repetitive fat injection, artificial dermis grafting, silicone rod insertion, and rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft. Physical examination, plain radiograph, computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and satisfaction scores were investigated.ResultsMost of the participants' penises have been softened after phalloplasty, and the skin elasticity had been also decreased. On plain radiograph, the distal end of the bone was self-rounded; however, the bone shape of the neophallus had no significant interval changes or resorption. Computed tomography showed equivocal density of cortical bone. On bone scintigraphy, the bone metabolism was active at 3 months postoperatively, and remained active 9 years postoperatively.ConclusionsThe use of a rib bone with cartilaginous tip graft could be an option for improvement of the softened phallus. Silicon rod insertion is also worth considering for rigidity of the softened phallus. Decreased rigidity due to soft tissue atrophy could be alleviated with repeated fat injection and artificial dermis grafting.

  2. Elastic robust intramedullary nailing for forearm fracture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forearm fractures are the most common fractures in children (23% of all fractures. Basically there are two treatment options available for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children: closed reduction with cast immobilisation (conservative therapy and the elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN. Treatment decision is influenced by the doctor's estimation of fracture instability. Stable fractures can be treated conservatively whereas instable forearm shaft fractures can be treated according the following three treatment strategies: 1. conservative therapy in an outpatient setting 2. conservative therapy in the operating room in attendance to change to ESIN in case that no stabilisation can be achieved with cast immobilisation 3. immediate treatment with ESIN in the operating room. Objectives: Aim of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA report is to assess and report the published evidence concerning effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESIN as a treatment option for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children and to identify future research need. Important parameters for the assessment of effectiveness are objective parameters (axis deviation, losses of motion, and numbers of reductions in case of redislocations and subjective parameters (pain or impairment in quality of life. Furthermore, a health economic evaluation shall be done which refers to the costs of the different therapy strategies. Methods: An extensive, systematic literature search in medical, economic, and HTA literature databases was performed. Relevant data were extracted and synthesised. Results: Three cohort studies and seven case series have been identified. Controlled clinical studies, systematic reviews and/or HTA reports that gave evidence to answer the own study question have not been found. The identified studies partly differed in respect of defined indication for ESIN, study population and treatment strategies. For that reason comparability of results was

  3. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Feasibility of a reduction protocol in the emergency department for diaphyseal forearm fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, S; Litzelmann, E; Kahil, M; Mallet, C; Jehanno, P; Mercier, J-C; Ilharreborde, B; Mazda, K

    2015-09-01

    Diaphyseal forearm fractures are very common pediatric traumas. At present, distal radius metaphyseal fractures are often successfully treated with closed reduction by emergency physicians. However, the management of diaphyseal fractures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of diaphyseal forearm fractures in the emergency department (ED) in children. In a prospective 2-year-study, all closed diaphyseal forearm fractures in patients under 15, with an angle of >15° and treated by closed reduction in the ED were included. Fractures with overlapping fragments were excluded. Reduction was performed by an emergency physician, with a standardized analgesic protocol (painkillers and nitrous oxide). Clinical tolerance was checked within the first 24hours, and the radiographic stability of reduction was assessed at days 8 and 15. Initial and final follow-up radiographs were analyzed. Elbow and wrist range of motion was assessed at the final follow-up. Sixty patients (41 boys and 19 girls) were included. Mean age was 5.2 years old (±3). At initial evaluation, the maximum angle was 30° (±11.3). After reduction, the maximum angle was significantly reduced (30° vs. 5°, P<0.001). Mean immobilization in a cast was 11.7 weeks (±2). There were no cast related complications in any of these children. There was no surgery for secondary displacement. Full range of motion was obtained in all patients at the final follow-up. The outcome of conservative treatment of closed diaphyseal forearm fractures, without overlapping fragments was excellent. However, reduction is usually performed in the operating room by orthopedic surgeons under general anesthesia and requires hospitalization, which is very expensive. The results of this study show that high quality care may be obtained in the ED by a trained and experienced team. These results are similar to those for distal metaphyseal fractures, which could extend the indications for reduction in the

  5. EVALUATION OF RESULTS IN FRACTURES OF BOTH BONES FOREARM TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The anatomical alignment of the bones, the length, the radial bow, and axis should be restored for a good functional outcome. Conservative treatment has resulted in malunion, non-union, synostosis and ultimately poor functional outcome. Internal fixation helps in perfect reduction of fracture fragments in anatomical position by rigid fixation and early mobilisation, the normal functions of the hand can be re-achieved at the earliest. This study has been taken up to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of the fractures of BBFA with DCP in adults and its advantages and complications. In this study, the rate and time taken for union, the complication, the functional results in terms of forearm rotation and wrist and elbow movements are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study includes treatment of 20 cases of fracture of both bones of forearm by open reduction and internal fixation with 3.5 mm DCP from August 2013 to August 2015 at Department of Orthopaedics at Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram. Follow-up was done up to September 2015. This is a prospective time bound study. Sample size - 20 patients. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Simple fractures. 2. Open fractures-Gustilo and Anderson type I and type II. 3. Age criteria = 15 to 70 years, both males and females. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Age criteria 0 to 14 years & > 70 years. 2. Radiologically proven segmental fractures and isolated forearm bone fractures. 3. Pathological fracture. 4. Gustilo and Anderson type III. 5. Patient not willing for surgery. 6. Patient unfit for surgery. RESULTS The present study consists of 20 cases of fracture both bones of the forearm. All the cases were openly reduced and internally fixed with 3.5 mm DCP. The study period was from August 2013 to September 2015. The age of these patients ranged from 15-70 years with fracture being most common in 3 rd decade and an average age of 31 years. CONCLUSION Use of separate

  6. An Unusual Metastasis of a Transglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dafir Albeyatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each year around 2,200 people in the UK are diagnosed with laryngeal SCC (Office of National Statistics 2009. Compared to pharyngeal carcinoma, it is a highly curable disease with a survival rate of around 60% for all stages and all forms of treatment. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a previously treated T4 N2c transglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, who developed an isolated swelling in the extensor compartment of his right forearm at 6 months after radical laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Fine needle aspiration of the forearm lesion revealed SCC consistent with a metastasis from the laryngeal primary. MRI revealed that the lesion was confined to the muscle. Initial staging CT showed no distant metastases or signs of advanced disease, including no evidence of axillary nodal involvement. Conclusion. This case is therefore unusual, as one of only 2 cases reported in the scientific literature of isolated distant muscular metastasis from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We conclude that any muscular swelling, in the setting of previous head and neck malignancy, should be treated with a high degree of suspicion for metastasis and investigated promptly.

  7. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of a median neuropathy in the forearm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joon-Shik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodiagnostic studies are traditionally used in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies, however they lack anatomical information regarding the nerve and its surrounding structures. The purpose of this case is to show that high-resolution ultrasound used as an adjunct to electrodiagnostic studies may complement this lack of information and give insight to the cause. Case presentation A 60-year-old male patient sustained a forearm traction injury resulting in progressive weakness and functional loss in the first three digits of the right hand. High-resolution ultrasound showed the presence of an enlarged nerve and a homogenous soft-tissue structure appearing to engulf the nerve. The contralateral side was normal. Surgery revealed fibrotic bands emanating from the flexor digitorum profundus muscle compressing the median nerve thus confirming the ultrasound findings. Conclusion A diagnostically challenging case of median neuropathy in the forearm is presented in which high-resolution ultrasound was valuable in establishing an anatomic etiology and directing appropriate management.

  8. Avaliação da apresentação de sinais e sintomas de impacto femoroacetabular após epifisiólise do fêmur proximal Evaluation of presentation of signs and symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement after epiphysiolysis of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Peng Krüger

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, procuramos avaliar se existe relação entre o grau de deslizamento da epifisiólise femoral proximal (EFP e a presença de impacto femoroacetabular (IFA. Ainda, analisou-se o arco de movimento do quadril (ADM em relação ao IFA, além de revisar a literatura sobre o assunto. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 19 casos de EFP em 15 pacientes tratados cirurgicamente com epifisiodese in situ com um parafuso canulado, com seguimento médio de 27 meses. Realizou-se a análise do grau de deslizamento da EFP pelos ângulos epimetafisário (âEM e coloepifisário (âCE da radiografia em perfil, dos sinais de impacto radiográficos na incidência anteroposterior, dos sintomas clínicos e do ADM do quadril. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se que o grau de deslizamento da EFP (através do âEM apresenta relação inversa estatisticamente significante com a presença de IFA no período médio de seguimento deste estudo. Ou seja, os pacientes que demonstraram um quadro sintomático de IFA apresentaram graus menores de deslizamento. Isso pode ser explicado pelo fato que o tipo de impacto que ocorre na EFP (came de inclusão ou de impacção depende do grau de deslizamento, e estes se apresentam de forma e cronologia diferentes. O ADM do quadril não apresentou relação com o IFA. CONCLUSÃO: Há relação entre o grau de deslizamento e a presença de IFA clínicoradiológica após EFP.OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to evaluate whether there is any relationship between the degree of epiphysiolysis of the proximal femur (EPF and the presence of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI. Hip range of motion (ROM was also analyzed in relation to FAI, and the literature on this topic was reviewed. METHODS: Nineteen cases of EPF in fifteen patients who had been treated surgically by means of in situ epiphysiodesis with a cannulated screw were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 27 months. The degree of EPF was analyzed using the epimetaphyseal and neck

  9. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology (114), Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.) With 11 figs., 20 refs.

  10. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.)

  11. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  12. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Sevillano, José Luis; Ridao-Fernández, Carmen

    2016-06-21

    Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to unburden the lower limbs. In this paper, we describe such a system based on a force sensor, which we have named the GCH System 2.0. Furthermore, we determine the validity and reliability of measurements obtained using this tool via a comparison with the validated AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA) OR6-7-2000 Platform. An intra-class correlation coefficient demonstrated excellent agreement between the AMTI Platform and the GCH System. A regression line to determine the predictive ability of the GCH system towards the AMTI Platform was found, which obtained a precision of 99.3%. A detailed statistical analysis is presented for all the measurements and also segregated for several requested loads on the crutches (10%, 25% and 50% of body weight). Our results show that our system, designed for assessing loads exerted by patients on forearm crutches during assisted gait, provides valid and reliable measurements of loads.

  13. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Chamorro-Moriana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to unburden the lower limbs. In this paper, we describe such a system based on a force sensor, which we have named the GCH System 2.0. Furthermore, we determine the validity and reliability of measurements obtained using this tool via a comparison with the validated AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA OR6-7-2000 Platform. An intra-class correlation coefficient demonstrated excellent agreement between the AMTI Platform and the GCH System. A regression line to determine the predictive ability of the GCH system towards the AMTI Platform was found, which obtained a precision of 99.3%. A detailed statistical analysis is presented for all the measurements and also segregated for several requested loads on the crutches (10%, 25% and 50% of body weight. Our results show that our system, designed for assessing loads exerted by patients on forearm crutches during assisted gait, provides valid and reliable measurements of loads.

  14. Objective assessment of plaster cast quality in pediatric distal forearm fractures: Is there an optimal index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Ferreira, Leonardo Termis; Dos Santos Filho, Fernando Claudino; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Gomes, Davi Coutinho Fonseca Fernandes; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Penteado; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott

    2017-02-01

    Several so-called casting indices are available for objective evaluation of plaster cast quality. The present study sought to investigate four of these indices (gap index, padding index, Canterbury index, and three-point index) as compared to a reference standard (cast index) for evaluation of plaster cast quality after closed reduction of pediatric displaced distal forearm fractures. Forty-three radiographs from patients with displaced distal forearm fractures requiring manipulation were reviewed. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false-positive probability, false-negative probability, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for each of the tested indices. Comparison among indices revealed diagnostic agreement in only 4.7% of cases. The strongest correlation with the cast index was found for the gap index, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.94. The gap index also displayed the best agreement with the cast index, with both indices yielding the same result in 79.1% of assessments. When seeking to assess plaster cast quality, the cast index and gap index should be calculated; if both indices agree, a decision on quality can be made. If the cast and gap indices disagree, the padding index can be calculated as a tiebreaker, and the decision based on the most frequent of the three results. Calculation of the three-point index and Canterbury index appears unnecessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (Plateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the PPT at the lateral epicondyle. Our results suggest that in patients with LE, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns

  16. Augmenting forearm crutches with wireless sensors for lower limb rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Merrett, Geoff V.; Ettabib, Mohamed A.; Peters, Christian; Hallett, Georgina; White, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    Forearm crutches are frequently used in the rehabilitation of an injury to the lower limb. The recovery rate is improved if the patient correctly applies a certain fraction of their body weight (specified by a clinician) through the axis of the crutch, referred to as partial weight bearing (PWB). Incorrect weight bearing has been shown to result in an extended recovery period or even cause further damage to the limb. There is currently no minimally invasive tool for long-term monitoring of a ...

  17. Perimenopausal risk of falling and incidence of distal forearm fracture.

    OpenAIRE

    Winner, S. J.; Morgan, C. A.; Evans, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    A postal survey of 2000 women and 2000 men sampled from the electoral roll in Oxford was undertaken to ascertain whether changes with age in the risk of falling might explain the stepwise increases in age specific incidence rates of distal forearm fracture which occur in women at around the age of 50. Corrected response rates were 83% for women and 72% for men. In women, but not in men, there was a rise in the risk of falling from 45 years, peaking in the 55-59 year age group, and sinking to ...

  18. Evaluation of Bone Atrophy After Treatment of Forearm Fracture Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis: A Comparative Study of Locking Plates and Conventional Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takane; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    Forearm diaphysis fractures are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. Recently, locking plates have been used for treatment. In the long-term period after surgery, some patients present with bone atrophy adjacent to the plate. However, a comparison of locking and conventional plates as a cause of atrophy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term bone atrophy associated with use of locking and conventional plates for forearm fracture treatment. In this study we included 15 patients with forearm fracture managed by either locking or conventional plates and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Computed tomographic imaging of both forearms was performed to assess bone thickness and local bone mineral density and to predict bone strength without plate reinforcement based on finite element analysis. Mean patient age at surgery was 48.0 years. Eight patients underwent reduction with fixed locking plates and were followed up for a mean of 79.5 months; the remaining 7 patients were treated with conventional plates and were followed up for a mean of 105.0 months. Compared with the conventional plate group, the locking plate group had the same fractured limb-contralateral limb ratio of cortex bone thickness, but had significantly lower ratios of mineral density adjacent to the plate and adjusted bone strength. This study demonstrated bone atrophy after locking plate fixation for forearm fractures. Treatment plans for forearm fracture should take into consideration the impact of bone atrophy long after plate fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  20. What happens to the triangular fibrocartilage complex during pronation and supination of the forearm? Analysis of its morphology and diagnostic assessment with MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfirrmann, C.W.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Theumann, N.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Service de Radiologie, CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chung, C.B.; Trudell, D.J.; Resnick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Botte, M.J. [Div. of Orthopedic Surgery, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate the dynamic morphologic changes of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) during pronation and supination of the forearm using high-resolution MR arthrography in cadavers and to evaluate the impact of these changes on the diagnostic assessment of the normal and abnormal TFCC. Design and specimens: High-resolution MR arthrography of 10 wrists of cadaveric specimens was obtained in maximum pronation, in the neutral position, and in maximum supination of the forearm. The structures of the TFCC were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and correlated with anatomic sections. The position of the forearm that allowed the best visualization of normal structures and lesions of the TFCC was determined. Results: The shape and extent of the articular disc as well as the radial portions of the radioulnar ligaments did not change with pronation and supination. The articular disc was horizontal in the neutral position and tilted more distally to align with the proximal carpal row in pronation and supination. The fibers of the ulnar part of the radioulnar ligaments (ulnar attachment of the articular disc) revealed the most significant changes: their orientation was coronal in the neutral position and sagittal in positions of pronation and supination. The ulnomeniscal homologue was largest in the neutral position and was reduced in size during pronation and supination. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was centered in its groove in the neutral position and pronation. In supination this tendon revealed subluxation from this groove. The dorsal capsule of the distal radioulnar joint was taut in pronation, and the palmar capsule was taut in supination. The preferred forearm position for analysis of most of the structures of the TFCC was the neutral position, followed by the pronated position. The neutral position was rated best for the detection of ulnar and radial detachments of the TFCC, followed by the pronated position, except for two central

  1. Forearm arterial anatomy and flow characteristics: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancholy, Samir B; Heck, Laura A; Patel, Tejas

    2015-04-01

    Morphometric data on Caucasian radial and ulnar arteries are limited, with no data on flow interdependence in the forearm arterial circuit. A total of 250 upper extremities in 125 patients were evaluated. Ultrasonography was performed and radial and ulnar artery lumen diameters were measured. Ulnar artery (UA) was compressed at the level of the wrist, and flow parameters in radial artery (RA) were recorded using duplex Doppler ultrasound. Radial and ulnar artery diameters were comparable at the level of the distal forearm (RA = 2.03 ± 0.28 mm, UA = 2.07 ± 0.27 mm; P=.14). There was no significant difference in radial or ulnar artery diameter between the dominant upper extremity and the non-dominant upper extremity. Upon compression of the ulnar artery, radial artery velocity-time integral (VTI) increased from 8.4 ± 3.8 cm to 12.8 ± 5.5 cm, which was statistically significant (Pforearm is comparable to UA. RA-VTI and likely flow significantly increase by compression of the UA. The smaller the radial artery, the larger the increase in radial artery flow with ulnar compression.

  2. Polymorphisms of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene and forearm bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivka T Ivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA gene polymorphism have provided conflicting data regarding the bone mass and quality. Aim and Design: The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the forearm bone mineral density (BMD and the IL1RA gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated in this study. BMD was measured at the forearm by X-ray absorptiometry on a DTX-100 device (Osteometer Meditech, USA. A PCR product was isolated. The alleles were scored according to their length: A1 - 410 bp - 4 repeats; A2 - 240 bp - 2 repeats; A3 - 500 bp - 5 repeats; A4 - 325 bp - 3 repeats; A5 - 595 bp - 6 repeats. All analyses were evaluated for statistical significance (χ2 -test and T-test. Results: Four alleles were observed - A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1A1 genotype was more common in cases with low BMD than in controls with normal BMD (95% vs. 90%, χ2 P < 0.01. The A2A2 genotype was equally distributed among cases and controls (both 5%. The other two genotypes (A3A3 and A4A4 as well as A1A3 were present only in controls with normal BMD. The A2A2 genotype was associated with higher BMD and the A1A1 - with lower BMD at both forearm sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the A1A1 genotype was 2.11. The etiological factor reflecting the association between the polymorphism and the disease was 0.50. In our study sample the IL1RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with the forearm BMD. Conclusion: This genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic marker for the study of osteoporosis.

  3. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  4. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardic Füsun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  5. Proximal versus distal control of two-joint planar reaching movements in the presence of neuromuscular noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung P; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2012-06-01

    Determining how the human nervous system contends with neuro-motor noise is vital to understanding how humans achieve accurate goal-directed movements. Experimentally, people learning skilled tasks tend to reduce variability in distal joint movements more than in proximal joint movements. This suggests that they might be imposing greater control over distal joints than proximal joints. However, the reasons for this remain unclear, largely because it is not experimentally possible to directly manipulate either the noise or the control at each joint independently. Therefore, this study used a 2 degree-of-freedom torque driven arm model to determine how different combinations of noise and/or control independently applied at each joint affected the reaching accuracy and the total work required to make the movement. Signal-dependent noise was simultaneously and independently added to the shoulder and elbow torques to induce endpoint errors during planar reaching. Feedback control was then applied, independently and jointly, at each joint to reduce endpoint error due to the added neuromuscular noise. Movement direction and the inertia distribution along the arm were varied to quantify how these biomechanical variations affected the system performance. Endpoint error and total net work were computed as dependent measures. When each joint was independently subjected to noise in the absence of control, endpoint errors were more sensitive to distal (elbow) noise than to proximal (shoulder) noise for nearly all combinations of reaching direction and inertia ratio. The effects of distal noise on endpoint errors were more pronounced when inertia was distributed more toward the forearm. In contrast, the total net work decreased as mass was shifted to the upper arm for reaching movements in all directions. When noise was present at both joints and joint control was implemented, controlling the distal joint alone reduced endpoint errors more than controlling the proximal joint

  6. 78 FR 36308 - Proposed Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the... INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-4. OMB...

  7. Clinical comparison of automatic, noninvasive measurements of blood pressure in the forearm and upper arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Kathleen; Bradley, Elisabeth; Bucher, Linda; Seckel, Maureen; Lyons, Denise; Wakai, Sandra; Bartell, Deborah; Carson, Elizabeth; Chichester, Melanie; Foraker, Teresa; Simpson, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    When the upper arm (area from shoulder to elbow) is inaccessible and/or a standard-sized blood pressure cuff does not fit, some healthcare workers use the forearm to measure blood pressure. To compare automatic noninvasive measurements of blood pressure in the upper arm and forearm. A descriptive, correlational comparison study was conducted in the emergency department of a 1071-bed teaching hospital. Subjects were 204 English-speaking patients 6 to 91 years old in medically stable condition who had entered the department on foot or by wheelchair and who had no exclusions to using their left upper extremity. A Welch Allyn Vital Signs 420 series monitor was used to measure blood pressure in the left upper arm and forearm with the subject seated and the upper arm or forearm at heart level. Pearson r correlation coefficients between measurements in the upper arm and forearm were 0.88 for systolic blood pressure and 0.76 for diastolic blood pressure (P upper arm and forearm differed significantly (t = 2.07, P = .04). A Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the distances between the mean values and the limits of agreement for the 2 sites ranged from 15 mm Hg (mean arterial pressure) to 18.4 mm Hg (systolic pressure). Despite strict attention to correct cuff size and placement of the upper arm or forearm at heart level, measurements of blood pressure obtained noninvasively in the arm and forearm of seated patients in stable condition are not interchangeable.

  8. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  9. Microvascular filtration is increased in the forearms of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2013-01-01

    -enhanced ultrasound; venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography; lower-body negative pressure; noninvasive blood pressure measurements; and skin (99m)Tc-pertechnetate clearance technique. Measurements were performed bilaterally and simultaneously in the forearms, enabling use of the nonedematous forearm...... relative microvascular volume, forearm blood flow, skin blood flow, or central or local sympathetic vascular reflexes. Forearm microvascular filtration is increased in patients with BCRL, and more so in the edematous arm. The vascular sympathetic control mechanisms seem to be preserved. We propose...... with unilateral BCRL, the following aspects of upper extremity peripheral circulation were examined: muscle relative microvascular volume; capillary filtration coefficient; central and local sympathetic vascular reflexes; skin blood flow; and forearm blood flow. These were studied via real-time, contrast...

  10. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To examine the hypothesis that forearm pain with palpation tenderness in computer users is associated with increased extensor muscle fatigue. METHODS: Eighteen persons with pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness in the extensor muscle group of the right forearm...... response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... and twenty gender and age matched referents without such complaints were enrolled from the Danish NUDATA study of neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants and machine technicians. Fatigue of the right forearm extensor muscles was assessed by muscle twitch forces in response to low...

  11. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  12. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  13. Optical Myography: Detecting Finger Movements by Looking at the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eNissler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial problems found in the scientific community of assistive / rehabilitation robotics nowadays is that of automatically detecting what a disabled subject (for instance, a hand amputee wants to do, exactly when she wants to do it and strictly for the time she wants to do it. This problem, commonly called intent detection, has traditionally been tackled using surface electromyography, a technique which suffers from a number of drawbacks, including the changes in the signal induced by sweat and muscle fatigue. With the advent of realistic, physically plausible augmented- and virtual-reality environments for rehabilitation, this approach does not suffice anymore. In this paper we explore a novel method to solve the problem, that we call Optical Myography (OMG. The idea is to visually inspect the human forearm (or stump to reconstruct what fingers are moving and to what extent. In a psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects, we used visual fiducial markers (AprilTags and a standard web-camera to visualize the deformations of the surface of the forearm, which then were mapped to the intended finger motions. As ground truth, a visual stimulus was used, avoiding the need for finger sensors (force/position sensors, datagloves, etc.. Two machine-learning approaches, a linear and a non-linear one, were comparatively tested in settings of increasing realism. The results indicate an average error in the range of 0.05 to 0.22 (root mean square error normalized over the signal range, in line with similar results obtained with more mature techniques such as electromyography. If further successfully tested in the large, this approach could lead to vision-based intent detection of amputees, with the main application of letting such disabled persons dexterously and reliably interact in an augmented- / virtual-reality setup.

  14. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  15. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  16. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  17. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  18. Scaling of Primate Forearm Muscle Architecture as It Relates to Locomotion and Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischner, Carissa L; Crouch, Michael; Allen, Kari L; Marchi, Damiano; Pastor, Francisco; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2018-03-01

    It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm muscle architecture in a sample of 44 primate species (N = 55 specimens): 9 strepsirrhines, 15 platyrrhines, and 20 catarrhines. The sample includes all major locomotor and substrate use groups. We isolated each antebrachial muscle and categorized them into functional groups: wrist and digital extensors and flexors, antebrachial mm. that do not cross the wrist, and functional combinations thereof. Muscle mass, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA), and fiber length (FL) are examined in the context of higher taxonomic group, as well as locomotor/postural and substrate preferences. Results show that muscle masses, PCSA, and RPCSA scale with positive allometry while FL scales with isometry indicating that larger primates have relatively stronger, but neither faster nor more flexible, forearms across the sample. When accounting for variation in body size, we found no statistically significant difference in architecture among higher taxonomic groups or locomotor/postural groups. However, we found that arboreal primates have significantly greater FL than terrestrial ones, suggesting that these species are adapted for greater speed and/or flexibility in the trees. These data may affect our interpretation of the mechanisms for variation in humeral morphology and provide information for refining biomechanical models of joint stress and movement in extant and fossil primates. Anat Rec, 301:484-495, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of sympathetic nerve responses to neck and forearm isometric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S. L. Jr; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the autonomic and cardiovascular responses to arm and leg exercise have been studied, the sympathetic adjustments to exercise of the neck have not. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric contractions of the neck extensors and 2) to compare sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise of the neck and forearm. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate were measured in nine healthy subjects while performing isometric neck extension (INE) and isometric handgrip (IHG) in the prone position. After a 3-min baseline period, subjects performed three intensities of INE for 2.5 min each: 1) unloaded (supporting head alone), 2) 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 3) 30% MVC, then subjects performed two intensities (10% and 30% MVC) of IHG for 2.5 min. RESULTS: Supporting the head by itself did not significantly change any of the variables. During [NE, MAP significantly increased by 10 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 4 mm Hg and MSNA increased by 67 +/- 46 and 168 +/- 36 units/30 s for 10% and 30% MVC, respectively. IHG and INE evoked similar responses at 10% MVC, but IHG elicited higher peak MAP and MSNA at 30% MVC (37 +/- 7 mm Hg (P INE can elicit marked increases in MSNA and cardiovascular responses but that it evokes lower peak responses as compared to IHG. We speculate that possible differences in muscle fiber type composition, muscle mass, and/or muscle architecture of the neck and forearm are responsible for these differences in peak responses.

  20. Blood pressure measurement in obese patients: comparison between upper arm and forearm measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierin, Angela M G; Alavarce, Débora C; Gusmão, Josiane L; Halpern, Alfredo; Mion, Décio

    2004-06-01

    It is well known that blood pressure measurement with a standard 12-13 cm wide cuff is erroneous for large arms. To compare arm blood pressure measurements with an appropriate cuff and forearm blood pressure measurements (BPM) with a standard cuff, and both measurements by the Photopletismography (Finapres) method. One hundred and twenty-nine obese patients were studied (body mass index=40+/-7 kg/m2). The patients had three arm BPM taken by an automatic oscillometric device using an appropriate cuff and three forearm BPM with a standard cuff in the sitting position after a five-minute rest. Data were analysed by the analysis of variance. The correction values were obtained by the linear regression test. Systolic and diastolic arm BPM with an appropriate cuff were significantly lower (pforearm BPM with a standard cuff. The measurements obtained by Finapres were significantly lower (pforearm systolic and diastolic blood pressures and upper arm diastolic blood pressure. The equation to correct BPM in forearm in obese patients with arm circumference between 32-44 cm was: systolic BPM=33.2+/-0.68 x systolic forearm BPM, and diastolic BPM=25.2+0.59 x forearm diastolic BPM. This study showed that forearm blood pressure measurement overestimates the values of arm blood pressure measurement. In addition, it is possible to correct forearm BPM with an equation.

  1. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. The Community Orthopaedic Surgeon Taking Trauma Call: Pediatric Forearm Shaft Fracture Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Martin J; Simon, Matthew; Mehlman, Charles T

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric forearm shaft fractures are the third most common fracture in children, and the forearm is the third most mobile joint in the body (with a nearly 180 degree arc of motion). The goals of treatment are aimed squarely at achieving satisfactory anatomic alignment (within defined parameters) as the consequences of malunion can be permanent forearm stiffness and deformity. Nonoperative treatment approaches still dominate care of the youngest age groups while surgical intervention has become increasingly common in older children. This article will offer evidence and experience-based tips intended to benefit the community orthopedic surgeon caring for children during the course of their on-call duties.

  3. Free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap for inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Trivedi, Nirav P.; Sharma, Mohit; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Iyer, Subramania

    2009-01-01

    A free radial forearm fascial flap has been described for intraoral reconstruction. Adiposo-fascial flap harvesting involves few technical modifications from the conventional radial forearm fascio-cutaneous free flap harvesting. We report a case of inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction in a 42-year-old male with a free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap with good aesthetic and functional outcome with minimal primary and donor site morbidity. The technique of raising the flap and closing the donor site needs to be meticulous in order to achieve good cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:19881028

  4. Free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap for inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankappan Krishnakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A free radial forearm fascial flap has been described for intraoral reconstruction. Adiposo-fascial flap harvesting involves few technical modifications from the conventional radial forearm fascio-cutaneous free flap harvesting. We report a case of inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction in a 42-year-old male with a free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap with good aesthetic and functional outcome with minimal primary and donor site morbidity. The technique of raising the flap and closing the donor site needs to be meticulous in order to achieve good cosmetic and functional outcome.

  5. Clinical anatomy of the donor zone of venous flaps of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kurochkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant anatomy of saphenous veins of forearm in the zones of venous flap rising remains unstudied yet, as well as the influence of the valve apparatus of saphenous veins on the arterial perfusion of venous flaps. The paper studies the variant anatomy of saphenous veins of the upper third of the volar surface of forearm. Two versions of saphenous veins are revealed: major (axial and retiform. It is found experimentally that the valve apparatus of saphenous veins does not influence considerably the arterial perfusion of venous flaps of forearm.

  6. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  7. Sonographic identification of peripheral nerves in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saundra A Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED, ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure. Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to describe the number of supervised peripheral nerve examinations that are necessary for an emergency medicine physician to gain proficiency in accurately locating and identifying the median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the forearm via ultrasound. Methods: The proficiency outcome was defined as the number of attempts before a resident is able to correctly locate and identify the nerves on ten consecutive examinations. Didactic education was provided via a 1 h lecture on forearm anatomy, sonographic technique, and identification of the nerves. Participants also received two supervised hands-on examinations for each nerve. Count data are summarized using percentages or medians and range. Random effects negative binomial regression was used for modeling panel count data. Results: Complete data for the number of attempts, gender, and postgraduate year (PGY training year were available for 38 residents. Nineteen males and 19 females performed examinations. The median PGY year in practice was 3 (range 1-3, with 10 (27% in year 1, 8 (22% in year 2, and 19 (51% in year 3 or beyond. The median number (range of required supervised attempts for radial, median, and ulnar nerves was 1 (0-12, 0 (0-10, and 0 (0-17, respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that the maximum number of supervised attempts to achieve accurate nerve identification was 17 (ulnar, 12 (radial, and 10 (median in our study. The only

  8. An unusual presenting symptom of graves' disease: myalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, N; Perros, P

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient presented with severe myalgia involving her proximal muscles for 3-4 weeks. She also reported mild thyrotoxic symptoms over the same time period. Examination revealed mild thyrotoxicosis, a moderate diffuse goiter and no eye signs. The clinical picture was dominated by muscle pain and tenderness involving mainly her proximal arms and legs, her calves and her fingers, requiring opiate analgesia. Muscle power and tendon reflexes were normal. Laboratory evaluation revealed undetectable serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with raised FT4, FT3 and positive TSH receptor antibodies. Treatment with carbimazole was started. Additional laboratory investigations were negative (inflammatory markers, creatine kinase and antibodies to antinuclear antibodies, gastric parietal cell, smooth muscle, mitochondrial, dsDNA, centromere, extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) ribonucleoprotein, ENA Sm, ENA Ro, ENA Anti-La, ENA Scl70, ENA Jo-1, anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor). Further assessment in the rheumatology clinic confirmed there was no small joint tenderness or loss of range of movement of her limbs, but widespread and profound muscle tenderness of the common extensors of the forearms, biceps, trapezius, calves and thighs. She was treated symptomatically with analgesic medication and continued on carbimazole. A month later she was euthyroid and her myalgia had resolved. Hyperthyroidism has a profound effect on skeletal muscle and often leads to myopathy. Severe myalgia in association with Graves' disease is rare and resolves with the restoration of euthyroidism.

  9. An unusual presentation of anetoderma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghaei Shahin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anetoderma is a benign condition with focal loss of dermal elastic tissue resulting in localized areas of flaccid or herniated saclike skin. Currently, anetoderma is classified as either primary (idiopathic, or secondary anetoderma (which is associated with a variety of skin conditions, penicillamine use, or neonatal prematurity. Lesions appear on the upper arms, trunk, and thighs. Case presentation We report a 14-year-old boy, which was noticed to have had multiple, white, non-pruritic areas on the acral sites of upper and lower extremities for two years. In physical examination, the patient had normal mental development. Skin lesions consisted of scattered, white to skin-colored papules, less than 1 cm in diameter, and with central protrusion, with distribution on dorsal part of the index finger, forearms, distal portion of thighs and calves. Lesions were detected neither on the trunk nor the proximal areas of extremities. There are no sensory changes associated with the lesions. Otherwise, his general health was good. He did not have any medication consumption history. Family history was negative. Laboratory examinations were within normal limits. Skin biopsy from one of his lesions was done, that confirmed the diagnosis of anetoderma. Conclusions In summary, we report a case of anetoderma on unusual sites of the skin. We could not find similar reports of anetoderma developing on distal extremities without involvement of the upper trunk and proximal arms, in the medical literature.

  10. Quality control and standardization of forearm X-ray osteodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2000-01-01

    Quality control (QC) has an essential practical bearing on the proper function of the equipment used for bone density measurement. Special attention is likewise focused on the issue of standardization of the results afforded by different osteodensitometry instruments. It is the purpose of the study to assay QC of a single-energy x-ray forearm osteodensitometry unit DTX-100 covering a 3 year period, and compare the data on bone mineral density (BMD) produced by three different devices. Long-term BMD reproducibility in vitro, expressed as coefficient of variation, amounts to 0.55 per cent. Except for a two week period, no deviation from the normal function of the instrument is documented. Failing to comply with the manufacturer's instructions may discredit QC efficacy. On comparative assessment of the results produced by different osteodensitometers, differences in vivo may reach up to 1.2 standard deviation. Definite regions of special interest, feasible for comparison, are recommended. In conclusion special emphasis is laid on the necessity of performing through QC, measurement results standardization and accreditation of a reference osteodensitometry center

  11. [Kinematics of the triangular fibrocartilage complex during forearm rotation in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Tang, Jin-bo; Jia, Zhong-zheng; Xie, Ren-guo

    2009-11-01

    To investigate three-dimensional kinematics of the superficial and deep portion of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in different parts of the forearm rotation. Six wrists of 6 volunteers were used to obtain CT scans at different positions of the wrist. The wrists were scanned from 90 degrees of pronation to 90 degrees of supination at an interval of 30 degrees. The 3-dimensional radius and ulna were reconstructed with customized software and changes in length of the superficial and deep portion of TFCC during forearm rotation. In forearm pronation, the superficial dorsal portion and the deep palmar portion of the TFCC were tight. While the superficial palmar portion and the deep dorsal potion of the TFCC were lax. In supination, the changes in length of all these fibers were reverse. In forearm rotation one portion fibers of dorsal TFCC and one portion fibers of palmar TFCC are tight, and this mechanism controls stability during DRUJ rotation.

  12. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-15

    Sep 15, 2011 ... Cost and Burden of Osteoporosis in 2011), released ... Women who had a forearm BMD below this threshold were ~10 times more likely to have osteoporosis of the spine. ..... assessing bone density, cost and effectiveness.

  13. Control and postural thixotropy of the forearm muscles: changes caused by cold.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakie, M; Walsh, E G; Wright, G W

    1986-01-01

    The forearm was cooled in water at 5-10 degrees C while wrist biodynamics were investigated. Pronounced loosening following a perturbation (thixotropy) was no longer seen. The wrist became stiffer for large or moderate but not small movements; EMG activity did not increase. Cooling the wrist alone, or opposite forearm, was without effect. The ability to make rapid reciprocating movements was reduced and muscle relaxation time was increased. Single movements were not affected.

  14. Clinical anatomy of the donor zone of venous flaps of forearm

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Kurochkina

    2012-01-01

    The variant anatomy of saphenous veins of forearm in the zones of venous flap rising remains unstudied yet, as well as the influence of the valve apparatus of saphenous veins on the arterial perfusion of venous flaps. The paper studies the variant anatomy of saphenous veins of the upper third of the volar surface of forearm. Two versions of saphenous veins are revealed: major (axial) and retiform. It is found experimentally that the valve apparatus of saphenous veins does not influence consid...

  15. Surgical trainees neuropraxia? An unusual case of compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seoighe, D M

    2010-09-01

    Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is an uncommon diagnosis but has been associated with strenuous upper limb activity. We report the unique case of a 32-year-old male orthopaedic trainee who suffered this nerve palsy as a result of prolonged elbow extension and forearm pronation while the single assistant during a hip resurfacing procedure. Conservative measures were sufficient for sensory recovery to be clinically detectable after 12 weeks.

  16. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  17. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  18. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  19. Diaphyseal Fractures of the Forearm in Adults, Plating Or Intramedullary Nailing Is a Better Option for the Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabet A. Al-Sadek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractures of the radius and ulna occupy a large field of the modern traumatology. Therefore, these fractures are a major subject in modern orthopaedics and traumatology. The study of the mechanisms of the trauma, and the pathophysiological changes that occur are of great importance for the development of ever more efficient and varied ways of the treatment and prophylactics of this type of fracture. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the pattern of the diaphyseal fractures of the forearm in adults, to decide the modalities of surgical management, to observe the period of fracture healing clinically and radiologically, as well to study the rehabilitation of the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included 45 cases of diaphyseal fractures of both bones forearm in adults presenting to the orthopaedic outpatient department. For all the patients a detailed history was taken. A thorough clinical examination was carried out, required X-rays were taken, and initial treatment was given and admitted as in all patients. After careful pre-operative planning and evaluation for anaesthetic fitness, patients were operated for the fractures of both bone forearms. Twenty-three cases with 46 fractures were treated by open reduction and rigid fixation with DCP & Semi-tubular plates and 22 cases with 44 fractures were treated by closed reduction and fixation with “Talwarkar” intramedullary square nails. RESULTS: United results were found in 100% of plating group vs. 86% in the nailing group. Delayed and non-union results were found in 9% of the nailing group only. Average time to union in weeks was 9.4 weeks in the plating group vs. 10.2 weeks in the nailing group. CONCLUSION: Open reduction and internal fixation with compression plates with strict adherence to surgical technique is the gold standard method of treatment in both bones forearm fractures with excellent results than closed reduction, internal fixation with

  20. Inconsistency between simultaneous blood pressure measurements in the arm, forearm, and leg in anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidan, Ilan; Sidi, Avner; Ben-Menachem, Erez; Tene, Yael; Berkenstadt, Haim

    2014-02-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of simultaneous noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement in the arm, forearm, and ankle in anesthetized children. Prospective, randomized study. University medical center. 101 ASA physical status 1 and 2 children (aged 1-8 yrs) scheduled for elective surgery with general anesthesia. Simultaneous NIBP measurements were recorded at the arm, forearm, and ankle at 5-minute intervals. The systolic blood pressure difference between the arm-forearm or the arm-ankle was within the ± 10% range in 63% and 29% of measurements, and within the ± 20% range in 85% and 67% of measurements, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure difference between the arm-forearm or the arm-ankle was within the ± 10% range in 42% and 44% and within the ± 20% range in 67% and 74% of measurements, respectively. In patients in whom the initial three NIBP measurements were within the ± 20% range between the forearm and arm, 86% of the subsequent measurements were also within that limit. Forearm and ankle NIBP measurements are unreliable and inconsistent with NIBP measured in the arm of anesthetized children. These alternative BP measurement sites are not reliable in accuracy (comparison with reference "gold" standard) and precision (reproducibility). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  2. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  3. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  4. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  5. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  6. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  7. The anatomy lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp by Rembrandt (1632): a comparison of the painting with a dissected left forearm of a Dutch male cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, Frank F A; van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2006-01-01

    Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632) is considered a masterpiece and is a group portrait of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons in the form of an anatomy lesson. Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, Doctor of Medicine and Praelector Anatomiae to the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, showed an anatomic dissection of a forearm on the corpse of an executed criminal. The anatomic accuracy in Rembrandt's famous painting has been discussed in the literature for decades without any general consensus. In 2006, on the 400th anniversary of Rembrandt's birth, a forearm dissection of a cadaver and a comparison with the anatomy in the painting are presented to analyze the anatomic accuracy of Rembrandt's famous painting.

  8. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  9. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  10. [Tumor-like bone lesions of the forearm after karate training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, H; Oldenburg, M; Klinger, H M; Schultz, W

    2005-03-01

    Differentiation between malignant bone tumors and tumor-like lesions after repetitive microtrauma following sport activities can be difficult just using radiographic methods. We present the case of a fifteen year old karate fighter, who was examined by imaging diagnostics because of a progressive swelling and pain in the distal right forearm. A tumor-like appearance with bone mass formation in the x-ray, an enhancement in the surrounding tissue shown in the MRI and an increased activity in the bone scintigraphy made the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma very likely. Blood tests were not helpful. Only the evaluation of a bone biopsy could demonstrate hypertrophic reparative bone formation after multiple osseous microtrauma. Cast immobilisation reduced the osseous alteration. With the start of the training the swelling reappeared again but then finally vanished after modifying the training technique. The case demonstrates that even modern imaging techniques cannot always distinguish between tumor and tumor-like lesions caused by sports. It also stresses the importance of a correct technique in sports like karate.

  11. Staphylococcal diaphyseal subacute osteomyelitis of the ulna in a child: an unusual cause of post-traumatic forearm swelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearns, S R

    2004-01-01

    Paediatric subacute osteomyelitis (SAO) presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Typically located in the metaphysis of long bones, diaphyseal SAO of the upper limb is rare. We present the case of a three-year-old girl referred to our fracture clinic as an occult fracture following trauma to her forearm with normal initial radiographs. Follow-up radiographs one week later showed cortical erosion of the distal ulna, while a subsequent MRI scan showed soft tissue swelling with an area of high signal in the distal ulna. A limited biopsy diagnosed staphylococcal subacute osteomyelitis of the ulna. The patient responded to high dose antibiotic therapy and made a full recovery. We present this case to highlight the high index of suspicion required to diagnose and appropriately manage this insidious condition, which may easily be confused with any number of benign and malignant bony lesions and provide a review of the relevant literature.

  12. Shooting performance is related to forearm temperature and hand tremor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, M; Villagra, F; Bowman, I; Wilby, R

    1995-08-01

    The changes in postural tremor of the hand and the subsequent effect on shooting performance produced by moderate cooling and heating of the forearm were studied in six subjects. Cooling produced a large decrease in tremor size of the ipsilateral hand, whereas warming the limb produced an increase in tremor size. Cooling or warming the forearm did not change the peak frequency of tremor significantly, which was quite stable for each subject. The improvement in shooting performance after cooling the forearm, as measured by grouping pattern of the shots, reached statistical significance and warming caused a significant worsening. This measure of performance was shown to correlate (r = 0.776) inversely with tremor size. The causes and implications of these changes are discussed. It is suggested that local cooling may be useful for people who wish temporarily to reduce tremor in order to improve dexterity for shooting and for other purposes.

  13. Free myocutaneous flap transfer to treat congenital Volkmann's contracture of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G; Palti, R; Gurevitz, S; Yaffe, B

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to report our experience with free functional muscle transfer procedures for the late sequelae of the rare condition of congenital Volkmann's ischaemic contracture of the forearm. Four children, with an average age of 9.5 years (range 1.5-17), were treated and were followed for a mean of 6 years (range 1-14). Two patients had dorsal forearm contractures, and two had both flexor and extensor forearm contractures. We carried out free functional muscle transfers to replace the flexor or extensor muscles. The functional result was assessed according to the classification system of Hovius and Ultee. All patients had wrist contractures and skeletal involvement with limb length discrepancy that influenced the outcome. All five transferred muscles survived and improved the function of the hand in three of the four patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Complications after percutaneous placement of totally implantable venous access ports in the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltz, J.P.; Petritsch, B.; Thurner, A.; Hahn, D.; Kickuth, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on radiological imaging of complications after interventional percutaneous insertion of totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) which were placed in the forearm. Thus far most reviews have dealt with pectorally-placed TIVAPs. Compared with the pectoral approach, implantation in the forearm has been associated with certain complications owing to a longer route of the port catheter within a smaller vein, and owing to the route across the elbow joint, resulting in higher rates of catheter-associated thrombosis and possible mechanical complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the complications after implantation of TIVAPs in the forearm, and to make radiologists familiar with the key findings of the complications during radiological imaging, including colour-coded and compression Duplex ultrasound, computed tomography, and digital subtraction venography.

  15. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  16. Level of Agreement Between Forearm and Upper Arm Blood Pressure Measurements in Patients With Large Arm Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Anastas, Zoe

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if forearm blood pressures (BPs) measured in three different locations agree with the recommended upper arm location for noninvasive BP measurement. A method-comparison design was used. In a convenience sample of postanesthesia care unit patients with large upper arm circumference, BP's were obtained in three different forearm locations (lower forearm, middle forearm, and upper forearm) and compared to upper arm BP using an automated BP measuring device. The level of agreement (bias ± precision) between each forearm location and the upper arm BP was calculated using standard formulas. Acceptable levels of agreement based on expert opinion were set a priori at bias and precision values of less than ±5 mm Hg (bias) and ±8 mm Hg (precision). Forty-eight postanesthesia patients participated in the study. Bias and precision values were found to exceed the acceptable level of agreement for all but one of the systolic and diastolic BP comparisons in the three forearm BP locations. Fifty-six percent of all patients studied had one or more BP difference of at least 10 mm Hg in each of the three forearm locations, with 10% having one or more differences of at least 20 mm Hg. The differences in forearm BP measurements observed in this study indicate that the clinical practice of using a forearm BP with a regular-sized BP cuff in place of a larger sized BP cuff placed on the upper arm in postanesthesia care unit patients with large arm circumferences is inappropriate. The BPs obtained at the forearm location are not equivalent to the BPs obtained at the upper arm location. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Screw elastic intramedullary nail for the management of adult forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasudeo Gadegone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The failure of the conventional nailing of both forearm bones or isolated fractures of radius and ulna pose a potential problem of nail migration and rotational instability, despite the best reduction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of screw elastic intramedullary nail for the treatment of adult diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones, which effectively addresses the problems associated with the conventional nailing systems for the forearm fractures. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six adults with forearm fractures (radius and ulna or isolated fracture of the single bone were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty males and 26 females with the mean age of 38 years (range, 18-70 years underwent closed reduction and screw intramedullary nail fixation. Ten patients required limited open reduction. The fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA system. The average followup was 12 months (range, 6 to 18 months. Results: The mean surgical time was 45 minutes (35 to 65 minutes. The meantime to union was 14 weeks (10-21 weeks. The results were graded as excellent in 50, good in 18 patients, and acceptable in eight patients, using the criteria of Grace and Eversman. We had superficial infection in three cases, one case of delayed infection, painful bursa in two cases, delayed union in two cases, malunion with dislocation of the DRUJ in two cases, injury to the extensor tendon of the thumb in one case, and one case of incomplete radioulnar synostosis. Conclusion: Closed reduction and internal fixation of forearm fractures by screw intramedullary nails reestablishes the near normal relationship of the fractured fragments. Screw intramedullary nail effectively controls both rotatory forces and the migration of the nail. It produces excellent clinical results in isolated fractures of either bones, as well as both bones of the forearm in adults.

  18. Extensive forearm deep venous thrombosis following a severe infliximab infusion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara M; Romberg, Marielle; Wolters, Frank; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W

    2004-09-01

    Here we describe a patient with Crohn's disease who developed a severe infliximab infusion reaction (IIR), complicated 1 day later by severe swelling of the forearm and hand ipsilateral to the site of infliximab infusion. This proved to be extensive forearm deep venous thrombosis. The site of thrombosis and the chronological relationship with the IIR implicates a hypersensitivity to infliximab in the causation of the venous thrombosis in this case. With an increasing trend towards re-treating patients with known IIRs, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious and previously unreported complication.

  19. Water filtration of the forearm in short- and long-term diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H L; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    of the forearm. Increased water filtration in connective tissue in long-term diabetics is in accordance with earlier findings of a lowered subcutaneous interstitial fluid albumin concentration in long-term diabetics, this being explained by an increase in net water outflux from the microcirculation.......Blood flow and capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography on the upper and lower third of the forearm in 9 normal subjects and 29 well regulated patients with diabetes mellitus of varying duration (less than 10 years, 10 to 20 years, and more than 20 years...

  20. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  1. High incidence of the median artery of the forearm in a sample of recent southern African cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the presence of the median artery, providing substantial blood supply to the hand, were conducted on 96 dissected forearms of 15 adult African females and 49 adult males. The artery has a much higher incidence (27.1%) than previously reported by any author. There is no significant difference in its occurrence between sexes, nor between right and left limbs. The artery seems to occur more often bilaterally than unilaterally. The presence of the artery is not related to age. From a theoretical standpoint it is difficult to accept that a structure present in more than 1 in 4 of individuals should be considered an 'anomaly' or a 'variant'. A different approach to description of normal human anatomy is therefore necessary--that of presenting alternative anatomical patterns of equal standing rather than a single 'normal' pattern. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1452474

  2. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  3. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  4. Forearm vascular response to nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide: comparison between migraine patients and control subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoon, J.N. de; Smits, P.; Troost, J.; Struijker-Boudier, H.A.; Bortel, L.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The forearm vascular response to nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was investigated in 10 migraine patients and 10 matched control subjects. Changes in forearm blood flow (FBF) during intrabrachial infusion of: (i) serotonin (releasing endogenous NO), (ii) sodium

  5. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  6. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  7. A new mini-invasive technique in treating pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures by bioabsorbable elastic stable intramedullary nailing: a preliminary technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, J-J; Keränen, J; Haltia, A-M; Serlo, W; Merikanto, J

    2013-01-01

    Operative treatment is often indicated in unstable pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures. Recently minimally invasive reduction and elastic stable intramedullary nailing have been of increasing interest, instead of open reduction and internal fixation with plates. There are several disadvantages of metallic intramedullary implants, such as soft-tissue irritation and a risk of disturbing later imaging. Thus, they are generally removed in later operations. We aimed to develop a new technique to stabilize pediatric forearm fractures by the bioabsorbable intramedullary nailing. We developed a new, two-stage mini-invasive surgical technique to stabilize the unstable diaphyseal fractures in children. The procedure is bioabsorbable elastic stable intramedullary nailing. Ultra-high-strength bioabsorbable intramedullary nails of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were manufactured for our purpose. The material has been widely proven to be biocompatible and stable enough for fracture treatment as screws and pins. We have used the new technique in the unstable both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. We report the technique and our clinical experience in the series of those three cases that have been followed up for at least 12 months. The present series has been randomized for the procedure instead for titanium elastic stable intramedullary nailing, and the series represents a part of ongoing randomized trial. The reported cases operated by the new technique referred good union in the fractured bones and acceptable alignment in the follow-up. Removal of the implants was not required. No troubles with the procedure or implant per se were noticed, indicating good feasibility. One high-energy refracture occurred half year after the primary trauma. Traditional titanium implants were used to control the refracture. We report our preliminary experience of a new surgical mini-invasive procedure to stabilize the unstable pediatric forearm shaft

  8. Transverse Carpal Ligament and Forearm Fascia Release for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Change the Entrance Angle of Flexor Tendons to the A1 Pulley: The Relationship between Carpal Tunnel Surgery and Trigger Finger Occurence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Karalezli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The appearance of trigger finger after decompression of the carpal tunnel without a preexisting symptom has been reported in a few articles. Although, the cause is not clear yet, the loss of pulley action of the transverse carpal ligament has been accused mostly. In this study, we planned a biomechanical approach to fresh cadavers. Methods. The study was performed on 10 fresh amputees of the arm. The angles were measured with (1 the transverse carpal ligament and the distal forearm fascia intact, (2 only the transverse carpal ligament incised, (3 the distal forearm fascia incised to the point 3 cm proximal from the most proximal part of the transverse carpal ligament in addition to the transverse carpal ligament. The changes between the angles produced at all three conditions were compared to each other. Results. We saw that the entrance angle increased in all of five fingers in an increasing manner from procedure 1 to 3, and it was seen that the maximal increase is detected in the middle finger from procedure 1 to procedure 2 and the minimal increase is detected in little finger. Discussion. Our results support that transverse carpal ligament and forearm fascia release may be a predisposing factor for the development of trigger finger by the effect of changing the enterance angle to the A1 pulley and consequently increase the friction in this anatomic area. Clinical Relevance. This study is a cadaveric study which is directly investigating the effect of a transverse carpal ligament release on the enterance angle of flexor tendons to A1 pulleys in the hand.

  9. Orientation of axes in the elbow and forearm for biomechanical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, H. E J; Yu, B.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the three-dimensional positions and orientations of axes of rotation for elbow flexion and forearm prosupination, the flexion-extension and prosupination movements were measured for five arms. Four right and one arm were taken from four fresh cadavers. Movement was measured with a

  10. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, B R M; Frijns, A J H; Saris, W H M; van Steenhoven, A A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2010-07-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfusion and mean arterial pressure were measured in 16 young adults (Y: 18-28 years) and 16 elderly (E: 68-78 years). To study the effect of local vasoconstriction mechanisms local sympathetic nerve terminals were blocked by bretylium (BR). Baseline local skin temperature was clamped at 33 degrees C. Next, local temperature was reduced to 24 degrees C. After 15 min of local cooling, noradrenaline (NA) was administered to study the effect of neural vasoconstriction mechanisms. No significant age effect was observed in vasoconstriction due to local cooling at BR sites. After NA, vasoconstriction at the forearm showed a significant age effect; however, no significant age effect was found at the hand sites. [Change in CVC (% from baseline): Forearm Y: -76 +/- 3 vs. E: -60 +/- 5 (P forearm, elderly did not show a blunted response to local cooling and noradrenaline at hand skin sites. This indicates that at hand skin the noradrenergic mechanism of vasoconstriction is maintained with age.

  11. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have

  12. Treatment Results Of Diaphyseal Forearm Fractures With Dynamique Compression Plate A Retrospective study of 156 Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BOUSSAKRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study addresses a series of 156 cases of forearm fractures. These 156 cases were managed in the trauma-orthopedic department (B4 of Fez University Hospital, Morocco, from May 2008 till January 2013. The purpose of this study is to analyze epidemiological and clinical factors of diaphyseal forearm fractures and the results of their treatment with dynamic compression plate (DCP, as well as the complications and therapeutic errors of this surgical technique. The frequency of hospitalization in the trauma-orthopedic department was 3,96%. Ages ranged between 16 and 83, the average age was 32. 132 patients were male (85%. 90% were managed at the day of trauma. Traffic accidents were the most frequent cause in 52% patients. The fracture was in the left forearm in 65% of patients. 53% of fracture lines were in the middle third of the forearm. 38 fractures were open, and 30 were admitted for polytrauma. Osteosynthesis was performed with dynamic compression plate for all patients. In comparison with the literature, our series shows the predominance of young male patients, with traffic accidents being the cause. Osteosynthesis with dynamic compression plate remains the treatment of choice that provides satisfactory results if the accuracy in this technique was respected.

  13. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  14. Low-pressure sequential compression of lower limbs enhances forearm skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amah, Guy; Voicu, Sebastian; Bonnin, Philippe; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether forearm skin blood flow could be improved when a multilayer pulsatile inflatable suit was applied at a low pressure to the lower limbs and abdomen. We hypothesized that a non-invasive purely mechanical stimulation of the lower limbs could induce remote forearm blood flow modifications. The pulsatile suit induced a sequential compartmentalized low compression (65 mmHg), which was synchronized with each diastole of the cardiac cycle with each phase evolving centripetally (lower limbs to abdomen). Modifications of the forearm skin blood flow were continuously recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at baseline and during the pulsatile suit application. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilations of the forearm skin microcirculation were measured by LDF in response to a local transdermal iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh-test) and to hyperthermia (hyperT- test). Twenty-four healthy volunteers, 12 men and 12 women (43±14 years) were included in the study. LDF responses increased 1) under pulsatile suit (97±106%, p.

  15. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1993-01-01

    the glucose load and had not returned to baseline level at the end of the experiment. Whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) was, on average, 0.80 (SD 0.05) in the baseline condition and increased to a maximum of 0.91 (0.03) and then decreased to baseline level at the end of the experiment. The local forearm.......17) to 0.63 (0.17) 30 min after the glucose load (P glucose load RQ increased to a maximum level at 0.95 (0.22) and decreased then gradually to baseline level. The experiments emphasize several methodological problems in the measurement of local forearm RQ. The whole-body RQ......The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...

  16. Pain, wheal and flare in human forearm skin induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the forearm skin of 0.05 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. Bradykinin (0.5 nmol), 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.5 nmol) and a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (0.25 nmol + 0.25 nmol...

  17. Impairment and employment issues after nerve repair in the hand and forearm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiners, PM; Coert, JH; Robinson, PH; Meek, MF

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate retrospectively subjective impairments, experienced disabilities, job and leisure restrictions and job changes in patients at least 2 years after repair of a peripheral nerve injury in the forearm, wrist or hand. Methods. Between January 1997 and January 2000, 125 patients were

  18. Radial forearm flap : eight years experience with oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions - donor and acceptor site morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Vermey, A; Robinson, PH; Lichtendahl, DHE; Roodenburg, JLN

    The success rate of 56 free radial forearm flaps used between 1987 and 1995 in the University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands for oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions in cancer patients, was evaluated. There were 36 men and 20 women. The most prevalent neoplasm was squamous cell carcinoma

  19. Immobilisation-induced changes in forearm bone quantity and quality: radiographic fourier image analysis vs bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Price, R.I.; Buck, A.M.; University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA; Price, R.L.; University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA; Sweetman, I.M.; Ho, S.

    1996-01-01

    (including water-immersion of the forearm, plus image calibration) and results of the bone densitometry study have been published (Prince RL et al, J Bone and Min Res, 3: 305-310, 1988). In the present study, the original radiographs from a subset of 30 patients (16M and 14F) were re-analysed by specifically-designed software (IMS). Radiographs were digitised and a square (128 x 128 pixels, 256 grey levels) was extracted centrally from the image of the UD radius, with its distal side perpendicular to the forearm long axis and lined up with the base of the ulnar styloid process, representing an area of 16x16 mm 2 on the unmagnified image. Following thresholding using a value derived from sampling of the bone-free image, a 2-D FT was derived. It is reasonable to expect that there is (at least) a qualitative relationship between the sizes and orientations of the image elements identified by the FT and those of the trabeculae generating them by superposition. The general orientations (or sizes) of these periodic elements were analysed by dividing up the Fourier plane (described by polar coordinates ν, θ) into contiguous sectors (or annuli) and summing the normalised intensities within each sector (or annulus) (eg Lendaris GG et al, Proc IEEE 58: 198-216, 1970). Principal Components Analysis using all 8 annuli produced a complete separation of male and female non-hemi forearms, marked separation of male hemi and male non-hemi, and no separation in women. We conclude from this preliminary study that FT analysis of in-vivo forearm radiographs reveals gender dimorphism and detects immobilisation-induced changes in bone structure (ie 'quality') in males but not females. Thus the pattern of trabecular bone loss in males may differ from that of women, in a manner not discernible by conventional bone densitometry, which addresses bone 'quantity' only

  20. Double-layered collagen graft to the radial forearm free flap donor sites without skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Jun; Kim, Hong-Joon; Ahn, Kang-Min

    2015-12-01

    Radial forearm free flap is the most reliable flap for intraoral soft tissue reconstruction after cancer ablation surgery. However, unesthetic scar of the donor site and the need for a second donor site for skin graft are major disadvantages of the forearm flap. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical results of double-layered collagen graft to the donor site of the forearm free flap without skin graft. Twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent oral cancer ablation and forearm reconstruction between April 2010 and November 2013 were included in this study. Male to female ratio was 12:10, and average age was 61.0 years old (27-84). Double-layered collagen was grafted to the donor site of the forearm free flap and healed for secondary intention. Upper silicone had been trimmed at the periphery during secondary intention, and dry dressing was used. Postoperative scar healing and esthetic results and function were evaluated. An average follow-up period was 34.9 months. The scar area was decreased to 63.9 % in average. The complete healing was obtained between 1.5 and 3 months according to the defect size. There was no functional defect or impairment 3 months after operation. All patients were satisfied with the esthetic results. Three patients died of recurred cancer. Double-layered collagen graft was successfully performed in this study. Without the thigh skin graft, patients had experienced less painful postoperative healing periods and discomfort.

  1. Acute changes in forearm venous volume and tone using radionuclide plethysmography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, D.E.; Malkinson, T.J.; Robinson, V.; Smith, E.R.; Cooper, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation blood pool scintigraphy was validated as a method to study acute changes in human forearm veins. Changes in regional forearm vascular volume (capacity) and the occluding pressure-volume (P-V) relationship induced by sublingual nifedipine (NIF) and nitroglycerin (GTN) were recorded in 16 patients with simultaneous data collection by the radionuclide and the mercury-in-rubber strain-gauge techniques. The standard error of estimate (Syx) between successive control measurements using the radionuclide method was 3.1% compared with 3.2% for the strain-gauge method. The venous P-V curves were highly reproducible using both techniques. Strain gauge and radionuclide measurements of acute changes in forearm venous volume correlated well (r = 0.86; Syx = 7%, n = 156). After 20 mg of NIF or 0.6 mg of GTN, mean heart rate increased from 71 +/- 10 to 77 +/- 9 and from 68 +/- 10 to 75 +/- 11 beats/min, respectively, and group systolic blood pressure decreased from 128 +/- 22 to 120 +/- 19 and from 136 +/- 18 to 126 +/- 23 mmHg, respectively (P less than 0.05). At venous occluding pressures of 0 and 30 mmHg, the forearm vascular volume did not change after NIF (2 +/- 4 and -1 +/- 4%; P greater than 0.05), whereas it increased after GTN (8 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 7%; P less than 0.001). The forearm venous P-V relationship did not change after NIF, whereas a significant rightward shift (venodilation, with an increase in unstressed volume) occurred after GTN

  2. Closure of the Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Site Using the Combined Local Triangular Full-Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; González-García, Raúl; Ruiz-Laza, Luis; Manzano Solo de Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-García, Carlos; Monje, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    Traditional donor-site closure has been associated with serious esthetic and functional morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess morbidity in esthetics and function and measure the postoperative complications of the radial forearm free flap (RFFF) donor site after using combined local triangular full-thickness skin grafting. This prospective study of patients who underwent reconstruction of head and neck defects using an RFFF was conducted from July 2008 through December 2014. The donor site was repaired with a combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft. Quality of the scar, color match, tendon exposure, presence of necrosis, dehiscence of the suture, and presence of dysesthesia were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. One hundred consecutive patients (71 male and 29 female) underwent RFFF harvesting. RFFF donor-site defects ranged from 15 to 70 cm2; partial skin graft loss occurred in 7% of patients. Five patients (5%) had small dehiscences of the forearm skin graft, and 2 cases (2%) presented tendon exposure. In all cases, these sites healed secondarily by conservative management, with no final impairment of function. Esthetic results were considered excellent in 87%, good in 11%, and suboptimal in 2% of the cases. The combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft is a reliable method for closing RFFF donor-site defects because it obviates a second surgical site, it provides excellent color match and pliability, and it can be used for covering large defects of the donor site. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of human cutaneous forearm bite marks in human volunteers over a 4 day period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sainte Croix, M M; Gauld, D; Forgie, A H; Lowe, R

    2016-05-01

    Human bite marks are often sustained during sexual, domestic or child abuse. Currently, analysis of these marks involves digital photography techniques along with an expert forensic odontologist opinion. Photographs often focus closely on the bite mark and give little context to the anatomical location of the injury. Due to variation in camera models and expertise of the photographer, photograph quality can affect its interpretation. Additionally, it can sometimes be days between injury and examination, allowing the injury pattern and colour to alter, making it harder to analyse. To investigate if a 3D imaging technique, creating a time-lapse image of a bite mark in three dimensions, can provide context to the injury in terms of nature and location, and also allow analysis of the change in appearance of a bite mark over time. Participants had an experimental bite mark produced on their forearm by dental casts mounted on a dental articulator. The forearms were photographed immediately following the bite, and at intervals of 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A DI3D(®) (Dimensional Imaging 3D) photogrammetry system and Autodesk Maya 2015(®) software was used to create a 3D animation from the images obtained. The clearest, long lasting bite mark injuries were selected for animation, enabling the 3D imaging technique to be used optimally. 3D time-lapse animations were successfully created with the ability to be viewed on most electronic devices. With further refinement this technique could be valuable in a number of areas. We anticipate animations produced in this way to have significant benefit to the presentation of photographic evidence in a court setting, and in age estimation of injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  5. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    /100 g) were significantly .... Proximate analysis of A. baremoze fillets according to sample sizes in a study in. Uganda .... present in the fish tissues in trace amounts. ... The zinc contents in fish samples of ..... (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and.

  6. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Ash, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate and protein contents were determined according ... All fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans and peas), and the grains we eat ... isolate and quantify each proximate present in the plant material.

  7. Impaired modulation of postjunctional α1 - but not α2 -adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting forearm muscle of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Hanada, Satoshi; Feider, Andrew J; Iwamoto, Erika; Bock, Joshua M; Casey, Darren P

    2018-04-30

    Contraction-mediated blunting of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) is attenuated in skeletal muscle of ageing males, brought on by altered postjunctional α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The extent to which postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction occurs in the forearms at rest and during exercise in postmenopausal women remains unknown. The novel findings indicate that contraction-mediated blunting of α 1 - (via intra-arterial infusion of phenylephrine) but not α 2 -adrenergic (via intra-arterial infusion of dexmedetomidine) vasoconstriction was attenuated in postmenopausal women compared to young women. Additional important findings revealed that postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness at rest does not appear to be affected by age in women. Collectively, these results contribute to our understanding of local neurovascular control at rest and during exercise with age in women. Contraction-mediated blunting of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) is attenuated in older males; however, direct confirmation of this effect remains unknown in postmenopausal women (PMW). The present study examined whether PMW exhibit augmented postjunctional α-adrenergic receptor vasoconstriction at rest and during forearm exercise compared to young women (YW). Eight YW (24 ± 1 years) and eight PMW (65 ± 1 years) completed a series of randomized experimental trials: (1) at rest, (2) under high flow (adenosine infusion) conditions and (3) during 6 min of forearm exercise at relative (20% of maximum) and absolute (7 kg) intensities. Phenylephrine (α 1 -agonist) or dexmedetomidine (α 2 -agonist) was administered during the last 3 min of each trial to elicit α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from blood flow and blood pressure. Vasoconstrictor responsiveness was identified as the change in FVC (%) during

  8. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  9. Relationships between metacarpal morphometry, fore-arm and vertebral bone density and fractures in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bochner, M.; Need, A.G.; Nordin, B.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The relationships between metacarpal morphometric, vertebral and forearm density measurement and the prevalence of vertebral and peripheral fractures were examined in 239 postmenopausal women (median age 63, range 32-84 years). Metacarpal cortical area/total area ratio (CA/TA) was measured with needle calipers forearm mineral density (FMD) by single photon absorptiometry and vertebral mineral density (VMD) by single energy quantitative computed tomography. The authors suggest that metacarpal morphometry, which is widely available at relatively low cost, yields cross-sectional information about bone density and fracture risk, comparable with that obtained by forearm and vertebral densitometry. (Author)

  10. A further study of the high incidence of the median artery of the forearm in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; George, B J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two forearms from 36 cadavers of South Africans of European extraction were dissected. The frequency of the median artery per forearm was 27.4%. There was neither bilateral difference nor sexual dimorphism in the incidence of the artery. These findings compare well with a previous study of black South Africans (Henneberg & George, 1992) where frequency per forearm was 27.1%. Our findings are much higher than those of earlier studies. This discrepancy may be explained either by differences in the thoroughness of the observations or regional variation, or by the occurrence of a secular trend in the development of vasculature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1294564

  11. Continuous Infraclavicular Block for Forearm Amputation After Being Bitten by a Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus Porosus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsi Chiu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important issues after a complete right forearm amputation are replantation and ongoing pain management. There are no reports of successful forearm replantation as a consequence of a crocodile bite. Here, we discuss our pain management in a case of complete forearm amputation after a bite from a saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus, which necessitated six further operations to achieve successful replantation. Continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block was effective for acute pain control in this case. We strongly recommend performing the block with an indwelling catheter under ultrasound guidance for higher accuracy and safety.

  12. Surface Electromyography of the Forearm Musculature During the Windmill Softball Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, D. Trey; Fincham, Bryce; McCullough, Bryan; Davis, Kirk; Nofsinger, Charles; Armstrong, Charles; Stausmire, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. Purpose: Elbow and upper extremity overuse injuries are on the rise in fast-pitch softball pitchers. This study attempts to describe forearm muscle activity in softball pitchers during the windmill softball pitch. Overuse injuries can be prevented if a better understanding of mechanics is defined. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Surface EMG and high-speed videography was used to study forearm muscle activation patterns during the windmill softball pitch on 10 female collegiate-level pitchers. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle was used as a normalizing value. Each subject was tested during a single laboratory session per pitcher. Data included peak muscle activation, average muscle activation, and time to peak activation for 6 pitch types: fastball, changeup, riseball, curveball, screwball, and dropball. Results: During the first 4 phases, muscle activity (seen as signal strength on the EMG recordings) was limited and static in nature. The greatest activation occurred in phases 5 and 6, with increased signal strength, evidence of stretch-shortening cycle, and different muscle characteristics with each pitch style. These 2 phases of the windmill pitch are where the arm is placed in the 6 o’clock position and then at release of the ball. The flexor carpi ulnaris signal strength was significantly greater than the other forearm flexors. Timing of phases 1 through 5 was successively shorter for each pitch. There was a secondary pattern of activation in the flexor carpi ulnaris in phase 4 for all pitches except the fastball and riseball. Conclusion: During the 6

  13. Surface Electromyography of the Forearm Musculature During the Windmill Softball Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, D Trey; Fincham, Bryce; McCullough, Bryan; Davis, Kirk; Nofsinger, Charles; Armstrong, Charles; Stausmire, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. Elbow and upper extremity overuse injuries are on the rise in fast-pitch softball pitchers. This study attempts to describe forearm muscle activity in softball pitchers during the windmill softball pitch. Overuse injuries can be prevented if a better understanding of mechanics is defined. Descriptive laboratory study. Surface EMG and high-speed videography was used to study forearm muscle activation patterns during the windmill softball pitch on 10 female collegiate-level pitchers. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle was used as a normalizing value. Each subject was tested during a single laboratory session per pitcher. Data included peak muscle activation, average muscle activation, and time to peak activation for 6 pitch types: fastball, changeup, riseball, curveball, screwball, and dropball. During the first 4 phases, muscle activity (seen as signal strength on the EMG recordings) was limited and static in nature. The greatest activation occurred in phases 5 and 6, with increased signal strength, evidence of stretch-shortening cycle, and different muscle characteristics with each pitch style. These 2 phases of the windmill pitch are where the arm is placed in the 6 o'clock position and then at release of the ball. The flexor carpi ulnaris signal strength was significantly greater than the other forearm flexors. Timing of phases 1 through 5 was successively shorter for each pitch. There was a secondary pattern of activation in the flexor carpi ulnaris in phase 4 for all pitches except the fastball and riseball. During the 6 pitches, the greatest muscular activity was in phases 5 and 6

  14. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  15. Proximity of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread acknowledgement among European policy-makers that higher education may potentially contribute to enhancing competitiveness of tourism. This has led to a sheer explosion of specific measures encouraging knowledge transfer with the private sector. Despite the importance...... of knowledge flow processes, the role of universities and students has been little researched or linked to the understanding of innovation defectiveness in tourism. Followed by a critical review of knowledge transfer and learning processes in generic development and tourism literature, the chapter presents...... an illustrative case from an innovation course on a Danish Master program in tourism. The case describes and discusses challenges in working with, creating and implementing innovation through student-practitioner collaboration. It is argued that successful innovation is not solely, as previously argued...

  16. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic...... surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...... length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect the APOE genotypes. Quantitative ultrasound was measured at the calcaneus. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lower forearm was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The distributions of genotype frequencies in this study were: E2/E2: 0.3%; E2/E3...

  17. Association between polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, bone mineral density of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Sand, J C; Madsen, B

    2003-01-01

    surgery and age-matched controls from the population register. The APOE genotypes of 327 women were studied: 73 with lower forearm fractures, 43 with hip fractures and 211 age-matched controls. The participants were not receiving antiosteoporotic treatment. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment...... are contradictory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of APOE, BMD of the lower forearm, quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and osteoporotic fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with hip or lower forearm fractures admitted to a department of orthopaedic....... In conclusion, this study showed no association between bone mass parameters (BMD, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)), hip or lower forearm fracture and APOE genotypes in a population of postmenopausal women and age-matched controls....

  18. A spontaneous pre-anastomotic occlusion does not necessarily impair forearm native dialysis fistulas: echo-Doppler, 3D MR angiographic and digital subtraction angiographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, N; Pillet, J C; Prospert, E; McLntyre, D; Lamy, S

    2013-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the choice treatment of end-stage renal disease. When it is not indicated or not immediately feasible, hemodialysis must be performed, preferably via a native arteriovenous fistula in the forearm. A pre-anastomotic occlusion of this type of fistula is often accompanied by a thrombosis of its draining vein. In some instances, the venous segment may remain permeable thanks to the development of arterial collateral pathways and may even allow efficient dialysis without any clinical syndrome of distal steal. We present the echo-Doppler, magnetic and angiographic characteristics of three of these collateralized shunts that have remained functional, in one of the cases following a percutaneous dilation.

  19. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a ...

  20. [Avulsion of the Proximal Hamstring Insertion. Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, R; Harcuba, R; Kratochvíl, J

    2016-01-01

    Proximal hamstring avulsion is an uncommon muscle injury with a lack of consensus on indications and the timing and technique of surgery. Poor clinical symptoms and difficulties in the diagnostic process can lead to a false diagnosis. The authors present three cases of proximal hamstring avulsion, two complete and one partial ruptures of the biceps femoris muscle. MRI and ultrasound scans were used for optimal treatment alignment. Acute surgery reconstruction (hamstring strength. Two interesting systematic reviews published on the treatment of proximal hamstring avulsion are discussed in the final part of the paper. Key words: hamstring, rupture, avulsion.

  1. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, forearm, and mandible of nephrotic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olgaard, K; Storm, Tina; van Wowern, N

    1992-01-01

    /day and tapered down to 20 mg/day for 1 year and DFZ was given in an equipotent dosage. Twenty-three patients completed 6 months of treatment, and 18 patients completed 12 months of treatment. Beside laboratory parameters to ensure the effect of treatment on the nephrotic syndrome, all had measurements......The long-term effects of high dose steroid treatment with either prednisone (PDN) or deflazacort (DFZ) were examined on various parts of the skeleton in 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All had normal skeleton at the start of the steroid treatment. At the beginning, PDN was given as 80 mg...... of the bone mineral content (BMC) at 0, 6, and 12 months of treatment. BMC was measured by single photon absorptiometry of both forearms and by dual photon absorptiometry of the mandible, forearms, and lumbar spine. The effect of DFZ was compared to that of PDN due to a potential "calcium sparing" effect...

  2. Risk factors for persistent elbow, forearm and hand pain among computer workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, C. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Kryger, Ann Isabel

    2005-01-01

    to elbow, forearm, or wrist-hand pain during the 12 months preceding the baseline questionnaire. Pain status (recovery versus persistence) at follow-up was examined in relation to computer work aspects and ergonomic, psychosocial, and personal factors by questionnaire. In addition, data on objectively......, and type-A behavior, the prognosis seemed independent of psychosocial workplace factors and personal factors. A few cases with severe pain were affected at a level which could be compared to clinical pain conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the hypothesis that computer work activity......OBJECTIVES: This study examined the influence of work-related and personal factors on the prognosis of "severe" elbow, forearm, and wrist-hand pain among computer users. METHODS: In a 1-year follow-up study of 6943 computer users, 673 (10%) participants reported "quite a lot" or more trouble due...

  3. Mechanical design of EFW Exo II: A hybrid exoskeleton for elbow-forearm-wrist rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Hui; Chen, Ziye; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Tieshi

    2017-07-01

    The use of rehabilitation exoskeleton has become an important means for the treatment of stroke patients. A hybrid exoskeleton named EFW Exo II is developed for the motor function rehabilitation of elbow, forearm and wrist. The EFW Exo II is based on a parallel 2-URR/RRS mechanism and a serial R mechanism. It could fit both left and right arms for the symmetrical and open structure, and the distance between the elbow and wrist could automatically adjust for different forearm length. Details of the mechanical design are introduced. Brushless DC servo motors with planetary gear reducer are used as the actuators of the exoskeleton. Gear drive and belt drive are used for power transmission. A three dimensional force sensor is mounted in the handle to regulate the interaction between the exoskeleton and patient. The EFW Exo II can realize rehabilitation exercise for each joint and the ranges of motion meet the rehabilitation demands of daily living.

  4. Results of Closed Intramedullary Nailing using Talwarkar Square Nail in Adult Forearm Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A Lil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate results of closed intramedullary nailing using Talwarkar square nails in adult forearm fractures. We prospectively evaluated 34 patients with both bone forearm fractures. The average time to union was 12.8 (SD +3.2 weeks with cast support for a mean of 8.2 weeks. Union was achieved in 31 out of 34 patients. Using the Grace and Eversmann rating system, 17 patients were excellent, 10 were good, and 4 had an acceptable result. Three patients had non-unions, 2 for the radius and one for the ulna. There were two cases of superficial infection, one subject had olecranon bursitis, and one case of radio-ulnar synostosis. Complication rates associated with the use of square nails were lower compared to plate osteosynthesis and locked intramedullary nails. To control rotation post- operatively, there is a need for application of an above-elbow cast after nailing.

  5. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  6. Commercial golf glove effects on golf performance and forearm muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Darroch, Paul; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether or not commercial golf gloves influence performance variables and forearm muscle activity during golf play. Fifteen golfers participated in the laboratory based study, each performing 8 golf swings with a Driver and 7-iron whilst wearing a glove and 8 without wearing the glove. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables were calculated. Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis on both forearm muscles. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance was significantly higher when using the Driver with the glove in comparison to the Driver without the glove (p < 0.05). No significant differences were evident when using the 7-iron and no significant differences were displayed in muscle activity in either of the conditions. Findings from this study suggest that driving performance is improved when wearing a glove.

  7. Thermogenic response to adrenaline during restricted blood flow in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Christensen, N J

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the underlying mechanism behind the thermogenic effect of adrenaline in human skeletal muscle, nine healthy subjects were studied during intravenous infusion of adrenaline. Restriction of blood flow to one forearm was obtained by external compression of the brachial artery, to separate...... a direct metabolic effect of adrenaline from an effect dependent on increased blood flow. The other arm served as the control arm. In the control arm, the forearm blood flow increased 4.7-fold (from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 9.3 +/- 1.5 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1), P adrenaline infusion. Adrenaline...... not increase (baseline period: 5.6 +/- 2.3 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1), adrenaline period: 6.1 +/- 2.1 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1), P = 0.54). The experimental design and the difficulties in interpretation of the result are discussed. The results give evidence for the hypothesis that the vascular system plays...

  8. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van, A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfus...

  9. Forearm Flexor Muscles in Children with Cerebral Palsy Are Weak, Thin and Stiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pontén

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP often develop reduced passive range of motion with age. The determining factor underlying this process is believed to be progressive development of contracture in skeletal muscle that likely changes the biomechanics of the joints. Consequently, to identify the underlying mechanisms, we modeled the mechanical characteristics of the forearm flexors acting across the wrist joint. We investigated skeletal muscle strength (Grippit® and passive stiffness and viscosity of the forearm flexors in 15 typically developing (TD children (10 boys/5 girls, mean age 12 years, range 8–18 yrs and nine children with CP Nine children (6 boys/3 girls, mean age 11 ± 3 years (yrs, range 7–15 yrs using the NeuroFlexor® apparatus. The muscle stiffness we estimate and report is the instantaneous mechanical response of the tissue that is independent of reflex activity. Furthermore, we assessed cross-sectional area of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR muscle using ultrasound. Age and body weight did not differ significantly between the two groups. Children with CP had a significantly weaker (−65%, p < 0.01 grip and had smaller cross-sectional area (−43%, p < 0.01 of the FCR muscle. Passive stiffness of the forearm muscles in children with CP was increased 2-fold (p < 0.05 whereas viscosity did not differ significantly between CP and TD children. FCR cross-sectional area correlated to age (R2 = 0.58, p < 0.01, body weight (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.0001 and grip strength (R2 = 0.82, p < 0.0001 in TD children but only to grip strength (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.05 in children with CP. We conclude that children with CP have weaker, thinner, and stiffer forearm flexors as compared to typically developing children.

  10. A Compact Forearm Crutch Based on Force Sensors for Aided Gait: Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Sevillano, Jos? Luis; Ridao-Fern?ndez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Frequently, patients who suffer injuries in some lower member require forearm crutches in order to partially unload weight-bearing. These lesions cause pain in lower limb unloading and their progression should be controlled objectively to avoid significant errors in accuracy and, consequently, complications and after effects in lesions. The design of a new and feasible tool that allows us to control and improve the accuracy of loads exerted on crutches during aided gait is necessary, so as to...

  11. Ulnar variance: its relationship to ulnar foveal morphology and forearm kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Moritomo, Hisao; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2012-04-01

    It is unclear how individual differences in the anatomy of the distal ulna affect kinematics and pathology of the distal radioulnar joint. This study evaluated how ulnar variance relates to ulnar foveal morphology and the pronosupination axis of the forearm. We performed 3-dimensional computed tomography studies in vivo on 28 forearms in maximum supination and pronation to determine the anatomical center of the ulnar distal pole and the forearm pronosupination axis. We calculated the forearm pronosupination axis using a markerless bone registration technique, which determined the pronosupination center as the point where the axis emerges on the distal ulnar surface. We measured the depth of the anatomical center and classified it into 2 types: concave, with a depth of 0.8 mm or more, and flat, with a depth less than 0.8 mm. We examined whether ulnar variance correlated with foveal type and the distance between anatomical and pronosupination centers. A total of 18 cases had a concave-type fovea surrounded by the C-shaped articular facet of the distal pole, and 10 had a flat-type fovea with a flat surface without evident central depression. Ulnar variance of the flat type was 3.5 ± 1.2 mm, which was significantly greater than the 1.2 ± 1.1 mm of the concave type. Ulnar variance positively correlated with distance between the anatomical and pronosupination centers. Flat-type ulnar heads have a significantly greater ulnar variance than concave types. The pronosupination axis passes through the ulnar head more medially and farther from the anatomical center with increasing ulnar variance. This study suggests that ulnar variance is related in part to foveal morphology and pronosupination axis. This information provides a starting point for future studies investigating how foveal morphology relates to distal ulnar problems. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The recurrent branch of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

    OpenAIRE

    Horiguchi, M

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous nerves of the upper arm were observed in 31 Japanese cadavers dissected in a student course of gross anatomy dissection and in cadaver selected randomly for intensive dissection. Contrary to the descriptions in current textbooks of human anatomy, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm supplies also the skin over the distal region of the anterolateral surface of the upper arm. A branch to the upper arm (the recurrent branch) arises from the proper trunk of the lateral cutaneous n...

  13. MODELING OF THERMOELECTRIC SYSTEM FOR LOCAL THERMAL EFFECTS ON HUMAN FOREARM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a model of the thermoelectric system for the thermal effect on the human forearm. The model is implemented on the basis of numerical solution of differentialequations of heat conduction for bodies of complex configuration. Two-dimensional and onedimensional graphs of the temperature change in different zones of the object of exposure aregiven.

  14. Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of type I collagen (COL1, the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4% or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents.

  15. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  16. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  17. Suppression of the reactive hyperemic response in the forearm due to local hand cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, R D; Carranza, A; Findlay, R

    1997-01-01

    Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by electrical impedance plethysmography in order to identify the influence of local cooling of the contralateral hand after 3 min of arterial occlusion. Ten volunteers (six females, four males) were randomly assigned to the following three experimental conditions on separate days: a) 6 min of local hand cooling (5-7 degrees C); b) 3 min of arterial occlusion of the forearm; and c) combined arterial occlusion and local cooling. All subjects experienced the typical pressor response during 6 min of hand cooling as evidenced by the significant increase (p forearm vascular resistance (FVR = MAP/FBF) made an initial drop during the first 30 s of cooling and then gradually rose to reach peak levels between 5-6 min of cooling. With respect to the hyperemic response, FBF significantly increased (p cooling, FBF increased above baseline values and reached peak levels during the initial 30 s of the post-occlusion period. However, the magnitude of the hyperemic response was significantly lower in the cold condition compared to the hyperemia alone (3.20 +/- 0.42 vs 6.75 +/- 0.64 ml x 100 ml-1.min-1; p cooling had an overriding effect on the factors that promote peripheral vasodilation following brief periods (3 min) of arterial occlusion.

  18. Supinated forearm is correlated with the onset of medial epicondylitis in professional slalom water-skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Donato; Di Donato, Sigismondo Luca; Balato, Giovanni; D'Addona, Alessio; Schonauer, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    prolonged and laborious activities involving wrists and forearms has been long associated with the onset of epicondylitis. Slalom water-skiing can be included in this category. The purpose of the study is to analyse the correlation between the pronated or supinated position of forearms during water-skiing practice and the presence respectively of lateral and medial epicondylitis. sixty-six pro and semi-pro slalom water-skiers were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was submitted to each athlete. Diagnosis of lateral or medial epicondylitis was made through anamnesis and clinical exam by an expert orthopaedic surgeon. Chi-squared were performed for categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous ones. from 116 upper limbs examined, we observed 15 (12.9%) cases of lateral epicondylitis, 30 (25.9%) cases of medial epicondylitis, 10 (8.6%) were affected by both lateral and medial epicondylitis. Lateral and medial epicondylitis were associated (95% C.I.=2,489-26,355; P=epicondylitis (95% C.I.=1,529-9,542; P=0.003). slalom water-skiing can be considered a high-risk sport for epicondylitis. In slalom water-skiers there is a correlation between development of lateral and medial epicondylitis in the same upper limb. Supinated position of forearms is strongly associated with the diagnosis of medial epicondylitis.

  19. The effect of nerve blockade on forearm and finger skin blood flow during body heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumet, J L; Degoute, C S; Saumet, M; Abraham, P

    1992-08-01

    To determine the role of the active cutaneous vasodilatator response in forearm and finger skin, direct assessment of only skin blood flow was performed before and after musculocutaneous and median nerve blockade during whole body heating and cooling. Forearm laser Doppler flow (LDF forearm), forearm heat thermal clearance (HTC forearm), and finger laser Doppler flow (LDF finger) were monitored in the nerve blocked skin and contralateral untreated skin (control). In the pre-blockade period, no significant differences were found between experimental and control arm skin. After nerve block a significant increase occurred only in LDF finger, which rose from 4.3 +/- 0.6 to 6.0 +/- 0.5 volts (p less than 0.05). During whole body heating LDF forearm and HTC forearm increased significantly on both arms. The increase in LDF forearm was greater (p less than 0.05) in control (18.3 +/- 1.2 volts) than in nerve blocked skin (14.6 +/- 1.8 volts) and occurred earlier. The same tendency was observed in HTC forearm between nerve blocked skin (0.522 +/- 0.06 W.m-1.degrees C-1) and control 0.671 +/- 0.037 W.m-1.degrees C-1) (NS). LDF raise up to 6.6 +/- 0.5 and 6.8 +/- 0.5 volts in the blocked finger and in the control respectively. During cooling LDF finger in the control decreased to 1.3 +/- 0.1 volt and was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower than in the resting period, and lower than that in the nerve blocked finger (3.4 +/- 0.8 volts) (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the active vasodilatator system plays an important role as far as the timing and the amplitude of the cutaneous vasodilatator response to whole body heating in the forearm but not in the finger. At thermal neutrality, the vascular vasoconstrictor tone is high to the finger but not to the forearm. The vasoconstrictor response to cooling occurred only in the finger.

  20. Giant proximity effect and critical opalescence in EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Ramos, Silvia; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    The proximity effect is a type of wetting phenomenon where an ordered state, usually magnetism or superconductivity, ``leaks'' from one material into an adjacent one over some finite distance. For superconductors, the characteristic range is of the order of the coherence length, usually hundreds of nm. Nevertheless much longer, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate perovskite junctions. Such giant proximity effects can be understood by taking into account the divergence of the pairing susceptibility in the non-superconducting material when it is itself close to a superconducting instability: a superconducting version of critical opalescence. Since critical opalescence occurs in all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects are expected to be general, therefor there must be a giant ferromagnetic proximity effect. Compared to its superconducting counterpart, the giant ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that the order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We have fabricated Co/EuS thin films and measured the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature using the complementary techniques of low energy muon relaxation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Details of the proximity effect near TCEuS will be presented.

  1. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  2. The Effects of Forearm Support on Upper Body for People in Front of Monitor: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jingtong; Wu, Xiaojing; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With the ever-growing number of people who work at visual display terminals, the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper body are believed to be an important problem all over the world. The forearm support, which can keep the forearm and wrist in biomechanical posture, is a possible protective factor of the development of upper body syndrome. This meta-analysis examines the efficacy of forearm support in reducing upper body syndrome. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Ovid, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, CNKI database, and Wanfang database were searched from inception until May 29, 2013. Relevant studies were included after the screening of title, abstract, and the full text. Impact of bias was assessed independently by 2 authors. Four studies that met all the inclusion criteria were included finally. The combined results based on all studies suggested that statistically the forearm support had a nonsignificant effect on upper body syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49, 1.02). The result of subgroup analysis suggested that forearm support has a significant effect on neck or shoulder syndrome (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.14) and the effect on upper extremity syndrome (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.19) is not significant. This meta-analysis suggested that the forearm support had statistically nonsignificant effect on preventing upper body syndrome on the whole.

  3. Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscona, A.; Gundry, C.; Sartoris, D.J.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Stein, J.A.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DRA), dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), and single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) were used for comprehensive densitometry of 500 men and women aged 65-100 years, within an epidemiologic study of osteoporosis risk factors. DRA and DPA of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur were performed with a Hologic QDR-100 system and a Lunar DP3 system, respectively, and SPA of the 33% shaft and ultradistal forearm sites was performed with a Lunar SP2 system. DRA and DPA results showed high correlation at both sites (tau=.9,P<.001); data conversion factors were derived. SPA results for the ultradistal site correlated better with vertebral and femoral density (tau=.6,P<.1) than did those for the shaft site (tau=.4,P<.5) but neither forearm measurement was reliable predictive of axial mineral status. The various measurements displayed an age-dependent interrelationship. The DRA method offers the advantage of short examination times (about 5 minutes per site) and high precision (about 1%)

  4. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  5. Imaging in the diagnosis of symptomatic forearm muscle herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendi, Tuba Karaguelle; Altinok, Deniz; Erdal, Haydar Hueseyin; Kara, Simay [Department of Radiology, Kirikkale University School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2003-06-01

    Muscle herniation can be defined as protrusion of a portion of muscle through an acquired or congenital defect of enclosing fascia. Although it is usually a cosmetic problem, it can lead to local pain and tenderness after prolonged exertion. In this report, we present a case of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle herniation in a 58-year-old man. The radiographic, ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings are described with dynamic examination, permitting demonstration of muscle herniation through the fascial defect during muscle contraction. (orig.)

  6. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  8. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  9. Differences in blood pressure measurements in the forearm and upper arm of obese otherwise healthy first year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi V, Navin Rajaratnam, Suzanne Maria D’cruz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Indian youth and obesity is associated with complications like systemic hypertension. Often, due to the non-availability of appropriate sized cuffs, standard cuff bladders are used to measure blood pressure in the forearms of obese young adults. Aim: To compare the upper arm arterial blood pressure measured using an appropriate cuff with the forearm arterial blood pressure measured using a standard cuff and conventional sphygmomanometry in obese otherwise healthy first year medical students. Materials and Methods: Blood pressure was measured in 27 obese otherwise healthy first year medical students after five minutes of rest using a mercury sphygmomanometer with the subjects seated and the arm and forearm at heart level, using an appropriate sized cuff for the upper arm according to American Heart Association standards and a standard cuff for the fore arm. Results: A statistically significant difference in both systolic [t-test (paired = -6.921; df = 26; sig = .000 (2- tailed] and diastolic blood pressure [t-test (paired = -8.508; df = 26; sig = .000 (2- tailed] was found, with the blood pressure readings being higher in the forearm. The correlations between upper arm and forearm systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.785 (p = .000 and 0.870 (p = .000. Conclusion: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were significantly higher in the forearm. Further studies with larger sample size should be conducted to confirm that forearm blood pressure measurements using standard cuff bladders cannot be considered equal to upper arm measurements made using an appropriate sized cuff in all young obese individuals

  10. Cooling hyperthermic firefighters by immersing forearms and hands in 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Jamieson, Christopher; Cahill, Farrell

    2007-06-01

    Firefighters experience significant heat stress while working with heavy gear in a hot, humid environment. This study compared the cooling effectiveness of immersing the forearms and hands in 10 and 20 degrees C water. Six men (33 +/- 10 yr; 180 +/- 4 cm; 78 +/- 9 kg; 19 +/- 5% body fat) wore firefighter 'turn-out gear' (heavy clothing and breathing apparatus weighing 27 kg) in a protocol including three 20-min exercise bouts (step test, 78 W, 40 degrees C air, 40% RH) each followed by a 20-min rest/cooling (21 degrees C air); i.e., 60 min of exercise, 60 min of cooling. Turn-out gear was removed during rest/cooling periods and subjects either rested (Control), immersed their hands in 10 or 20 degrees C water (H-10, H-20), or immersed their hands and forearms in 10 or 20 degrees C water (HF-10, HF-20). In 20 degrees C water, hand immersion did not reduce core temperature compared with Control; however, including forearm immersion decreased core temperature below Control values after both the second and final exercise periods (p hand immersion produced a lower core temperature (0.8 degrees C above baseline) than all other conditions (1.1 to 1.4 degrees C above baseline) after the final exercise period (p Hand and forearm immersion in cool water is simple, reduces heat strain, and may increase work performance in a hot, humid environment. With 20 degrees C water, forearms should be immersed with the hands to be effective. At lower water temperatures, forearm and/or hand immersion will be effective, although forearm immersion will decrease core temperature further.

  11. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  12. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature ( P cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  13. No impaired hemoglobin oxygenation in forearm muscles of patients with chronic CRPS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnekreef, Jaap J J; Oosterhof, Jan; Wolff, André P; Crul, Ben J P; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H G; Oostendorp, Rob A B

    2009-01-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important treatment option in patients with upper limb complex regional pain syndrome type-1 (CRPS-1). In case of chronic CRPS-1, exercise therapy of the affected limb forms an important part of the physiotherapeutic program. We investigated whether muscle loading in chronic CRPS-1 patients is associated with impairments in muscle circulation of the forearm of the affected limb. Thirty patients with chronic CRPS-1 unilaterally affecting their upper limbs, and 30 age-matched and sex-matched control participants were included in this study. Local muscle blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation were measured by near infrared spectroscopy within the muscles of the forearm at rest, after 1-minute isometric handgrip exercises, and after arterial occlusion. Main outcome parameters were: local muscle blood flow, O2 consumption (mVO2), and postischemic reoxygenation (ReOx). We found no differences in baseline muscle blood flow, mVO2, and ReOx between the affected CRPS-1, unaffected CRPS-1, and control arms. After exercise, mVO2 of the affected CRPS-1 arms was not different from the clinically unaffected CRPS-1 arms. Furthermore, in comparison with the control arms, unaffected CRPS-1 arms showed no difference in mVO2 or ReOx. Muscle loading does not seems to be related to impairments in muscle oxygen uptake in forearm muscles of upper limbs affected by chronic CRPS-1. Our results suggest that exercise therapy can be safely used in physiotherapeutic training programs for chronic CRPS-1 of the upper limb.

  14. Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Anderson, Hannah M; Burchfield, Jenna M; Tucker, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Melina A; Robinson, Forrest B; Ganio, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Temporal and spatiotemporal variability in comprehensive forearm skin microcirculation assessment during occlusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Tomas; Sjöberg, Folke; Bergstrand, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Forearm skin hyperemia during release after brachial occlusion has been proposed for evaluating peripheral arterial disease and endothelial dysfunction. We used a novel fiberoptic system integrating Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for a comprehensive pointwise model based microcirculation characterization. The aim was to evaluate and compare the temporal and the spatiotemporal variabilities in forearm skin microcirculation parameters (speed resolved perfusion; low speed 10mm/s, and total perfusion (Perf SR, tot ); the concentration and oxygenation of red blood cells, C RBC and S O2 ). Ten healthy subjects underwent arterial and venous forearm occlusions (AO, VO), repeated within one week. The repeatability was calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV) and the agreement as the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The temporal CVs for conventional perfusion, Perf conv , Perf SR, tot , C RBC and S O2 were 14%, 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, while the ICC were >0.75 (excellent). The perfusion measures generally had a higher spatiotemporal than temporal variability, which was not the case for S O2 and C RBC . The corresponding spatiotemporal CVs were 33%, 32%, 18% and 15%, respectively. During VO, C RBC had a CV0.40 (fair-good), and after release this was the case for C RBC (AO and VO), S O2 (VO) and Perf SR, fair-good agreement were: C RBC during and after release of VO, the Perf SR, value of these parameters in discriminating endothelial function remains to be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of Free Radial Forearm Flap for Tongue Reconstruction Following Oncosurgical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Ranjan Chaudhuri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary closure following oncosurgical resection of carcinoma tongue has been found to compromise tongue function in regards to speech and swallowing very badly. In contrast, reconstruction of tongue with free radial forearm flap following oncosurgical resection has shown promising functional outcome. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients (ten male and three female with squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior 2/3rd of tongue had undergone either hemiglossectomy or subtotal glossectomy. Reconstruction was done with free radial forearm flap following oncosurgical resection and neck dissection. All of them received postoperative radiotherapy. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 2 years. The age of the patients ranged between 32 and 65 years. Flap dimension ranged from 7x6 cm to 10x8 cm. Vascular anastomosis performed in an end-to-end manner with 8-0 Ethilon® under loupe magnifiacation. Results Venous congestion occurred in one patient after 48 hours postoperatively and the flap underwent complete necrosis on postoperative day 5. Postoperative hematoma was found in one patient within first 24 hours of reconstruction. Re-exploration was done immediately, blood clots were removed. No fresh bleeding point was seen and the flap survived. In this series, 12 out of 13 flaps survived completely (92%. Conclusion The free radial forearm flap has become a workhorse flap in head and reconstruction due to its lack of extra bulk, relative ease of dissection, long vascular pedicle, good calibre vessels, malleability and minimal donor site morbidity. Furthermore its low flap loss and complication rate offer the best choice for tongue reconstruction.

  17. The emerging trend of non-operative treatment in paediatric type I open forearm fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Fanelli, M; Adams, C; Graham, J; Seeley, M

    2017-08-01

    Open fractures are considered an orthopaedic emergency and are generally an indication for operative debridement. Recent studies have questioned this approach for the management of Gustilo-Anderson Type I open fractures in the paediatric population. This meta-analysis studies the non-operative management of Type I open paediatric forearm fractures. An Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed database literature search was performed for studies that involved a quantified number of Gustilo-Anderson Type I open forearm fractures in the paediatric population, which were treated without operative intervention. A fixed-effect meta-analysis, weighting each study based on the number of patients, and a pooled estimate of infection risk (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) was performed. The search results yielded five studies that were eligible for inclusion. No included patients had operative debridement and all were treated with antibiotics. The number of patients in each study ranged from 3 to 45, with a total of 127 paediatric patients in the meta-analysis. The infection rate was 0% for all patients included. The meta-analysis estimated a pooled infection risk of 0% (95% CI 0 to 2.9). The five included studies had a total of 127 patients with no cases of infection after non-operative management of Type I open paediatric forearm fractures. The infection rate of Type I fractures among operatively managed patients is 1.9%. The trend in literature towards non-operative treatment of paediatric Type I open fractures holds true in this meta-analysis.

  18. Monosynaptic Ia projections from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm motoneurones in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nicolas, G; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    2000-05-15

    Heteronymous Ia excitatory projections from intrinsic hand muscles to human forearm motoneurones (MNs) were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied after electrical stimuli were applied to the median and ulnar nerve at wrist level and to the corresponding homonymous nerve at elbow level. Homonymous facilitation, occurring at the same latency as the H reflex, and therefore attributed to monosynaptic Ia EPSPs, was found in all the sampled units. In many MUs an early facilitation was also evoked by heteronymous low-threshold afferents from intrinsic hand muscles. The low threshold (between 0.5 and 0.6 times motor threshold (MT)) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce this effect indicate that it is due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents. Evidence for a similar central delay (monosynaptic) in heteronymous as in homonymous pathways was accepted when the difference in latencies of the homonymous and heteronymous peaks did not differ from the estimated supplementary afferent conduction time from wrist to elbow level by more than 0.5 ms (conduction velocity in the fastest Ia afferents between wrist and elbow levels being equal to 69 m s-1). A statistically significant heteronymous monosynaptic Ia excitation from intrinsic hand muscles supplied by both median and ulnar nerves was found in MUs belonging to all forearm motor nuclei tested (although not in ECU MUs after ulnar stimulation). It was, however, more often found in flexors than in extensors, in wrist than in finger muscles and in muscles operating in the radial than in the ulnar side. It is argued that the connections of Ia afferents from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm MNs, which are stronger and more widely distributed than in the cat

  19. Age-associated impairments in contraction-induced rapid-onset vasodilatation within the forearm are independent of mechanical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Kruse, Nicholas T; Casey, Darren P

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? We examined whether the mechanical contribution to contraction-induced rapid-onset vasodilatation (ROV) differed with age and whether ROV is associated with peripheral artery stiffness. Furthermore, we examined how manipulation of perfusion pressure modulates ROV in young and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? The mechanical contribution to ROV is similar in young and older adults. Conversely, peripheral arterial stiffness is not associated with ROV. Enhancing perfusion pressure augments ROV to a similar extent in young and older adults. These results suggest that age-related attenuations in ROV are not attributable to a mechanical component and that ROV responses are independent of peripheral artery stiffness. Contraction-induced rapid-onset vasodilatation (ROV) is modulated by perfusion and transmural pressure in young adults; however, this effect remains unknown in older adults. The present study examined the mechanical contribution to ROV in young versus older adults, the influence of perfusion pressure and whether these responses are associated with arterial stiffness. Forearm vascular conductance (in millilitres per minute per 100 mmHg) was measured in 12 healthy young (24 ± 4 years old) and 12 older (67 ± 3 years old) adults during: (i) single dynamic contractions at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction; and (ii) single external mechanical compression of the forearm (200 mmHg) positioned above, at and below heart level. Carotid-radial pulse-wave velocity characterized upper limb arterial stiffness. Total ROV responses to single muscle contractions and single external mechanical compressions were attenuated in older adults at heart level (P mechanical contribution to contraction-induced peak (46 ± 14 versus 40 ± 18%; P = 0.21) and total (37 ± 21 versus 32 ± 18%; P = 0.27) responses were not different between young and older adults. Reducing or enhancing perfusion

  20. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-01-01

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  1. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  2. [Reconstruction of oral mucosa with a micro-vascularized fascia-cutaneous flap from the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño García, Miguel; Cebrián Carretero, José Luis; Muñoz Caro, Jesús Manuel; Arias Gallo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinoma of jugal mucosa is an aggressive tumor. Its treatment is based on broad excision and reconstruction in order to avoid fibrosis and restriction of mouth opening. Neck dissection and radiotherapy are indicated in selected cases. We display our experience with microvascularized flaps with the aim of preventing the flaws. We reconsider 8 patients (representing 10 flaps) handle in our Department. Besides we discuss other therapeutic alternatives after the growth's removal. The conclusion reached is that the mucovascularized forearm flaps give a great quantity of thin tissue and therefore so results to be the best option for the reconstruction of the jugal mucosa.

  3. Thermogenic response to epinephrine in the forearm and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    1992-01-01

    Whole body energy expenditure, thermogenic and metabolic changes in the forearm, and intercellular glucose concentrations in subcutaneous adipose tissue on the abdomen determined by microdialysis were measured during epinephrine infusion in healthy subjects. After a control period, epinephrine...... was infused at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 nmol.kg-1 x min-1. Whole body resting energy expenditure was 4.36 +/- 0.56 (SD) kJ/min. Energy expenditure increased to 5.14 +/- 0.74 and 5.46 +/- 0.79 kJ/min, respectively (P

  4. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  5. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm2), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm2). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18–0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the ‘design’ of their

  6. A case of primary extracranial meningioma of the forearm with bone invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Hideki [Self-Defense Force Fuji Hospital, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oyama-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Takahashi, Mitsuru; Takagi, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Hirohisa [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Orthopaedic Oncology, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Ito, Ichiro [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Pathology, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka (Japan); Ishida, Tsuyoshi [Kohnodai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ichikawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report here a rare case of primary extracranial meningioma in a 73-year-old woman with an asymptomatic mass located in the left distal-dorsal forearm. MRI revealed the lesion to be poorly circumscribed and unclear, with iso-signal intensity to muscle on T1 and with a relatively high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. The histopathology of the specimen from incision biopsy was typical of meningioma, showing bland spindle cell proliferation with a whorling pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin, and negative for S-100 expression. (orig.)

  7. Extradigital glomic tumor of the forearm. About a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, U; Duteille, F; Perrot, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the clinical case of a 72-year-old man followed for 10years by a specialized pain center, for neuropathic pain poorly systematized, triggered by the contact of the anteromedial face of the right forearm. After surgical excision, histological analysis indicated a well-circumscribed nodule in the subcutaneous region, confirming that the mass was a glomus tumor. In this clinical case, surgical excision allowed an immediate disappearance of the pains without recurrence to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of conventional intraoral radiography and computer imaging techniques for the detection of proximal surface calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1994-01-01

    The present results indicates that the sensitivity for the proximal calculus was high, but there are different sensitivities among the observer. More study should be done to determine that digitized image can be clinical applicable to detecting the proximal calculus.

  9. An electromyographic study of the effect of hand grip sizes on forearm muscle activity and golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Hunter, Henry H; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike Chris

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the differences in surface electromyography (EMG) activity of two forearm muscles in the lead and trail arm at specific phases of the golf swing using a 7-iron with three different grip sizes among amateur and professional golfers. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed five golf swings using golf clubs with three different grip sizes. Surface EMG was used to measure muscle activity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) on both forearms. There were no significant differences in forearm muscle activity when using the three golf grips within the group of 15 golfers (p > 0.05). When using the undersize grip, club head speed significantly increased (p = 0.044). During the backswing and downswing phases, amateurs produced significantly greater forearm muscle activity with all three grip sizes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, forearm muscle activity is not affected by grip sizes. However, club head speed increases when using undersize grips.

  10. Four cases of variations in the forearm extensor musculature in a study of hundred limbs and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Mohandas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All surgeons must bear in mind the existence of muscular variations when performing common tendon transfers. Presence of additional bellies and tendons of existing muscles or presence of additional muscles in unusual locations might misguide a surgeon, during surgery and also during diagnosis. In the present paper we are reporting four cases of variations encountered during the study of extensor muscles of the forearm in 100 limbs. In Case 1, additional bellies of extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis and multiple tendons of insertion of abductor pollicis longus were observed in a single limb. In Case 2, an additional belly of the abductor pollicis longus was observed. In Case 3, a short muscle on the dorsum of the hand going to the index finger [extensor indicis brevis (EIB] was found in addition to the normal extensor indicis (EI. It was also observed that some of the most superficial fleshy fibers of EIB were getting inserted into the tendon of EI. In Case 4, a rare incidence of extensor digiti medii proprius was observed. Further, the related literature is reviewed and the clinical and surgical importance of these muscular variations in diagnosis and proper planning of treatment is discussed.

  11. Whole body and forearm substrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism: evidence of increased basal muscle protein breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anne Lene Dalkjaer; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Gjedde, Signe; Nørrelund, Helene; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Nair, K S; Ivarsen, Per; Weeke, Jørgen; Møller, Niels

    2005-06-01

    Thyroid hormones have significant metabolic effects, and muscle wasting and weakness are prominent clinical features of chronic hyperthyroidism. To assess the underlying mechanisms, we examined seven hyperthyroid women with Graves' disease before (Ht) and after (Eut) medical treatment and seven control subjects (Ctr). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. After regional catheterization, protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by amino acid tracer dilution technique using [15N]phenylalanine and [2H4]tyrosine. Before treatment, triiodothyronine was elevated (6.6 nmol/l) and whole body protein breakdown was increased 40%. The net forearm release of phenylalanine was increased in hyperthyroidism (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): -7.0 +/- 1.2 Ht vs. -3.8 +/- 0.8 Eut (P = 0.04), -4.2 +/- 0.3 Ctr (P = 0.048). Muscle protein breakdown, assessed by phenylalanine rate of appearance, was increased (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): 15.5 +/- 2.0 Ht vs. 9.6 +/- 1.4 Eut (P = 0.03), 9.9 +/- 0.6 Ctr (P = 0.02). Muscle protein synthesis rate did not differ significantly. Muscle mass and muscle function were decreased 10-20% before treatment. All abnormalities were normalized after therapy. In conclusion, our results show that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased muscle amino acid release resulting from increased muscle protein breakdown. These abnormalities can explain the clinical manifestations of sarcopenia and myopathy.

  12. [Posttraumatic torsional deformities of the forearm : Methods of measurement and decision guidelines for correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, R D; Krettek, C; Liodakis, E

    2018-03-01

    Forearm fractures are common in all age groups. Even if the adjacent joints are not directly involved, these fractures have an intra-articular character. One of the most common complications of these injuries is a painful limitation of the range of motion and especially of pronation and supination. This is often due to an underdiagnosed torsional deformity; however, in recent years new methods have been developed to make these torsional differences visible and quantifiable through the use of sectional imaging. The principle of measurement corresponds to that of the torsion measurement of the lower limbs. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are created at defined heights. By searching for certain landmarks, torsional angles are measured in relation to a defined reference line. A new alternative is the use of 3D reformation models. The presence of a torsional deformity, especial of the radius, leads to an impairment of the pronation and supination of the forearm. In the presence of torsional deformities, radiological measurements can help to decide if an operation is needed or not. Unlike the lower limbs, there are still no uniform cut-off values as to when a correction is indicated. Decisions must be made together with the patient by taking the clinical and radiological results into account.

  13. Andreas Vesalius' 500th anniversary: the initiation of hand and forearm myology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, R J; Hage, J J

    2015-11-01

    Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) was the first to market an illustrated text on the freshly dissected muscular anatomy of the human hand and forearm when he published his De Fabrica Corporis Humani Libri Septem, in 1543. To commemorate his 500th birthday, we searched the second of seven books composing De Fabrica, the annotated woodcut illustrations of De Fabrica, the Tabulae Sex, and Epitome, and an eyewitness report of a public dissection by Vesalius for references to the morphology and functions of these muscles. We found Vesalius to have recognized all currently distinguished muscles except the palmaris brevis and he noted occasional absence of some muscles. Generally, he limited the origin and insertion to bones, largely disregarding attachments to membranes and fascia. Functionally, he recorded the muscles as having a single vector and operating on only one joint. We conclude that Vesalius was nearly completely correct about the anatomy of the muscles of the forearm, but much less accurate about their function. 5. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  15. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point.

  16. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  17. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p35 In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  18. The effects of a new designed forearm orthosis in treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forogh, Bijan; Khalighi, Mohsen; Javanshir, Mohammad Ali; Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Kamali, Mohammad; Raissi, Gholamreza

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing of a new designed forearm orthosis and explores its efficacious in comparison to the standard counterforce orthosis in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this assessor-blinded clinical trial and randomly assigned to two parallel treatment groups. The measures of pain and function, the pain threshold and grip strength were compared using patient rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) form, algometer and dynamometer respectively at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Paired and independent t-test statistical methods recruited for within and between groups comparisons respectively. The both orthoses, counterforce and new-designed, significantly relieved pain, and improved function, pain threshold and grip strength of all patients after 4 weeks application. The new-designed orthosis seemed to be more effective than the counterforce orthosis in pain relief, but there was not any significant difference in efficacious of two types of orthoses regarding function. The new-designed orthosis can significantly relieve pain, improve function, increase pain threshold and grip strength after application. This orthosis seemed to be more effective than counterforce orthosis in relieving pain and increasing the pain threshold probably due to the limitation of forearm supination.

  19. No effect of forearm band and extensor strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow: a prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Rolf; Brunner, Florian; Schneeberger, Alberto G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective randomised study was to analyse the effect of the forearm support band and of strengthening exercises for the treatment of tennis elbow. Twenty-nine patients with 30 tennis elbows were randomised into 3 groups of treatment: (I) forearm support band, (II) strengthening exercises and (III) both methods. The patients had a standardised examination at their first visit, and then after 6 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. At the latest follow-up, there was a significant improvement of the symptoms compared to before treatment (p<0.0001), considering all patients independently of the methods of treatment. However, no differences in the scores were found between the 3 groups of treatment (p=0.27), indicating that no beneficial influence was found either for the strengthening exercises or for the forearm support band. Improvement seems to occur with time, independent of the method of treatment used.

  20. Implementation of a forearm support to reduce the amount of irradiated lung and heart in radiation therapy of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen W.; Borger, Jacques H.; Giersbergen, Aline van; Cho, John; Mijnheer, Ben J.

    2001-01-01

    We compared simulator images of medial tangential fields taken in two positions: (1) with the ipsilateral arm abducted, holding a 'L-bar' armrest and (2) with both arms extended above the head in a forearm support. The average maximum heart distance as well as the central lung distance decreased significantly by 3.4 (SE 0.9) and 4.7 (SE 1.1) mm, respectively, when the new forearm support was used. The estimated normal tissue complication probability for excess cardiac mortality decreased by on average 3.1% (SE 1.3%). For some patients, a greater amount of the axilla was included in the field. We recommend the use of the forearm support during breast cancer treatment with tangential fields to decrease the amount of heart and lung inside the fields

  1. Determination of energy absorbed during X-ray exposure of the forearm by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    LiF dose meters were used to determine radiation doses in conventional X-ray diagnostic pictures of the forearm. The paper describes a method for determining integral doses by using these dose meters. It describes in detail how a phantom forearm apt for the purpose is to be made. In the Federal Republic of Germany, malignant growth incidence due to X-ray pictures of the forearm is enhanced by about .01 cases each year. The malignant growth incidence rate caused by X-ray diagnostic measures is low. It is therefore generally justified to neglect limbs in exemplary studies of radiation exposure. All calculations and considerations took into account that all possible radiation protection measures have been duly applied. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Absence of the musculocutaneous nerve with innervation of coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis and the lateral border of the forearm by branches from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKATANI, TOSHIO; TANAKA, SHIGENORI; MIZUKAMI, SHIGEKI

    1997-01-01

    Anomalies of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are not uncommon. Variations in the course and branches of the musculocutaneous nerve have been noted (Clemente, 1985; Bergman et al. 1988) and its absence was reported by Le Minor (1990). Several anomalies were present in the left plexus of a 59-y-old Japanese man (Fig.). There were no anterior and posterior divisions of the middle trunk, although there were communications between the posterior, medial and lateral cords. The musculocutaneous nerve was absent (Le Minor, 1990) and the medial and lateral roots of the median nerve did not unite in the axillary fossa but in the upper arm about 5 cm distal to the lower border of latissimus dorsi (Adachi, 1928; Buch-Hansen, 1955). The hitherto unreported findings were branches arising directly from the lateral cord to supply coracobrachialis, both heads of biceps brachii and brachialis. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm was derived from the lateral cord with a small contribution from the medial root of the median nerve. Since there were communications between the posterior cord (a continuation of the middle trunk) and the medial and lateral cords, it is theoretically possibly, but not proven, that the root values of branches innervating the flexor muscles of the arm and forearm and the skin of lateral border of the forearm were normal. PMID:9419004

  3. A Novel Method for Estimation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Using Forearm Images from Peripheral Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanmoon Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of osteoporosis treatment is prevention of osteoporosis-induced bone fracture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and quantitative computed tomographic imaging (QCT are widely used for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD. However, they have limitations in patients with special conditions. This study evaluated a method for diagnosis of osteoporosis using peripheral cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to estimate BMD. We investigated the correlation between the ratio of cortical and total bone areas of the forearm and femoral neck BMD. Based on the correlation, we established a linear transformation between the ratio and femoral neck BMD. We obtained forearm images using CBCT and femoral neck BMDs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for 23 subjects. We first calculated the ratio of the cortical to the total bone area in the forearm from the CBCT images, and investigated the relationship with the femoral neck BMDs obtained from DXA. Based on this relationship, we further investigated the optimal forearm region to provide the highest correlation coefficient. We used the optimized forearm region to establish a linear transformation of the form to estimate femoral neck BMD from the calculated ratio. We observed the correlation factor of r = 0.857 (root mean square error = 0.056435 g/cm2; mean absolute percentage error = 4.5105% between femoral neck BMD and the ratio of the cortical and total bone areas. The strongest correlation was observed for the average ratios of the mid-shaft regions of the ulna and radius. Our results suggest that femoral neck BMD can be estimated from forearm CBCT images and may be useful for screening osteoporosis, with patients in a convenient sitting position. We believe that peripheral CBCT image-based BMD estimation may have significant preventative value for early osteoporosis treatment and management.

  4. Realities of proximity facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMott, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous commercial nuclear power plant sites have 2 to 3 reactors located together, and a group of Facilities with capabilities for fuel fabrication, a nuclear reactor, a storage area for spent fuel, and a maintenance area for contaminated equipment and radioactive waste storage are being designed and constructed in the US. The proximity of these facilities to each other provides that the ordinary flow of materials remain within a limited area. Interactions between the various facilities include shared resources such as communication, fire protection, security, medical services, transportation, water, electrical, personnel, emergency planning, transport of hazardous material between facilities, and common safety and radiological requirements between facilities. This paper will explore the advantages and disadvantages of multiple facilities at one site. Problem areas are identified, and recommendations for planning and coordination are discussed

  5. PROXIMAL: a method for Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofshahi, Mona; Manteiga, Sara; Wu, Charmian; Lee, Kyongbum; Hassoun, Soha

    2015-12-22

    Contamination of the environment with bioactive chemicals has emerged as a potential public health risk. These substances that may cause distress or disease in humans can be found in air, water and food supplies. An open question is whether these chemicals transform into potentially more active or toxic derivatives via xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes expressed in the body. We present a new prediction tool, which we call PROXIMAL (Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism) for identifying possible transformation products of xenobiotic chemicals in the liver. Using reaction data from DrugBank and KEGG, PROXIMAL builds look-up tables that catalog the sites and types of structural modifications performed by Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Given a compound of interest, PROXIMAL searches for substructures that match the sites cataloged in the look-up tables, applies the corresponding modifications to generate a panel of possible transformation products, and ranks the products based on the activity and abundance of the enzymes involved. PROXIMAL generates transformations that are specific for the chemical of interest by analyzing the chemical's substructures. We evaluate the accuracy of PROXIMAL's predictions through case studies on two environmental chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting activity, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3). Comparisons with published reports confirm 5 out of 7 and 17 out of 26 of the predicted derivatives for BPA and PCB3, respectively. We also compare biotransformation predictions generated by PROXIMAL with those generated by METEOR and Metaprint2D-react, two other prediction tools. PROXIMAL can predict transformations of chemicals that contain substructures recognizable by human liver enzymes. It also has the ability to rank the predicted metabolites based on the activity and abundance of enzymes involved in xenobiotic transformation.

  6. TOPOGRAFÍA INTRANEURAL DE LA RAMA PROFUNDA DEL NERVIO ULNAR EN EL ANTEBRAZO DISTAL: ESTUDIO CADAVÉRICO. Intraneural topography of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in the distal forearm: cadaveric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García Pisón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar la topografía intraneural de la rama profunda del nervio ulnar (RPNU en el antebrazo distal en vistas a su identificación mediante disección intraneural mínima durante la transferencia del nervio del pronador cuadrado (NPC a la RPNU. Materiales y métodos: En 15 antebrazos cadavéricos se fijó el paquete vasculonervioso ulnar a los planos musculares profundos cada un centímetro tomando como referencia el hueso pisiforme. Se disecó en sentido proximal la RPNU bajo microscopio quirúrgico (Olympus OME, 4-20x y se registró su posición intraneural en base a una división en cuadrantes. Se midió la distancia desde el origen de la rama cutánea dorsal (RCD del nervio ulnar al pisiforme y se registró su relación intraneural con la RPNU. Resultados: La RPNU se individualizó hasta 69mm (41-94 proximal al hueso pisiforme, ubicándose en el cuadrante posteromedial del nervio ulnar en el 78% (67-87, el 93% (92-93 y el 100% de los casos entre los 0-2, 3-6 y 7-9 centímetros, respectivamente. La distancia pisiforme-RCD fue de 63mm (52-83. En 11 miembros la disección de la RPNU se extendió proximalmente al origen de la RCD, ubicándose siempre entre esta última y la rama superficial del nervio ulnar. Conclusiones: La topografía intraneural de la RPNU en el sitio óptimo para su sección en vistas a su anastomosis con el NPC es predecible en la mayoría de los casos, lo que confirma la viabilidad de su identificación precisa mediante disección intraneural mínima.  Objective: to assess the intraneural anatomy of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve (DBUN in the distal forearm in reference to its identification by means of minimal intraneural dissection during pronator quadratus nerve to DBUN transfers. Materials and methods: In 15 cadaveric forearms the ulnar neurovascular bundle was identified and attached to the subjacent muscles every one centimeter. Pisiform bone was used as reference. Intraneural proximal dissection of

  7. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  8. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... were analyzed using atomic absorption ... determined using a Hack Dr/200 Spectrophotometer. ... Lead Acetate. +. +. + .... cosmetics.

  9. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  10. Children’s proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn and develop. Understanding school or daycare as (part of......) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda in a (Danish) welfare state with well-developed school- and daycare system, are no longer simply thoughts about the school having space for as many pupils as possible...... (schools for all). Such thoughts can or should be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. These questions require an ethical...

  11. Do the radial head prosthesis components fit with the anatomical structures of the proximal radioulnar joint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kilian; Hain, Moritz K; Ries, Christian; Neiss, Wolfram F; Müller, Lars P; Burkhart, Klaus J

    2015-09-01

    The fitting accuracy of radial head components has been investigated in the capitulo-radial joint, and reduced contact after prosthetic replacement of the radial head has been observed. The kinematics of the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) are affected by radial head arthroplasty as well, but have not yet been investigated in this regard. The elbow joints of 60 upper extremities of formalin-fixed body donors were disarticulated to obtain a good view of the PRUJ. Each specimen was mounted on the examining table and radial head position in the native PRUJ was assessed in neutral position, full pronation, and full supination. Measurements were repeated after implantation of mono- and bi-polar prostheses. Analysis of the distribution of the joint contacts in the compartments showed significant differences after radial head replacement. In comparison to the native joint, after bipolar and monopolar radial head replacement, the physiological shift of the proximal radius was altered. The physiological shift of the joint contact of the radial head from anterior to posterior during forearm rotation that was found in the native joint in our cadaver model was not observed after prosthetic replacement. With higher conformity and physiological kinematic of radial head prostheses, possibly lower shear forces and lower contact pressures would be generated. The tested radial head prostheses do not replicate the physiological kinematics of the radial head. Further development in the prosthesis design has to be made. The meticulous reconstruction of the annular ligament seems to be of importance to increase joint contact.

  12. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Illuminati

    Full Text Available Introduction: True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. Presentation of case: The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Conclusion: Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Keywords: Arterial aneurysm, Occipital artery, Case report

  13. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-09-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures.

  14. Flexible pressure and proximity sensor surfaces manufactured with organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattori, M.; Cantatore, E.; Pauer, G.; Agostinelli, T.; Stadlober, B.; Gold, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of two large-Area active matrixes on foil for pressure and proximity sensing applications. Frontend circuits based on organic thin-film transistors on foil are laminated with screen-printed PDVF-TrFE piezo and pyro sensors to create the complete flexible sensing

  15. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  16. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  17. Performance characteristics of proximity focused ultraviolet image converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. T.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Bendix type BX 8025-4522 proximity focused image tubes for UV to visible light conversion are presented. Quantum efficiency, resolution, background, geometric distortion, and environmental test results are discussed. The converters use magnesium fluoride input windows with Cs-Te photocathodes and P-11 phosphors on fiber optic output windows.

  18. A restrained-torque-based motion instructor: forearm flexion/extension-driving exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    When learning complicated movements by ourselves, we encounter such problems as a self-rightness. The self-rightness results in a lack of detail and objectivity, and it may cause to miss essences and even twist the essences. Thus, we sometimes fall into the habits of doing inappropriate motions. To solve these problems or to alleviate the problems as could as possible, we have been developed mechanical man-machine human interfaces to support us learning such motions as cultural gestures and sports form. One of the promising interfaces is a wearable exoskeleton mechanical system. As of the first try, we have made a prototype of a 2-link 1-DOF rotational elbow joint interface that is applied for teaching extension-flexion operations with forearms and have found its potential abilities for teaching the initiating and continuing flection motion of the elbow.

  19. Free radial forearm flap versatility for the head and neck and lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicarilli, Z.N.; Ariyan, S.; Cuono, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques have developed numerous territories suitable for free tissue transfer. However, the demand for thin cutaneous resurfacing limits the choice of flaps available to the reconstructive microsurgeon. The radial forearm flap is a thin, axial, fasciocutaneous flap, offering pliable cutaneous resurfacing, with or without sensation. We have used 15 flaps to reconstruct defects in the head and neck and lower extremity resulting from burns, blunt and avulsive trauma, radiation necrosis, and tumor ablation. Two flaps (15 percent) developed venous congestion and were salvaged by reoperation. One retrograde flap (7.5 percent) developed partial necrosis from arterial insufficiency. Neural re-innervation was successful in two out of three patients in whom it was attempted. Two patients (15%) sustained minor donor site skin graft loss that healed secondarily. In our series of predominantly older patients the donor sites have been relatively inconspicuous at one year follow-up. A functional restoration was achieved in all patients

  20. Implementation of mathematical phantom of hand and forearm in GEANT4 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Paula Rocha; Queiroz Filho, Pedro Pacheco de; Santos, Denison de Souza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the implementation of a hand and forearm Geant4 phantom code, for further evaluation of occupational exposure of ends of the radionuclides decay manipulated during procedures involving the use of injection syringe. The simulation model offered by Geant4 includes a full set of features, with the reconstruction of trajectories, geometries and physical models. For this work, the values calculated in the simulation are compared with the measurements rates by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in physical phantom REMAB®. From the analysis of the data obtained through simulation and experimentation, of the 14 points studied, there was a discrepancy of only 8.2% of kerma values found, and these figures are considered compatible. The geometric phantom implemented in Geant4 Monte Carlo code was validated and can be used later for the evaluation of doses at ends

  1. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  2. Odds ratios for hip- and lower forearm fracture using peripheral bone densitometry; a case-control study of postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, M M A; Jørgensen, H L; Lauritzen, J B

    2002-01-01

    concern when using peripheral densitometry is the poor correlation with the central measurements. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the possibility of expressing ultrasound measurements at the heel and bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the distal forearm as fracture odds ratios...... rather than an absolute measure of bone mass. METHODS: A total of 76 women with lower forearm fracture, 47 women with hip fracture and 231 age-matched women (controls) were included. All had broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) measured at the heel using the DTU-one ultrasound.......8; 5.2) for heel-BUA (T-score cutoff: -2.3), 4.1 (2.3; 7.4) for heel-SOS (-2.1) and 2.2 (1.3; 3.7) for lower forearm BMD (-2.7). The odds ratio for hip fracture was 3.4 (1.5-7.7) for heel-BUA (-2.7), 3.6 (1.6; 8.1) for heel-SOS (-2.6) and 3.2 (1.4; 7.4) for lower forearm BMD (-2.9). CONCLUSION...

  3. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  4. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  5. Real-time contrast imaging: a new method to monitor capillary recruitment in human forearm skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.H.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Smits, P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Muscle capillary perfusion can be measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. We examined whether a less time-consuming ultrasound technique, called "real-time imaging," could be used to measure capillary recruitment in human forearm skeletal muscle. METHODS: We measured microvascular blood

  6. Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekvelt, M.C.P. van; Shoemaker, J.K.; Tschakovsky, M.E.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Hughson, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that forearm blood flow (FBF) during moderate intensity dynamic exercise would meet the demands of the exercise and that postexercise FBF would quickly recover. In contrast, during heavy exercise, FBF would be inadequate causing a marked postexercise hyperemia and sustained increase

  7. The interactive effect of cooling and hypoxia on forearm fatigue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alex; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-09-01

    To examine the effect of separate and combined exposure to hypoxia [normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21) vs. moderate altitude (FIO2 = 0.13)] and temperature [thermoneutral (22 °C) vs. cold (5 °C)] on muscle fatigue development in the forearm, after repeated low-resistance contractions. Eight males were exposed for 70 min to four separate conditions in a balanced order. Conditions were normoxic-thermoneutral (N), hypoxic-thermoneutral, normoxic-cold and hypoxic-cold. After 15-min seated rest, participants carried out intermittent dynamic forearm exercise at 15 % maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) for eight consecutive, 5-min work bouts. Each bout was separated by 110 s rest during which MVC force was collected. When exposed to hypoxia and cold independently, the exercise protocol decreased MVC force of the finger flexors by 8.1 and 13.9 %, respectively, compared to thermoneutral normoxia. When hypoxia and cold were combined, the decrease in MVC force was 21.4 % more than thermoneutral normoxia, reflecting an additive effect and no interaction. EMG relative to force produced during MVC, increased by 2 and 1.2 μV per kg (36 and 23 % of N) for cold and hypoxia, respectively. When the stressors were combined the effect was additive, increasing to 3.1 μV per kg (56 % of N). When compared to exercise in thermoneutral normoxic conditions, both cold and hypoxia significantly reduce brief MVC force output. This effect appears to be of mechanical origin, not a failure in muscle fibre recruitment per se. Additionally, the reduction in force is greater when the stressors are combined, showing an additive effect.

  8. The effects of local forearm muscle cooling on motor unit properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Matthew M; Green, Lara A; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2018-02-01

    Muscle cooling impairs maximal force. Using needle electromyography (EMG) to assess motor unit properties during muscle cooling, is limited and equivocal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of local muscle cooling on motor unit firing properties using surface EMG decomposition. Twenty participants (12 M, 8 F) completed maximal, evoked, and trapezoidal contractions during thermoneutral and cold muscle conditions. Forearm muscle temperature was manipulated using 10-min neutral (~ 32 °C) or 20-min cold (~ 3 °C) water baths. Twitches and maximal voluntary contractions were performed prior to, and after, forearm immersion in neutral or cold water. Motor unit properties were assessed during trapezoidal contractions to 50% baseline force using surface EMG decomposition. Impaired contractile properties from muscle cooling were evident in the twitch amplitude, duration, and rate of force development indicating that the muscle was successfully cooled from the cold water bath (all d ≥ 0.5, P motor units (d = 0.7, P = 0.01) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) duration (d = 0.6, P motor unit firing rates (d = 0.1, P = 0.843) nor recruitment threshold (d = 0.1, P = 0.746) changed; however, the relationship between the recruitment threshold and motor unit firing rate was steeper (d = 1.0, P motor units, and small but coupled changes in motor unit firing rates and recruitment threshold to produce the same force.

  9. Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kim, Seung K.; Sheybani, Elizabeth; Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-05-15

    PurposeVenous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.ResultsSeventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.ConclusionSclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

  10. Exposed versus buried intramedullary implants for pediatric forearm fractures: a comparison of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian A; Miller, Patricia; Shore, Benjamin J; Waters, Peter M; Bae, Donald S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of complications between buried and exposed intramedullary implants after fixation of pediatric forearm fractures. A retrospective comparative cohort study of 339 children treated with intramedullary fixation for displaced forearm fractures between 2004 and 2009 was performed. Implants were left exposed in 128 patients (37.8%) and buried beneath the skin in 208 patients (61.4%); 3 patients had buried and exposed hardware (0.9%). Data on demographics, injury, surgical technique, and complications were analyzed. The buried implant group was older (mean 10.3 vs. 8.5 y; P exposed implant group. The buried group had their implants removed later than the exposed group (median 3.5 vs. 1.2 mo; P exposed implants were successfully removed in the office. Complications were seen in 56 patients (16.5%). There were 16 patients (4.7%) with refracture and 12 patients (3.5%) with infection. The buried and exposed implant groups did not differ significantly with respect to refracture (3.1% vs. 7.0%; P = 0.20), infection (3.5% vs. 2.3%; P = 0.66), or overall complications (14.5% vs. 17.2%; P = 0.87). There was also no difference between groups with respect to loss of reduction, nondelayed or delayed union, loss of motion, hypertrophic granuloma, or tendon rupture. Buried implants were also associated with penetration through the skin (3.9%). Injury to the dominant arm and need for open reduction were significant predictors of complication (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012; P = 0.02 and OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.264-0.974; P = 0.04, respectively). There were no significant differences seen in number of infections, refractures, or overall complications based on whether implants were left exposed or buried beneath the skin after surgery. Level III, therapeutic.

  11. Association of Obesity with Forearm Fractures, Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk (FRAX® During Postmenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Mesci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among obesity with bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fracture risk among postmenopausal women with a previous forearm fracture. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled obese (n=40 and normal-weight (n=40 postmenopausal women who had a previous forearm fracture. BMD measurements were obtained using a GE-LUNAR DPX dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan for all subjects. FRAX® fracture risk scores were calculated taking into account former fractures and current risk factors of the subjects. Both groups were compared with respect to their BMD values, T scores, FRAX® risk scores and frequency of previous fractures. Results: No difference was observed between groups with regard to mean age, mean age of menopause onset and mean serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels (p>0.05 for all. Statistically, obese patients showed highly significantly greater mean BMD values at lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck in comparison to subjects with normal body weight (p=0.000 for all. Obese patients had a lower 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture on average as determined by FRAX® fracture risk score compared to that in normal-weight subjects (p<0.05. Also, obese group had a lower 10-year probability of a hip fracture versus normal-weight subjects (p<0.01. Both groups were found to have a similar frequency of previous fractures. Conclusion: Although obese patients in this study had greater BMD values and lower FRAX® risk scores, the probability of subsequent fractures predicted for the obese group was not lower when compared to that predicted for normal-weight group. It should be kept in mind that obesity may not necessarily be protective against fractures and treatment algorithms based solely on BMD might be inadequate to predict future fracture risk.

  12. Indirect hand and forearm vasomotion: Regional variations in cutaneous thermosensitivity during normothermia and mild hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Catriona A; Tagami, Kyoko; Park, Joonhee; Caldwell, Joanne N; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    In this experiment, hand and forearm vasomotor activity was investigated during localised, but stable heating and cooling of the face, hand and thigh, under open-loop (clamped) conditions. It was hypothesised that facial stimulation would provoke the most potent vascular changes. Nine individuals participated in two normothermic trials (mean body temperature clamp: 36.6°C; water-perfused suit and climate chamber) and two mildly hyperthermic trials (37.9°C). Localised heating (+5°C) and cooling (-5°C) stimuli were applied to equal surface areas of the face, hand and thigh (perfusion patches: 15min), while contralateral forearm or hand blood flows (venous-occlusion plethysmography) were measured (separate trials). Thermal sensation and discomfort votes were recorded before and during each thermal stimulation. When hyperthermic, local heating induced more sensitive vascular responses, with the combined thermosensitivity of both limb segments averaging 0.011mL·100mL -1 ·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·°C -1 , and 0.005mL·100mL -1 ·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·°C -1 during localised cooling (P0.05). Therefore, regional differences in vasomotor and sensory sensitivity appeared not to exist. When combined with previous observations of sudomotor sensitivity, it seems that, during mild heating and cooling, regional representations within the somatosensory cortex may not translate into meaningful differences in thermal sensation or the central integration of thermoafferent signals. It was concluded that inter-site variations in the cutaneous thermosensitivity of these thermolytic effectors have minimal physiological significance over the ranges investigated thus far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, Carlos J.; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kim, Seung K.; Sheybani, Elizabeth; Darcy, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeVenous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.ResultsSeventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.ConclusionSclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

  14. Comparison of bone densitometry of the phalanges, distal forearm and axial skeleton in early postmenopausal women participating in the EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Overgaard, K; Huang, C

    1996-01-01

    We present baseline bone densitometry from the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study (EPIC, sponsored by Merck, Sharp & Dohme) for the first time, in which 1609 women from England, Oregon, Hawaii and Denmark are participating to investigate the efficacy of daily oral alendronate...... forearm. In a random subgroup of 308 women, aged 45-60 years, on average 6 years since menopause (YSM), bone densitometry was measured once at baseline by RA of the phalanges besides the mandatory measurements by DXA. Bone densitometry was furthermore measured by SXA at the Danish site (89 women). Sixty......-eight of the women had duplicate measurements performed within 1-3 weeks to evaluate the short-term precision error (CV%). One hundred and one healthy premenopausal women, aged 25-48 years, were recruited at the Danish and Hawaiian sites to establish a reference group. The precision error was 1.5% for RA...

  15. A prospective study on the effectiveness of cotton versus waterproof cast padding in maintaining the reduction of pediatric distal forearm fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christopher E; Jiang, Jimmy J; Khoury, Joseph G

    2011-03-01

    Distal forearm fractures, one of the most common fractures seen in the pediatric population, are regularly treated by closed reduction and casting. Our study investigates the effectiveness of Gore-Tex-lined casting in maintaining the reduction of 100% displaced distal forearm fractures compared with traditional cotton-lined casts. We screened all patients from February 2007 to July 2009 who presented to Children's Hospital in Birmingham, AL with a distal radius fracture. Only patients with 100% displaced distal radius fractures were eligible to be assigned to either the cotton-lined or Gore-Tex-lined cast groups. Power analysis was performed to identify an adequate patient sample size. The mean maximum change between initial post-reduction x-rays and follow-up x-rays for anterior-posterior (AP) angulation, AP displacement, lateral angulation, and lateral displacement of the radius were calculated for both cotton and Gore-Tex groups. The rate of subsequent intervention and/or unacceptable results for each group was also analyzed. Seven hundred and twenty-two patients were treated with distal radius fractures at our hospital with 59 patients eligible for inclusion in our study. Thirty-six of our patients were treated with cotton-lined casts, and 23 patients were treated with Gore-Tex-lined cast. The mean maximum change in AP angulation, AP displacement, lateral angulation, and lateral displacement of the radius after initial reduction was 9.2 degrees, 6.9%, 13.9 degrees, and 13.6%, respectively, for the cotton-lined cast group and 7.7 degrees, 6.1%, 14.6 degrees, and 9.6%, respectively, for the Gore-Tex-lined cast group. There were no statistical differences between the means of the 4 measurements (P=0.33, 0.69, 0.73, and 0.10, respectively). There were also no significant differences between groups for final AP and lateral angulation and displacement. Subgroup analysis showed no significant differences in all measurements between cotton and Gore-Tex groups. Gore

  16. Comparison study of upper arm and forearm non-invasive blood pressures in adult Emergency Department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanski, Karen; Jull, Andrew; Mitchell, Nancy; McLay, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Forearm blood pressures have been suggested as an alternative site to measure blood pressures when the upper arm is unavailable. However there is little evidence utilising clinical populations to support this substitution. To determine agreement between blood pressures measured in the left upper arm and forearm using a singular oscillometric non-invasive device in adult Emergency Department patients. The secondary objective was to explore the relationship of blood pressure differences with age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history and obesity. Single centre comparison study. Adult Emergency Department, Tertiary Trauma Centre. Forty-four participants who met inclusion/exclusion criteria selected sequentially from the Emergency Department arrival board. A random assignment of order of measurement for left upper arm and forearm blood pressures was utilised. Participants were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had been assigned an Australasian Triage Scale code of 2, 3, 4, or 5, were able to consent, and able to have blood pressures measured on their left arm whilst lying at a 45° angle. The Bland-Altman method of statistical analysis was used, with the level of agreement for clinical acceptability for the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure defined as ±10 mmHg. The forearm measure overestimated systolic (mean difference 2.2 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±19 mmHg), diastolic (mean difference 3.4 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±14.4 mmHg), and mean arterial pressures (mean difference 4.1 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement ±13.7 mmHg). The systolic measure was not significantly different from zero. Evidence of better agreement was found with upper arm/forearm systolic measures below 140 mmHg compared to systolic measures above 140 mmHg using the Levene's test (p=0.002, F-statistic=11.09). Blood pressure disparity was not associated with participant characteristics. Forearm measures cannot routinely replace upper arm measures for blood pressure measurement

  17. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  18. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  19. A micropuncture study of proximal tubular transport of lithium during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, P

    1990-01-01

    Lithium and sodium are normally reabsorbed in parallel with water by the renal proximal tubule whereby their tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios (TF/P) remain close to unity throughout the proximal convoluted segment. During osmotic diuresis, the late proximal (TF/P)Na is known to decrease....... The present experiments were undertaken to study whether the late proximal TF/P for Li decreases like that of Na during osmotic diuresis. Data were obtained in a control period (C) and in two successive periods during mannitol diuresis (P1, P2). Glomerular filtration rate decreased gradually during osmotic...

  20. Sequential Proximal Tibial Stress Fractures associated with Prolonged usage of Methotrexate and Corticosteroids: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan TJL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the proximal tibia metaphysis are rare in the elderly. We present a case of a 65-year old male who developed sequential proximal tibia stress fractures associated with prolonged usage of methotrexate and prednisolone within a span of 18 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed an incomplete stress fracture involving the medial proximal tibial region. The patient was treated with stemmed total knee arthroplasty (TKA bilaterally. Stress fractures should be considered in patients with atypical knee pain who have a history of methotrexate and prednisolone usage. TKA is an effective treatment in stress fractures of the proximal tibia.

  1. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  2. Surgical Anatomy of the Radial Nerve at the Elbow and in the Forearm: Anatomical Basis for Intraplexus Nerve Transfer to Reconstruct Thumb and Finger Extension in C7 - T1 Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Background  C7 - T1 palsy results in complete loss of finger motion and poses a surgical challenge. This study investigated the anatomy of the radial nerve in the elbow and forearm and the feasibility of intraplexus nerve transfer to restore thumb and finger extension. Methods  The radial nerves were dissected in 28 formalin-fixed upper extremities. Branching pattern, length, diameter, and number of myelinated fibers were recorded. Results  Commonly, the branching pattern (from proximal to distal) was to the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, superficial sensory proximal to the lateral epicondyle, extensor carpi radialis brevis, supinator, extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indicis distal to the lateral epicondyle. Conclusions  Branches to the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, and supinator can be transferred to the posterior interosseous nerve to restore hand movement in patients with C7 - T1 brachial plexus palsies; the supinator branch is probably the best choice in this regard. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  4. Dexterous hand gestures recognition based on low-density sEMG signals for upper-limb forearm amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Villarejo Mayor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intuitive prosthesis control is one of the most important challenges in order to reduce the user effort in learning how to use an artificial hand. This work presents the development of a novel method for pattern recognition of sEMG signals able to discriminate, in a very accurate way, dexterous hand and fingers movements using a reduced number of electrodes, which implies more confidence and usability for amputees. Methods The system was evaluated for ten forearm amputees and the results were compared with the performance of able-bodied subjects. Multiple sEMG features based on fractal analysis (detrended fluctuation analysis and Higuchi’s fractal dimension combined with traditional magnitude-based features were analyzed. Genetic algorithms and sequential forward selection were used to select the best set of features. Support vector machine (SVM, K-nearest neighbors (KNN and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were analyzed to classify individual finger flexion, hand gestures and different grasps using four electrodes, performing contractions in a natural way to accomplish these tasks. Statistical significance was computed for all the methods using different set of features, for both groups of subjects (able-bodied and amputees. Results The results showed average accuracy up to 99.2% for able-bodied subjects and 98.94% for amputees using SVM, followed very closely by KNN. However, KNN also produces a good performance, as it has a lower computational complexity, which implies an advantage for real-time applications. Conclusion The results show that the method proposed is promising for accurately controlling dexterous prosthetic hands, providing more functionality and better acceptance for amputees.

  5. Abduction in Proximal Hamstring Tendon Avulsion Injury Mechanism-A Report on 3 Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Anne D.; Peters, Rolf W.; Verheul, Claire; Maas, Mario; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.

    2017-01-01

    Proximal hamstring tendon avulsions are typically sustained during forced hip hyperflexion combined with knee extension. We present 3 cases of athletes with a proximal hamstring tendon avulsion caused by an alternative injury mechanism that also involves a considerable hip abduction component

  6. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  8. A dual-mode proximity sensor with integrated capacitive and temperature sensing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Shihua; Huang, Ying; He, Xiaoyue; Sun, Zhiguang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    The proximity sensor is one of the most important devices in the field of robot application. It can accurately provide the proximity information to assistant robots to interact with human beings and the external environment safely. In this paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a dual-mode proximity sensor composed of capacitive and resistive sensing units. We defined the capacitive type proximity sensor perceiving the proximity information as C-mode and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting as R-mode. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were chosen as the R-mode sensing material because of its high performance. The dual-mode proximity sensor presents the following features: (1) the sensing distance of the dual-mode proximity sensor has been enlarged compared with the single capacitive proximity sensor in the same geometrical pattern; (2) experiments have verified that the proposed sensor can sense the proximity information of different materials; (3) the proximity sensing capability of the sensor has been improved by two modes perceive collaboratively, for a plastic block at a temperature of 60 °C: the R-mode will perceive the proximity information when the distance d between the sensor and object is 6.0–17.0 mm and the C-mode will do that when their interval is 0–2.0 mm; additionally two modes will work together when the distance is 2.0–6.0 mm. These features indicate our transducer is very valuable in skin-like sensing applications. (paper)

  9. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector. E4orf1 significantly improved insulin sensitivity in response to a glucose load. Yet, their proximal insulin signaling in fat depots was impaired, as indicated by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), and significantly increased abundance of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1). In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes E4orf1 expression impaired proximal insulin signaling. Whereas, treatment with rosiglitazone reduced ENPP1 abundance. Unaffected by IR-KD (insulin receptor knockdown) with siRNA, E4orf1 significantly up-regulated distal insulin signaling pathway and enhanced cellular glucose uptake. In vivo, E4orf1 impairs proximal insulin signaling in fat depots yet improves glycemic control. This is probably explained by the ability of E4orf1 to promote cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling. E4orf1 may provide a therapeutic template to enhance glucose disposal in the presence of impaired proximal insulin signaling.

  10. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Na Na

    Full Text Available Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1, or a null vector. E4orf1 significantly improved insulin sensitivity in response to a glucose load. Yet, their proximal insulin signaling in fat depots was impaired, as indicated by reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR, and significantly increased abundance of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1. In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes E4orf1 expression impaired proximal insulin signaling. Whereas, treatment with rosiglitazone reduced ENPP1 abundance. Unaffected by IR-KD (insulin receptor knockdown with siRNA, E4orf1 significantly up-regulated distal insulin signaling pathway and enhanced cellular glucose uptake. In vivo, E4orf1 impairs proximal insulin signaling in fat depots yet improves glycemic control. This is probably explained by the ability of E4orf1 to promote cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling. E4orf1 may provide a therapeutic template to enhance glucose disposal in the presence of impaired proximal insulin signaling.

  11. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Proximal onychomycosis due to Malassezia furfur: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareei M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiologic role of Malassezia furfur in onychomycosis, because of its controversial keratinolytic ability, has not been proven. The most reported cases are distal subungual onychomycosis (DSO. In our knowledge no cases of proximal onychomycosis (PO has been reported. For the first time we report proximal onychomycosis. This case report describes the isolation of Malassezia furfur from fingernails. Case presentation: An Iranian 56- year- old women had been referred to mycology lab with hyperkeratosis in proximal regions of right hand nails and clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis without paronychia in May 2012. She used several medicines for her cardiac disease, mental illness, severe stress and blood glucose fluctuation diseases. Scraping and sampling from nail lesions were done, budding yeast cells with broadband connections were observed in 15% KOH wet mounts. Also, other differentiation tests, consist of staining with methylen blue, cultures and biochemical tests were done. In order to rejecting the probable etiologic role of any dermatophytic or non-dermatophytic fungi in this case, samples were collected from other parts of the body by scotch tape and scraping with scalpel blade too, but the results of direct microscopy and culture were negative. Finally, Malassezia furfur was identified as the causative agent of onychomycosis.Conclusion: Despite failure to prove Malassezia furfur keratinolytic ability, it can be the etiologic agent of proximal onychomycosis that shows the aggressive properties of this species. Its clinical importance is the easier transmission to hospitalized patients and other people.

  13. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Information regarding previous studies on these physico-chemical ... This behaviour may be attributed to its high myristic acid ... The authors express deep appreciation to the. Heads of ... of a typical rural processing method on the proximate ...

  14. Proximate composition and nutritional characterization of Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...

  15. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  16. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  17. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, Jack A. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. (orig.)

  18. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrino, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. (orig.)

  19. Hormonal replacement therapy reduces forearm fracture incidence in recent postmenopausal women - results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sørensen, O.H.

    2000-01-01

    -to-treat analysis (n=2016), overall fracture risk was borderline statistically significantly reduced (RR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.05), and forearm fracture risk was significantly reduced (RR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.90) with HRT. Restricting the analysis to women who had adhered to their initial allocation of either HRT (n......OBJECTIVES: To study the fracture reducing potential of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in recent postmenopausal women in a primary preventive scenario. METHODS: Prospective controlled comprehensive cohort trial: 2016 healthy women aged 45-58 years, from three to 24 months past last menstrual...... by own choice). First line HRT was oral sequential oestradiol/norethisterone in women with intact uterus and oral continuous oestradiol in hysterectomised women. RESULTS: After five years, a total of 156 fractures were sustained by 140 women. There were 51 forearm fractures in 51 women. By intention...

  20. Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied...... with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p ... extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p

  1. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements

  2. Therapeutic effect of forearm low level light treatment on blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Sun, Jiajing; Meng, Lingkang; Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low level light/laser therapy (LLLT) is considered as a novel, non-invasive, and potential therapy in a variety of psychological and physical conditions, due to its effective intricate photobiomodulation. The mechanism of LLLT is that when cells are stimulated by photons, mitochondria produce a large quantity of ATP, which accelerates biochemical responses in the cell. It is of great significance to gain a clear insight into the change or interplay of various physiological parameters. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and venous-occlusion plethysmography to measure the LLLT-induced changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption in human forearms in vivo. Six healthy human participants (4 males and 2 females) were administered with 810-nm light emitted by LED array in ten minutes and blood flow, oxygenation and oxygen consumption were detected in the entire experiment. We found that LLLT induced an increase of blood flow and oxygen consumption on the treated site. Meanwhile, LLLT took a good role in promoting oxygenation of regional tissue, which was indicated by a significant increase of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]), a nearly invariable deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) and a increase of differential hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbD] = Δ[HbO2] - Δ[Hb]). These results not only demonstrate enormous potential of LLLT, but help to figure out mechanisms of photobiomodulation.

  3. Development and Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton for Shoulder, Elbow and Forearm Movement Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available World health organization reports, annually more than 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke and cardiovascular disease, among which 85% of stroke patients incur acute arm impairment, and 40% of victims are chronically impaired or permanently disabled. This results a burden on the families, communities and to the country as well. Rehabilitation programs are the main way to promote functional recovery in these individuals. Since the number of such cases is constantly growing and that the duration of treatment is long, an intelligent robot could significantly contribute to the success of these programs. We therefore developed a new 5DoFs robotic exoskeleton named MARSE-5 (motion assistive robotic-exoskeleton for superior extremity that supposed to be worn on the lateral side of upper arm to rehabilitate and ease the shoulder, elbow and forearm movements. This paper focused on the design, modeling, development and control of the proposed MARSE-5. To control the exoskeleton, a nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC technique was employed. In experiments, trajectory tracking that corresponds to typical passive rehabilitation exercises was carried out. Experimental results reveal that the controller is able to maneuver the MARSE-5 efficiently to track the desired trajectories.

  4. Computed tomography in soft-tissue lesions of the hand and forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Lucas, D.; Feyerabend, T.; Schindler, G.; Lanz, U.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography was carried out in 32 patients with clinically equivocal soft-tissue lesions of the hand (24 times) and forearm (8 times). The CT scans were performed with the patients in standard positions; thin slices and zoom technique were used. All soft-tissue tumors were correctly diagnosed with regard to localization, size and infiltration of the surrounding tissue. The histological diagnosis was correct in tendon-sheath proliferations, deposits caused by metabolic disorders, epithelial and ganglion cysts, hemangiomas, lipomas and in one schwannoma. A malignancy was suspected and was proven to be correct in two cases. False-positive diagnoses of a malignant soft-tissue tumor were made in one case of an aggressive fibromatosis, in a rapidly progressive, ossifying myositis, and three times in the presence of postoperative scar tissue following the resection of a sarcoma. Finally, a case of proliferative myositis regarded as semimalignant was underrated by CT. The hand surgeon considered CT diagnostics to be very helpful in planning operations in an anatomically complex organ such as the hand. (orig.) [de

  5. Forearm bone mineralization in recently diagnosed female adolescents with a premenarchal onset of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggen, Inge; Vanbesien, Jesse; Gies, Inge; Van den Eede, Ursula; Lampo, Annik; Louis, Olivia; De Schepper, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Data available on bone mineralization by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adolescents with an early onset anorexia nervosa (AN) is limited. We investigated whether a disturbed bone mineralization can be observed at the distal radius in recently diagnosed female adolescents with AN and a premenarchal onset of this disease. Twenty-four premenarchal patients with AN and 22 healthy females which were age and height matched, were selected from our reference database; both groups underwent a pQCT bone assessment at the distal radius of the nondominant arm. The patients age ranged between 13.3 and 18.4 years. Their percent weight loss ranged between 5 and 36% (median 23%) and occurred within the preceding 3 to 44 months. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of the patient group was significantly lower than the comparison group (185.6 ± 30.2 vs.209.3 ± 34.0 mm(2) ; p = 0.02). Bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content, total volumetric bone mineral density and periosteal circumference were also lower, albeit not significantly. The bone parameters were unrelated to the under nutrition severity and duration. In premenarchal patients with AN the trabecular bone mineralization of the forearm is significantly reduced, this might be an early indicator of altered bone mineral accrual. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:809-812). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of two plethysmography systems in assessment of forearm blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stephen J; Attinà, Teresa; Hultsch, Ellen; Bolscher, Luc; Grossman, Matthias; Denvir, Martin A; Webb, David J

    2004-05-01

    Venous occlusion plethysmography is widely used to assess forearm blood flow (FBF). We compared the established Hokanson system (HEC4) with a newly developed Filtrass 2001 system (F2001). The HEC4 uses mercury-in-Silastic strain gauges, whereas F2001 detects volume changes with a nonmercury linear displacement device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the new F2001 against the HEC4 in terms of repeatability and systematic bias. Ten subjects were studied on 4 separate days in random order using either the HEC4 on both arms, the F2001 on both arms, the HEC4 on the right arm with the F2001 on the left, or the F2001 on the right arm and the HEC4 on the left. Stroop's colored word conflict test and postocclusive hyperemia were used to increase FBF, and lower body negative pressure was used to lower FBF. Stroop's colored word conflict test and lower body negative pressure increased (24.6 +/- 1.5%, n = 240, P 0.05), and there was no systematic bias. The F2001 is a newly developed plethysmography system that does not utilize mercury and is suitable for assessing changes of FBF in physiological studies.

  7. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  8. Anatomical Basis and Clinical Application of Synovial Flaps in the Wrist and Distal Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, David L; Yeh, Jiun-Ting; Colen, Lawrence B

    2017-05-01

    Neuropathic symptoms after median nerve repair at the wrist or secondary to refractory carpal tunnel syndrome may become debilitating. These symptoms develop because of perineural adhesions, intraneural fibrosis, and fixation of the nerve to the transverse carpal ligament after surgery, and often require neurolysis. Interposition of vascularized soft tissue over the median nerve at the time of neurolysis prevents recurrence of such adhesions. The synovial flap, fashioned from the synovial lining of the flexor tendon sheath, is an ideal tissue for this purpose. Previous authors have described the surgical technique of the synovial flap, but the anatomical basis and design of the flap have not been previously discussed. Twenty fresh cadaver upper extremities were injected with Microfil to analyze the arterial anatomy, flap dimensions, and arc of rotation of the flexor tendon synovium mobilized as a flap suitable for coverage of the median nerve at the wrist. The authors determined that both radial and ulnar-based flaps are clinically useful for providing coverage in the wrist and distal forearm. This flap was used in 18 patients with complicated median nerve lesions in this region. All patients had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Of 13 patients treated for posttraumatic median nerve neuromas, all but two had significant resolution of symptoms. When used as a vascularized flap, the flexor tendon synovium provides adequate protection of the median nerve. Flap dimensions and vascularity of this tissue make it an ideal local flap option when performing reoperative surgery on the median nerve.

  9. Wearable Sensors for eLearning of Manual Tasks: Using Forearm EMG in Hand Hygiene Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutafina, Ekaterina; Laukamp, David; Bettermann, Ralf; Schroeder, Ulrik; Jonas, Stephan M

    2016-08-03

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to eLearning that makes use of smart wearable sensors. Traditional eLearning supports the remote and mobile learning of mostly theoretical knowledge. Here we discuss the possibilities of eLearning to support the training of manual skills. We employ forearm armbands with inertial measurement units and surface electromyography sensors to detect and analyse the user's hand motions and evaluate their performance. Hand hygiene is chosen as the example activity, as it is a highly standardized manual task that is often not properly executed. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene are taken as a model of the optimal hygiene procedure, due to their algorithmic structure. Gesture recognition procedures based on artificial neural networks and hidden Markov modeling were developed, achieving recognition rates of 98 . 30 % ( ± 1 . 26 % ) for individual gestures. Our approach is shown to be promising for further research and application in the mobile eLearning of manual skills.

  10. Age and Hydration dependence of jowl and forearm skin firmness in young and mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Wong, Jennifer; Fasen, Madeline

    2017-12-27

    Quantitative assessment of possible linkages between skin's firmness and water content is useful for cosmetic and clinical purposes and to better understand features of advancing age. Our goals were to characterize age-related differential features in skin firmness in women and determine the relationship between skin firmness and indices of skin water. Skin firmness was quantified using handheld devices that measure the force to indent skin 0.3 and 1.3 mm (F0.3 and F1.3). Skin hydration was quantified using handheld devices that measured tissue dielectric constant (TDC) at 300 MHz to skin depths of 0.5 and 2.0-2.5 mm. All parameters were measured bilaterally in the jowl area and volar forearm of 60 women grouped by age skin depths, as weakly related to firmness and was observed to change with age only when measured to a depth of 0.5 mm represented by TDC5 = 0.096 × AGE + 32.7. Experimental finding show clear differences in skin firmness between age-groups with skin hydration playing a minor role. Possible explanations and suggestions for further studies are provided. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Muscular forearm activation in hand-grip tasks with superimposition of mechanical vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, L; Tirabasso, A; Lunghi, A; Di Giovanni, R; Sacco, F; Marchetti, E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the muscular activation of the forearm, with or without vibration stimuli at different frequencies while performing a grip tasks of 45s at various level of exerted force. In 16 individuals, 9 females and 7 males, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of extensor carpi radialis longus and the flexor carpi ulnari muscles were assessed. At a short latency from onset EMG, RMS and the level of MU synchronization were assessed to evaluate the muscular adaptations. Whilst a trend of decay of EMG Median frequency (MDFd) was employed as an index of muscular fatigue. Muscular tasks consists of the grip of an instrumented handle at a force level of 20%, 30%, 40%, 60% of the maximum voluntary force. Vibration was supplied by a shaker to the hand in mono-frequential waves at 20, 30, 33 and 40Hz. In relation to EMG, RMS and MU synchronization, the muscular activation does not seem to change with the superimposition of the mechanical vibrations, on the contrary a lower MDFd was observed at 33Hz than in absence of vibration. This suggests an early muscular fatigue induced by vibration due to the fact that 33Hz is a resonance frequency for the hand-arm system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  13. Systemic vascular function, measured with forearm flow mediated dilatation, in acute and stable cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacker David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with alteration in systemic markers of vascular function. We measured forearm vascular function (using forearm flow mediated dilatation to clarify whether recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA is associated with impaired systemic vascular function. Methods Prospective case control study enrolling 17 patients with recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA and 17 sex matched controls with stroke more than two years previously. Forearm vascular function was measured using flow medicated dilatation (FMD. Results Flow mediated dilatation was 6.0 ± 1.1% in acute stroke/TIA patients and 4.7 ± 1.0% among control subjects (p = 0.18. The mean paired difference in FMD between subjects with recent acute stroke and controls was 1.25% (95% CI -0.65, 3.14; p = 0.18. Endothelium independent dilatation was measured in six pairs of participants and was similar in acute stroke/TIA patients (22.6 ± 4.3% and control subjects (19.1 ± 2.6%; p = 0.43. Conclusions Despite the small size of this study, these data indicate that recent acute stroke is not necessarily associated with a clinically important reduction in FMD.

  14. Site, gender and age variation in normal skin colour on the back and the forearm: tristimulus colorimeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A; Serup, J

    1997-02-01

    To study whether anatomical location and age and gender of subjects had any influence on the objective skin colour measurements. Baseline colour in prone position was measured with the Minolta ChromaMeter® in the upper, middle and lower level of the upper back and on the forearm of 168 volunteers. These two sites are commonly used in skin testing. Higher basal a* and lower basal L* levels were found on the upper scapular region compared to the lower scapular region and the subscapular region. The basal b* level showed no variation relative to site. The basal a* and the basal b* levels were lower on the forearm compared to the upper back while the basal L* level was higher. Females above 65 years showed a less coloured skin with lower values as compared to those of younger age. Females were found to have a generally lower basal a* level than males both on the upper back and forearm skin. These relatively major differences and sources of variation have to be considered when planning irritancy studies where colour differences between erythema and normal skin is used.

  15. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Necmettin; Ardic, Füsun

    2008-04-21

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  16. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  17. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico B Arkink, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  18. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; van der Plas, Annelies; Sneep, Ruth W; Reijnierse, Monique

    2017-12-01

    Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  19. Intensive insulin treatment improves forearm blood flow in critically ill patients: a randomized parallel design clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuran, Ivan; Poredos, Pavel; Skale, Rafael; Voga, Gorazd; Gabrscek, Lucija; Pareznik, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Intensive insulin treatment of critically ill patients was seen as a promising method of treatment, though recent studies showed that reducing the blood glucose level below 6 mmol/l had a detrimental outcome. The mechanisms of the effects of insulin in the critically ill are not completely understood. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that intensive insulin treatment may influence forearm blood flow independently of global hemodynamic indicators. The study encompassed 29 patients of both sexes who were admitted to the intensive care unit due to sepsis and required artificial ventilation as the result of acute respiratory failure. 14 patients were randomly selected for intensive insulin treatment (Group 1; blood glucose concentration 4.4-6.1 mmol/l), and 15 were selected for conventional insulin treatment (Group 2; blood glucose level 7.0 mmol/l-11.0 mmol/l). At the start of the study (t0, beginning up to 48 hours after admittance and the commencement of artificial ventilation), at 2 hours (t1), 24 hours (t2), and 72 hours (t3) flow in the forearm was measured for 60 minutes using the strain-gauge plethysmography method. Student's t-test of independent samples was used for comparisons between the two groups, and Mann-Whitney's U-test where appropriate. Linear regression analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to determine the levels of correlation. The difference in 60-minute forearm flow at the start of the study (t0) was not statistically significant between groups, while at t2 and t3 significantly higher values were recorded in Group 1 (t2; Group 1: 420.6 +/- 188.8 ml/100 ml tissue; Group 2: 266.1 +/- 122.2 ml/100 ml tissue (95% CI 30.9-278.0, P = 0.02); t3; Group 1: 369.9 +/- 150.3 ml/100 ml tissue; Group 2: 272.6 +/- 85.7 ml/100 ml tissue (95% CI 5.4-190.0, P = 0.04). At t1 a trend towards significantly higher values in Group 1 was noted (P = 0.05). The level of forearm flow was related to the amount of insulin infusion (r

  20. Intravenous regional anaesthesia (Bier's block) for pediatric forearm fractures in a pediatric emergency department-Experience from 2003 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ivan S Y; Chong, S L; Ong, Gene Y K

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy (length of stay in the emergency department and failure rate of Bier's block) and safety profile (death and major complications) of Bier's block in its use for manipulation and reduction of paediatric forearm fractures. This is a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients in KKWomen's and Children's Hospital Children's Emergency Department with forearm fractures between Jan 2003 and Dec 2014 who underwent manipulation and reduction using Bier's block. Demographic data, time from registration to discharge, major complications and success rate were collated in a standardized data collection form. A subanalysis of the Bier's block group from 2009 to 2014 was performed and compared to a corresponding data set of paediatric patients who underwent manipulation and reduction of forearm fractures using ketamine for procedural sedation from 2009 to 2014. 1781 cases of paediatric forearm fractures were analysed. The mean age of patients in the Bier's block group was 12.0 years (range 5.5-17.8 years old). Of all patients undergoing Bier's block, 1471 out of 1781 patients were male (82.7%). The mean length of stay (LOS) in the department was 168±72min, measured from time of registration till departure. From our subanalysis of data from 2009 to 2014, the mean LOS for the Bier's block group was shorter - 170min compared to 238min for the ketamine group (P block which required a repeat procedural sedation using ketamine. 96% of patients who underwent Bier's block were discharged with an outpatient orthopaedic appointment. There were no deaths or major complications identified in our study. Bier's block is a safe technique for reduction of fractures when used in the appropriate population and fracture types, with a low failure rate and no major complications including death. Compared to the ketamine group, it has a shorter length of stay in the emergency department. We recommend the adoption of this practice for manipulation and reduction of

  1. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  2. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Deep peroneal nerve palsy due to osteochondroma arising from fibular head and proximal lateral tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Demiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to present a case with a drop foot resulting from osteochondromas of proximal tibia and fibula and help to guide the clinicians in differential diagnosis according to SCARE criteria Agha (2016 [3].

  4. Novel Treatment of a Scapholunate Ligament Injury with Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Kane, Patrick M.; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.

    2016-01-01

    Background  Nonunion of scaphoid proximal pole fractures presents a challenging management dilemma to hand surgeons. This problem is further complicated in the uncommon concurrence of scapholunate (SL) ligament disruption. Case Description  A 39-year-old male patient presented with new-onset wrist pain following a remote history of a proximal pole scaphoid fracture sustained as a teenager, which was treated nonoperatively. Six months before presentation, the patient sustained a fall while snowboarding. The patient was found to have a chronic nonunion of his scaphoid proximal pole with an associated SL ligament disruption. As the proximal fragment was too small to be amenable to fixation, the patient was treated with an arthroscopic partial scaphoid excision and SL ligament reconstruction using a scapholunateintercarpal screw placed percutaneously. At 26 months, the patient exhibited no pain, near-normal strength, and wrist motion, and expressed a high-level of satisfaction from his surgery. Literature Review  Although cases of SL ligament disruption with concomitant proximal scaphoid fractures have been reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of SL ligament rupture occurring in the setting of a preexisting proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. Clinical Relevance  We report the use of SL ligament reconstruction augmented with intercarpal screw fixation, and excision of the proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. This minimallyinvasive approach may be a particularly useful option in young, active patients such as our own, where a motion-sacrificing salvage procedure would be less than ideal. PMID:27616829

  5. Proximity operations concept design study, task 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

  6. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  7. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  8. Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities.

  9. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...... more when the road safety is low; the emergency service is not properly organized, and the nearest hospital has lower quality standards....

  10. Proximity functions for general right cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Distributions of distances between pairs of points within geometrical objects, or the closely related proximity functions and geometric reduction factors, have applications to dosimetric and microdosimetric calculations. For convex bodies these functions are linked to the chord-length distributions that result from random intersections by straight lines. A synopsis of the most important relations is given. The proximity functions and related functions are derived for right cylinders with arbitrary cross sections. The solution utilizes the fact that the squares of the distances between two random points are sums of independently distributed squares of distances parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Analogous formulas are derived for the proximity functions or geometric reduction factors for a cylinder relative to a point. This requires only a minor modification of the solution

  11. Comparison of shock transmission and forearm electromyography between experienced and recreational tennis players during backhand strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chiang, Jinn-Yen; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that recreational tennis players transmit more shock impact from the racket to the elbow joint than experienced tennis players during the backhand stroke. Also, to test whether recreational tennis players used higher electromyographic (EMG) activities in common wrist extensor and flexor around epicondylar region at follow-through phase. A repeated-measure, cross-sectional study. National College of Physical Education and Sports at Taipei, Taiwan. Twenty-four male tennis players with no abnormal forearm musculoskeletal injury participated in the study. According to performance level, subjects were categorized into 2 groups: experienced and recreational. Impact transmission and wrist extensor-flexor EMG for backhand acceleration, impact, and follow-through phases were recorded for each player. An independent t test with a significance level of 0.05 was used to examine mean differences of shock impact and EMG between the 2 test groups. One-way ANOVA associated with Tukey multiple comparisons was used to identify differences among different impact locations and EMG phases. Experienced athletes reduced the racket impact to the elbow joint by 89.2%, but recreational players reduced it by only 61.8%. The largest EMG differences were found in the follow-through phase (Pelbow joint and use larger wrist flexor and extensor EMG activities at follow-through phase of the backhand stroke. Follow-through control is proposed as a critical factor for reduction of shock transmission. Clinicians or trainers should instruct beginners to quickly release their grip tightness after ball-to-racket impact to reduce shock impact transmission to the wrist and elbow.

  12. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  13. Microvascular Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Free Flap for Palatomaxillary Reconstruction Following Malignant Tumor Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSHERBINY, M.; MEBED, A.; MEBED, H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the patient's quality of life and outcomes after reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects by microvascular radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap (RFFF) and dental obturator. Material and Methods: During the period between 2005-2007, 10 patients who had palato maxillary defects were immediately reconstructed using RFFF to restore physiologic oronasal separation. All patients were treated for malignant tumors of hard palate or maxilla and all had preservation of orbital floor. Vascular anastomoses were done with the facial vessels in the neck. All the patients underwent a lateral thigh split-thickness skin graft for closure of the donor site. Outcome measurements included post-operative assessment of flap survival and healing, speech, swallowing and diet evaluation and quality of life. Dental rehabilitation was done 3 months postoperatively for all patients. Results: Flap survival was successful in all cases. In the first 2 weeks post operatively, 80% of patients had very good swallowing, speech and diet ability in the form of soft chewable foods and by the end of 6 months, all patients had very good swallowing and speech function and were able to eat all types of foods. Dental rehabilitation with obturator was easily applied and the presence of the flap did not interfere with its application. The technique improved chewing ability and cosmosis. Complications included, small oronasal fistula in 2 patients (20%) who required secondary sutures and delayed wound healing of donor site in one patient. Conclusion: RFFF for soft tissue reconstruction after maxillectomy is a reliable technique that provides a definitive physiologic separation between oral and nasal cavity. This allows very early improvement of speech and swallowing without being totally dependent on obturator. Dental rehabilitation to improve chewing and cosmoses can be done easily with minimal home care. Subsequently, the quality of life is markedly improved

  14. Adaptive Proximal Point Algorithms for Total Variation Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is a fundamental problem in various areas of imaging sciences. This paper presents a class of adaptive proximal point algorithms (APPA with contraction strategy for total variational image restoration. In each iteration, the proposed methods choose an adaptive proximal parameter matrix which is not necessary symmetric. In fact, there is an inner extrapolation in the prediction step, which is followed by a correction step for contraction. And the inner extrapolation is implemented by an adaptive scheme. By using the framework of contraction method, global convergence result and a convergence rate of O(1/N could be established for the proposed methods. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the APPA methods for solving total variation image restoration problems. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed methods are comparable and promising.

  15. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  16. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    the respective building topology. The approach applies efficient strategies to reduce the number of messages transmitted between the mobile targets and a central location server, thus saving the targets' battery power, bandwidth, and other resources. The strategies are evaluated in terms of efficiency......Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  17. Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.

  18. Mutual proximity graphs for improved reachability in music recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, Arthur; Stevens, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the impact of hubness, a general problem of machine learning in high-dimensional spaces, on a real-world music recommendation system based on visualisation of a k-nearest neighbour (knn) graph. Due to a problem of measuring distances in high dimensions, hub objects are recommended over and over again while anti-hubs are nonexistent in recommendation lists, resulting in poor reachability of the music catalogue. We present mutual proximity graphs, which are an alternative to knn and mutual knn graphs, and are able to avoid hub vertices having abnormally high connectivity. We show that mutual proximity graphs yield much better graph connectivity resulting in improved reachability compared to knn graphs, mutual knn graphs and mutual knn graphs enhanced with minimum spanning trees, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of hubness.

  19. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  20. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Main arguments: Telemedicine offers unique opportunities to improve the accessibility of health services. It is defined as diagnosis, treatment and monitoring among doctors, nurses and patients separated by spaces, but mediated through information and communication technologies (Mort & May, 2003...... project in 2014 at four hospitals in Copenhagen in relation to 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The material embraces 1) 13 transcribed interviews with nurses and medical doctors 2) two plenary sessions with nurses across hospitals, where photos and diaries were discussed 3...... diagnostic work when patients are not physically present (275). Oudshoorn argues that nurses need to learn to calm patients and help them to see the utility of measurements (2008, 279). Langstrup & Winthereik argues that it is pivotal to offer instruction with regard to the application of the technology...

  1. Giant Cell Tumour of the Distal Ulna: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Jaya Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumour (GCT of bone, a primary yet locally aggressive benign tumour, commonly affects patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years, with the peak incidence occurring in the third decade. Women are affected slightly more than men. The distal end of the ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumours in general and giant cell tumours in particular. Wide resection of the distal ulna is the recommended treatment for GCT in such locations. Radio-ulna convergence and dorsal displacement of the ulna stump are known complications following ulna resection proximal to the insertion of the pronator quadratus. This leads to reduction in grip power and forearm rotatory motion. Stabilization of the ulna stump with extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU tendon after wide resection of the tumour has been described in the literature. We report a case of GCT of distal end of ulna treated with wide resection and stabilization with ECU tendon.

  2. Proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.L.; Sun, G.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Xing, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Nambu spinor Green's function approach is applied to study proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) structures. They include the induced superconducting order parameter and density of states (DOS) with superconducting feature on the FM side, and spin-dependent DOS within the energy gap on the SC side. The latter indicates an appearance of gapless superconductivity and a coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in a small regime near the interface. The influence of exchange energy in FM and barrier strength at interface on the proximity effects is discussed

  3. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  4. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  5. Characterizing changes in the excitability of corticospinal projections to proximal muscles of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard G; Nelson, Barry D; Buick, Alison R; Carroll, Timothy J; Kennedy, Niamh C; Cann, Rachel Mac

    2013-09-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in methods of exogenous brain stimulation that induce changes in the excitability of human cerebral cortex. The expectation is that these methods may promote recovery of function following brain injury. To assess their effects on motor output, it is typical to assess the state of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex to muscles of the hand, via electromyographic responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation. If a range of stimulation intensities is employed, the recruitment curves (RCs) obtained can, at least for intrinsic hand muscles, be fitted by a sigmoid function. To establish whether sigmoid fits provide a reliable basis upon which to characterize the input-output properties of the corticospinal pathway for muscles proximal to the hand, and to assess as an alternative the area under the (recruitment) curve (AURC). A comparison of the reliability of these measures, using RCs obtained for muscles that are frequently the targets of rehabilitation. The AURC is an extremely reliable measure of the state of corticospinal projections to hand and forearm muscles, which has both face and concurrent validity. Construct validity is demonstrated by detection of widely distributed (across muscles) changes in corticospinal excitability induced by paired associative stimulation (PAS). The parameters derived from sigmoid fits are unlikely to provide an adequate means to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic regimes. The AURC can be employed to characterize corticospinal projections to a range of muscles, and gauge the efficacy of longitudinal interventions in clinical rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  7. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  9. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  10. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  11. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  12. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  13. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  14. Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used.

  15. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  16. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  17. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biko, David M.; Davidson, Richard; Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  18. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  19. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [National Naval Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Davidson, Richard [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  20. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, D B; Doris, P A

    2000-04-01

    Rat cyclophilin-like protein (Cy-LP) is a candidate hypertension gene initially identified by differential hybridization and implicated in renal mechanisms of salt retention and high blood pressure. We report the molecular characterization of rat cyclophilin B (CypB) and demonstrate, through sequence analysis and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction primer assay, that CypB but not Cy-LP is expressed in rat kidney. CypB is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized prolyl-isomerase that interacts with elongation initiation factor 2-beta, an important regulator of protein translation and a central component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response to hypoxia or ATP depletion. Active renal transport of sodium is increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and there is evidence that this coincides with hypoxia and ATP depletion in the renal cortex. In the present studies we have examined expression of CypB in rat proximal tubules, which contributes to the increased renal sodium reabsorption in this model of hypertension. We report that CypB transcript abundance is significantly elevated in proximal convoluted tubules from SHR compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto strain. This upregulation occurs in weanling animals and precedes the development of hypertension, indicating that it is not a simple response to hypertension in SHR. Further, CypB expression is also higher in a proximal tubule cell line derived from SHR compared with a similar line derived from Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that this difference is genetically determined. No sequence differences were observed in the CypB cDNA from these 2 strains. These observations suggest that a genetically determined alteration in proximal tubules from SHR occurs that leads to increased expression of CypB. In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress.

  1. Anatomical study of the motor branches of the median nerve to the forearm and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Catalina; Leclercq, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The median nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of most of the muscles usually involved in upper limb spasticity. Selective neurectomy is one of the treatments utilized to reduce spasticity. The purpose of this study was to describe the variations of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm and draw recommendations for an appropriate planning of selective neurectomy. The median nerve was dissected in the forearm of 20 fresh cadaver upper limbs. Measurements included number, origin, division, and entry point of each motor branch into the muscles. One branch for the pronator teres was the most common pattern. In 9/20 cases, it arose as a common trunk with other branches. A single trunk innervated the flexor carpi radialis with a common origin with other branches in 17/20 cases. Two, three or four branches innervated the flexor digitorum superficialis, the first one frequently through a common trunk with other branches. They were very difficult to identify unless insertions of pronator teres and flexor digitorum superficialis were detached. The flexor digitorum profundus received one to five branches and flexor pollicis longus one to two branches from the anterior interosseous nerve. There is no regular pattern of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm. Our findings differ in many points from the classical literature. Because of the frequency of common trunks for different muscles, we recommend the use of peroperative electrical stimulation. Selective neurotomy of flexor digitorum superficialis is technically difficult, because the entry point of some of their terminal branches occurs just below the arch and deep to the muscle belly.

  2. Long-term Outcome of Peripherally Implanted Venous Access Ports in the Forearm in Female Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klösges, Laura, E-mail: l.kloesges@uni-bonn.de; Meyer, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.meyer@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Boschewitz, Jack, E-mail: jack.boschewitz@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Andersson, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.andersson@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rudlowski, Christian, E-mail: c.rudlowski@evk.de [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bergisch Gladbach, Department of Gynecology (Germany); Schild, Hans H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Radiology (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai, E-mail: kai.wilhelm@ek-bonn.de [Ev. Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter-Krankenhaus, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the long-term outcome of peripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm at our institution in a female patient collective.MethodsBetween June 2002 and May 2011, a total of 293 female patients with an underlying malignancy had 299 forearm ports implanted in our interventional radiology suite. The mean age of the cohort was 55 ± 12 years (range 26–81 years). The majority of women suffered from breast (59.5 %) or ovarian cancer (28.1 %). Complications were classified as infectious complications, thrombotic and nonthrombotic catheter dysfunction (dislocation of the catheter or port chamber, fracture with/without embolization or kinking of the catheter, port occlusion), and others.ResultsWe analyzed a total of 90,276 catheter days in 248 port systems (47 patients were lost to follow-up). The mean device service interval was 364 days per catheter (range 8–2,132, median 223 days, CI 311–415, SD 404). Sixty-seven early (≤30 days from implantation) or late complications (>30 days) occurred during the observation period (0.74/1,000 catheter days). Common complications were port infection (0.18/1,000 days), thrombotic dysfunction (0.12/1,000 days), and skin dehiscence (0.12/1,000 days). Nonthrombotic dysfunction occurred in a total of 21 cases (0.23/1,000 days) and seemed to cumulate on the venous catheter entry site on the distal upper arm.ConclusionPeripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm are a safe alternative to chest or upper-arm ports in female oncology patients. Special attention should be paid to signs of skin dehiscence and nonthrombotic dysfunction, especially when used for long-term treatment.

  3. Impact of double-tiered subchondral support procedure with a polyaxial locking plate on the stability of distal radius fractures using fresh cadaveric forearms: Biomechanical and radiographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Sadaaki; Kawasaki, Keikichi; Yamakoshi, Ken-Ichi; Uchiyama, Eiichi; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    The present study compared the changes in biomechanical and radiographic properties under cyclic axial loadings between the 'double-tiered subchondral support' (DSS) group (wherein two rows of screws were used) and the 'non-DSS' (NDSS) group (wherein only one row of distal screws was used) using cadaveric forearm models of radius fractures fixed with a polyaxial locking plate. Fifteen fresh cadaveric forearms were surgically operated to generate an Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) type 23-C2 fracture model with the fixation of polyaxial volar locking plates. The model specimens were randomized into two groups: DSS (n = 7) and NDSS (n = 8). Both the groups received 4 locking screws in the most distal row, as is usually applied, whereas the DSS group received 2 additional screws in the second row inserted at an inclination of about 15° to support the dorsal aspect of the dorsal subchondral bone. Cyclic axial compression test was performed (3000 cycles; 0-250 N; 60 mm/min) to measure absolute rigidity and displacement, after 1, 1000, 2000 and 3000 cycles, and values were normalized relative to cycle 1. These absolute and normalized values were compared between those two groups. Radiographic images were taken before and after the cyclic loading to measure changes in volar tilt (ΔVT) and radial inclination (ΔRI). The DSS group maintained significantly higher rigidity and lower displacement values than the NDSS group during the entire loading period. Radiographic analysis indicated that the ΔVT values of the DSS group were lower than those of the NDSS group. In contrast, the fixation design did not influence the impact of loading on the ΔRI values. Biomechanical and radiographic analyses demonstrated that two rows of distal locking screws in the DSS procedure conferred higher stability than one row of distal locking screws. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2010-10-21

    %. The results show that the MFL and FD of a single channel sEMG recorded from the forearm can be used to accurately identify a set of finger and wrist flexions even when the muscle activity is very weak. A comparison with other features demonstrates that this feature set offers a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of identification of the wrist and finger movements. It is proposed that such a system could be used to control a prosthetic hand or for a human computer interface.

  5. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Dinesh

    2010-10-01

    of other features ranged between 58% and 73%. Conclusions The results show that the MFL and FD of a single channel sEMG recorded from the forearm can be used to accurately identify a set of finger and wrist flexions even when the muscle activity is very weak. A comparison with other features demonstrates that this feature set offers a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of identification of the wrist and finger movements. It is proposed that such a system could be used to control a prosthetic hand or for a human computer interface.

  6. Methodological assessment of skin and limb blood flows in the human forearm during thermal and baroreceptor provocations

    OpenAIRE

    Brothers, R. Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Hubing, Kimberly A.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Skin blood flow responses in the human forearm, assessed by three commonly used technologies—single-point laser-Doppler flowmetry, integrated laser-Doppler flowmetry, and laser-Doppler imaging—were compared in eight subjects during normothermic baseline, acute skin-surface cooling, and whole body heat stress (Δ internal temperature = 1.0 ± 0.2°C; P < 0.001). In addition, while normothermic and heat stressed, subjects were exposed to 30-mmHg lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Skin blood flow...

  7. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  8. Parallel double-plate capacitive proximity sensor modelling based on effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; Zhu, Haiye; Wang, Wenyu; Gong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A semi-analytical model for a double-plate capacitive proximity sensor is presented according to the effective theory. Three physical models are established to derive the final equation of the sensor. Measured data are used to determine the coefficients. The final equation is verified by using measured data. The average relative error of the calculated and the measured sensor capacitance is less than 7.5%. The equation can be used to provide guidance to engineering design of the proximity sensors

  9. Efficacy of a forearm band in addition to exercises compared with exercises alone for lateral epicondylitis: A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Michiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    A forearm band is frequently used for lateral epicondylitis worldwide. However, evidence regarding its efficacy has been insufficient. The objective of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to analyze the effects of a forearm band for treatment of lateral epicondylitis at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients with lateral epicondylitis were randomly allocated into a band (n = 55) or non-band (n = 55) group. Patients in the band group were instructed to wear a forearm band for more than 6 h daily for at least 6 months. Patients in both groups were instructed to perform wrist extensor stretching exercises for 30 s, 3 times daily, for 6 months. Hand10, pain, and satisfaction scores, and proportions of positive physical examinations, including tenderness assessment, Thomsen test, and middle finger extension test, were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. There were no significant differences between the band and non-band groups with regard to Hand10, pain, or satisfaction scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Likewise, there was no significant difference in proportions of positive physical examinations between groups at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The results of the current study suggest that a forearm band may have no more than a placebo effect, and do not support the use of a forearm band based on its effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  11. An audit of complications of fiberglass cast and hybrid cast for fractures of the foot, ankle and forearm in a Swedish emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, Anna; Carlberg, Eva; Palmberg, Gunilla; Sloberg, Rut

    2018-06-01

    Patients of all ages present to the Emergency Department (ED) with fractures that require immobilization using a cast. Various casting materials are used, all with advantages and disadvantages and there are considerable risks associated with fracture management using cast immobilization. The frequency and severity of complications from fiberglass or hybrid casts applied in the emergency setting has not previously been studied. The aim of this audit was to describe all the complications that occurred within 30 days in patients who had a fiberglass cast applied for immobilization of uncomplicated, non-angulated fractures of the foot, ankle or forearm. A retrospective care record audit was conducted that included 430 patients. The most common complications found were skin complications and cast related problems. No severe complications (e.g. compartment syndrome, venous thromboembolism or infection) were found. Fiberglass casts did not cause severe complications in this group of patients with uncomplicated fractures of the extremities. However, 25% of the patients experienced some form of complication. Interventions are needed that minimize the frequency of complications. As with all healthcare interventions, it is crucial that staff applying casts and providing follow-up care are competent. If casts are applied correctly and the patient is well informed and concordant, complications can be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher R.

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.

  13. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of ball impact location on racket and forearm joint angle changes for one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark; Hau, Agnes; Blenkinsop, Glen

    2017-07-01

    Recreational tennis players tend to have higher incidence of tennis elbow, and this has been hypothesised to be related to one-handed backhand technique and off-centre ball impacts on the racket face. This study aimed to investigate for a range of participants the effect of off-longitudinal axis and off-lateral axis ball-racket impact locations on racket and forearm joint angle changes immediately following impact in one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes. Three-dimensional racket and wrist angular kinematic data were recorded for 14 university tennis players each performing 30 "flat" one-handed backhand groundstrokes. Off-longitudinal axis ball-racket impact locations explained over 70% of the variation in racket rotation about the longitudinal axis and wrist flexion/extension angles during the 30 ms immediately following impact. Off-lateral axis ball-racket impact locations had a less clear cut influence on racket and forearm rotations. Specifically off-longitudinal impacts below the longitudinal axis forced the wrist into flexion for all participants with there being between 11° and 32° of forced wrist flexion for an off-longitudinal axis impact that was 1 ball diameter away from the midline. This study has confirmed that off-longitudinal impacts below the longitudinal axis contribute to forced wrist flexion and eccentric stretch of the wrist extensors and there can be large differences in the amount of forced wrist flexion from individual to individual and between strokes with different impact locations.

  15. Effect of systemic pH on pHi and lactic acid generation in exhaustive forearm exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, V.L.; Schubert, C.; Keller, U.; Mueller, S.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether changes in systemic pH affect intracellular pH (pH i ), energy-rich phosphates, and lactic acid generation in muscle, eight normal volunteers performed exhaustive forearm exercise with arterial blood flow occluded for 2 min on three occasions. Subjects ingested 4 mmol/kg NH 4 Cl (acidosis; A) or NaHCO 3 (alkalosis; B) or nothing (control; C) 3 h before the exercise. Muscle pH i and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured with 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P-NMR) spectroscopy during exercise and recovery. Lactate output during 0.5-7 min of recovery was calculated as deep venous-arterial concentration differences times forearm blood flow. Before exercise, blood pH and bicarbonate were lower in acidosis than alkalosis and intermediate in control. Lactic acid output during recovery was less with A than B and intermediate in C. PCr utilization and resynthesis were not affected by extracellular pH changes. pH i did not differ before exercise or at its end. Hence systemic acidosis inhibited and alkalosis stimulated lactic acid output. These findings suggest that systemic pH regulates cellular acid production, protecting muscle pH, at the expense of energy availability

  16. Effects of electrode size and spacing on sensory modalities in the phantom thumb perception area for the forearm amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Chai, G H; Zhu, K H; Lan, N; Sui, X H

    2015-01-01

    Tactile sensory feedback plays a key role in accomplishing the dexterous manipulation of prosthetic hands for the amputees, and the non-invasive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the phantom finger perception (PFP) area would be an effective way to realize sensory feedback clinically. In order to realize the high-spatial-resolution tactile sensory feedback in the PFP region, we investigated the effects of electrode size and spacing on the tactile sensations for potentially optimizing the surface electrode array configuration. Six forearm-amputated subjects were recruited in the psychophysical studies. With the diameter of the circular electrode increasing from 3 mm to 12 mm, the threshold current intensity was enhanced correspondingly under different sensory modalities. The smaller electrode could potentially lead to high sensation spatial resolution. Whereas, the smaller the electrode, the less the number of sensory modalities. For an Φ-3 mm electrode, it is even hard for the subject to perceive any perception modalities under normal stimulating current. In addition, the two-electrode discrimination distance (TEDD) in the phantom thumb perception area decreased with electrode size decreasing in two directions of parallel or perpendicular to the forearm. No significant difference of TEDD existed along the two directions. Studies in this paper would guide the configuration optimization of the TENS electrode array for potential high spatial-resolution sensory feedback.

  17. Reconstructive Surgery for Severe Penile Inadequacy: Phalloplasty with a Free Radial Forearm Flap or a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lumen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Severe penile inadequacy in adolescents is rare. Phallic reconstruction to treat this devastating condition is a major challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Phallic reconstruction using the free radial forearm flap (RFF or the pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF has been routinely used in female-to-male transsexuals. Recently we started to use these techniques in the treatment of severe penile inadequacy. Methods. Eleven males (age 15 to 42 years were treated with a phallic reconstruction. The RFF is our method of choice; the ALTF is an alternative when a free flap is contraindicated or less desired by the patient. The RFF was used in 7 patients, the ALTF in 4 patients. Mean followup was 25 months (range: 4–49 months. Aesthetic and functional results were evaluated. Results. There were no complications related to the flap. Aesthetic results were judged as “good” in 9 patients and “moderate” in 2 patients. Sensitivity in the RFF was superior compared to the ALTF. Four patients developed urinary complications (stricture and/or fistula. Six patients underwent erectile implant surgery. In 2 patients the erectile implant had to be removed due to infection or erosion. Conclusion. In case of severe penile inadequacy due to whatever condition, a phalloplasty is the preferred treatment nowadays. The free radial forearm flap is still the method of choice. The anterolateral thigh flap can be a good alternative, especially when free flaps are contraindicated, but sensitivity is markedly inferior in these flaps.

  18. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  19. Open reduction and internal fixation of three and four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgman, A. J.; Roolker, W.; Patt, T. W.; Raaymakers, E. L. F. B.; Marti, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy persists concerning the preferred treatment of displaced fractures of the proximal part of the humerus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of three and four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and

  20. The effects of shoulder load and pinch force on electromyographic activity and blood flow in the forearm during a pinch task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Bart; Kofoed Nielsen, Pernille; de Kraker, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    loaded with 4.95 kg each) were combined with intermittent pinch forces at 0, 10 and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Blood flow to the forearm was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Myoelectric activity of the forearm and neck-shoulder muscles was recorded to check for the workload levels....... Across all levels of shoulder load, blood flow increased significantly with increasing pinch force (21% at 10% MVC and by 44% at 25% MVC). Blood flow was significantly affected by shoulder load, with the lowest blood flow at the highest shoulder load. Interactions of pinch force and shoulder load were....... The results of this study indicate that shoulder load might influence blood flow to the forearm....

  1. Physiological and Perceived Effects of Forearm or Head Cooling During Simulated Firefighting Activity and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Susan; McKenzie, Amy L.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kingsley, J. Derek; Dziedzicki, David J.; Yoder, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Context: Cooling devices aim to protect firefighters by attenuating a rise in body temperature. Devices for head cooling (HC) while firefighting and forearm cooling (FC) during rehabilitation (RHB) intervals are commonly marketed, but research regarding their efficacy is limited. Objective: To investigate the physiological and perceived effects of HC and FC during firefighting drills and RHB. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Firefighter training center. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven male career firefighters (age = 39 ± 7 years; height = 169 ± 7 cm; weight = 95.4 ± 16.8 kg). Intervention(s): Firefighters were randomly assigned to 1 condition: HC (n = 9), in which participants completed drills wearing a cold gel pack inside their helmet; FC (n = 8), in which participants sat on a collapsible chair with water-immersion arm troughs during RHB; or control (n = 10), in which participants used no cooling devices. Firefighters completed four 15-minute drills (D1−D4) wearing full bunker gear and breathing apparatus. Participants had a 15-min RHB after D2 (RHB1) and D4 (RHB2). Main Outcome Measure(s): Change (Δ) in gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), heart rate (HR), physiological strain index, and perceived thermal sensation. Results: The TGI increased similarly in the HC and control groups, respectively (D1: 0.57°C ± 0.41°C, 0.73°C ± 0.30°C; D2: 0.92°C ± 0.28°C, 0.85°C ± 0.27°C; D3: −0.37°C ± 0.34°C, −0.01°C ± 0.72°C; D4: 0.25°C ± 0.42°C, 0.57°C ± 0.26°C; P > .05). The ΔHR, Δ physiological strain index, and Δ thermal sensation were similar between the HC and control groups during drills (P > .05). The FC group demonstrated a decreased TGI compared with the control group after RHB1 (−1.61°C ± 0.35°C versus −0.23°C ± 0.34°C; P .05). Conclusions: The HC did not attenuate rises in physiological or perceptual variables during firefighting drills. The FC effectively reduced TGI and the

  2. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  3. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  4. Computed tomography-based anatomic characterization of proximal aortic dissection with consideration for endovascular candidacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Michael C; Greenberg, Roy K; Morales, Jose P; Martin, Zenia; Lu, Qingsheng; Dowdall, Joseph F; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2011-04-01

    Proximal aortic dissections are life-threatening conditions that require immediate surgical intervention to avert an untreated mortality rate that approaches 50% at 48 hours. Advances in computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques have permitted increased characterization of aortic dissection that are necessary to assess the design and applicability of new treatment paradigms. All patients presenting during a 2-year period with acute proximal aortic dissections who underwent CT scanning were reviewed in an effort to establish a detailed assessment of their aortic anatomy. Imaging studies were assessed in an effort to document the location of the primary proximal fenestration, the proximal and distal extent of the dissection, and numerous morphologic measurements pertaining to the aortic valve, root, and ascending aorta to determine the potential for an endovascular exclusion of the ascending aorta. During the study period, 162 patients presented with proximal aortic dissections. Digital high-resolution preoperative CT imaging was performed on 76 patients, and 59 scans (77%) were of adequate quality to allow assessment of anatomic suitability for treatment with an endograft. In all cases, the dissection plane was detectable, yet the primary intimal fenestration was identified in only 41% of the studies. Scans showed 24 patients (32%) appeared to be anatomically amenable to such a repair (absence of valvular involvement, appropriate length and diameter of proximal sealing regions, lack of need to occlude coronary vasculature). Of the 42 scans that were determined not to be favorable for endovascular repair, the most common exclusion finding was the absence of a proximal landing zone (n = 15; 36%). Appropriately protocoled CT imaging provides detailed anatomic information about the aortic root and ascending aorta, allowing the assessment of which dissections have proximal fenestrations that may be amenable to an endovascular repair. Copyright © 2011 Society for

  5. Treatment of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures by dorsal plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, Peter; Buijze, Geert A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Anatomic reconstruction of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures allowing early mobilization and prevention of ulnohumeral arthritis. INDICATIONS : Comminuted olecranon or proximal ulna fractures (including Monteggia fractures), olecranon fractures extending distally from the coronoid

  6. Cutaneous sporotrichosis: Unusual clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three unusual clinical forms of sporotrichosis described in this paper will be a primer for the clinicians for an early diagnosis and treatment, especially in its unusual presentations. Case 1, a 52-year-old man, developed sporotrichosis over pre-existing facial nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma of seven-year duration, due to its contamination perhaps from topical herbal pastes and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis over right hand/forearm from facial lesion/herbal paste. Case 2, a 25-year-old woman, presented with disseminated systemic-cutaneous, osteoarticular and possibly pleural (effusion sporotrichosis. There was no laboratory evidence of tuberculosis and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATT did not benefit. Both these cases were diagnosed by histopathology/culture of S. schenckii from tissue specimens. Case 3, a 20-year-old girl, had multiple intensely pruritic, nodular lesions over/around left knee of two-year duration. She was diagnosed clinically as a case of prurigo nodularis and histologically as cutaneous tuberculosis, albeit, other laboratory investigations and treatment with ATT did not support the diagnosis. All the three patients responded well to saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI therapy. A high clinical suspicion is important in early diagnosis and treatment to prevent chronicity and morbidity in these patients. SSKI is fairly safe and effective when itraconazole is not affordable/ available.

  7. Strong Proximities on Smooth Manifolds and Vorono\\" i Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J. F.; Guadagni, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces strongly near smooth manifolds. The main results are (i) second countability of the strongly hit and far-miss topology on a family $\\mathcal{B}$ of subsets on the Lodato proximity space of regular open sets to which singletons are added, (ii) manifold strong proximity, (iii) strong proximity of charts in manifold atlases implies that the charts have nonempty intersection. The application of these results is given in terms of the nearness of atlases and charts of proxim...

  8. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitation in the quest to conduct ‘critical’ analysis. Critical proximity implies, instead, granting the beings...

  9. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  10. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma - Case report Sarcoma epitelióide tipo proximal - Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendes dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid sarcoma, first described by Enzinger in 1970, is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma typically presenting as a subcutaneous or deep dermal mass in distal portions of the extremities of adolescents and young adults. In 1997, Guillou et al. described a different type of epithelioid sarcoma, called proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, which is found mostly in the pelvic and perineal regions and genital tracts of young to middle-aged adults. It is characterized by a proliferation of epithelioid-like cells with rhabdoid features and the absence of a granuloma-like pattern. In this paper we present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma with an aggressive clinical course, including distant metastasis and death nine months after diagnosis.O sarcoma epitelióide, primeiramente descrito por Enzinger, em 1970, é uma neoplasia de partes moles que ocorre principalmente nas extremidades distais de adolescentes e adultos jovens. Em 1997, Guillou e cols. descreveram um tipo diferente de sarcoma epitelióide, que afetava frequentemente a região pélvica, períneo e áreas genitais de pacientes de média idade, com exame histológico caracterizado pela proliferação de células com aspecto epitelióide. Neste trabalho, descreve-se caso de paciente que apresentava há três meses duas lesões na região glútea, cujo exame histológico confirmou diagnóstico de sarcoma epitelioide do tipo proximal, já com presença de metástases pulmonares e cerebrais e que foi a óbito nove meses após o diagnóstico.

  11. Temperature dependence of the superconducting proximity effect quantified by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stępniak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the first systematic study on the temperature dependence of the extension of the superconducting proximity effect in a 1–2 atomic layer thin metallic film, surrounding a superconducting Pb island. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS measurements reveal the spatial variation of the local density of state on the film from 0.38 up to 1.8 K. In this temperature range the superconductivity of the island is almost unaffected and shows a constant gap of a 1.20 ± 0.03 meV. Using a superconducting Nb-tip a constant value of the proximity length of 17 ± 3 nm at 0.38 and 1.8 K is found. In contrast, experiments with a normal conductive W-tip indicate an apparent decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This result is ascribed to the thermal broadening of the occupation of states of the tip, and it does not reflect an intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity length. Our tunneling spectroscopy experiments shed fresh light on the fundamental issue of the temperature dependence of the proximity effect for atomic monolayers, where the intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity effect is comparably weak.

  12. Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R.; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining or increasing soil organic carbon (C) is vital for securing food production and for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change, and land degradation. Some land management practices in cropping, grazing, horticultural, and mixed farming systems can be used to increase organic C in soil, but to assess their effectiveness, we need accurate and cost-efficient methods for measuring and monitoring the change. To determine the stock of organic C in soil, one requires measurements of soil organic C concentration, bulk density, and gravel content, but using conventional laboratory-based analytical methods is expensive. Our aim here is to review the current state of proximal sensing for the development of new soil C accounting methods for emissions reporting and in emissions reduction schemes. We evaluated sensing techniques in terms of their rapidity, cost, accuracy, safety, readiness, and their state of development. The most suitable method for measuring soil organic C concentrations appears to be visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy and, for bulk density, active gamma-ray attenuation. Sensors for measuring gravel have not been developed, but an interim solution with rapid wet sieving and automated measurement appears useful. Field-deployable, multi-sensor systems are needed for cost-efficient soil C accounting. Proximal sensing can be used for soil organic C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines need to be developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting and verification. These are particularly important if the schemes use financial incentives for landholders to adopt management practices to sequester soil organic C. We list and discuss requirements for developing new soil C accounting methods based on proximal sensing, including requirements for recording, verification, and auditing.

  13. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Larkin, A.I.; Skvortsov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal-superconducting (N-S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N-S system in the presence of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonous temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance. (author)

  14. Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures

  15. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  16. Noise measurements on proximity effect bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, S.K.; Mercereau, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Audio frequency noise density measurements were performed on weakly superconducting proximity effect bridges on using a cooled transformer and room temperature low noise preamplifier. The noise temperature of the measuring system is approximately 4 0 K for a 0.9 Ω resistor. Noise density was measured as a function of bias current and temperature for the bridges. Excess noise above that expected from Johnson noise for a resistor equal to the dynamic resistance of the bridges was observed in the region near the critical current of the device. At high currents compared to the critical current, the noise density closely approaches that given by Johnson noise

  17. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  18. Tumoral calcinosis-like lesion of the proximal linea aspera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, L.L.; Butler, D.L.; Eckardt, J.J.; Layfield, L.; Adams, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is presently a poorly defined disease. In its classic form, it consists of multiple large foci of benign mineralization in the soft tissue adjacent to bone near large joints. Patients are generally of African descent and are adolescents or young adults at presentation. Both metabolic and traumatic etiologies have been proposed. We report six adult Caucasian patients with lesions that pathologically resembled tumoral calcinosis. All lesions were small (less than 3x3 cm) and were located along the proximal linea aspera lof the femur. All patients presented with pain. Because of the atypical patient population and the unusual size and location of the lesions, we refer to this process as a 'tumoral calcinosis-like lesion'. A typical radiographic appearance and location, together with appropriate clinical history, can strongly suggest this diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Differential effects of type of keyboard playing task and tempo on surface EMG amplitudes of forearm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju eChong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi so as to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills.

  20. Study on the relationship between serum testosterone level and forearm distal bone density in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhengli; Li Xin; Zhou Jiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the androgen level and bone density in post-menopausal women. Methods: Serum testosterone (T) level and forearm distal bone density (BMD) were measured in 39 past-menopausal women who had never taken any estrogen or calcium preparation. Their serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels were about the same. According to their BMD, the 39 subjects were divided into normal (n = 22) and osteoporotic (n = 17) groups. Results: The mean serum testosterone (T) level in the normal group was significantly higher than that in the osteoporotic group (p 1 = 0.72, r 2 0.75; p 1 and r 2 was 0.14, suggesting similarity of the positive cor-relationship for both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum testosterone level seems to bear close relationship with bone density and osteoporosis

  1. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  2. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  3. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    applied, we tested the efficacy of four anti-irritant compounds using the two different irritants sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, healthy volunteers were exposed to 5% SLS and 50% NON (the right and the left forearm...

  4. Serotonin-induced vasodilatation in the human forearm is mediated by the "nitric oxide-pathway": no evidence for involvement of the 5-HT3-receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, T. A.; Chang, P. C.; Blauw, G. J.; Vermeij, P.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The "nitric oxide (NO)-pathway" is presumed to be involved in acetylcholine (ACh)- and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-mediated vasodilatation. In addition, both the 5-HT-induced transient and persistent vasodilator responses in the forearm vascular bed are abolished by the

  5. The effects of workplace stressors on muscle activity in the neck-shoulder and forearm muscles during computer work: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijckelhof, B.H.W.; Huijsmans, M.A.; Bruno-Garza, J.L.; Blatter, B.M.; van Dieen, J.H.; Dennerlein, J.T.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Workplace stressors have been indicated to play a role in the development of neck and upper extremity pain possibly through an increase of sustained (low-level) muscle activity. The aim of this review was to study the effects of workplace stressors on muscle activity in the neck-shoulder and forearm

  6. Tissue oximetry: a comparison of mean values of regional tissue saturation, reproducibility and dynamic range of four NIRS-instruments on the human forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Sorensen, Line C; Riera, Joan

    2011-01-01

    We compared absolute values of regional tissue hemoglobin saturation (StO(2)), reproducibility, and dynamic range of four different instruments on the forearm of adults. The sensors were repositioned 10 times on each subject. Dynamic range was estimated by exercise with subsequent arterial occlus...

  7. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on capillary and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flow in the human hand and forearm and in the pig hind leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw, G.; Bom, A. H.; van Brummelen, P.; Camps, J.; Arndt, J. W.; Verdouw, P. D.; Chang, P. C.; van Zwieten, P. A.; Saxena, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intraarterially infused serotonin (5-HT) on capillary and arteriovenous anastomotic (AVA) blood flow were investigated in the hand and forearm of 19 healthy volunteers, and in the hind leg of six anesthetized pigs using radioactive microspheres with a diameter of 15 microns. The

  8. Bilateral changes in forearm oxygen consumption at rest and after exercise in patients with unilateral Repetitive Strain Injury : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterhof; D. Thijssen; M. Hopman; J. Brunnekreef

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether oxygen consumption and blood flow at rest and after exercise are lower in the affected arm of patients with repetitive strain injury (RSI) compared to controls, and lower in the healthy nonaffected forearm within patients with unilateral RSI. RSI is considered an upper

  9. Sexual Function and Quality of Life Before and After Penile Prosthesis Implantation Following Radial Forearm Flap Phalloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ezekiel E; Friedlander, Daniel; Lue, Kathy; Anele, Uzoma A; Khurgin, Jacob L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L; Redett, Richard J; Gearhart, John P

    2017-06-01

    To provide sexual function and quality of life outcomes in patients with severe penile deficiency who underwent radial forearm flap phalloplasty with and without penile prosthesis implantation. Patients with history of severe penile deficiency who underwent microsurgical radial forearm flap phalloplasty with and without penile prosthesis implantation between 2007 and 2014 were identified. They completed a set of web-based validated questionnaires including the International Index of Erectile Function, the Pediatric Penile Perception Score, the Sexual Quality of Life for Men, and several items addressing general quality of life. Outcomes were compared between groups. Nine of the 12 identified patients who had prosthesis after phalloplasty and 4 out of the 7 phalloplasty-only patients completed the survey, resulting in an overall response rate of 68%. Among the phalloplasty-prosthesis patients, 66% reported current sexual activity and 78% reported regular masturbation, whereas 1 of the 4 phalloplasty-only patients reported both. Prosthesis patients scored notably higher in all domains of the International Index of Erectile Function except for sexual desire. In contrast, they demonstrated similar scores of penile perception, as well as general and sexual quality of life. Among patients who have undergone flap phalloplasty, the subsequent placement of penile prosthesis appears to effectively allow for both intercourse and masturbation, resulting in measurable improvements in orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall sexual satisfaction. Despite these important benefits, prosthesis placement does not appear to result in improvements in penile perception scores, or general or sexual quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D pose estimation and motion analysis of the articulated human hand-forearm limb in an industrial production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz

    2010-09-01

    This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. The effect of radial head implant shape on radiocapitellar kinematics during in vitro forearm rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Hannah L; Deluce, Simon R; Giles, Joshua W; Johnson, James A; King, Graham J W

    2015-02-01

    A number of radial head implants are in clinical use for the management of radial head fractures and their sequelae. However, the optimal shape of a radial head implant to ensure proper tracking relative to the capitellum has not been established. This in vitro biomechanical study compared radiocapitellar joint kinematics for 3 radial head implant designs as well as the native head. Eight cadaveric upper extremities were tested using a forearm rotation simulator with the elbow at 90° of flexion. Motion of the radius relative to the capitellum was optically tracked. A stem was navigated into a predetermined location and cemented in place. Three unipolar implant shapes were tested: axisymmetric, reverse-engineered patient-specific, and population-based quasi-anatomic. The patient-specific and quasi-anatomic implants were derived from measurements performed on computed tomography models. Medial-lateral and anterior-posterior translation of the radial head with respect to the capitellum varied with forearm rotation and radial head condition. A significant difference in medial-lateral (P = .03) and anterior-posterior (P = .03) translation was found between the native radial head and the 3 implants. No differences were observed among the radial head conditions except for a difference in medial-lateral translation between the axisymmetric and patient-specific implants (P = .04). Radiocapitellar kinematics of the tested radial head implants were similar in all but one comparison, and all had different kinematics from the native radial head. Patient-specific radial head implants did not prove advantageous relative to conventional implant designs. The shape of the fixed stem unipolar radial head implants had little influence on radiocapitellar kinematics when optimally positioned in this testing model. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward the restoration of hand use to a paralyzed monkey: brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation of forearm muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Pohlmeyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of hand use is considered by many spinal cord injury survivors to be the most devastating consequence of their injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES of forearm and hand muscles has been used to provide basic, voluntary hand grasp to hundreds of human patients. Current approaches typically grade pre-programmed patterns of muscle activation using simple control signals, such as those derived from residual movement or muscle activity. However, the use of such fixed stimulation patterns limits hand function to the few tasks programmed into the controller. In contrast, we are developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex; this system has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks. Two monkeys were able to use this cortically controlled FES system to control the contraction of four forearm muscles despite temporary limb paralysis. The amount of wrist force the monkeys were able to produce in a one-dimensional force tracking task was significantly increased. Furthermore, the monkeys were able to control the magnitude and time course of the force with sufficient accuracy to track visually displayed force targets at speeds reduced by only one-third to one-half of normal. Although these results were achieved by controlling only four muscles, there is no fundamental reason why the same methods could not be scaled up to control a larger number of muscles. We believe these results provide an important proof of concept that brain-controlled FES prostheses could ultimately be of great benefit to paralyzed patients with injuries in the mid-cervical spinal cord.

  13. Lecture Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Heavy-Ion Collisions in the LHC workshop held in Cracow from 18 to 18 May 2007. The main subject of the workshop was to present the newest results of research provided at CERN LHC collider. Additionally some theoretical models and methods used for presented data analysis were discussed

  14. CATCHY PRESENTATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    An important competence for designers is the ability to communicate and present ideas and proposals for customers, partners, investors and colleagues. The Pecha Kucha principle, developed by Astrid Klein and Mark Dytham, has become a widely used and easy format for the presentation of new concepts...

  15. Tourniquet application after local forearm warming to improve venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation in young and middle-aged adults: A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Yuki; Tomita, Kohei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Inoue, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Local forearm warming before tourniquet application is often used to promote venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation; however, few studies have compared the effect of tourniquet application with and without local warming on vein size. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourniquet application after local forearm warming with that of tourniquet application alone in young and middle-aged adults. A single-blind, prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. A national university in Japan. Seventy-two volunteers aged 20-64 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: tourniquet application for 30s after forearm application of a heat pack warmed to 40°C±2°C for 15min (active warming group; n=36) or tourniquet application for 30s after applying a non-warmed heat pack for 15min (passive warming group; n=36). The primary outcomes were vein cross-sectional area on the forearm, measured after the intervention by blinded research assistants using ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were shortest diameter, and longest diameter of vein on the forearm, forearm skin temperature, body temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All outcomes were assessed at the same site before and immediately after the intervention, once per participant. Vein cross-sectional area, shortest vein diameter, and longest vein diameter were significantly increased in the active warming group compared with the passive warming group (p application after local warming was superior to tourniquet application alone in increasing vein cross-sectional, shortest diameter, and longest diameter (between-group differences of 2.2mm 2 , 0.5mm, and 0.5mm, respectively), and in raising skin temperature (between-group difference: 5.2°C). However, there were no significant differences in body temperature, pulse, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There were no adverse events associated with either intervention. Tourniquet

  16. Endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial carotid occlusion 9 hours after symptom onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowska, Malgorzata M.; Michels, Peter; Mueller-Jensen, Axel; Leppien, Andreas; Eckert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    A debate is emerging over whether the treatment time window in acute stroke can be extended beyond 6 h if penumbral tissue can be identified. Treatment decisions are very difficult in cases of tandem proximal carotid occlusion with arterioarterial intracranial embolism. We enter this debate with the present report on a case of atherosclerotic proximal carotid occlusion and resulting periocclusional carotid T embolism that was successfully treated 9 h after symptom onset. The case of a 68-year-old man with fluctuating symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke is presented (NIHSS score 12-20 on admission). CT angiography demonstrated proximal carotid occlusion and periocclusional embolism of the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) including the carotid T segment. Penumbral tissue was diagnosed by nonenhanced and perfusion CT imaging 7.5 h after symptom onset. Treatment was initiated 9 h after symptom onset by passing the proximal occlusion with a microcatheter and local administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) into the carotid T segment at the level of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) origin. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery was accomplished within 1 h by flow establishment via the PCoA. The atherosclerotic proximal ICA occlusion was not stented due to the risk of embolism from remnant thrombi in the petrous and cavernous ICA segments. Follow-up MRI showed only mild haemorrhagic infarct transformation of the initial infarct core. The patient was discharged from hospital 18 days after treatment with NIHSS score 5. If penumbral tissue can be conclusively identified, endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial tandem occlusion can be successful, even in treatments initiated 6-9 h after stroke onset. If the intracranial flow after recanalization can be established via the circle of Willis, the underlying proximal ICA occlusion may not require treatment. (orig.)

  17. Endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial carotid occlusion 9 hours after symptom onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowska, Malgorzata M.; Michels, Peter; Mueller-Jensen, Axel [Asklepios Clinic Altona, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Leppien, Andreas; Eckert, Bernd [Asklepios Clinic Altona, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    A debate is emerging over whether the treatment time window in acute stroke can be extended beyond 6 h if penumbral tissue can be identified. Treatment decisions are very difficult in cases of tandem proximal carotid occlusion with arterioarterial intracranial embolism. We enter this debate with the present report on a case of atherosclerotic proximal carotid occlusion and resulting periocclusional carotid T embolism that was successfully treated 9 h after symptom onset. The case of a 68-year-old man with fluctuating symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke is presented (NIHSS score 12-20 on admission). CT angiography demonstrated proximal carotid occlusion and periocclusional embolism of the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) including the carotid T segment. Penumbral tissue was diagnosed by nonenhanced and perfusion CT imaging 7.5 h after symptom onset. Treatment was initiated 9 h after symptom onset by passing the proximal occlusion with a microcatheter and local administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) into the carotid T segment at the level of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) origin. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery was accomplished within 1 h by flow establishment via the PCoA. The atherosclerotic proximal ICA occlusion was not stented due to the risk of embolism from remnant thrombi in the petrous and cavernous ICA segments. Follow-up MRI showed only mild haemorrhagic infarct transformation of the initial infarct core. The patient was discharged from hospital 18 days after treatment with NIHSS score 5. If penumbral tissue can be conclusively identified, endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial tandem occlusion can be successful, even in treatments initiated 6-9 h after stroke onset. If the intracranial flow after recanalization can be established via the circle of Willis, the underlying proximal ICA occlusion may not require treatment. (orig.)

  18. Workshop presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Per-Olof; Edland, Anne; Reiersen, Craig; Mullins, Peter; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik; Bouchard, Andre; Watts, Germaine; Johnstone, John; Hollnagel, Erik; Ramberg, Patric; Reiman, Teemu

    2009-01-01

    An important part of the workshop was a series of invited presentations. The presentations were intended to both provide the participants with an understanding of various organisational approaches and activities as well as to stimulate the exchange of ideas during the small group discussion sessions. The presentation subjects ranged from current organisational regulations and licensee activities to new organisational research and the benefits of viewing organisations from a different perspective. There were more than a dozen invited presentations. The initial set of presentations gave the participants an overview of the background, structure, and aims of the workshop. This included a short presentation on the results from the regulatory responses to the pre-workshop survey. Representatives from four countries (Sweden, Canada, Finland, and the United Kingdom) expanded upon their survey responses with detailed presentations on both regulatory and licensee safety-related organisational activities in their countries. There were also presentations on new research concerning how to evaluate safety critical organisations and on a resilience engineering perspective to safety critical organisations. Below is the list of the presentations, the slides of which being available in Appendix 2: 1 - Workshop Welcome (Per-Olof Sanden); 2 - CSNI Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (Craig Reiersen); 3 - Regulatory expectations on justification of suitability of licensee organisational structures, resources and competencies (Anne Edland); 4 - Justifying the suitability of licensee organisational structures, resources and competencies (Karl-Fredrik Ingemarsson); 5 - Nuclear Organisational Suitability in Canada (Andre Bouchard); 6 - Designing and Resourcing for Safety and Effectiveness (Germaine Watts); 7 - Organisational Suitability - What do you need and how do you know that you've got it? (Craig Reiersen); 8 - Suitability of Organisations - UK Regulator's View (Peter

  19. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  20. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.