WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximal family factors

  1. When there Seem to be No Predetermining Factors: Early Child and Proximal Family Risk Predicting Externalizing Behavior in Young Children Incurring No Distal Family Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, I.; Meunier, J.-C.; Stievenart, M.; Noel, M.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to examine the impact of two child risk factors, i.e. personality and inhibition, and two proximal family risk factors, i.e. parenting and attachment, and the impact of their cumulative effect on later externalizing behavior among young children incurring no distal family risk. Data were collected in a…

  2. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  3. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2004-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  4. A cross-cultural examination of proximity and hierarchy as dimensions of family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisek, G O

    1991-03-01

    Meaningful cross-cultural application of family therapy theories requires that basic assumptions about normal family functioning be made explicit, and contextual factors be incorporated into the theories. Guided by this understanding, this article examines the family structure dimensions of proximity and generational hierarchy theoretically and empirically. These dimensions and their superordinate construct, boundary permeability, are analyzed in terms of their underlying assumptions. The cross-cultural validity of the dimensions is assessed using videotaped interactions, projective drawings, and interviews with a sample of 24 Turkish families. Results indicate that proximity is a valid dimension, moderated by the demographic variables of socioeconomic status (SES), mother's working status, family size, and clinical status. Hierarchy is not a valid dimension because the cultural norm of strong hierarchy suppresses variation. The implications for the cross-cultural transfer of family therapy theories are discussed.

  5. Proximal Association of Land Management Preferences: Evidence from Family Forest Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Francisco X; Cai, Zhen; Butler, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Individual behavior is influenced by factors intrinsic to the decision-maker but also associated with other individuals and their ownerships with such relationship intensified by geographic proximity. The land management literature is scarce in the spatially integrated analysis of biophysical and socio-economic data. Localized land management decisions are likely driven by spatially-explicit but often unobserved resource conditions, influenced by an individual's own characteristics, proximal lands and fellow owners. This study examined stated choices over the management of family-owned forests as an example of a resource that captures strong pecuniary and non-pecuniary values with identifiable decision makers. An autoregressive model controlled for spatially autocorrelated willingness-to-harvest (WTH) responses using a sample of residential and absentee family forest owners from the U.S. State of Missouri. WTH responses were largely explained by affective, cognitive and experience variables including timber production objectives and past harvest experience. Demographic variables, including income and age, were associated with WTH and helped define socially-proximal groups. The group of closest identity was comprised of resident males over 55 years of age with annual income of at least $50,000. Spatially-explicit models showed that indirect impacts, capturing spillover associations, on average accounted for 14% of total marginal impacts among statistically significant explanatory variables. We argue that not all proximal family forest owners are equal and owners-in-absentia have discernible differences in WTH preferences with important implications for public policy and future research.

  6. Alternating proximal gradient method for nonnegative matrix factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yangyang

    2011-01-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization has been widely applied in face recognition, text mining, as well as spectral analysis. This paper proposes an alternating proximal gradient method for solving this problem. With a uniformly positive lower bound assumption on the iterates, any limit point can be proved to satisfy the first-order optimality conditions. A Nesterov-type extrapolation technique is then applied to accelerate the algorithm. Though this technique is at first used for convex program, it turns out to work very well for the non-convex nonnegative matrix factorization problem. Extensive numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the alternating proximal gradient method and the accleration technique. Especially for real data tests, the accelerated method reveals high superiority to state-of-the-art algorithms in speed with comparable solution qualities.

  7. Temperature as a proximate factor in orientation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.W.

    1977-05-01

    Temperature serves as a proximate factor (cue, guidepost, sign stimulus, or directive factor) affecting locomotor responses of fishes. Although temperature can also serve as an ultimate ecological factor, as in behavioral thermoregulation, nonthermal factors may in some cases provide the ultimate adaptive or ecological value of a temperature response; some examples are habitat selection, intraspecific size segregation, interspecific niche differentiation, isolating mechanisms, predator avoidance, prey location, escape reactions, and migrations (thermoperiodic, diel, seasonal, spawning). Conversely, nonthermal variables such as light intensity or water depth may act as accessory proximate factors in thermoregulation. In spawning migrations, thermal requirements of eggs and larvae may take precedence over the (often different) preferenda or optima of adults. Although thermal responses of fishes are largely innate and species specific, ontogenetic and other changes can occur. Since temperature can serve as an unconditioned reinforcer in operant conditioning, thermal responses are not limited to simple kineses or taxes. Nonthermal factors such as photoperiod, circadian rhythms, currents, social and biotic interactions, stresses, infections, or chemicals can affect thermal responses, and may account for some lack of conformity between laboratory preferenda and field distributions and behaviors.

  8. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  9. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  10. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes with Individual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…

  11. Family Factors and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nailing

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate about the relative importance of family versus school factors in producing academic and nonacademic student outcomes, and whether and how their impacts vary across different student groups. In addition to critically reviewing and synthesizing earlier work, this study extends the literature by (a) using the ECLS-K, a…

  12. Family Factors in Small Family Business Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Cater; Marilyn Young

    2016-01-01

      Using a qualitative case study approach and grounded theory analysis, we examined the expansion patterns of small family businesses and explored why some of them grow across geographic areas and others...

  13. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information.

  14. High dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years: case-control study of distal and proximal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Abreu, Mauro H N G

    2013-06-07

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a high degree of dental caries severity is associated with the distal and proximal determinants of caries in a group of Brazilian adults aged 35 to 44 years. A population-based case-control study was conducted using two groups-a case group with high caries severity (DMFT ≥ 14) and a control group without high caries severity (DMFT caries severity was associated with regular visits to the dentist, low income, use of private/supplementary dental service and not petitioning the authorities for community benefits. The results of the study underscore the importance of considering distal and proximal factors in the assessment of the severity of dental caries. Greater caries severity persists among low-income families and among groups with a low degree of social cohesion.

  15. Proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lupine seeds (Lupinus albus L.) growing in two different agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia (Dangla and Chagni) were traditionally processed to evaluate the changes in their nutritional status and anti-nutritional factors. The traditional processing methods included roasting followed by soaking; boiling followed by soaking ...

  16. Supporting families in a high-risk setting: proximal effects of the SAFEChildren preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Patrick; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred twenty-four families who resided in inner-city neighborhoods and had a child entering 1st grade were randomly assigned to a control condition or to a family-focused preventive intervention combined with academic tutoring. SAFEChildren, which was developed from a developmental-ecological perspective, emphasizes developmental tasks and community factors in understanding risk and prevention. Tracking of linear-growth trends through 6 months after intervention indicated an overall effect of increased academic performance and better parental involvement in school. High-risk families had additional benefits for parental monitoring, child-problem behaviors, and children's social competence. High-risk youth showed improvement in problem behaviors and social competence. Results support a family-focused intervention that addresses risk in low-income communities as managing abnormal challenges.

  17. Testing a family intervention hypothesis: the contribution of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) to family interaction, proximity, and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Weller, Aron; Sirota, Lea; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2003-03-01

    The provision of maternal-infant body contact during a period of maternal separation was examined for its effects on parent-infant and triadic interactions. Participants were 146 three-month-old preterm infants and their parents, half of whom received skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), in the neonatal nursery. Global relational style and micro-patterns of proximity and touch were coded. Following KC, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive, infants showed less negative affect, and family style was more cohesive. Among KC families, maternal and paternal affectionate touch of infant and spouse was more frequent, spouses remained in closer proximity, and infant proximity position was conducive to mutual gaze and touch during triadic play. The role of touch as a constituent of the co-regulatory parent-infant and triadic systems and the effects of maternal contact on mothering, co-parenting, and family processes are discussed.

  18. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Jayakumar, Prakash; King, John D.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Doornberg, Job N.; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Secondarily, we

  19. Workplace Factors Associated with Family Dinner Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Poteat, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between workplace factors and family dinners. We examined two aspects of the family dinner, the frequency that the entire family typically has dinner together each week and the frequency that children eat fast food for dinner. Participants were 220 parents who worked at least 20 h a week and had at least one…

  20. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  1. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  2. miR-127 Protects Proximal Tubule Cells against Ischemia/Reperfusion: Identification of Kinesin Family Member 3B as miR-127 Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Fraile, Elia; Ramos, Edurne; Sáenz-Morales, David; Conde, Elisa; Blanco-Sánchez, Ignacio; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; del Peso, Luis; Cuppen, Edwin; Brüne, Bernhard; Bermejo, María Laura García

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is at the basis of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury. Molecular mechanisms underlying proximal tubule response to I/R will allow the identification of new therapeutic targets for both clinical settings. microRNAs have emerged as crucial and tight regulators of the cellular response to insults including hypoxia. Here, we have identified several miRNAs involved in the response of the proximal tubule cell to I/R. Microarrays and RT-PCR analysis of proximal tubule cells submitted to I/R mimicking conditions in vitro demonstrated that miR-127 is induced during ischemia and also during reperfusion. miR-127 is also modulated in a rat model of renal I/R. Interference approaches demonstrated that ischemic induction of miR-127 is mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) stabilization. Moreover, miR-127 is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion maintenance, since overexpression of miR-127 maintains focal adhesion complex assembly and the integrity of tight junctions. miR-127 also regulates intracellular trafficking since miR-127 interference promotes dextran-FITC uptake. In fact, we have identified the Kinesin Family Member 3B (KIF3B), involved in cell trafficking, as a target of miR-127 in rat proximal tubule cells. In summary, we have described a novel role of miR-127 in cell adhesion and its regulation by HIF-1α. We also identified for the first time KIF3B as a miR-127 target. Both, miR-127 and KIF3B appear as key mediators of proximal epithelial tubule cell response to I/R with potential al application in renal ischemic damage management. PMID:22962609

  3. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. [Proximal tibial fractures sustained during alpine skiing - incidence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzold, R; Spiegl, U; Wurster, M; Augat, P; Gutsfeld, P; Gonschorek, O; Bühren, V

    2013-12-01

    Prior to introduction of carving skis, complex fractures of the proximal tibia were rarely seen. Recently these fractures are being seen more frequently in connection with alpine skiing. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of proximal tibia fractures in alpine skiing and to identify possible risk factors. All patients with proximal tibia fractures related to alpine skiing in a large German ski resort were included. Fracture type, patient and skiing related factors were recorded. Incidence of fractures was determined by using the number of all registered skiers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for risk factors. Between 2007 and 2010 a total of 188 patients was treated for proximal tibia fractures caused by alpine skiing. Forty-three patients had a type-A injury, 96 patients a type-B injury, and 49 patients a type-C injury. The incidence of injury increased continuously, starting from 2.7 and climbing to 7.0 per 10⁵ skiing days. The risk factors compared to patients with type-A fractures, type-C fracture occurred in older (OR 0.93; 0.89 - 0.97) and heavier (OR 0.86; 0.74 - 0.99) individuals and were more likely on icy snow conditions (OR 0.22; 0.05 - 0.96), higher speed (OR 0.29; 0.09 - 0.97) and skiing skill (OR 0.35; 0.13 - 0.95). These was also seen in artificial and icy snow conditions (OR 0.25; 0.07 - 0.87) when compared to type-B fractures. The incidence of proximal tibia fractures related to skiing has increased over the past four years. Risk factors such as age, BMI, snow conditions, speed, and the skill of the skiers, were identified as causes contributing to complex fractures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. High Dental Caries among Adults Aged 35 to 44 Years: Case-Control Study of Distal and Proximal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. N. G. Abreu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether a high degree of dental caries severity is associated with the distal and proximal determinants of caries in a group of Brazilian adults aged 35 to 44 years. A population-based case-control study was conducted using two groups—a case group with high caries severity (DMFT ≥ 14 and a control group without high caries severity (DMFT < 14. The sample comprised adults from metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil (180 cases and 180 controls matched for gender and age. The exam was performed by calibrated dentists using the DMFT index. The statistical analysis used the Mann-Whitney test and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression (the conditional backward stepwise method. The mean DMFT was 8.4 ± 3.9 in the control group and 20.1 ± 4.5 in the case group. High caries severity was associated with regular visits to the dentist, low income, use of private/supplementary dental service and not petitioning the authorities for community benefits. The results of the study underscore the importance of considering distal and proximal factors in the assessment of the severity of dental caries. Greater caries severity persists among low-income families and among groups with a low degree of social cohesion.

  6. PROXIMAL AND DISTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DROPOUT VERSUS MAINTAINED PARTICIPATION IN ORGANIZED SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C.S. Boiché

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate a large number of determinants of sport dropout among French adolescents, in order to reveal proximal and distal factors of dropout. 261 current and 106 dropout athletes (M = 14.6 participated to the study. The data were collected by a questionnaire assessing demographic information, athletes' perceptions on their experience, their parents, teammates and coach. t-tests revealed that current and former athletes were distinct on numerous variables. A discriminant function analysis showed three proximal predictors of sport dropout (perceived value of the activity, satisfaction, parents' investment. Subsequent regression analyses showed that perceived value was positively predicted by perceived competence, the value of the activity for teammates, coach's investment, and negatively by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates; satisfaction was positively predicted by the coach's mastery climate, but negatively predicted by conflicts of interest and goal conflict with teammates and with the coach; parents investment was negatively predicted by the goal conflicts with them. This study permitted to discriminate between proximal and more distal psychological antecedents of the dropout behaviour. It brings information relative to the possible targets of interventions aiming at preventing dropout from organized sport

  7. Risk factors for proximal sesamoid bone fractures associated with exercise history and horseshoe characteristics in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E

    2007-07-01

    To assess individual and combined associations of high-speed exercise and horseshoe characteristics with risk of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures and proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses. 269 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses. A case-control study design was used to compare 121 horses with a fracture of at least 1 of 4 forelimb proximal sesamoid bones (75 horses had a midbody fracture) and 148 horses without a forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential risk factors for association with proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Compared with horses that died without proximal sesamoid bone fractures, horses that died with proximal sesamoid bone fractures were more likely to be sexually intact males, spend more time in active trainingand racing, complete more events, train and race longer since their last layup, have higher exercise intensities during the 12 months prior to death, and have greater cumulative distances for their career. Horses with proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures were more likely to be sexually intact males, train and race longer since their last layup, and have higher exercise intensities during the 12 months prior to death. Limitingexercise intensity and the continuous time spent in activity duringa horse's career may decrease the frequency of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures in Thoroughbred horses.

  8. Malthusian factors as proximal drivers of human population crisis at Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio eLima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest and concern for understanding the interaction among human population growth and the sustainability of natural resources. In fact, many agrarian societies experienced an increasing frequency of wars, famines and epidemics during the periods of resource depletion. People from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have suffered the demographic consequences of famines, civil wars and political instabilities during the last fifty years.. Almost half of the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have undergone some form of demographic crisis over the past fifty years. Our analysis indicate that despite that environmental conditions were positively correlated with crop production across SSA, Malthusian factors correlated inversely with cultivation intensity, which in turn translated into a higher magnitude of depopulation suffered during the past fifty years. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that population collapses in SSA during the last fifty years have been multifactorial, although more closely associated with Malthusian factors as proximal drivers. Other proximal drivers such as economic indicators, political stability and environmental determinants did not explain as much variance as Malthusian forces, suggesting that explanations of collapse magnitude in SSA are embedded in a complex multi-causal chain, in which demographic factors may play a modulating role yet to be explored in more depth.

  9. Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

  10. Incidencia y factores de riesgo de la fractura de fémur proximal por osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Mosquera

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Todos los años se producen en el mundo más de un millón de fracturas de fémur proximal, sobre todo en personas de edad avanzada. Dado el continuo envejecimiento de las poblaciones, las fracturas aumentarán año tras año y constituirán un problema cada vez más grave de salud pública. Se espera que el mayor aumento de dichas fracturas ocurra en América Latina alrededor del 2050. Teniendo en cuenta que cerca de 70% de las fracturas atraumáticas en personas mayores de 45 años de edad se deben a osteoporosis, se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina, para conocer la incidencia de fracturas de fémur proximal por osteoporosis y los factores de riesgo asociados. Entre el 1 de agosto de 1992 y el 31 de julio de 1993 se registraron todos los casos de fracturas de fémur proximal por osteoporosis en personas mayores de 50 años de edad que acudieron a cualquiera de los 30 centros de salud públicos y privados de la ciudad. Se registró un total de 246 casos. La tasa de incidencia por 100 000 habitantes en la población mayor de 50 años fue de 259 en mujeres y de 92 en varones, con una relación de 2,8:1. La incidencia fue siempre mayor a mayor edad y sobre todo a partir de los 75 años. Los factores asociados con aumento del riesgo de fractura de fémur proximal con significación estadística fueron: antecedentes de enfermedades neurológicas, consumo de psicofármacos, consumo de alcohol, fracturas previas, enfermedades cardiovasculares y menor consumo de lácteos. No se observaron diferencias entre los casos y los controles con respecto a edad de inicio de la menopausia, peso, talla, actividad previa, hábito de fumar o exposición al sol, como así tampoco en el porcentaje de mujeres que habían tenido ooforectomías.

  11. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations: Proximity? Generativity? Minority stress? Social location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Hardesty, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about involvement in LGBTQ organizations. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations were examined using logistic regression and survey data from 426 LGBTQ individuals residing in a nonmetropolitan region. Involvement was examined in five types of organizations (professional, social/recreational, religious, political, and community center/charity). The same model testing proximity, generativity, minority stress, and social location hypotheses was repeated for each organization type. Results demonstrate that the generativity hypothesis is most strongly supported. Indeed, emotional attachment to the LGBTQ community significantly increased the odds of involvement in every type of organization. However, the factors associated with involvement otherwise differed by organization type. Implications for organizational leaders are discussed.

  12. The AP-2 family of transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Dawid; Buhl, Sandra; Weber, Susanne; Jäger, Richard; Schorle, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The AP-2 family of transcription factors consists of five different proteins in humans and mice: AP-2α, AP-2β, AP-2γ, AP-2δ and AP-2ε. Frogs and fish have known orthologs of some but not all of these proteins, and homologs of the family are also found in protochordates, insects and nematodes. The proteins have a characteristic helix-span-helix motif at the carboxyl terminus, which, together with a central basic region, mediates dimerization and DNA binding. The amino terminus contains the tra...

  13. The Impact of Neighborhood, Family, and Individual Risk Factors on Toddlers’ Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Amy E.; Thomas, Yolanda M.; Wagmiller, Robert L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for behavior problems in school aged children but their impact in toddlerhood is unknown. Relations between toddlers’ disruptive behavior and neighborhood disadvantage, family disadvantage, violence or conflict exposure, parent depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior were examined using multilevel, multi-group (girl/boy) models. Participants were 1204 families (mean child age = 24.7 months). Unique associations between disruptive behavior and all risk factors were observed, but the effect of neighborhood disadvantage was negligible when all of the more proximal factors were accounted for. The results suggest both that children in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at greater risk of behavior problems than children in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods and that optimal prevention/intervention work with these children will attend to proximal risk factors. PMID:24773306

  14. The impact of neighborhood, family, and individual risk factors on toddlers' disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Amy E; Thomas, Yolanda M; Wagmiller, Robert L; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for behavior problems in school-aged children but their impact in toddlerhood is unknown. Relations between toddlers' disruptive behavior and neighborhood disadvantage, family disadvantage, violence or conflict exposure, parent depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior were examined using multilevel, multigroup (girl-boy) models. Participants were 1,204 families (mean child age = 24.7 months). Unique associations between disruptive behavior and all risk factors were observed, but the effect of neighborhood disadvantage was negligible when all of the more proximal factors were accounted for. The results suggest both that children in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at greater risk of behavior problems than children in nondisadvantaged neighborhoods and that optimal prevention/intervention work with these children will attend to proximal risk factors. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Point Mutations in Exon 1B of APC Reveal Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach as a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Woods, Susan L.; Healey, Sue; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lee, Jason S.; Sivakumaran, Haran; Wayte, Nicci; Nones, Katia; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Pearson, John; Patch, Anne-Marie; Senz, Janine; Ferreira, Manuel A.; Kaurah, Pardeep; Mackenzie, Robertson; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Hansford, Samantha; Lannagan, Tamsin R.M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Simpson, Peter T.; da Silva, Leonard; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Bettington, Mark; Grimpen, Florian; Busuttil, Rita A.; Di Costanzo, Natasha; Boussioutas, Alex; Jeanjean, Marie; Chong, George; Fabre, Aurélie; Olschwang, Sylviane; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Bellos, Evangelos; Coin, Lachlan; Rioux, Kevin; Bathe, Oliver F.; Wen, Xiaogang; Martin, Hilary C.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Davis, Sean R.; Walker, Robert L.; Calzone, Kathleen A.; Avital, Itzhak; Heller, Theo; Koh, Christopher; Pineda, Marbin; Rudloff, Udo; Quezado, Martha; Pichurin, Pavel N.; Hulick, Peter J.; Weissman, Scott M.; Newlin, Anna; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Sampson, Jone E.; Hamman, Kelly; Goldgar, David; Poplawski, Nicola; Phillips, Kerry; Schofield, Lyn; Armstrong, Jacqueline; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Suthers, Graeme K.; Huntsman, David G.; Foulkes, William D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Lindor, Noralane M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Waddell, Nicola; Meltzer, Paul S.; Worthley, Daniel L.; Schrader, Kasmintan A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present. PMID:27087319

  16. [Familiality of breast cancer and hereditary factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, M

    1982-05-01

    Recent results in family studies of breast cancer were overviewed. Site specific familial aggregation of the disease, with no significant increase of other cancers, by itself suggests a specified etiological role of the familial predisposition. Probably it must be interpreted by a synergism of some genetic and environmental factors. Among the cases in Cancer Institute Hospital, familially predisposed patients showed a significant differences in younger age at menarche and taller stature compared with the other patients. It has been frequently observed that a risk for the disease in the relatives of a patient is higher in pre-than in postmenopausal onset. It appears, however, that the age specific incidence rate among those women with a positive family history is consistently higher than that of the general population in any age classes except the premenopausal period. Findings obtained by recent endoclinological studies point out the concept that a possible genetic abnormality associated with the breast cancer disposition should be pertaining to the metabolism of ovarian hormone.

  17. Residential Proximity to Roadways and Ischemic Placental Disease in a Cape Cod Family Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Amelia K; Carwile, Jenny L; Fabian, María Patricia; Winter, Michael R; Butler, Lindsey J; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Aschengrau, Ann

    2017-06-24

    Exposure to air pollution may adversely impact placental function through a variety of mechanisms; however, epidemiologic studies have found mixed results. We examined the association between traffic exposure and placental-related obstetric conditions in a retrospective cohort study on Cape Cod, MA, USA. We assessed exposure to traffic using proximity metrics (distance of residence to major roadways and length of major roadways within a buffer around the residence). The outcomes included self-reported ischemic placental disease (the presence of at least one of the following conditions: preeclampsia, placental abruption, small-for-gestational-age), stillbirth, and vaginal bleeding. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. We found no substantial association between traffic exposure and ischemic placental disease, small-for-gestational-age, preeclampsia, or vaginal bleeding. We found some evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth and placental abruption among women living the closest to major roadways (RRs comparing living <100 m vs. ≥200 m = 1.75 (95% CI: 0.82-3.76) and 1.71 (95% CI: 0.56-5.23), respectively). This study provides some support for the hypothesis that air pollution exposure adversely affects the risk of placental abruption and stillbirth; however, the results were imprecise due to the small number of cases, and may be impacted by non-differential exposure misclassification and selection bias.

  18. Proximate and elemental analysis of five selected medicinal plants of family Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ishfaq; Hussain, Farrukh

    2015-07-01

    The proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash, moisture, protein, fiber, fats and carbohydrate. ANOVA showed that ash and moisture contents was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages. Crude protein was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages, while crude fats were non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Solanum nigrum and Solanum surattense parts but not for their phenolgical stages. Crude fiber was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages. And carbohydrates was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for the phenolgical stages of Solanum surattense and Withania coagulans. The mineral analysis showed the presence of Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and Na in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of the plants in three different phenological stages. Only the micro-minerals were present in traces while the macro-minerals were present high quantities as compared to the micro-minerals.

  19. A proximity-based graph clustering method for the identification and application of transcription factor clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafore, Maxwell; Najarian, Kayvan; Boyle, Alan P

    2017-11-29

    Transcription factors (TFs) form a complex regulatory network within the cell that is crucial to cell functioning and human health. While methods to establish where a TF binds to DNA are well established, these methods provide no information describing how TFs interact with one another when they do bind. TFs tend to bind the genome in clusters, and current methods to identify these clusters are either limited in scope, unable to detect relationships beyond motif similarity, or not applied to TF-TF interactions. Here, we present a proximity-based graph clustering approach to identify TF clusters using either ChIP-seq or motif search data. We use TF co-occurrence to construct a filtered, normalized adjacency matrix and use the Markov Clustering Algorithm to partition the graph while maintaining TF-cluster and cluster-cluster interactions. We then apply our graph structure beyond clustering, using it to increase the accuracy of motif-based TFBS searching for an example TF. We show that our method produces small, manageable clusters that encapsulate many known, experimentally validated transcription factor interactions and that our method is capable of capturing interactions that motif similarity methods might miss. Our graph structure is able to significantly increase the accuracy of motif TFBS searching, demonstrating that the TF-TF connections within the graph correlate with biological TF-TF interactions. The interactions identified by our method correspond to biological reality and allow for fast exploration of TF clustering and regulatory dynamics.

  20. High glucose augments angiotensinogen in human renal proximal tubular cells through hepatocyte nuclear factor-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available High glucose has been demonstrated to induce angiotensinogen (AGT synthesis in the renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs of rats, which may further activate the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS and contribute to diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high glucose on AGT in the RPTCs of human origin and identify the glucose-responsive transcriptional factor(s that bind(s to the DNA sequences of AGT promoter in human RPTCs. Human kidney (HK-2 cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mM and high glucose (15.0 mM, respectively. Levels of AGT mRNA and AGT secretion of HK-2 cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. Consecutive 5'-end deletion mutant constructs and different site-directed mutagenesis products of human AGT promoter sequences were respectively transfected into HK-2 cells, followed by AGT promoter activity measurement through dual luciferase assay. High glucose significantly augmented the levels of AGT mRNA and AGT secretion of HK-2 cells, compared with normal glucose treatment. High glucose also significantly augmented AGT promoter activity in HK-2 cells transfected with the constructs of human AGT promoter sequences, compared with normal glucose treatment. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-5 was found to be one of the glucose-responsive transcriptional factors of AGT in human RPTCs, since the mutation of its binding sites within AGT promoter sequences abolished the above effects of high glucose on AGT promoter activity as well as levels of AGT mRNA and its secretion. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time, that high glucose augments AGT in human RPTCs through HNF-5, which provides a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Mechanical failures after fixation with proximal femoral nail and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyuncu S

    2015-12-01

    postoperative complications were seen in 27 patients (17.7%. A total of 14 patients (9.2% underwent a revision procedure for mechanical complications.Conclusion: The study results suggest that the quality of fracture reduction is an important factor that affects the revision rate and SWS score in patients with mechanical complications after osteosynthesis with PFN for trochanteric fractures. Keywords: trochanteric hip fracture, proximal femoral nail, fracture reduction, complications, risk factors, intramedullary nail

  2. Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of some capsicum (Capsicum annum varieties grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to generate baseline information on the nutritional composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of three capsicum varieties (Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro grown in Ethiopia. In relation to proximate composition, Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro contained 9.2, 9.0 and 8.8% moisture; 11.9, 8.8 and 9.2% crude protein; 27.3, 26.0 and 28.6% crude fiber and 11.2, 9.5 and 9.2% fat (oleoresin on wet weight basis. They also contained 1.7, 1.6 and 1.8 mg/100 g potassium; 27.2, 38.2 and 54.6 mg/100 g calcium and 7.2, 6.9 and 9.6 mg/100 g iron on wet weight basis. Tannin was found to be 0.142, 0.164 and 0.148 mg/100 g, respectively, while phytate was not detected in any of the samples. Analysis of variance and LSD (least significant difference test revealed that protein and oleoresin of Marako fana were significantly higher (p<0.05 than Bako local and Oda haro. Potassium, calcium and iron contents of Oda haro were significantly higher (p<0.05. Based on these results Marako fana is preferable for large scale production of oleoresin, while Oda haro is nutritionally preferable because it contains high amounts of potassium, calcium and iron.

  3. Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Alicja J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients’ age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and implant design. Methods 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures with Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l`Orthopedie (CTO, Strasbourg, France. Cut-out complications were identified by reviewing all available case notes and radiographs. Subsequently, the data were analysed by a single reviewer (AJB with focus on the studied factors. Results Seventy-one cut-out complications were found (2.3% of the 3066 trochanteric fractures. Cut-out failure associated with avascular head necrosis, pathologic fracture, deep infection or secondary to prior failure of other implants were excluded from the study (14 cases. The remaining 57 cases (1.85 %, median age 82.6, 79% females were believed to have a biomechanical explanation for the cut-out failure. 41 patients had a basicervical or complex fracture type. A majority of cut-outs (43 hips, 75% had a combination of the critical factors studied; non-anatomical reduction, non-optimal lag screw position and the characteristic fracture pattern found. Conclusions The primary cut-out rate of 1.85% was low compared with the literature. A typical cut-out complication in our study is represented by an unstable fracture involving the trochanteric and cervical regions or the combination of both, non-anatomical reduction and non-optimal screw position. Surgeons confronted with proximal femoral fractures should carefully scrutinize preoperative radiographs to assess the

  4. Factors affecting ambulatory ability in patients aged 90 years and older following proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Mataki, Yuki; Tokeji, Kayo; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Objectives: To investigate the details of patients' status on admission and at discharge at our hospital, to compare the ambulatory group and non-ambulatory group at discharge, and to assess the factors associated with ambulatory ability at discharge in patients aged ≥ 90 years with proximal femoral fractures (PFFs). Patients/Materials and Methods: Twenty patients admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation after surgery for a PFF were evaluated retrospectively. The rate of regaining ambulatory ability, presence of dementia, body mass index, serum albumin level, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, and functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed on admission and at discharge. Relationships between patients' ambulatory ability and ambulatory parameters were compared between the ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups. Results: The rate of regaining ambulatory ability was 55% at discharge. The serum albumin level at discharge was significantly higher in the ambulatory group than that in the non-ambulatory group. More patients had dementia on admission in the non-ambulatory group than in the ambulatory group. On admission, scores for the cognitive items of the FIM ("expression" and "memory") were significantly higher in the ambulatory group than those in the non-ambulatory group. Conclusions: The rate of ambulatory ability at discharge was 55% in those with a PFF, who were aged ≥ 90 years. The presence of dementia on admission and serum albumin level at discharge were factors related to ambulatory ability. It is very important to use a general rehabilitation protocol that takes cognitive function and nourishment into account, in addition to the physical aspect.

  5. Factors affecting ambulatory ability in patients aged 90 years and older following proximal femoral fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Mataki, Yuki; Tokeji, Kayo; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the details of patients’ status on admission and at discharge at our hospital, to compare the ambulatory group and non-ambulatory group at discharge, and to assess the factors associated with ambulatory ability at discharge in patients aged ≥ 90 years with proximal femoral fractures (PFFs). Patients/Materials and Methods: Twenty patients admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation after surgery for a PFF were evaluated retrospectively. The rate of regaining ambulatory ability, presence of dementia, body mass index, serum albumin level, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, and functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed on admission and at discharge. Relationships between patients’ ambulatory ability and ambulatory parameters were compared between the ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups. Results: The rate of regaining ambulatory ability was 55% at discharge. The serum albumin level at discharge was significantly higher in the ambulatory group than that in the non-ambulatory group. More patients had dementia on admission in the non-ambulatory group than in the ambulatory group. On admission, scores for the cognitive items of the FIM (“expression” and “memory”) were significantly higher in the ambulatory group than those in the non-ambulatory group. Conclusions: The rate of ambulatory ability at discharge was 55% in those with a PFF, who were aged ≥ 90 years. The presence of dementia on admission and serum albumin level at discharge were factors related to ambulatory ability. It is very important to use a general rehabilitation protocol that takes cognitive function and nourishment into account, in addition to the physical aspect.

  6. Predictive factors for functional outcome and failure in angular stable osteosynthesis of the proximal humerus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardeman, Francois

    2012-02-01

    Angular stable osteosynthesis has become the gold standard in the operative treatment of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this article is to determine the indications for osteosynthesis versus primary arthroplasty based on clinical and radiological parameters.

  7. [Hyperlipidemia, blood coagulation factors, hereditary familial factors and coronary atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penco, M; Del Porto, G; Dagianti, A

    1991-12-01

    The identification of risk factors is very important for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Among the different risk factors, the individual predisposition plays an important role. We have studied 130 patients with old myocardial infarction (Group A), 38 subjects belonging to the same family (Group B) and 147 control subjects in order to investigate: familiarity of coronary artery disease; distribution of lipids, lipoproteins and fibrinogen; distribution of these parameters in subjects with and without familiarity for coronary artery disease. Familiar forms showed similar lipemic and coagulative profiles as occasional forms. However, groups A and B showed significant variations in HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, Apo A1/B ratio and in fibrinogen when compared with control subjects. These results confirm the important role of these factors and their genetical distribution. The importance of familiar distribution is also evident.

  8. Distal and Proximal Factors Associated with Aggression Towards Partners and Non-Partners among Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Sanborn, Michelle; Kraus, Shane; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment. PMID:25012548

  9. Matching career and family related factors for families with children

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkienė, Aušra; Trepulė, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Work-family conflict is a complex, multi-dimensional construct. When families decide to continue their professional career, work and family role matching demands efforts and causes strain. Results of a qualitative research show that having and taking care of pre-school and primary-school age children is one of main conflict reasons. Child-care arrangements have an important impact on parents’ experiences of work and their career paths. Job tenure and involvement into work-team are lower stres...

  10. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  11. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    .... Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits...

  12. The Effect of Two Factors on Interobserver Reliability for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, Jos J.; Kuntz, Michael T.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether training observers and simplifying proximal humeral fracture classifications improve interobserver reliability among a large number of orthopaedic surgeons. One hundred eighty-five observers were randomized to receive training or no training in a

  13. Multivariate family factors in lifetime and current marijuana use among American Indian and white adolescents residing on or near reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R

    2016-12-01

    Rates of marijuana use are consistently high among reservation-based American Indian adolescents. The roles of family are unique in this ethnic group and can serve as sources of both risk and protection for substance use. To assess the relationships between distal and proximal family factors and lifetime and current marijuana use among American Indian and white middle and high school students who attend the same schools on or near reservations. In-school surveys were administered to 3380 American Indian and 1562 white students from 35 middle schools and 17 high schools regarding levels of marijuana use and family characteristics. Three logistic regression models (Control, Control+Distal; Control+Distral+Proximal) estimated effects of multiple family variables on lifetime and current marijuana use. Strong effects were found for family structure, parental monitoring, family conflict, and family sanctions against marijuana use. Weaker effects were found for family participation in school events, and no relationship was found for family communication about marijuana. Anumber of similar results were found across ethnicity and middle and high school students. Family variables exert strong and largely consistent effects across reservation-based American Indian and white youth on lifetime and current marijuana use. Interventions that include a broad range of targeted family components may serve to both limit uptake and forestall increases in adolescent marijuana use in these two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, R.G.H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Kooiker, M.; Busscher, M.; Angenent, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of plant development. One of the major groups of transcription factors is the MADS-box family, of which at least 80 members are encoded in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, 23 members of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family were investigated

  15. Distal and proximal actions of peptide pheromone M-factor control different conjugation steps in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Seike

    Full Text Available Mating pheromone signaling is essential for conjugation between haploid cells of P-type (P-cells and haploid cells of M-type (M-cells in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A peptide pheromone, M-factor, produced by M-cells is recognized by the receptor of P-cells. An M-factor-less mutant, in which the M-factor-encoding genes are deleted, is completely sterile. In liquid culture, sexual agglutination was not observed in the mutant, but it could be recovered by adding exogenous synthetic M-factor, which stimulated expression of the P-type-specific cell adhesion protein, Map4. Exogenous M-factor, however, failed to recover the cell fusion defect in the M-factor-less mutant. When M-factor-less cells were added to a mixture of wild-type P- and M-cells, marked cell aggregates were formed. Notably, M-factor-less mutant cells were also incorporated in these aggregates. In this mixed culture, P-cells conjugated preferentially with M-cells secreting M-factor, and rarely with M-factor-less M-cells. The kinetics of mating parameters in liquid culture revealed that polarized growth commenced from the contact region of opposite mating-type cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that M-factor at a low concentration induces adhesin expression, leading to initial cell-cell adhesion in a type of "distal pheromone action", but M-factor that is secreted directly in the proximity of the adhered P-cells may be necessary for cell fusion in a type of "proximal pheromone action".

  16. Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, ...

  17. Family Factors in the Development and Management of Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Family variables are thought to play a key role in a wide variety of psychopathology according to many theories. Yet, specific models of the development of anxiety disorders place little emphasis on general family factors despite clear evidence that anxiety runs in families. The current review examines evidence for the involvement of a number of…

  18. Fracturas del húmero proximal tipo C2: tratamiento y factores pronósticos

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Miquélez, A.; D'Arrigo, A.; Arenas Planelles, Antonio; Jiménez Sarmiento, O.; Duart, J.; Garbayo Marturet, Antonio Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Se presentan 50 casos de fractura de húmero proximal tipo C2 tratados quirúrgicamente mediante osteosíntesis con placa bloqueada (38 casos) o utilizando una hemiartroplastia de hombro (12 casos). Los resul - tados fueron buenos en la mayor parte de los pacientes, con un dolor medio de 11,50/15 en la cotación cifrada de Constant-Murley, una fuerza de 12,32/25 puntos y una movilidad de 22,20/40 puntos. Las complicaciones más importantes fueron el conflicto subacromial (12 casos),...

  19. Factors Influencing the Impact of Job and Family Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazler, Richard J.; Nass, Elizabeth A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature to examine factors affecting individual and family reactions to geographical relocation. Gives specific attention to experiences of military families because of the number of studies available on that population. Discusses positive and negative aspects of relocation and factors that assist in relocation. Implications of this…

  20. The influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major findings revealed that family factors such as parent child rearing style, family type and socio-economic status (the variable of the study) do not significantly account for delinquent behaviour among secondary school students in Edo South Senatorial District. Other factors such as assault from mass media, cultural ...

  1. Analysis of inversions in the factor VIII gene in Spanish hemophilia A patients and families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, M.; Tizzano, E.; Baiget, M. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Altisent, C. [Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-09-01

    Intron 22 is the largest intron of the factor VIII gene and contains a CpG island from which two additional transcripts originate. One of these transcripts corresponds to the F8A gene which have telomeric extragenic copies in the X chromosome. An inversion involving homologous recombination between the intragenic and the distal or proximal copies of the F8A gene has been recently described as a common cause of severe hemophilia A (HA). We analyzed intron 22 rearrangements in 195 HA patients (123 familial and 72 sporadic cases). According to factor VIII levels, our sample was classified as severe in 114 cases, moderate in 29 cases and mild in 52 cases. An intron 22 (F8A) probe was hybridized to Southern blots of BcII digested DNA obtained from peripheral blood. A clear pattern of altered bands identifies distal or proximal inversions. We detected an abnormal pattern identifying an inversion in 49 (25%) of the analyzed cases. 43% of severe HA patients (49 cases) showed an inversion. As expected, no inversion was found in the moderate and mild group of patients. We found a high proportion (78%) of the distal rearrangement. From 49 identified inversions, 33 were found in familial cases (27%), while the remaining 15 were detected in sporadic patients (22%) in support that this mutational event occurs with a similar frequency in familial or sporadic cases. In addition, we detected a significant tendency of distal inversion to occur more frequently in familial cases than in sporadic cases. Inhibitor development to factor VIII was documented in approximately 1/3 of the patients with inversion. The identification of such a frequent molecular event in severe hemophilia A patients has been applied in our families to carrier and prenatal diagnosis, to determine the origin of the mutation in the sporadic cases and to detect the presence of germinal mosaicism.

  2. Multi-Level Family Factors and Affective and Behavioral Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.

  3. Distal and proximal factors associated with aggression towards partners and non-partners among patients in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Walton, Maureen A; Sanborn, Michelle; Kraus, Shane; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Splenectomy and proximal lieno-renal shunt in a factor five deficient patient with extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahni Peush

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinico-surgical implication and successful management of a rare case of factor five (V deficiency with portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to idiopathic extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction is presented. Case presentation A 16-year old boy had gastro-esophageal variceal bleeding, splenomegaly and hypersplenism. During preoperative workup prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were detected, which on further evaluation turned out to be due to factor V deficiency. Proximal lieno-renal shunt and splenectomy were successfully performed with transfusion of fresh frozen plasma during and after the surgical procedure. At surgery there was no excessive bleeding. The perioperative course was uneventful and the patient is doing well on follow up. Conclusion Surgical portal decompressive procedures can be safely undertaken in clotting factor deficient patients with portal hypertension if meticulous surgical hemostasis is achieved at operation and the deficient factor is adequately replaced in the perioperative period.

  5. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of processing method on the proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors to taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) grown in Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adane, T; Tilahun, B; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Shimelis, A; Negussie, R

    2013-01-01

    Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products...

  7. Family history and environmental risk factors for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Esteve; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    We analyzed the joint effect of environmental risk factors and family history of colorectal cancer on colon cancer. We used data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1992 and 1996 including 1225 cases with colon cancer and 4154 controls. We created a weighed risk factor score for the main environmental risk factors in this population (positive family history, high education, low occupational physical activity, high daily meal frequency, low intake of fiber, low intake of calcium, and low intake of beta-carotene). Compared with the reference category (subjects with no family history of colorectal cancer and in the lowest tertile of the risk factor score), the odds ratios of colon cancer were 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.89-2.73] for subjects without family history and in the highest environmental risk factor score, 3.20 (95% CI = 2.05-5.01) for those with family history and low risk factor score, and 7.08 (95% CI = 4.68-10.71) for those with family history and high risk factor score. The pattern of risk was similar for men and women and no meaningful differences emerged according to subsite within the colon. Family history of colorectal cancer interacts with environmental risk factors of colon cancer.

  8. Factors Associated With the Development of and Revision for Proximal Junctional Kyphosis in 440 Consecutive Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Fred H; Bae, Junseok; Theologis, Alexander A; Eksi, Murat S; Ames, Christopher P; Berven, Sigurd H; Burch, Shane; Tay, Bobby K; Deviren, Vedat

    2017-11-15

    MINI: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common, yet incompletely understood, complication of surgery for adult spinal deformity. We analyzed 440 consecutive adult spinal deformity patients for trends in development of PJK and need for revision surgery. pelvic tilt and thoracic kyphosis were predictive for developing PJK, while radiographic evidence of proximal junctional failure was predictive for proceeding to revision. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to examine which radiographic parameters and surgical strategies are most closely associated with proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, the need for revision surgery for PJK, and whether these differ based on the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV). Multiple parameters are considered when planning correction of ASD. Determining which of these factors contribute to the development of and need for revision surgery for PJK presents a challenging problem. Consecutive patients undergoing long fusion to the pelvis with age >18 years, minimum 6-month follow-up, and adequate radiographs for analysis in a single institution between 2003 and 2011 were included. Along with chart review, measurement of proximal junctional angle (PJA), sagittal balance, and pelvic parameters was performed on preoperative, postoperative, and latest follow-up radiographs. Postoperative radiographs were also examined for signs of PJF. A total of 440 patients with a mean follow-up of 34 months met inclusion criteria, 159 of whom developed PJK (36%), with 65 requiring revision surgery (41%). Higher preoperative pelvic tilt (PT) (P = 0.018) and postoperative thoracic kyphosis (TK) (P ≤ 0.001) were predictive for development of PJK, whereas hooks at UIV were protective (odds ratio [OR] 0.049). In patients who developed PJK, revision was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.005) with greater postoperative sagittal vertical axis and PJA (P

  9. Family factors and parenting in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Delva, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the use of positive and negative parenting practices in Ukraine and explore relationships between parenting practices, intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and sociodemographics. Parents of children (N=320) ages 9-16 from three Ukrainian regions answered questions from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-R), Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES), and the Alcohol Use Section of the Drinking and Drug History and Current Use Patterns questionnaire. Ukrainian parents who reported lower use of alcohol, balanced family functioning and lower intimate partner violence were more likely to use positive parenting and less likely to use negative parenting practices. Parents with lower education were more likely to use negative parenting practices. Furthermore, alcohol use, IPV, parent education and higher family income were significantly and indirectly related with positive and negative parenting scores. The model explained 61% of variance in the positive parenting, 67% in the negative parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidencia y factores de riesgo de la fractura de fémur proximal por osteoporosis Incidence of and risk factors associated with fractures of the proximal femur due to osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Mosquera

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Todos los años se producen en el mundo más de un millón de fracturas de fémur proximal, sobre todo en personas de edad avanzada. Dado el continuo envejecimiento de las poblaciones, las fracturas aumentarán año tras año y constituirán un problema cada vez más grave de salud pública. Se espera que el mayor aumento de dichas fracturas ocurra en América Latina alrededor del 2050. Teniendo en cuenta que cerca de 70% de las fracturas atraumáticas en personas mayores de 45 años de edad se deben a osteoporosis, se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina, para conocer la incidencia de fracturas de fémur proximal por osteoporosis y los factores de riesgo asociados. Entre el 1 de agosto de 1992 y el 31 de julio de 1993 se registraron todos los casos de fracturas de fémur proximal por osteoporosis en personas mayores de 50 años de edad que acudieron a cualquiera de los 30 centros de salud públicos y privados de la ciudad. Se registró un total de 246 casos. La tasa de incidencia por 100 000 habitantes en la población mayor de 50 años fue de 259 en mujeres y de 92 en varones, con una relación de 2,8:1. La incidencia fue siempre mayor a mayor edad y sobre todo a partir de los 75 años. Los factores asociados con aumento del riesgo de fractura de fémur proximal con significación estadística fueron: antecedentes de enfermedades neurológicas, consumo de psicofármacos, consumo de alcohol, fracturas previas, enfermedades cardiovasculares y menor consumo de lácteos. No se observaron diferencias entre los casos y los controles con respecto a edad de inicio de la menopausia, peso, talla, actividad previa, hábito de fumar o exposición al sol, como así tampoco en el porcentaje de mujeres que habían tenido ooforectomías.Every year more than one million fractures of the proximal femur occur in the world, especially in older persons. Given the continuous aging experienced by populations, such

  11. Factors influencing uptake of family planning services among men in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current reports indicate that male participation improves uptake of maternal healthcare and family planning services among women. Objective: To determine factors that influence male participation in family planning services in Kenya. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Nationally representative survey of Eight provinces ...

  12. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    advance the importance of the Chaplain Corps as an invaluable asset for military personnel and their families . The Chaplain Corps serve the spiritual...psychologists, social workers, physicians, and others who could develop multi- dimensional programs to provide support to military families ...but for children as well. Flake and colleagues (2009) found that one important factor in predicting child psychosocial morbidity was the perception

  13. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people.

  14. Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Immink, Richard G.H.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2017-01-01

    Specific and dynamic gene expression strongly depends on transcription factor (TF) activity and most plant TFs function in a combinatorial fashion. They can bind to DNA and control the expression of the corresponding gene in an additive fashion or cooperate by physical interactions, forming larger

  15. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...... psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....

  16. Patient and family factors associated with family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana Braga; Van Noppen, Barbara; Pato, Michele; Braga, Daniela Tusi; Meyer, Elisabeth; Bortoncello, Cristiane Flôres; Cordioli, Aristides Volpato

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) impacts family functioning as family members modify their personal and family routines, participate in rituals, and provide reassurance. These behaviors have been identified as family accommodation (FA), a phenomenon that, if ignored, may facilitate OCD symptoms and lead to poorer prognosis. Because FA has been recognized as a predictor of treatment outcome, we examined the prevalence of FA and identified patient and family sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with FA in an outpatient sample. The study comprised 228 subjects, namely, 114 patients with OCD and 114 family members, assessed before the patients entered a 12-session cognitive behavioral group therapy program. A multivariate linear regression model was used to control for confounding factors and to evaluate variables independently associated with FA. FA was evaluated using the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Interviewer Rated. FA was found to be highly prevalent among family members. Two patient factors positively associated with FA were OCD severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impressions Scale and higher scores on the Obsessions dimension of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised. Family members' characteristics that were positively associated with FA were higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised hoarding subscale and being the patient's spouse. Our findings suggest that the early identification of patients and family members who could benefit from interventions aimed at reducing FA could improve treatment outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. A familial factor in the development of colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2007-04-09

    An important aspect of research into the link between genes and behaviour concerns the identification of familial determination. There is evidence for familial factors in selective deficits, such as developmental dyslexia and developmental prosopagnosia. Colour agnosia concerns a selective neuropsychological condition in which colour perception is intact, while the identification and naming of colour is disrupted. We recently demonstrated that this deficit can occur as a developmental deficit. Here, we show that there is a familial factor in the development of colour agnosia by reporting the colour processing abilities of the mother and the daughters of a man with developmental colour agnosia.

  18. Family protective factors among urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, K M; Clark, R; Barnett, D

    1999-06-01

    Examined the relations among family protective factors, stressful events, and behavioral adjustment of 64 African American 6th graders. The youths reported on family stressors, father-figure involvement, and kin support. Their primary caregivers reported on parenting, father-figure involvement, and family stressors. Teachers reported on child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Based on regression analyses, stress exposure associated positively with child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Parental warmth was associated negatively with shy or anxious behavior. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated positively with child acting out. For youth exposed to high numbers of family stressors, parental demandingness was associated negatively with child acting out and kin support was associated negatively with acting out and shy or anxious behavior, suggesting that these family factors partially shield children from the negative effects of stress.

  19. Incidence and risk factors of hardware-related complications after proximal femoral osteotomy in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung Ki; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Cho, Byung Chae; Lee, Gye Wang; Kim, Jaeyoung; Moon, Seung Jun; Lee, Jae Woo; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-03-08

    Proximal femoral osteotomy has been used in cerebral palsy, Perthes disease, hip dysplasia, idiopathic femoral anteversion, and various hip diseases in children and adolescents. Conventionally, a blade plate (BP) has been used. However, the pediatric locking compression plate (LCP) has recently been applied widely. We compared the hardware-related complications of the BP and the LCP as well as the factors influencing these complications in patients who have undergone a proximal femoral osteotomy in children and adolescents. We enrolled consecutive patients aged less than or equal to 20 years who had undergone proximal femoral osteotomy with BP or LCP between May 2003 and December 2014, and who were followed up until 6 months after hardware removal. Following consensus building, hardware-related complications were identified from the patients' medical records and hip radiographs. Patient age, sex, type of plate, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in cerebral palsy patients were evaluated as possible risk factors, and a generalized estimating equation was used to assess the risk factors for hardware-related complications. A total of 417 hips from 251 patients were finally included in this study. Seven losses of fixation around the plate (five patients, 3.0%) occurred in the BP, three implant-related fractures (three patients, 3.6%) occurred in the LCP, and there was no significant difference (P=0.74). All hardware-related complications occurred in cerebral palsy patients, and the implant-related fractures occurred in patients with GMFCS IV/V. The risk of complications increased with age (P=0.002). The risk of loss of fixation around the BP is a well-known complication. However, LCP is not without hardware-related complications. The LCP provides strong stability of fixation. However, it is speculated that the LCP is related to implant-related fractures because of the stress shielding effect. Therefore, care should be exercised when using a

  20. Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Alicja J; Beimel Claudia; Taglang Gilbert; Collin David; Ekholm Carl; Jönsson Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients’ age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and im...

  1. Early proximal tibial valgus osteotomy as a very important prognostic factor in Thai children with infantile tibia vara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn; Tangsataporn, Suksan; Jatunarapit, Ratiporn

    2005-10-01

    To find the effectiveness of the early surgery (2-3 years of age)as a very important prognostic factor affecting the outcomes in Thai children with infantile tibia vara and all the prognostic factors including the usefulness of arthrographic study in correcting the deformity. From 1994 to 2004, sixteen children aged average 3.61 years old (2.08-7.0) were treated in Siriraj Hospital and diagnosed as infantile tibia vara by Langenskiold radiographic staging were included in the present study and retrospectively reviewed with an average of 6.4 years follow up (range 6 month - 11.1 years). All cases were initially treated by surgery because of low compliance for brace or brace failure. They consisted of 3 boys and 13 girls. There were 24 legs including the bilateral involvement in 8 cases (2 boy and 6 girls). After arihrography, the midshaft fibular osteotomy was performed then the proximal tibial dome-shaped valgus osteotomy was done and fixed with 2 pins. The desired position was 12 degree knee valgus . The patients were divided in two groups, 1)group A,the successful group with the knee becoming normal without any deformity after single osteotomy, 2)group B,the recurrent group with recurrence of the varus deformity required further corrective osteotomies to make normal axis of the knee. All variables were analyzed and compared between group A and group B. The general characteristics and radiographic findings were recorded in 1)age, 2)sex, 3)side, 4)weight in kilogram and in percentage of normal or overweight(obesity) compared with the standard Thai weight chart, 5)tibiofemoral angle (TFA) pre and postoperative treatment, 6) metaphyseal diaphyseal angle (MDA), 7)the medial physeal slope angle (MPS, 8)The preoperative arthrographic articulo-diaphyseal angle (ADA), 9.arthrographic articulo-medial physeal angle (AMPA). There were 14 legs in group A and the remaining 10 legs were in group B (average 2.4 operations). All cases healed in good alignment of the legs without

  2. Effect Of Processing On Proximate Energy Anti-Nutritional Factor Amino Acid And Mineral Composition Of Lablab Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was conducted to assess the effect of various techniques of processing decortication toasting and boiling in tap water on proximate anti-nutritional factor ANF amino acid and mineral composition of Highworth variety of Lablab purpureus seed. Processing reduced the levels of all the ANFs evaluated in the present study. Boiling in water was determined to be the best method reduced tannins alkaloids oxalates Trypsin inhibitors and HCN by 37 33 38 100 and 89 respectively. Processing also resulted in reductions in crude protein crude fibre ether extracts ash and gross energy by 8 14 17 23 10 and 8 while NFE increased by 10. The levels of nutrients in boiled lablab however compared favourably with feed grade soybean while being likely to be much cheaper.

  3. Family factors in the development and management of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M

    2012-03-01

    Family variables are thought to play a key role in a wide variety of psychopathology according to many theories. Yet, specific models of the development of anxiety disorders place little emphasis on general family factors despite clear evidence that anxiety runs in families. The current review examines evidence for the involvement of a number of family-related variables in the development of anxiety disorders as well as the importance of families in their management. Evidence across most areas is shown to be weak and inconsistent, with the one exception being an extensive literature on the role of parenting in the development of anxiety. There is also currently little evidence that family factors have a strong role to play in the treatment of anxiety, aside from research demonstrating the value of parents and partners as non-critical supports in therapy. The promises and hints in the literature, combined with the currently inconsistent methods, suggest that considerably more research is needed to determine whether specific family factors may yet be shown to play a key role in the development and management of anxiety disorders.

  4. β-Catenin activation in fundic gland polyps, gastric cancer and colonic polyps in families afflicted by 'gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach' (GAPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Lucas A; Sabesan, Arvind; Allgäeuer, Michael; Xin, Liqiang; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo; Davis, Jeremy L; Raffeld, Mark; Miettienen, Markku; Quezado, Martha; Rudloff, Udo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate possible colon involvement in the 'gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach' (GAPPS) gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Prospective clinicopathological evaluation of two GAPPS families and expression of nuclear β-catenin, p53 and Ki67 measured by immunohistochemistry on endoscopic and surgical specimens from patients with GAPPS. Patients with the GAPPS phenotype were more frequently affected by colonic polyps than patients at risk within the same families (pgastric cancers including increased expression of nuclear β-catenin, Ki67 and p53. Both gastric and colonic lesions harboured activating somatic variants of β-catenin signalling. Similarities in expression markers in fundic gland and colonic polyps, together with an enrichment of colonic adenomas in family members affected by GAPPS phenotype compared with family members at risk, support mild colonic involvement of this rare cancer syndrome. Colonoscopic screening might be warranted. #09-C-0079; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Recurrent proximal 18p monosomy and 18q trisomy in a family due to a pericentric inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ayse Gul; Acar, Aynur; Durakbasi-Dursun, Gul; Yildirim, M Selman; Ceylaner, Serdar; Tuncez, Ebru

    2014-05-01

    Here, we report on a family with pericentric inversion of chromosome 18 [inv(18)(p11.2q21)] and two recombinants with a duplication of q21 → qter and a deletion of p11.2 → pter regions in a four-generation family. This chromosomal abnormality was inherited in our first patient from the father, while it was transmitted to the second patient from the mother. Array-CGH analysis were used to better characterize duplicated and deleted chromosomal regions and showed no genomic copy number variation (CNV) differences between these two relatives. We discussed genotype-phenotype correlations including previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Family and individual factors of suicidal ideation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdanović-Maraš Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of suicidal behavior of adolescents by establishing relations between characteristics of a family system and suicidal ideation, as well as determining the influence of family and individual factors on suicidal ideation in adolescents. The systemic family therapy was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. The study sample included 96 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, who assessed the functionality of their own families that were in the adolescent phase of a family life cycle at the time of the study. Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: the first consisted of adolescents who had previously attempted suicide, the second of adolescents who had another psychiatric problem at the time of the study, and the third was made up of adolescents who had never had psychiatric or psychological problems. The following instruments were used: Self-report Family Inventory (SFI, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale (SIS. The results suggest that family has a significant, but indirect influence on suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicidal ideation is primarily related to adolescents’ individual characteristics, which are indeed strongly influenced by family functionality.

  7. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  8. Social complexity as a proximate and ultimate factor in communicative complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, Todd M.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Ord, Terry J.

    2012-01-01

    The ‘social complexity hypothesis’ for communication posits that groups with complex social systems require more complex communicative systems to regulate interactions and relations among group members. Complex social systems, compared with simple social systems, are those in which individuals frequently interact in many different contexts with many different individuals, and often repeatedly interact with many of the same individuals in networks over time. Complex communicative systems, compared with simple communicative systems, are those that contain a large number of structurally and functionally distinct elements or possess a high amount of bits of information. Here, we describe some of the historical arguments that led to the social complexity hypothesis, and review evidence in support of the hypothesis. We discuss social complexity as a driver of communication and possible causal factor in human language origins. Finally, we discuss some of the key current limitations to the social complexity hypothesis—the lack of tests against alternative hypotheses for communicative complexity and evidence corroborating the hypothesis from modalities other than the vocal signalling channel. PMID:22641818

  9. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  10. Estimation of coal proximate analysis factors and calorific value by multivariable regression method and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Behnamfard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate analysis is the most common form of coal evaluation and it reveals the quality of a coal sample. It examines four factors including the moisture, ash, volatile matter (VM, and fixed carbon (FC within the coal sample. Every factor is determined through a distinct experimental procedure under ASTM specified conditions. These determinations are time consuming and require a significant amount of laboratory equipment. The calorific value is one of the most important properties of a solid fuel and its experimental determination requires special instrumentation and highly trained analyst to operate it. This paper develops mathematical and ANFIS models for estimation of two factors of proximate analysis based on the other two factors. Furthermore, the estimation of calorific value of coal samples based on proximate analysis factors is performed using multivariable regression, the Minitab 16 software package, and the ANFIS, Matlab software package. The results indicate that ANFIS is a more powerful tool for estimation of proximate analysis factors and calorific value than multivariable regression method. The following equation estimates the calorific value of coal samples with high precision: Calorific value (btu/lb= 12204 - 170 Moisture + 46.8 FC - 127 Ash

  11. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Prateek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86 becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3% do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors

  12. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-06-22

    A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. The description of the WRKY transcription factor

  13. Unemployment as a Destructive Factor in Family Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA MARZEC-TARASIŃSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment in Poland s one of the main factors causing problems in the process of upbringing. It is also the main reason for constant growth of poverty and process of marginalization of many families in Polish society. Family is a basic and irreplaceable environment for a child. It is not child's choice what sort of family she/he was born into, however family situation and environment started to influence a child, from very beginning. Well functioning family, where the socialization and education process are running in a healthy way, creates positive environment for physical, psychological, social and moral development of a child and successfully influence the child's school career, lack of conflict with the law and finally – gaining professional autonomy. Unemployment is conducive to increasing dysfunction in the family. This problem makes lot of families inefficient, in many respects, educational environment unable to fulfill the most basic human needs. This condition is very unfavorable for children and leads to disturbances in the development of physical, mental, social and moral.

  14. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  15. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This study investigated factors influencing utilization of modern family planning services among women of childbearing age (15-49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Descriptive survey design was adopted for it.

  16. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study sought to determine factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning (NFP) among child bearing women in Chilonga Catchment area. The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively. Literature review revealed that information ...

  17. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  18. GATA family of transcription factors of vertebrates: phylogenetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    Wuhan 430072, P R China. *Corresponding authors (Fax, 86-27-68756253; Email, rjzhou@whu.edu.cn, hhcheng@whu.edu.cn). GATA genes are an evolutionarily conserved family, which encode a group of important transcription factors involved in the regulation of diverse processes including the development of the heart ...

  19. Is Nonsuicidal Self Injury Associated With Parenting and Family Factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological

  20. Utilization of Family Planning Methods and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the utilization of Family planning methods and associated factors among HIV-infected women in ART clinics of public health institutions Nekemte town, East Wollega zone, Ethiopia. Facility based cross sectional study design using quantitative technique of data collection method ...

  1. A metagenomic study highlights phylogenetic proximity of quorum-quenching and xenobiotic-degrading amidases of the AS-family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Tannières

    Full Text Available Quorum-sensing (QS signals of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (NAHL class are cleaved by quorum-quenching enzymes, collectively named NAHLases. Here, functional metagenomics allowed the discovery of a novel bacterial NAHLase in a rhizosphere that was treated with γ-caprolactone. As revealed by rrs-DGGE and rrs-pyrosequencing, this treatment increased the percentage of the NAHL-degrading bacteria and strongly biased the structure of the bacterial community, among which Azospirillum dominated. Among the 29 760 fosmids of the metagenomic library, a single one was detected that expressed the qsdB gene conferring NAHL-degradation upon E. coli and decreased QS-regulated virulence in Pectobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of the 34 orfs of the fosmid suggested that it would belong to an unknown Proteobacterium - probably a γ-proteobacterium. qPCR quantification of the NAHLase-encoding genes attM, qsdA, and qsdB revealed their higher abundance in the γ-caprolactone-treated rhizosphere as compared to an untreated control. The purified QsdB enzyme exhibited amidase activity. QsdB is the first amidase signature (AS family member exhibiting NAHLase-activity. Point mutations in the AS-family catalytic triad K-S-S abolished the NAHLase activity of QsdB. This study extends the diversity of NAHLases and highlights a common phylogenic origin of AS-family enzymes involved in the degradation of natural compounds, such as NAHLs, and xenobiotics, such as nylon and linuron.

  2. Analysis of factor VIII gene inversions in 164 unrelated hemophilia A families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vnencak-Jones, L.; Phillips, J.A. III; Janco, R.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive disease with variable phenotype and both heterogeneous and wide spread mutations in the factor VIII (F8) gene. As a result, diagnostic carrier or prenatal testing often relies upon laborious DNA linkage analysis. Recently, inversion mutations resulting from an intrachromosomal recombination between DNA sequences in one of two A genes {approximately}500 kb upstream from the F8 gene and a homologous A gene in intron 22 of the F8 gene were identified and found in 45% of severe hemophiliacs. We have analyzed banked DNA collected since 1986 from affected males or obligate carrier females representing 164 unrelated hemophilia A families. The disease was sporadic in 37%, familial in 54% and in 10% of families incomplete information was given. A unique deletion was identified in 1/164, a normal pattern was observed in 110/164 (67%), and 53/164 (32%) families had inversion mutations with 43/53 (81%) involving the distal A gene (R3 pattern) and 10/53 (19%) involving the proximal A gene (R2 pattern). While 19% of all rearrangements were R2, in 35 families with severe disease (< 1% VIII:C activity) all 16 rearrangements seen were R3. In 18 families with the R3 pattern and known activities, 16 (89%) had levels < 1%, with the remaining 2 families having {le} 2.4% activity. Further, 18 referrals specifically noted the production of inhibitors and 8/18 (45%) had the R3 pattern. Our findings demonstrate that the R3 inversion mutation patterns is (1) only seen with VIII:C activity levels of {le} 2.4%, (2) seen in 46% of families with severe hemophilia, (3) seen in 45% of hemophiliacs known to have inhibitors, (4) not correlated with sporadic or familial disease and (5) not in disequilibrium with the Bcl I or Taq I intron 18 or ST14 polymorphisms. Finally, in families positive for an inversion mutation, direct testing offers a highly accurate and less expensive alternative to DNA linkage analysis.

  3. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  4. Family factors in adolescent problematic Internet gaming: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Luke A; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Familial influences are known to affect the likelihood of an adolescent becoming a problem gamer. This systematic review examined some of the key findings in empirical research on family factors related to adolescent problem gaming. Methods A total of 14 studies in the past decade were evaluated. Family-related variables included: (a) parent status (e.g., socioeconomic status and mental health), (b) parent-child relationship (e.g., warmth, conflict, and abuse), (c) parental influence on gaming (e.g., supervision of gaming, modeling, and attitudes toward gaming), and (d) family environment (e.g., household composition). Results The majority of studies have focused on parent-child relationships, reporting that poorer quality relationships are associated with increased severity of problem gaming. The paternal relationship may be protective against problem gaming; therefore, prevention programs should leverage the support of cooperative fathers. Discussion The intergenerational effects of problem gaming require further attention, in light of adult gamers raising their children in a gaming-centric environment. Research has been limited by a reliance on adolescent self-report to understand family dynamics, without gathering corroborating information from parents and other family members. The very high rates of problem gaming (>10%) reported in general population samples raise concerns about the validity of current screening tools. Conclusions Interventions for adolescents may be more effective in some cases if they can address familial influences on problem gaming with the active co-participation of parents, rather than enrolling vulnerable adolescents in individual-based training or temporarily isolating adolescents from the family system.

  5. Proximate Amino Acid Anti-Nutritional Factor And Mineral Composition Of Different Varieties Of Raw Lablab Purpureus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proximate chemical amino acid anti- nutritional factors ANF and mineral composition of Highworth Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23 of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g100g. The ether extract EE content 2.99-5.87 of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high mean value is above FAO reference pattern in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids lysine histidine valine methionine isoleucine leucine and phenylalanine in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors hydrogen cyanide phytate tannin oxalates alkaloids saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g100g of major and 14.9-54.5mgkg of minor minerals assayed and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

  6. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...... generation of long-lived families scored low in neuroticism, high in extraversion, and within average values for the other three domains. Older participants tended to score higher in neuroticism and lower in the other domains compared with younger participants, but the estimated scores generally remained...

  7. [Prevalence and factors associated with frequent attendence in family medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T

    2016-01-01

    The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Familial and social factors of involving teenagers into alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many authors discuss factors which influence involving adolescence into alcohol use. This study was aimed to assess contribution of factors related to alcohol use in the family, getting into situations of alcohol use as well as preventive work in teenage establishments.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of 373 adolescents attending teenage clubs was conducted in Kazan, Russia, with questions related to alcohol use in the family and among peers, age and circumstances of first alcohol use. The outcome measure was whether respondents were current alcohol users. Associations were explored through logistic regression models.RESULTS: Alcohol use by teenagers did not differ by gender. Odds of using alcohol increased with age (OR=1.46 95%CI 1.19-1.80 per year. Risk of alcohol use was lower if no family members used alcohol (OR=0.3 95%CI 0.2-0.5 compared to those teenagers who have any family members who used alcohol. After adding to the model variables related to the first alcohol use, most significant was association with the response that no one has ever proposed to drink alcohol (OR=0.014 95%CI 0.005-0.041 compared to any situations of alcohol use, while the association with familial factors was attenuated. This shows that impact of familial factors could be mediated through the occasions of alcohol use. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are proposed to drink in a peer group (12% vs. 24% or at a party (18% vs. 25%.Adolescents who expressed negative attitude to alcohol-related work in youth clubs more likely were alcohol users themselves (OR=21.1 95%CI 2.6-170.3, which is better applicable for diagnostics than for program evaluation.CONCLUSION: Absence of alcohol in the family predetermines alcohol use by adolescents. Teenagers whose parents do not use alcohol less likely get into situations where they are suggested to drink alcohol.

  9. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. O esôfago curto e o refluxo distal são fatores de risco para o refluxo proximal? Short length of the esophagus and distal reflux are risk factors for proximal esophageal reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Oliveira Serra

    2010-12-01

    esophageal distal reflux are risk factors for proximal reflux among patients presenting respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A hundred and seven patients were evaluated prospectively by interview, esophagoscopy, manometry and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Student's t test (two-sided, Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-square and odds ratio were used in the statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Respiratory symptoms that motivated the search for gastroesophageal reflux disease were cough 43 (40.2%; throat irritation 25 (23.4%, pharyngeal globe 23 (21.5% and hoarseness 16 (14.9 %. By esophagoscopy, 22 (27.2% presented some degree of esophagitis. A hiatal hernia was observed in 14 (17.5% patients. According to manometry, 11 (10.8% had lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia. The average esophageal body length was 24.3 (± 1.9 cm, ranging from 20 to 30 cm. The esophageal length was not associated with the presence of proximal esophageal reflux. As indicated by pH monitoring, 23 (21.5% presented pathologic distal reflux and 12 (11.2% had proximal reflux. CONCLUSION: The esophageal length was not associated with the presence of proximal esophageal reflux. Patients who had pathological distal esophageal reflux, independent of the esophageal length, were 4.6 times more likely to have proximal esophageal reflux.

  11. Proximal tubule-derived colony stimulating factor-1 mediates polarization of renal macrophages and dendritic cells, and recovery in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinqiu; Chang, Jian; Yao, Bing; Niu, Aolei; Kelly, Emily; Breeggemann, Matthew C; Abboud Werner, Sherry L; Harris, Raymond C; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Infiltrating cells play an important role in both the development of and recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). Macrophages and renal dendritic cells are of particular interest because they can exhibit distinctly different functional phenotypes, broadly characterized as proinflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2). Resident renal macrophages and dendritic cells participate in recovery from AKI in response to either ischemia/reperfusion or a model of selective proximal tubule injury induced by diphtheria-toxin-induced apoptosis in transgenic mice expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor on proximal tubule cells. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is an important factor mediating the recovery from AKI, and CSF-1 can stimulate macrophage and dendritic cell proliferation and polarization during the recovery phase of AKI. The kidney, and specifically the proximal tubule, is a major source of intrarenal CSF-1 production in response to AKI. We induced selective deletion of proximal tubule CSF-1 to determine its role in expansion and proliferation of renal macrophages and dendritic cells and in recovery from AKI. In both models of AKI, there was decreased M2 polarization, delayed functional and structural recovery, and increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Thus, intrarenal CSF-1 is an important mediator of macrophage/dendritic cell polarization and recovery from AKI.

  12. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  13. Integrative Families and Systems Treatment: A Middle Path toward Integrating Common and Specific Factors in Evidence-Based Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J. Scott; Solovey, Andrew D.; Grove, David; Lee, Mo Yee; Greene, Gilbert J.

    2012-01-01

    A moderate common factors approach is proposed as a synthesis or middle path to integrate common and specific factors in evidence-based approaches to high-risk youth and families. The debate in family therapy between common and specific factors camps is reviewed and followed by suggestions from the literature for synthesis and creative flexibility…

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 functions as a glycan-stabilized soluble factor via its carboxy-proximal Fasciclin 1 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Veit, Christiane; Abas, Lindy; Tryfona, Theodora; Maresch, Daniel; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Estevez, José Manuel; Strasser, Richard; Seifert, Georg J

    2017-08-01

    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are involved in numerous important functions in plants but the relevance of their complex structure to physiological function and cellular fate is unresolved. Using a fully functional fluorescent version of Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 we show that this protein is localized at the plasma membrane as well as in endosomes and soluble in the apoplast. FLA4 is likely to be GPI-anchored, is highly N-glycosylated and carries two O-glycan epitopes previously associated with arabinogalactan proteins. The activity of FLA4 was resistant against deletion of the amino-proximal fasciclin 1 domain and was unaffected by removal of the GPI-modification signal, a highly conserved N-glycan or the deletion of predicted O-glycosylation sites. Nonetheless these structural changes dramatically decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-exit and plasma membrane localization of FLA4, with N-glycosylation acting at the level of ER-exit and O-glycosylation influencing post-secretory fate. We show that FLA4 acts predominantly by molecular interactions involving its carboxy-proximal fasciclin 1 domain and that its amino-proximal fasciclin 1 domain is required for stabilization of plasma membrane localization. FLA4 functions as a soluble glycoprotein via its carboxy-proximal Fas1 domain and its normal cellular trafficking depends on N- and O-glycosylation. © 2017 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets.

  16. Comorbidity and Family Factors Associated with Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Buzzella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that Selective Mutism (SM is best conceptualized as a childhood anxiety disorder and that oppositional behavior may or may not be a significant part of the clinical picture. Twenty-nine mothers of children with SM and 28 mothers of children who did not meet diagnostic criteria for any Axis I disorder (a community comparison group completed parental self-report questionnaires and clinician-rated interviews assessing anxiety and oppositional behavior, parental psychopathology, and family factors with hypothesized relationships with childhood anxiety. Findings suggested that children with SM experienced more anxiety than those in the community comparison group, with significantly higher levels of social anxiety, rumination, and physical symptoms reported. Mothers of children with SM reported greater monitoring of their children's activities, but they did not significantly differ from community comparison group mothers on reports of other parenting behaviors. Such findings may have important implications for guiding family involvement in psychosocial interventions.

  17. Dock-family exchange factors in cell migration and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Gilles; Blangy, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Dock family proteins are evolutionary conserved exchange factors for the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42. There are 11 Dock proteins in mammals, named Dock1 (or Dock180) to Dock11 that play different cellular functions. In particular, Dock proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and migration. Not surprisingly, members of the Dock family have been involved in various pathologies, including cancer and defects in the central nervous and immune systems. This review proposes an update of the recent findings regarding the function of Dock proteins, focusing on their role in the control of cell migration and invasion and the consequences in human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Gina M; Pitarresi, Jason R; Balakrishnan, Subhasree; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.

  19. Factors affecting frequency of communication about family health history with family members and doctors in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p =.012) and heart disease (p health information frequently in newspapers (p family history of heart disease (p = .011), meet physical activity recommendations (p = .022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p family history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients' family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of agoraphobic families vs. non-agoraphobic families on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlott, S R; Vale, W H

    1986-03-01

    This study investigated whether the personality variables, as measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), differed significantly between families with an agoraphobic parent and families with nonagoraphobic parents. Participants were 15 agoraphobic female parents and 5 male agoraphobic parents, their spouses, and children. Two matched control groups of subjects (comparable to the female agoraphobic and male agoraphobic families) were used. Significant differences in personality variables were found between the families with agoraphobic parents and their matched controls. Significant personality differences among family members in the agoraphobic family were evident, and they also differed according to whether the agoraphobic parent was female or male.

  1. Quantitative measurements of trefoil factor family peptides: possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund

    2013-01-01

    The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are produced and secreted by mucous membranes throughout the body. Their importance for the protection and repair of epithelial surfaces is well established, and the three peptides are present in various amounts in mucosal secretions...... as well as in the circulation. They have been linked to both inflammatory diseases and to various types of cancer, and serum concentrations of TFF3 show a more than 47-fold increase during pregnancy. Several both commercial and in-house immunoassays exist, but a number of methodological issues remain...

  2. The Development and Validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors: A Brief Assessment for Family Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Deborah L.; Huber, Charles H.; Steiner, Robert; Vazquez, Luis A.; Savage, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the three-stage protocol employed in development and validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF), a brief-form formal instrument intended to assess the primary protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Following construction of the instrument, data collections and analyses of a total sample…

  3. Effect of locking plate internal fixation system treatment on the levels of bone turnover biomarkers and inflammatory factors in patients with proximal humeral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Cong Huang1,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of locking plate internal fixation system treatment on the levels of bone turnover biomarkers and inflammatory factors in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Methods: 62 patients with proximal humeral fractures who received surgical treatment in the hospital between May 2013 and February 2016 were selected and divided into the control group (n=34 who received traditional common anatomical bone plate internal fixation treatment and the observation group (n=28 who received locking plate internal fixation system treatment. 4 weeks after operation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of bone formation indexes, bone resorption indexes, pro-inflammatory factors and anti-inflammatory factors of two groups of patients. Results: 4 weeks after operation, serum bone formation indexes osteocalcin (OC, N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (P1NP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP and bone gla protein (BGP levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while bone resorption indexes pyridinoline (PYD, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cross-linked C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX and deoxypyridinoline crosslink (D-pyr levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum pro-inflammatory factors interleukin 1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-22 (IL-22 levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while anti-inflammatory factors soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13 levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Locking plate internal fixation system treatment of proximal humeral fractures can promote the fracture end healing and improve the bone metabolism without causing strong systemic inflammatory reaction.

  4. Women--the deciding factor in family planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H; Shreshtha, P; Mawlong, M; Pestano, R; Wichiensharoen, K; Mobarez, N

    1978-01-01

    Prominent women from Korea, Nepal, India, Philippines, Thailand, and Afghanistan discuss family planning attitudes in broad terms. Educated women in urban areas make decisions regarding birth control and family size, but the tradition in most developing countries is that of the man in the authority role. Family planning is intrinsically a joint decision. Obligations to family and family lineage prohibit family planning. In the Philippines, Catholicism is the dominant religion and because of population density, encourages family planning. For economic and social reasons, rural families prefer more children. The changing role of women to include jobs and education will have a positive effect on family planning. The representative from Nepal points out that it is necessary to have family planning in order to have changing women's roles. Rather than emphasizing smaller family size, it is recommended by concensus, that family planners communicate health and nutritional benefits for each individual child.

  5. Photoperiod as a proximate factor in control of seasonality in the subtropical male Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Namram S

    2011-01-01

    under long days suggesting that the two high energy demanding events of reproduction and molt are phased at two different times in the annual cycle of the bird and are photoperiodically regulated. Results of the final experiment involving exposure of photosensitive birds to a variety of photoperiodic treatments (9L/15D, 10L/14D, 11L/13D, 12L/12D, 14L/10D and 16L/8D for 30 days suggested that the light falling for 11 h or more is important in inducing testicular growth and function in this species. Conclusion These results clearly indicate that despite of small photofluctuation, subtropical tree sparrows are capable of fine discrimination of photoperiodic information and use day length as a proximate environmental factor to time their seasonal responses similar to their conspecifics and related species at other latitudes suggesting the conservation of photoperiodic control mechanism in them.

  6. Photoperiod as a proximate factor in control of seasonality in the subtropical male Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2011-01-11

    high energy demanding events of reproduction and molt are phased at two different times in the annual cycle of the bird and are photoperiodically regulated. Results of the final experiment involving exposure of photosensitive birds to a variety of photoperiodic treatments (9L/15D, 10L/14D, 11L/13D, 12L/12D, 14L/10D and 16L/8D) for 30 days suggested that the light falling for 11 h or more is important in inducing testicular growth and function in this species. These results clearly indicate that despite of small photofluctuation, subtropical tree sparrows are capable of fine discrimination of photoperiodic information and use day length as a proximate environmental factor to time their seasonal responses similar to their conspecifics and related species at other latitudes suggesting the conservation of photoperiodic control mechanism in them.

  7. Familial influences on conduct disorder reflect 2 genetic factors and 1 shared environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Population-based twin registry. Virginia. Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environmental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single nonshared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators.

  8. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  9. Proximity as a key factor to narrow the relationship between supplier and its customer – a case study in the auto industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Yukio Takeno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Themodern literature shows that the Just in Time (JIT utilization in therelationship between client and its supplier aims at optimizing the flow in thesupply chain. Nevertheless, there are other aspects to be considered for thefull utilization of the lean supply practices. Among those, the proximity triesto improve the liaison between the client and its provider of materials andcomponents as a possible response to an increasing competitiveness level. Toexplore this subject this work had the objective of evaluating the determinantfactors that could possibly explain the partial relocation of a manufacturingfacility to create proximity conditions with one of its clients. For thatpurpose, a case study was developed in which a Brazilian auto partsmanufacturing company belonging to the first tier of the automotive supplychain was considered. As a result of such study, it was possible to concludethat the strategic advantages resulting from the proximity overpassed theconventional reasoning of considering financial gains as a key factor tojustify such a decision. In fact, the cost savings obtained with the plant relocationwere not enough to justify the investment made.

  10. Individual, familial and extra-familial factors associated with premarital sex among Bangladeshi male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Boulay, Marc

    2010-12-01

    A national survey found that more than one-tenth of unmarried Bangladeshi adolescents were sexually experienced and much of this experience involves high-risk behaviours such as unprotected sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers. However, very few studies have explored the factors that contribute to premarital sex among Bangladeshi adolescents. Data are from the 2004 Adolescent Reproductive Health Communication Midline Survey, a national survey in Bangladesh. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to identify risk and protective factors for premarital sex among Bangladeshi male adolescents. Among 1048 unmarried males between ages of 15 and 19 years, 12.8% reported ever having had sex. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that, in terms of the self system, having plans to study in the future were associated with a lower risk of engaging in premarital sex (odds ratio (OR) = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.25-0.59) while knowledge of reproductive health and life skills did not have a strong influence. Strong influences of both familial and extra-familial system were observed. Respect for parents' values and beliefs about sex was associated with decreased odds of premarital sex (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.26-0.59). 'Ever talked with friends about sex-related issues' was associated with threefold increased odds and an increase in peer influence score was associated with increased odds of premarital sex. These results demonstrate that premarital sex among Bangladeshi male adolescents was influenced by numerous factors, and they should be taken into account in programs aiming to delay the age of sexual debut.

  11. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  12. Family doctors' problems and motivating factors in management of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalda Ruth

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a frequent psychiatric disorder, and depressive patient may be more problematic for the family doctors (FD than a patient suffering from a somatic disease. Treatment of patients with depressive disorders is a relatively new task for Estonian FDs. The aim of our study was to find out the family doctors' attitudes to depression related problems, their readiness, motivating factors and problems in the treatment of depressive patients as well as the existence of relevant knowledge. Methods In 2002, altogether 500 FDs in Estonia were invited to take part in a tailor-made questionnaire survey, of which 205 agreed to participate. Results Of the respondents 185(90% considered management of depressive patients and their treatment to be the task of FDs. One hundred and eighty FDs (88% were themselves ready to deal with depressed patients, and 200(98% of them actually treated such patients. Commitment to the interests of the patients, better cooperation with successfully treated patients, the patients' higher confidence in FDs and disappearance of somatic complaints during the treatment of depression were the motivating factors for FDs. FDs listed several important problems interfering with their work with depressive patients: limited time for one patient, patients' attitudes towards the diagnosis of depression, doctors' difficulties to change the underlying causes of depression, discontinuation of the treatment due to high expenses and length. Although 115(56% respondents maintained that they had sufficient knowledge for diagnostics and treatment of depression, 181(88% were of the opinion that they needed additional training. Conclusion FDs are ready to manage patients who might suffer from depression and are motivated by good doctor-patient relationship. However, majority of them feel that they need additional training.

  13. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  14. Human ciliary neurotrophic factor: Localization to the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 11 and association with CA/GT dinucleotide repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev, A.A.; Rosen, D.R.; Kos, C.; Brown, R.H. Jr.; Clifford, E.; Landes, G.; Hauser, S.L.

    1993-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes survival and differentiation of several types of sensory, motor, sympathetic, and parasympathetic neurons. The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify, clone, and partially sequence CNTF cDNA from human muscle. Using a rodent-human mapping panel and fluorescence in situ hybridization, they have localized a single copy of the gene for human CNTF to the proximal long arm of chromosome 11. They have also identified a polymorphic tandem CA/GT dinucleotide repeat associated with the human CNTF gene. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  16. Growth Factors Outside the PDGF Family Drive Experimental PVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hetian; Velez, Gisela; Hovland, Peter; Hirose, Tatsuo; Gilbertson, Debra; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a recurring and problematic disease for which there is no pharmacologic treatment. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the vitreous is associated with experimental and clinical PVR. Furthermore, PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) are present and activated in epiretinal membranes of patient donors, and they are essential for experimental PVR. These observations suggest that PVR arises at least in part from PDGF/PDGFR-driven events. The goal of this study was to determine whether PDGFs were a potential therapeutic target for PVR. Methods Experimental PVR was induced in rabbits by injecting fibroblasts. Vitreous specimens were collected from experimental rabbits or from patients undergoing vitrectomy to repair retinal detachment. A neutralizing PDGF antibody and a PDGF Trap were tested for their ability to prevent experimental PVR. Activation of PDGFR was monitored by antiphosphotyrosine Western blot analysis of immunoprecipitated PDGFRs. Contraction of collagen gels was monitored in vitro. Results Neutralizing vitreal PDGFs did not effectively attenuate PVR, even though the reagents used potently blocked PDGF-dependent activation of the PDGF α receptor (PDGFRα). Vitreal growth factors outside the PDGF family modestly activated PDGFRα and appeared to do so without engaging the ligand-binding domain of PDGFRα. This indirect route to activate PDGFRα had profound functional consequences. It promoted the contraction of collagen gels and appeared sufficient to drive experimental PVR. Conclusions Although PDGF appears to be a poor therapeutic target, PDGFRα is particularly attractive because it can be activated by a much larger spectrum of vitreal growth factors than previously appreciated. PMID:19324843

  17. Continued importance of family factors in youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2012-12-01

    Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent-adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 - T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p < .05). Separate models by race/ethnicity showed the protective effect of increased perceived punishment in all racial/ethnic groups and protection against initiation by increased parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups.

  18. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  19. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1 Alpha) Is Induced during Reperfusion after Renal Ischemia and Is Critical for Proximal Tubule Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Sánchez, Ignacio; Sáenz-Morales, David; Aguado-Fraile, Elia; Ponte, Belén; Ramos, Edurne; Sáiz, Ana; Jiménez, Carlos; Ordoñez, Angel; López-Cabrera, Manuel; del Peso, Luis; de Landázuri, Manuel O.; Liaño, Fernando; Selgas, Rafael; Sanchez-Tomero, Jose Antonio; García-Bermejo, María Laura

    2012-01-01

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α), using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant. PMID:22432008

  20. Hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha is induced during reperfusion after renal ischemia and is critical for proximal tubule cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conde

    Full Text Available Acute tubular necrosis (ATN caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α, using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant.

  1. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  2. miR-127 protects proximal tubule cells against ischemia/reperfusion: identification of kinesin family member 3B as miR-127 target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguado-Fraile, E.; Ramos, E.; Saenz-Morales, D.; Conde, E.; Blanco-Sanchez, I.; Stamatakis, K.; del Peso, L.; Cuppen, E.; Brune, B.; Bermejo, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is at the basis of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury. Molecular mechanisms underlying proximal tubule response to I/R will allow the identification of new therapeutic targets for both clinical settings. microRNAs have emerged as crucial and tight regulators of

  3. The entire miR-200 seed family is strongly deregulated in clear cell renal cell cancer compared to the proximal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duns, Gerben; van den Berg, Anke; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; van Duivenbode, Inge; Giezen, Cor; Kluiver, Joost; van Goor, Harry; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; van den Berg, Eva; Kok, Klaas

    Despite numerous studies reporting deregulated microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression patterns in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), no direct comparisons have been made to its presumed normal counterpart: the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The aim of this study was to

  4. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  5. Phosphorylated Akt Expression as a Favorable Prognostic Factor for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection and Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Proximal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Kyubo; Min, Hye Sook; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue; Jang, Ja-June; Ha, Sung W

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and total phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expressions in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for proximal extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Sixty-three patients with proximal EHBD cancer who underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant CRT were enrolled into this study. Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes up to a median of 40 Gy (range, 40 to 54 Gy). Fifty-nine patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer. p-Akt, p-mTOR, and PTEN expression were assessed with immunohistochemical staining on the tissue microarray. p-Akt, p-mTOR, and PTEN were expressed in 23 (36.5%), 17 (27.0%), and 24 patients (38.1%), respectively. p-Akt expression was associated with distant metastasis and overall survival (OS), but not with locoregional recurrence. The 5-year distant metastasis-free and OS rates were 25.8% versus 58.2% (P=0.007), and 27.5% versus 50.2% (P=0.0167) in patients with negative and positive expression, respectively. On multivariate analysis, nodal involvement was the only significant prognosticator predicting inferior distant metastasis-free survival (P=0.0105), whereas p-Akt expression had a borderline significance (P=0.0541). As for OS, p-Akt expression was a marginally significant prognosticator (P=0.0635), whereas other risk factors lost the statistical significance. p-Akt expression tended to be associated with a favorable prognosis in patients undergoing curative resection followed by adjuvant CRT for proximal EHBD cancer.

  6. Factors affecting perceptions of family function in caregivers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Yuan; Clark, Mary-Jo; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Liu, Yea-Ying; Chang, Chiung-Ying

    2014-09-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. ADHD has been shown to persist into adulthood in 30%-70% of cases. The long-term and escalating nature of ADHD creates an increasing burden on families because of the influence of hyperactivity and impulsivity on academic achievement and social interaction. There is a lack of information on factors influencing function in the families of children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to test theoretically derived relationships among family demographic characteristics; family factors such as support, hardiness, and caregiver health; and family-functioning outcomes. This study used a cross-sectional study and structural equation modeling approach. A self-report questionnaire collected information from 122 caregivers on demographics, income, employment, and marital status data as well as on personal health, family support, family hardiness, and family function statuses as determined, respectively, using the Duke Health Profile, Family APGAR score, Family Hardiness Index, and Family Assessment Device. Structural equation modeling provided a reasonable fit to the data using AMOS (χ = .249, df = 1, p = .613, minimum discrepancy C = .249), goodness-of-fit index (.999), adjusted goodness of fit index (.990), normed fit index (.999), comparative fit index (1.0), and root mean square error of approximation (.000). Results indicated a 55.6% probability of becoming the construct model, with family hardiness and family support directly affecting family function and caregiver health. Family support functioned as a mediator in the relationship between family hardiness and family function. The findings of this study help nurses improve professional assessments and interventions for families of children with ADHD by highlighting the importance of increased family support, promoting family hardiness, and promoting caregivers' health to improved family function.

  7. hypoxia-inducible factors activate CD133 promoter through ETS family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available CD133 is a cellular surface protein that has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker, and thus it is considered to be a potential target for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism regulating CD133 expression is not yet understood. In this study, we analyzed the activity of five putative promoters (P1-P5 of CD133 in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells and colon cancer cell line WiDr, and found that the activity of promoters, particularly of P5, is elevated by overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Deletion and mutation analysis identified one of the two E-twenty six (ETS binding sites (EBSs in the P5 region as being essential for its promoter activity induced by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a chromatin imunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α and HIF-2α bind to the proximal P5 promoter at the EBSs. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that HIF-1α physically interacts with Elk1; however, HIF-2α did not bind to Elk1 or ETS1. Furthermore, knockdown of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α resulted in a reduction of CD133 expression in WiDr. Taken together, our results revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α activate CD133 promoter through ETS proteins.

  8. Modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Joon; Kim, Jong-Sung; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Samyong

    2014-05-01

    Higher caregiver burden is associated with poor quality of life among family caregivers. However, in Korea, very few studies have examined factors associated with caregiver burden. The present study investigated factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients, particularly modifiable factors as a potential target of intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was performed. Sixty-four family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients who were admitted to the hospice-palliative care unit of a university hospital in South Korea were included. To identify caregiver burden, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment scale (CRA) was used in this study. Time spent in providing care per day, number of visits per week from other family members, family functioning, and a positive subscale, self-esteem, of the CRA were deemed as modifiable factors. Other sociodemographic, caregiving characteristics of the subjects were non-modifiable factors. Longer time spent providing care per day, fewer weekly visits from other family members, poor family functioning, and low self-esteem were considered as modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden. Low monthly income and the spouse being the family caregiver were non-modifiable factors. Our study has practical significance in that it identifies modifiable factors that can be used to devise intervention strategies. Developing and applying such intervention strategies for alleviating the factors associated with high caregiver burden could be important for improving the quality of life of both patients and their families.

  9. Sex differences in factors contributing to family-to-work and work-to-family conflict in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuko; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    As the number of dual-earner couples in Japan has increased, work-life balance has become important. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to work-family conflict. The participants included 3,594 (2,332 men and 1,262 women) civil servants aged 20-59 working for local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether work, family, or lifestyle characteristics were associated with work-family conflict. For men, family-to-work conflict was associated with being elderly, having low-grade employment, working long hours, raising children, and sleeping shorter hours. For women, being married and raising children were strong determinants of family-to-work conflict, and being middle-aged, working long hours, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with this type of conflict. Regarding work-to-family conflict, working long hours was the strongest determinant of conflict in both sexes. In men, being elderly, living with family, eating dinner late, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with work-to-family conflict. In women, having high-grade employment, being married, raising children, and eating dinner late were associated with work-to-family conflict. This study showed that working long hours was the primary determinant of work-to-family conflict in both sexes and that being married and raising children were strong factors of family-to-work conflict in women only. Sex differences may reflect divergence of the social and domestic roles of men and women in Japanese society. To improve the work-life balance, general and sex-specific health policies may be required.

  10. Can positive family factors be protective against the development of psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, Ana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Ibáñez, Berta; Otero-Cuesta, Soraya; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Graell-Berna, Montserrat; Ugarte, Amaia; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Soutullo, Cesar; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-03-30

    Genetic and environmental factors are both involved in the aetiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess if positive and negative environmental factors, together with psychotic family antecedents, are associated with the recent development of psychosis. We also investigated the interactions between family history of psychosis and positive and negative family environment. The sample comprised 110 children and adolescents, who had suffered a first psychotic episode and 98 healthy controls. All subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic status, family history of psychosis and family environment (Family Environment Scale, FES). Early onset psychosis was significantly associated with a family history of psychosis. Family environment was perceived as more negative and less positive among patients than among controls. A negative family environment increased the risk of psychosis independently of the family history of psychosis. However, there was a significant protective effect of a positive family environment for persons with a family history of psychosis. This effect was not seen in subjects without a family history of psychosis. Therefore, our results support the importance of considering both family history of psychosis and family environment in the early stages of psychosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological Factors of Familial Alcoholism in American Indians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Saumty, Deborah; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated within-group differences for Indians with (N=28) and without (N=32) familial history of alcoholism; and assessed cross-cultural differences for Indian (N=31) and Caucasian (N=39) social drinkers with a familial history of alcoholism. Results showed no psychological functioning differences between the Indian groups, but cross-cultural…

  12. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinerson, Charles I; Scully, Erin D; Palmer, Nathan A; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Shen, Qingxi J; Sattler, Scott E; Rohila, Jai S; Sarath, Gautam; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-11-09

    Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the switchgrass genome were identified and curated using manual and bioinformatic methods. Expression profiles of WRKY genes in switchgrass flag leaf RNA-Seq datasets were analyzed using clustering and network analyses tools to identify both WRKY and WRKY-associated gene co-expression networks during leaf development and senescence onset. We identified 240 switchgrass WRKY genes including members of the RW5 and RW6 families of resistance proteins. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of the flag leaf transcriptomes across development readily separated clusters of co-expressed genes into thirteen modules. A visualization highlighted separation of modules associated with the early and senescence-onset phases of flag leaf growth. The senescence-associated module contained 3000 genes including 23 WRKYs. Putative promoter regions of senescence-associated WRKY genes contained several cis-element-like sequences suggestive of responsiveness to both senescence and stress signaling pathways. A phylogenetic comparison of senescence-associated WRKY genes from switchgrass flag leaf with senescence-associated WRKY genes from other plants revealed notable hotspots in Group I, IIb, and IIe of the phylogenetic tree. We have identified and named 240 WRKY genes in the switchgrass genome. Twenty three of these genes show elevated mRNA levels during the onset of flag leaf senescence. Eleven of the WRKY genes were found in hotspots of related senescence-associated genes from multiple species and thus represent promising targets for future switchgrass genetic improvement. Overall, individual WRKY gene expression profiles could be readily linked to developmental stages of flag leaves.

  13. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  14. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  15. [Trefoil factor family gene and peptide expression in pterygium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, P-O; Arnal, M; Buron, N; Solary, E; Lizard, S; Bron, A; Bara, J; Gespach, C; Creuzot-Garcher, C

    2003-12-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides (formerly P-domain peptides; trefoil factor) are small (7-12 kDa) protease-resistant secreted peptides designated pS2 (or TFF1), SP (TFF2) and ITF (TFF3). Human conjunctival goblet cells (GCs) are known to synthesize TFF, but TFF expression by these cells has not been studied in pathological conditions. We quantified trefoil factor family (TFF) gene transcripts in pterygium, and we immunolocalized TFF protein. Eleven pterygium specimens were studied, together with 19 biopsy specimens of normal human conjunctiva as controls. TFF1 (pS2), TFF2 (spasmolytic peptide) and TFF3 (intestinal trefoil factor) mRNA expression was semiquantified by means of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-PCR). TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA levels were determined individually, relative to beta2 microglobulin housekeeping gene mRNA (internal standard), by coamplification of the target fragments and beta2 microglobulin in the same tube. Five pterygia and five normal human conjunctival biopsy specimens were also analyzed for TFF1 and mucin (MUC5AC) protein expression by immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies. Anti-PS2 (Zymed Laboratories, San Francisco), a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the 30 C-terminal amino acids of human TFF1, and P2802 (provided by Doctor Marie-Christine Rio, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM, Strasbourg, France), a mouse MAb directed against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the last 28 amino acids of TFF1, were used at 1/20 dilution. A mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the peptidic core of gastric M1 mucin was used as previously described. M1 immunoreactivity is encoded by the MUC5AC gene. TFF1 and TFF3 mRNA was expressed in all normal conjunctival and pterygium specimens. TFF2 mRNA was not expressed by either sample type, but was expressed by the positive control (human stomach cDNA). TFF1 mRNA expression was stronger in pterygium than in

  16. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  17. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF transcription factor family expansion, diversification, divergence and selection in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie M Graham

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF transcription factors are crucial for regulating a variety of cellular activities in response to oxygen stress (hypoxia. In this study, we determine the evolutionary history of HIF genes and their associated transactivation domains, as well as perform selection and functional divergence analyses across their four characteristic domains. Here we show that the HIF genes are restricted to metazoans: At least one HIF-α homolog is found within the genomes of non-bilaterians and bilaterian invertebrates, while most vertebrate genomes contain between two and six HIF-α genes. We also find widespread purifying selection across all four characteristic domain types, bHLH, PAS, NTAD, CTAD, in HIF-α genes, and evidence for Type I functional divergence between HIF-1α, HIF-2α /EPAS, and invertebrate HIF genes. Overall, we describe the evolutionary histories of the HIF transcription factor gene family and its associated transactivation domains in eukaryotes. We show that the NTAD and CTAD domains appear de novo, without any appearance outside of the HIF-α subunits. Although they both appear in invertebrates as well as vertebrate HIF- α sequences, there seems to have been a substantial loss across invertebrates or were convergently acquired in these few lineages. We reaffirm that HIF-1α is phylogenetically conserved among most metazoans, whereas HIF-2α appeared later. Overall, our findings can be attributed to the substantial integration of this transcription factor family into the critical tasks associated with maintenance of oxygen homeostasis and vascularization, particularly in the vertebrate lineage.

  18. Family factors and school performance: a multidimensional approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Teresa Gonzaga Alves; Maria Alice Nogueira; Claudio Marques Martins Nogueira; Tânia De Freitas Resende

    2013-01-01

      The article presents the results of a survey on family conditions and dynamics and their influence on children's performance in public and private primary schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil...

  19. What Predicts Adolescent Delinquent Behavior in Hong Kong? A Longitudinal Study of Personal and Family Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Using four waves of data from Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 ( N  = 3328 students at Wave 1), this study examined the development of delinquent behavior and its relationships with economic disadvantage, family non-intactness, family quality of life (i.e., family functioning) and personal well-being (i.e., positive youth development) among Hong Kong adolescents. Individual growth curve models revealed that delinquent behavior increased during this period, and adolescents living in non-intact families (vs. intact families) reported higher initial levels of delinquent behavior while those living in poor families (vs. non-poor families) showed a greater increase in delinquent behavior. In addition, with the demographic factors controlled, the initial levels of family quality of life and personal well-being were negatively associated with the initial level of delinquent behavior, but positively associated with the growth rate of delinquent behavior. Regression analyses showed that family quality of life and personal well-being were related to the overall delinquent behavior concurrently at Wave 4. However, Wave 1 family quality of life and personal well-being did not predict Wave 4 delinquent behavior with the initial level of delinquent behavior controlled. Lastly, we discussed the role of economic disadvantage and family non-intactness as risk factors and family functioning and positive youth development as protective well-being factors in the development of adolescent well-being indexed by delinquent behavior.

  20. Children's loneliness, sense of coherence, family climate, and hope: developmental risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Adi; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the contributions of individual and familial variables for the prediction of loneliness as a developmental risk and the sense of coherence as a protective factor. The sample consisted of 287 children from grades 5-6. Their loneliness, sense of coherence, hope, effort, and family climate were assessed. Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family cohesion and children's hope contributed to the explanation of the risk and protective outcomes. Yet, the contribution of the family adaptability was not significant. Cluster analysis of the family climate dimensions (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) was performed to clarify the interactive roles of family adaptability together with family cohesion. The authors identified 4 separate family profiles: Children in the 2 cohesive families' clusters (Cohesive Structured Families and Cohesive Adaptable Families) reported the lowest levels of loneliness and the highest levels of personal strengths. Children within rigid and noncohesive family cluster reported the highest levels of loneliness and the lowest levels of children's sense of coherence. The unique role of the family flexibility within nonsupportive family systems was demonstrated. The results further clarified the unique profiles' characteristics of the different family clusters and their adjustment indexes in terms of loneliness and personal strengths.

  1. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Kask; Anna Markina; Zuzana Podana

    2013-01-01

    In Europe use of alcohol by adolescents is a large and increasing problem. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of family factors such as structure, social control, affluence, and negative life events on adolescents' risky alcohol use. Data on alcohol use and family factors were obtained from the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2). Using multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense ...

  2. Family Factors and Primary Students' Reading Attainment: A Chinese Community Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hwa Wei; Chan, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' reading attainment scores and key family environmental factors in Chinese and non-Chinese communities. Six family environmental factors were considered: parents' evaluation of their offspring's early literacy skills, early home literacy activities (EHLA), reading activities involving parents…

  3. Evaluation of the factors that ensure long-term sustainability of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . A comprehensive questionnaire was used to analyse 12 factors and 41 sub factors in family farms in South Africa. A total of 205 questionnaires of 31 family farms were gathered and used for the statistical analysis. Results show that the ...

  4. Psychological Factors Explaining the Referral Behavior of Iranian Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by

  5. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak. Using longitudinal data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the China Family Panel Studies, we focus on the effects of marital status at times 1 and 2, changes in marital status between the two surveys, and other family-related indicators of social connectedness on ratings of depression, levels of life satisfaction, and self-reported physical health among those aged 50 and over. Our sample includes 9831 respondents who have valid data on wellbeing indicators for Wave 1 and Wave 2, as well as complete information on the other covariates controlled in our analysis. In analyses of the full sample, those who were married at both points in time reported lower depression scores than those who were never-married, divorced, or widowed at both time points, and those whose unions dissolved in the interval. Those who were married at both times also generally reported greater levels of life satisfaction than those who were never married at both time points and those who became divorced during the interval. Important underlying gender differences are observed both for life satisfaction and depression. In addition, those who were married at both time points reported being in better physical health than those who became widowed during the interval (significant primarily for women, and those who had never been married (significant primarily for men. Our study contributes to the literature on social

  6. Keeping the golden mean: plant stiffness and anatomy as proximal factors driving endophytic oviposition site selection in a dragonfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matushkina, Natalia; Lambret, Philippe; Gorb, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Oviposition site selection is a crucial component of habitat selection in dragonflies. The presence of appropriate oviposition plants at breeding waters is considered to be one of the key habitat determinants for species laying eggs endophytically. Thus, Lestes macrostigma, a species which is regarded as threatened in Europe because of its highly disjunct distribution, typically prefers to lay eggs in the sea club rush Bolboschoenus maritimus. However, little is known about how the anatomical and mechanical properties of plant tissues determine the choice of L. macrostigma females. We examined green shoots of six plant species used by L. macrostigma for oviposition, either in the field (actual oviposition plants) or under experimental conditions (potential oviposition plants), to analyse anatomical and mechanical properties of shoots in a framework of known preferences regarding plant substrates for oviposition. As expected, the anatomy of shoots differed between representatives of two plant families, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, most essentially in the distribution of supporting bundles and the presence of large aeriferous cavities that may affect egg placing within a shoot. The force necessary to puncture the tested plant samples ranged from 360 to 3298 mN, and their local stiffness ranged from 777 to 3363N/m. We show that the shoots of B. maritimus, the plant most preferred by L. macrostigma, have intermediate characteristics regarding both the stiffness and specific anatomical characteristics. The bending stiffness of the ovipositor in L. macrostigma was estimated as 1414N/m, one of the highest values recorded for zygopteran dragonflies so far. The ecological and behavioural implications of plant choice mechanisms in L. macrostigma are discussed in the context of the disjunct distribution of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina; Svanellini, Lorenza; Peraro, Chiara; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i) comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii) observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii) assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05) and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10). Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  8. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gatta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05 and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10. Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  9. Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Angela; Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Joosten, Annette; Parsons, Dave; Smith, Cally; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2017-06-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with severe stress in families raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Questionnaires were mailed to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of ASD. Data from 543 surveys were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Forty-four percent (n = 241) of the caregivers reported severe family stress related to raising a child with ASD. Severe family stress was associated with (1) reduced ability to socialize; (2) not having accessed individual therapy; (3) negative co-parent relationships; and (4) high out of pockets costs due to the child's ASD. The specific ASD diagnosis, comorbid conditions, socio-demographic variables, and social support were not associated with severe family stress. The findings of the current study highlight the importance of a systemic approach to family stress, whereby individual, family, and ecological factors are investigated.

  10. [The family dysfunction as a risk factor of obesity in Mexican school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rico, José Luis; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    it has been demonstrated that children obesity is a multifactorial disease and probably, the alteration of the family dynamic is another potential risk factor. The objective was to identify the association between obesity and family dysfunction in school children who attend to a family medicine unit. case and control study at Mexican Social Security Institute in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Sociodemographic factors and family dynamic of obese and non-obese subjects (n = 452) of six to nine years old from nuclear families were achieved. the association between family dysfunction and obesity was [OR = 1.63 (1.08-2.46), p = 0.01]. Area II, Identity formation, and area VI, Discipline and methods, showed a lower score in cases of children with obesity (p obesity in school children. the results showed an association between family dysfunction and obesity in school children. We suggest to consider it in the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children.

  11. Family obligation values and family assistance behaviors: protective and risk factors for Mexican-American adolescents' substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent substance use is one of today's most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family.

  12. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2016-02-01

    Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU) care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b) family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Meaningful explanation and frequency of meetings; (d) decision-making: Shared decision-making; (e) end of life care support: Support during foregoing life-sustaining interventions and staggered withdrawal of life support; (f) ICU environment: Flexibility of visiting hours and safe hospital environment; and (g) other factors: Control of pain and physical symptoms, palliative care consultation, and family-centered care. Factors that negatively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Incomplete information and unable to interpret information provided; (b) family support: Lack of emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Conflicts and short family meetings; (d) end of life care support: Resuscitation at end of life, mechanical ventilation on day of death, ICU death of an elderly, prolonged use of life-sustaining treatment, and unfamiliar technology; and (e) ICU environment: Restrictive visitation policies and families denied access to see the dying loved ones. Families of the patients admitted to ICU value respect, compassion, empathy, communication, involvement in decision-making, pain and symptom relief, avoiding futile medical interventions, and dignified end of life care.

  13. Case-related factors affecting cutting errors of the proximal tibia in total knee arthroplasty assessed by computer navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu; Yoshino, Kensuke; Suzuki, Mashiko

    2016-12-22

    The aim of this study was to determine factors that contribute to bone cutting errors of conventional instrumentation for tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as assessed by an image-free navigation system. The hypothesis is that preoperative varus alignment is a significant contributory factor to tibial bone cutting errors. This was a prospective study of a consecutive series of 72 TKAs. The amount of the tibial first-cut errors with reference to the planned cutting plane in both coronal and sagittal planes was measured by an image-free computer navigation system. Multiple regression models were developed with the amount of tibial cutting error in the coronal and sagittal planes as dependent variables and sex, age, disease, height, body mass index, preoperative alignment, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio) and preoperative flexion angle as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that sex (male gender) (R = 0.25 p = 0.047) and preoperative varus alignment (R = 0.42, p = 0.001) were positively associated with varus tibial cutting errors in the coronal plane. In the sagittal plane, none of the independent variables was significant. When performing TKA in varus deformity, careful confirmation of the bone cutting surface should be performed to avoid varus alignment. The results of this study suggest technical considerations that can help a surgeon achieve more accurate component placement. IV.

  14. Emotional well-being in children with epilepsy: Family factors as mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Shane W; Wilk, Piotr; Karen Campbell, M; Speechley, Kathy N

    2017-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationships of factors associated with children's emotional well-being 2 years after diagnosis, and to examine if these relationships are mediated or moderated by family factors. Data came from a multicenter prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy from across Canada (Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study; HERQULES, n = 373). Emotional well-being was assessed using the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55). The relationships between clinical factors, family factors, and emotional well-being were assessed using multiple regression analyses. Family functioning, family stress, and repertoire of resources that the families had to adapt to stressful events were significantly associated with poor emotional well-being 2 years after diagnosis (p < 0.05) in the multivariable analysis. The effect of parental depressive symptoms was partially mediated by family functioning and family stress (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Family resources acted as a moderator in the relationship between severity of epilepsy and emotional well-being (p < 0.05). Based on our findings, efforts to strengthen the family environment may warrant attention. We suggest that clinicians take a family centered care approach by including families in treatment planning. Family centered care has been shown to improve family well-being and coping and in turn may reduce the impact of clinical factors on emotional well-being to improve long-term health-related quality of life. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  16. Family Support and Other Social Factors Precipitating Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson; Ellis, Jon B.

    The dramatic increase in suicide in the past 30 years, especially among young people ages 15 to 24, has prompted numerous investigations into its cause. Research on suicidal ideation involving college students shows that this population may be especially at risk and this paper examines the effects of the college environment, family support, and…

  17. GATA family of transcription factors of vertebrates: phylogenetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the evolutionary history of the GATA family has not been completely understood. We constructed a complete phylogenetic tree with functional domain information of the GATA genes of both vertebrates and several invertebrates, and mapped the GATA genes onto relevant chromosomes. Conserved synteny was ...

  18. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J.J.; Meerwaldt, J.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative

  19. Factors Associated with Couples and Family Therapy Students' Racial Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Kimberly Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to Couples and Family Therapists (CFT) being able to confront issues of race and racism with their clients. Current CFT literature has used qualitative methods to conclude that when strategies focused on issues of race and racism are competently incorporated across several domains of CFT education and…

  20. Factors Affecting Unmet Need for Family Planning In Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2,133 currently married women age 15-49 from the 2000 survey and 1,988 ... respondent's education, knowledge of family planning, respondent's work status, ... On the other hand, number of living children, education, age and age at ...

  1. Factors Associated With the Perception of Family Nursing Practice Among Mental Health Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced the perceptions of mental health nurses about involving families in their nursing practice. A sample of 175 Taiwanese mental health nurses who are employed in both inpatient and community settings completed structured questionnaires designed to measure empathy, attitudes about involving families in care, and perceptions of family nursing practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way ANOVA, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Positive perceptions of family nursing practice were correlated with more years of clinical experience in mental health, empathy, supportive attitudes toward the importance of family nursing care, and personal experiences with family members with serious illness in need of professional care. These findings may assist in the development of effective educational programs designed to help nurses integrate family nursing knowledge and skills in the care of patients and families experiencing mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  3. The membrane-proximal intermolecular disulfide bonds in glycoprotein Ib influence receptor binding to von Willebrand factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, X; Luo, S-Z; Munday, A D; Sun, W; Berndt, M C; López, J A; Dong, J-F; Li, R

    2008-10-01

    In the platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex, the binding site for its ligand von Willebrand factor (VWF) is restricted to the N-terminal domain of the GPIbalpha subunit. How the other subunits in the complex, GPIbbeta and GPIX, regulate the GPIbalpha-VWF interaction is not clear. As GPIbalpha connects with two GPIbbeta subunits via disulfide bonds, we tested whether these intersubunit covalent links were important to the proper VWF-binding activity of the GPIb-IX complex by characterizing the structure and VWF-binding activity of a mutant GPIb-IX complex that lacked the GPIbalpha-GPIbbeta disulfide bonds. Mutating both Cys484 and Cys485 of GPIbalpha to serine prevents GPIbalpha from forming covalent disulfide bonds with GPIbbeta, while maintaining the integrity of the complex in the membrane. The mutations cause two GPIbbeta subunits to form a disulfide bond between themselves. As compared to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the wild-type GPIb-IX complex at a comparable level, CHO cells stably expressing the mutant GPIb-IX complex bind to significantly less soluble VWF in the presence of ristocetin and roll on the immobilized VWF under flow at a higher velocity. The disulfide bonds between GPIbalpha and GPIbbeta are necessary for optimal GPIbalpha binding to VWF. The structural plasticity around the disulfide bonds may also help to shed light on the inside-out mechanism underlying GPIbbeta modulation of VWF binding.

  4. [Genome-wide analysis and functional prediction of the Trihelix transcription factor family in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian-hui; Zhou, Ying-jun; Wu, He-he; Yang, Li-ming

    2015-12-01

    The Trihelix transcription factor family plays an essential role in plant growth, development and stress response. However, the studies about identification and analysis of this gene family in rice on the genome-wide level have not been reported. In this study, 31 members of the Trihelix family, which contain highly conserved and characteristic trihelix domain through sequence clustering and functional domains analysis, were identified in rice genome database using bioinformatic tools. These members could be classified into 5 subfamilies (I~V) based on the evolutionary relationship and domain characteristics. Clustering analyses of the Trihelix family in rice, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium distachyom and Sorghum bicolor showed that each species contained different members of subfamily although the classification of the Trihelix family were consistent in these four species, which indicated that the differentiation of the Trihelix gene family occur earlier than that of these species. The conserved motifs in the Trihelix family of rice analyzed using the MEME program were highly consistent with the results of clustering analyses. Intraspecific and interspecific chromosomal replication in partial Trihelix family members were found to exist in rice and between rice and other species through chromosome replication analysis. Microarray data analysis revealed diverse expression patterns of Trihelix family genes in different tissues of rice or in response to six different phytohormones. Moreover, 20 members of the Trihelix transcription factor family were found to interact with other proteins in rice using RiceFRIEND online database analysis. Therefore, our results preliminarily identified the evolution, chromosome distribution and replication, expression patterns, phytohormones response of the Trihelix transcription factor family and the interaction between trihelix family proteins and other proteins in rice, which will provide a basis to further reveal the molecular evolution

  5. [A study on the related factors of the wellbeing of family caregivers in elderly with stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon Hwan; Yu, Su Jeong; Kim, Shin Mi; Lee, Yun Jung

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors related to the wellbeing of the family caregivers of the elderly with a stroke. The subjects of this study were 199 elderly treated in four oriental hospitals in Korea, and their primary family caregivers. The data was collected by interviews and a self-reported questionnaire, during the period from October, 2003 to April, 2004. The results of this study were as follows. The mean score of wellbeing of family caregivers was 60.6412.63. The factors related to wellbeing of family caregivers were sex, age, education, depression, illness severity, ADL, paralysis, and speech disability in elderly characteristics. Among family caregivers characteristics, education, relation, and burden were significantly related. In situational variables, family income and the previous relationship between the elderly and family caregivers were related to wellbeing. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the most powerful predictor of wellbeing was the burden of family caregivers. A combination of the depression of elderly and age of family caregivers accounted for 50.3% of the variance of wellbeing. On developing the nursing intervention for improving wellbeing of family caregivers, many factors should be considered, especially caregiver burden, and elderly depression.

  6. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  8. Isolated Striatocapsular Infarcts after Endovascular Treatment of Acute Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: Prevalence, Enabling Factors, and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesmacher, Johannes; Huber, Thomas; Lehm, Manuel; Zimmer, Claus; Bernkopf, Kathleen; Wunderlich, Silke; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Manning, Nathan W; Kleine, Justus F

    2017-01-01

    Striatocapsular infarcts (SCIs) are defined as large subcortical infarcts involving the territory of more than one lenticulostriate artery. SCI without concomitant ischemia in the more distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory [isolated SCI (iSCI)] has been described as a rare infarct pattern. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of iSCI in patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy (ET), to evaluate baseline and procedural parameters associated with this condition, and to describe the clinical course of iSCI patients. A retrospective analysis of 206 consecutive patients with an isolated MCA occlusion involving the lenticulostriate arteries and treated with ET was performed. Baseline patient and procedural characteristics and ischemic involvement of the striatocapsular and distal MCA territory [iSCI, as opposed to non-isolated SCI (niSCI)] were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Prevalence of iSCI was assessed, and clinical course was determined with the rates of substantial neurological improvement and good functional short- and mid-term outcome (discharge/day 90 Modified Rankin Scale ≤2). iSCI was detected in 53 patients (25.7%), and niSCI was detected in 153 patients (74.3%). Successful reperfusion [thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b/3] [adjusted odds ration (aOR) 8.730, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.069-71.308] and good collaterals (aOR 2.100, 95% CI 1.119-3.944) were associated with iSCI. In successfully reperfused patients, TICI 3 was found to be an additional factor associated with iSCI (aOR 5.282, 1.759-15.859). Patients with iSCI had higher rates of substantial neurological improvement (71.7 vs. 37.9%, p < 0.001) and higher rates of good functional short- and mid-term outcome (58.3 vs. 23.7%, p < 0.001 and 71.4 vs. 41.7%, p < 0.001). However, while iSCI patients, in general, had a more favorable outcome, considerable heterogeneity in outcome was observed. High rates of successful

  9. Factors predicting perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia based on admission data in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    To examine factors predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), based on patient background, operative background and laboratory data obtained on admission, in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture. The participants were 152 patients (aged >70 years) who underwent surgery between 1 November 2012 and 31 March 2014. The participants were classified into group B (with onset of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD, n = 52), or group N, (without onset, n = 100), and risk factors were retrospectively examined. Onset was judged based on the presence or absence of common items; that is, "hallucination and delusion," "disturbing speech," "excitatory behavior" and "altered sleep-wake cycle." The participants were observed for 1 week after admission. The incidence of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD was 34.2% in total. In univariate analysis, the incidence was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in group B for the age, history of dementia and serum albumin level items. In multivariate analysis, history of dementia, serum albumin level and peripheral lymphocyte count (odds ratio 3.55, 0.17, 1.00, respectively) were identified as independent predictive factors. In the subanalysis, the incidence was 91.3% in the group with a history of dementia, serum albumin level <3.7 g/dL and peripheral lymphocyte count < 1200/μL. History of dementia, a low serum albumin level and low peripheral lymphocyte count were found to be useful factors for predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of BPSD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 821-828. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Incidence, risk factors, and natural course of proximal junctional kyphosis: surgical outcomes review of adult idiopathic scoliosis. Minimum 5 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Mitsuru; King, Akilah B; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba

    2012-08-01

    A retrospective case series of surgically treated patients with adult scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and natural course of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in a long-term follow-up of patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis undergoing long instrumented spinal fusion. Although recent reports have showed the prevalence, clinical outcomes, and the possible risk factors of PJK, quite a few reports have showed long-term follow-up outcome. This is a retrospective review of the charts and radiographs of 76 consecutive patients with adult scoliosis treated with long instrumented spinal fusion. Radiographical measurements and demographic data were reviewed on preoperation, immediate postoperation, 2 years postoperation, 5 years postoperation, and at follow-up. Postoperative Scoliosis Research Society scores and Oswestry Disability Index were also evaluated. Means were compared with Student t test. A P value of less than 0.05 with 95% confidence interval was considered significant. The mean age was 48.8 years (range, 23-75 yr) and the average follow-up was 7.3 years (range, 5-14 yr). PJK has been identified in 17 patients. The Scoliosis Research Society and Oswestry Disability Index did not demonstrate significant differences between PJK group and non-PJK group; 2 patients had additional surgeries performed for local pain. Seventy-six percent of PJK has been identified within 3 months after surgery. Despite the fact that 53% of total degree of PJK was progressed within 3 months after surgery, PJK continuously progressed to the final follow-up. Pre-existing low bone mineral density, posterior spinal fusion (PSF), fusion to sacrum, inappropriate global spine alignment, and greater sagittal vertical axis change were identified as significant risk factors for PJK (P = 0.04, P spine alignment, and greater sagittal vertical axis change were significant risk factors for PJK. Careful long-term follow-up should be done for a

  11. Isolated Striatocapsular Infarcts after Endovascular Treatment of Acute Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: Prevalence, Enabling Factors, and Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kaesmacher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStriatocapsular infarcts (SCIs are defined as large subcortical infarcts involving the territory of more than one lenticulostriate artery. SCI without concomitant ischemia in the more distal middle cerebral artery (MCA territory [isolated SCI (iSCI] has been described as a rare infarct pattern. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of iSCI in patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy (ET, to evaluate baseline and procedural parameters associated with this condition, and to describe the clinical course of iSCI patients.MethodsA retrospective analysis of 206 consecutive patients with an isolated MCA occlusion involving the lenticulostriate arteries and treated with ET was performed. Baseline patient and procedural characteristics and ischemic involvement of the striatocapsular and distal MCA territory [iSCI, as opposed to non-isolated SCI (niSCI] were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Prevalence of iSCI was assessed, and clinical course was determined with the rates of substantial neurological improvement and good functional short- and mid-term outcome (discharge/day 90 Modified Rankin Scale ≤2.ResultsiSCI was detected in 53 patients (25.7%, and niSCI was detected in 153 patients (74.3%. Successful reperfusion [thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI 2b/3] [adjusted odds ration (aOR 8.730, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.069–71.308] and good collaterals (aOR 2.100, 95% CI 1.119–3.944 were associated with iSCI. In successfully reperfused patients, TICI 3 was found to be an additional factor associated with iSCI (aOR 5.282, 1.759–15.859. Patients with iSCI had higher rates of substantial neurological improvement (71.7 vs. 37.9%, p < 0.001 and higher rates of good functional short- and mid-term outcome (58.3 vs. 23.7%, p < 0.001 and 71.4 vs. 41.7%, p < 0.001. However, while iSCI patients, in general, had a more favorable outcome, considerable heterogeneity in outcome was

  12. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  13. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualis...

  14. Neighborhood, Family, and Peer Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Christopher; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F; Guttmannova, Katarina; Hawkins, J David

    2018-02-01

    There is broad agreement that neighborhood contexts are important for adolescent development, but there is less consensus about their association with adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic contexts and smoking and alcohol use while also accounting for differences in family and peer risk factors for substance use. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced (female = 49%), multiethnic, theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of smoking and alcohol use from 5th to 9th grade. Time-varying measures of neighborhood socioeconomic, family, and peer factors were associated with smoking and alcohol use at each wave after accounting for average growth in smoking and alcohol use over time and demographic differences. Results indicated that living in more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, lower family income, lower family general functioning, more permissive family smoking environments, and affiliation with deviant peers were independently associated with increased smoking. Lower family functioning, more permissive family alcohol use environments, and deviant peers were independently associated with increased alcohol use. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on smoking was mediated by family income and deviant peers while the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on alcohol use was mediated by deviant peers alone. Family functioning and family substance use did not mediate associations between neighborhood disadvantage and smoking or alcohol use. The results highlight the importance of neighborhood, family, and peer factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Future studies should examine the unique association of neighborhood disadvantage with adolescent smoking net of family socioeconomics, functioning, and substance use, as well as peer affiliations. Better understanding of the

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Family Factors: Parenting Styles, Attachment Styles & Family Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    میرمحمدباقر آزادموسوی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.

  16. Factors associated with family-provider partnership among children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Knapp, Caprice

    2012-01-01

    Partnering between families and their children's providers is the cornerstone of family-centered care. The aims of this study are to (1) identify factors associated with family-provider partnership and (2) determine the association between partnership and other outcome measures for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using data on children with ADHD from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n=5,495), we utilized descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses to determine the impact of partnership on multiple health outcome measures. Children with more severe ADHD, children taking medication for ADHD, female children, Latino children, and families with increased strain were all more likely to report family-provider partnerships. Family-provider partnership was associated with fewer missed school days (16% less) and more preventive care visits (11% more) among children with ADHD. Family provider partnership is an important factor in the health care of children with ADHD. This relationship, along with other factors such as family strain, health insurance, gender, and racial/ethnic differences play a large role in a family's experience of their child's ADHD diagnosis.

  17. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly...

  18. The Arabidopsis Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Toledo-Ortiz; Enamul Huq; Peter H. Quail

    2003-01-01

    The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that bind as dimers to specific DNA target sites and that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes as important regulatory components...

  19. Factors affecting adolescents' use of family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, M; Eisman, S; Forrest, J D; Orr, M T; Torres, A

    1982-01-01

    Reports on a survey of family planning clinic and community characteristics in selected US counties where high and low proportions of adolescents obtain family planning services in clinics. In areas where large proportions of teenagers are served, clinics are more numerous, flexible, diverse, innovative, assertive and visible, have larger adolescent caseloads and provide more hours of service, have more varied funding and include more types of agencies. Parental consent or notification is less likely to be required, and other types of health services are more likely to be provided. Higher proportions of continuing adolescent clients, no charge for services, lack of formal appointments, and special outreach and follow-up programs and recruitment activities, are other characteristics of clinics in these areas. They also engender more support and more opposition. In areas where relatively small proportions of teenagers visit clinics, private physicians are less likely to prescribe contraceptives to minors on their own consent, pharmacists are less likely to display contraceptives openly, state laws and policies are more often silent or ambiguous about teenagers' rights and less often encourage teaching birth control in the schools.

  20. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  1. Family Factors Related to Children's Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivational Orientation and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Bronstein, Phyllis

    1993-01-01

    Examined familial factors in relation to 93 fifth-graders' motivational orientation and academic performance. High parental surveillance of homework; parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward; and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to children's extrinsic…

  2. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  3. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  4. A Multidimensional Study of School-Family-Community Partnership Involvement: School, School Counselor, and Training Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Julia A.; Griffin, Dana

    2010-01-01

    A multidimensional study examines both the dimensions of school counselors' involvement in school-family-community partnerships and the factors related to their involvement in partnerships. The School Counselor Involvement in Partnerships Survey was revised and its factor structure examined. Principal factor analyses revealed three dimensions of…

  5. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  6. Factors associated with school-aged children's body mass index in Korean American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-01

    To examine factors associated with children's body mass index and obesity-risk behaviours in Korean American families. Limited data are available about family factors related to overweight and obesity in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Convenient sampling was employed to recruit Korean American families in the Northeast of the United States between August 2014 and January 2015. Child, family and societal/demographic/community factors were measured with self-report questionnaires completed by mothers and children. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. Data were analyzed using mixed effects models incorporating within-group correlation in siblings. The sample included 170 Korean American children and 137 mothers. In bivariate analyses, more child screen time, number of children in the household, greater parental underestimation of child's weight and children's participation in the school lunch program were significantly associated with higher child body mass index. In multivariate analyses that included variables showing significant bivariate relationship, no variable was associated with child body mass index. There were no child, family and societal/demographic/community factors related to child body mass index in Korean American families in the multivariate analysis, which is contrary to research in other racial/ethnic groups. In bivariate analyses, there is evidence that some factors were significantly related to child body mass index. Further research is needed to understand the unique behavioural, social and cultural features that contribute to childhood obesity in Korean American families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  8. GATA family transcriptional factors: emerging suspects in hematologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juehua; Chen, Yi-Hua; Peterson, LoAnn C

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are zinc finger DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription during development and cell differentiation. The three important GATA transcription factors GATA1, GATA2 and GATA3 play essential roles in the development and maintenance of hematopoietic systems. GATA1 is required for the erythroid and megakaryocytic commitment during hematopoiesis. GATA2 is crucial for the proliferation and survival of early hematopoietic cells, and is also involved in lineage specific transcriptional regulation as the dynamic partner of GATA1. GATA3 plays an essential role in T lymphoid cell development and immune regulation. As a result, mutations in genes encoding the GATA transcription factors or alteration in the protein expression level or their function have been linked to a variety of human hematologic disorders. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge regarding the disrupted biologic function of GATA in various hematologic disorders.

  9. [Selected family socio-economic factors as predictors of peer violence among school children in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Magdalena; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Analyses concerning peer violence among girls and boys aged 13-17 years, in the context of socio- -economic characteristics of the family: family structure, parental employment status and perceived family wealth. Preliminary data from the recent HBSC studies conducted in 12 voivodeships in Poland in 2013 was used. The analyzes concerned 2300 students aged 13-17 years (45% boys) and focused on the following types of violence: being a perpetrator and a victim of bullying, participation in fights and cyberbullying. Chi-square test analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Significantly more boys than girls experienced bullying (28% vs. 22%) and was perpetrators of violence in the school (39% vs. 25%). The youth from single-parent families significantly more often than students from two-parent families, participated in fights and was the perpetrators of violence in the school. Being a perpetrator and a victim of violence concerned mostly students from poor families and boys, whose father was unemployed. The following risk factors was identified- among boys: low economic status of the family (victims of bullying) and single-parent family (victims of cyberbullying), father's unemployment (the perpetrator of bullying) and age 13-14 years (victims and perpetrators of bullying, participation in fights) and among girls: low economic status of the family (cyberbullying), mother's unemployment and age 13-14 years (victims of violence). The family socio-economic factors, gender and age determine the type and the prevalence of peer violence. Low economic status of the family and single-parent family increases the risk of experiencing violence. For the prevention of bullying the educational role of the father and his commitment to family budget are important.

  10. Family predictors of psychopathology in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contribution of epilepsy-related factors, proximal (parent-child relationship quality), distal (parental characteristics), and contextual (quality of other family relationships) family factors to psychopathology (both broad-band and narrow-band syndromes) in children with

  11. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  12. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  13. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  14. Religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family as factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) ranges from behaviours aiming to communicate distress or relieve tension, but where suicide is not intended, to suicide. Not all individuals are prone to DSH, which suggests that there are factors that protect against it. Identifying these could play an important role in the management ...

  15. Managing menorrhagia in a familial case of factor V deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnaker, M; Esquivel, P

    2015-02-01

    Factor V deficiency is a rare coagulation disorder. Excessive uterine bleeding is common in affected women. We describe a case of 2 siblings with Factor V deficiency and menorrhagia who achieved control of bleeding with differing treatments. Patient 1 is a 16-year-old female with Factor V deficiency and menorrhagia which was previously controlled with oral contraceptives (OC). She developed heavy bleeding treated with fresh frozen plasma, anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (AICC), and OC taper. A levonorgestrel IUD was placed with good control of her menorrhagia. Patient 2 is the 12-year-old sister of Patient 1. She was treated with AICC, aminocaproic acid, and her menorrhagia was ultimately controlled with continuous OCs. Factor V deficiency is a rare cause of menorrhagia. Various treatment modalities are available. In these adolescent sisters desiring future fertility, menorrhagia was managed with OCs and an IUD. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. Methods: All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the...

  17. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-30

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  18. Adolescent toothbrushing and the home environment: sociodemographic factors, family relationships and mealtime routines and disorganisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Currie, Candace

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that sociodemographic factors are associated with adolescent toothbrushing. While there has been some investigation of parental modelling of oral health behaviour and the association between parental support and oral health, there has been no investigation of the home environment and its effect on oral health behaviour. The current study examines variables related to the family, including mealtime routines and family relationships to determine the best predictors of adolescent toothbrushing. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey were modelled using logistic univariate and multivariable modelling with outcome variable twice-a-day toothbrushing. Higher family socioeconomic and affluence were significantly associated with greater odds of toothbrushing twice a day or more. Family structure was also significantly associated with girls' toothbrushing. However, under the multivariable model, eating breakfast was found to be the best predictor of twice-a-day toothbrushing among boys and girls. The next best predictor of boys' toothbrushing was eating family meals and of girls' toothbrushing, never going to bed hungry, followed by family affluence for both boys and girls. Under the multivariable model, family structure was no longer significantly associated with girls' toothbrushing. The study shows that the family and home environment should play a central role in the promotion of oral health, through mealtime routines, incorporating a fair parenting style and developing open and positive family relationships. Not only are these strongly associated with twice a day toothbrushing but, unlike sociodemographic factors, they may be relatively easy to adopt.

  19. Bidirectional associations between family factors and Internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of family factors on the occurrence of Internet addiction and determining whether Internet addiction could make any difference in the family function. A total of 2293 adolescents in grade 7 participated in the study. We assessed their Internet addiction, family function, and family factors with a 1-year follow up. In the prospective investigation, inter-parental conflict predicted the incidence of Internet addiction 1 year later in forward regression analysis, followed by not living with mother and allowance to use Internet more than 2 h per day by parents or caregiver. The inter-parental conflict and allowance to use Internet more than 2 h per day also predicted the incidence in girls. Not cared for by parents and family APGAR score predicted the incidence of Internet addiction among boys. The prospective investigation demonstrated that the incidence group had more decreased scores on family APGAR than did the non-addiction group in the 1-year follow-up. This effect was significant only among girls. Inter-parental conflict and inadequate regulation of unessential Internet use predicted risk of Internet addiction, particularly among adolescent girls. Family intervention to prevent inter-parental conflict and promote family function and Internet regulation were necessary to prevent Internet addiction. Among adolescents with Internet addiction, it is necessary to pay attention to deterioration of family function, particularly among girls. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. DMPD: The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17702640 The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic cel...b 2007 Aug 16. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family ...e interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. Authors Gabriele L, O

  1. DMPD: The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17502370 The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of acti....html) (.csml) Show The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism of action. PubmedID 1...7502370 Title The interferon regulatory factor family in host defense: mechanism

  2. Predictive factors for familiality in a Danish clinical cohort of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    have examined a large Danish clinical cohort of children with TS (N=307). Validated diagnostic instruments were used to assess the presence of co-morbidities in the children with TS. A three-generation pedigree was drawn for all the probands and through reports from the family, a family history......). The fact that TS aggregates strongly in families suggests that family members share either genetic and/or environmental risk factors contributing to TS. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the familiality in TS, but clear-cut factors to predict hereditability in TS have not been found yet. We...... and the frequency of affected relatives was noted. The rates of tics, symptoms of OCD, and ADHD among relatives are similar to the rates found in other countries and are higher than in the general population. Although the role of sex in determining the phenotype has to be examined more thoroughly, we found...

  3. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Steve M; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Bloor, Kimberley E; Boyle, Gemma L; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H; Wigley, Charles A; Yeong, Stephanie H M

    2014-01-01

    Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years). Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  4. A Spotlight on Preschool: The Influence of Family Factors on Children’s Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Steve M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Bloor, Kimberley E.; Boyle, Gemma L.; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H.; Wigley, Charles A.; Yeong, Stephanie H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents’ level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents’ phonological awareness and parents’ perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Method Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children’s literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6–7 years). Results Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents’ phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Implications Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised. PMID:24751691

  5. Fatores de risco na gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada Risk factors in the familial and sporadic developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moço Canhetti de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar e comparar os achados dos fatores de risco para a cronicidade da gagueira em crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada. MÉTODOS: participaram 60 crianças de ambos os gêneros, divididas em dois grupos: GI - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial; GII - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental isolada. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio do Protocolo de Risco para a Gagueira do Desenvolvimento - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, que considera os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, gênero, tipo de surgimento e tempo de duração das disfluências, tipologia das disfluências, fatores comunicativos e qualitativos associados, histórico mórbido pré, peri e pós natal, fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio, histórico familial, reação pessoal, familiar e social e atitudes familiares. RESULTADOS: quando o grupo I (GI foi comparado com o grupo II (GII, a única diferença estatisticamente significante foi com relação aos fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados confirmam a natureza complexa da gagueira, bem como a necessidade de se investigar os vários fatores considerados como de risco para o distúrbio, com intuito de melhorar a compreensão de suas possíveis etiologias.PURPOSE: to investigate and compare the risk factors for stuttering between children with familial developmental stuttering and children with sporadic developmental stuttering. METHODS: 60 children of both genders with stuttering took part, divided in two groups: GI - 30 children with familial developmental stuttering; GII - 30 children with sporadic developmental stuttering. Data were gathered through the Protocol of Risk for the Developmental Stuttering - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, which considers the following factors: age; gender; manner of onset and time of duration for the disfluencies; typology of the disfluencies; associated communicative

  6. Factors Influencing Active Family Engagement in Care Among Critical Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Hickman, Ronald; McAndrew, Natalie; Daly, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Critical care nurses are vital to promoting family engagement in the intensive care unit. However, nurses have varying perceptions about how much family members should be involved. The Questionnaire on Factors That Influence Family Engagement was given to a national sample of 433 critical care nurses. This correlational study explored the impact of nurse and organizational characteristics on barriers and facilitators to family engagement. Study results indicate that (1) nurses were most likely to invite family caregivers to provide simple daily care; (2) age, degree earned, critical care experience, hospital location, unit type, and staffing ratios influenced the scores; and (3) nursing workflow partially mediated the relationships between the intensive care unit environment and nurses’ attitudes and between patient acuity and nurses’ attitudes. These results help inform nursing leaders on ways to promote nurse support of active family engagement in the intensive care unit. PMID:28592476

  7. Exploring relationships among maternal BMI, family factors, and concern for child's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payas, Nydjie; Budd, Geraldine M; Polansky, Marcia

    2010-11-01

    in an effort to better understand child obesity, this study examined the association between family living location, family function, mother's body mass index (BMI), and mothers' attitudes and behaviors concerning child feeding. Recent research on obesity has shown there is limited information on family influence and parental perceptions and attitudes. a cross-sectional analysis was performed on data from 47 mothers of school-aged children. urban African-American mothers had higher BMIs and were significantly more concerned about their child's weight status than rural white mothers. Additionally, maternal BMI was associated with the total number of individuals in the household. results suggest the importance in understanding the family and community and its influence on childhood obesity. Armed with knowledge about family factors and parents' beliefs and perceptions, nurses can develop interventions that can assist families and communities to focus on healthy children feeding and weight management.

  8. Factors Influencing Active Family Engagement in Care Among Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Breanna; Hickman, Ronald; McAndrew, Natalie; Daly, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Critical care nurses are vital to promoting family engagement in the intensive care unit. However, nurses have varying perceptions about how much family members should be involved. The Questionnaire on Factors That Influence Family Engagement was given to a national sample of 433 critical care nurses. This correlational study explored the impact of nurse and organizational characteristics on barriers and facilitators to family engagement. Study results indicate that (1) nurses were most likely to invite family caregivers to provide simple daily care; (2) age, degree earned, critical care experience, hospital location, unit type, and staffing ratios influenced the scores; and (3) nursing work-flow partially mediated the relationships between the intensive care unit environment and nurses' attitudes and between patient acuity and nurses' attitudes. These results help inform nursing leaders on ways to promote nurse support of active family engagement in the intensive care unit. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

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    Kristjan Kask

    2013-01-01

    multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense alcohol use whereas negative life events in the family and high family affluence were increasing youngsters' intense alcohol use. Differences between regions of Europe were present for all family factors except affluence. Namely, in Northern Europe the impact of family structure and social control on intense alcohol use was stronger than that in other regions (e.g., Western Europe, Mediterranean, and Postsocialist countries. Also, in Northern Europe where the proportion of adolescents who have not experienced negative life events is the highest, the impact of negative life events on intense alcohol use was stronger; that is, negative life events increased the alcohol use. We conclude that family plays a significant role in adolescents' risky alcohol use.

  10. [Factors affecting subjective satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroko; Arai, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate satisfaction with verbal communication among the disabled elderly and their family caregivers; and to find the significantly influential factors of satisfaction with verbal communication. The subjects were 85 disabled elderly and 85 family caregivers. For the disabled elderly, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic, and physical factors were examined using an interview survey. For the caregivers, satisfaction with verbal communication, demographic factors, and some factors related caregiving were examined using a self-administered questionnaire. In the disabled elderly, 82.4% were satisfied with their verbal communication while 55.3% of family caregivers were satisfied. Satisfaction with verbal communication between the disabled elderly and their caregivers showed low agreement (kappa = 0.17). Bivariate analysis revealed that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly was significantly related to ADL (p verbal communication of caregivers was significantly related to the gender of the disabled elderly and caregivers' burden. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that the factor most related to satisfaction with verbal communication for the disabled elderly was ability of comprehension (p value = 0.032, odds ratio = 2.960), and the most related factor for their caregivers was the burden evaluated by J-ZBI_8 (p value = 0.004, odds ratio = 0.842). These results suggest that satisfaction with verbal communication of the disabled elderly disagrees with that of the family caregivers, and that some related factors for the disabled elderly are different from those in their family caregivers.

  11. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in ...

  12. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

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    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  13. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women. PMID:27622169

  14. Factor analysis of the Zarit Burden Interview in family caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juyeon; Kim, Jung A

    2017-10-16

    The Zarit Burden Interview has been used in many studies to assess caregiver burden in family caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the factor structure of the Zarit Burden Interview in the caregivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Zarit Burden Interview in family caregivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients using exploratory factor analysis. The exploratory factor analysis was performed using generalized least squares with oblique rotation in a sample of 202 family caregivers. Three factors had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and accounted for 60.33% of the total variance. The three factors were named as follows: (factor 1) "Social restrictions" (items 2, 3, and 10-15); (factor 2) "Self-criticism" (items 20-21); and (factor 3) "Anger and frustration" (items 1, 4-6, 9, and 16-19). The correlation between factors 1 and 3 was much higher (r = 0.79) than that between factors 1 and 2 (r = 0.14) or factors 2 and 3 (r = 0.15). The findings of this study enriched our understanding of several meaningful dimensions of the caregiving burden in caregivers of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population and provided opportunities for future intervention.

  15. Facilitating and Hindering Factors in Family Care Giving Process on Iranian Frail Elderly: Female Caregivers Experiences

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    Farahnaz Mohamadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is worldwide growth in the elderly population. Family care of elderly is key to long term care system and main duty of women at home. Qualitative study about facilitating and hindering factor of family care giving process provide clarified viewpoint on female caregivers need to plan and make effective supportive health policy. Methods & Materials: The present study was conducted by grounded theory. A purposive sample of 12 family caregiver participated in this study and data was gathered by deeply semi-structured interview and observation in the field. All of them were transcribed word by word and were analyzed through open, axial and selective coding according to Strauss and Corbin's approach (1998. Triangulation of the data gathering from different methods, prolonged engagement with caregivers, member check by participants and experts, was used to increase rigor of the study. Results: Female caregivers experience facilitator and hindering factors that affect the care giving process. These factors were categorized in 3 main classes of personal, familial and external factors and 9 subcategories of caregiver's knowledge on elderly care, personal characters of caregiver and care recipient, care giving burden, background of interpersonal relationship between caregiver and care recipient, familial supportive network, family member participation, formal supportive system, context of family care giving at home, and community based health care systems for elder people. Conclusion: Naturally, intervening factors in care giving process can confront caregivers with relief or difficulty Based on caregivers experiences, modifying facilitator and hindering factors by more family participation, psychosocial support, care giving education, improvement of care giving context and establishing appropriate age friendly health care systems would be effective in managing of the process by female caregivers, and could be helpful for them to be

  16. Family Relationship In Gabrielle Lord`s Lethal Factor

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    Ruth Sri Kinanti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Jenis karya sastra cerita detektif bukan hal baru dalam kesusastraan Australia. Salah satu penulis cerita detektif, Gabrielle Lord, menampilkan masalah yang tidak pernah diangkat oleh penulis lainnya, yaitu masalah hubungan keluarga. Novel yang akan dikaji dalam tulisan ini adalah Lethal Factor. Dalam karya ini masalah keluarga dan penyalahgunaan anak dibahas dan dilibatkan dalam kasus kriminal yang terjadi dalam kehidupan penyidik forensic, Jack McCain. Kasus kriminal terjadi dalam beberapa kasus yang menggunakan senjata tajam yang menimpa seorang biarawati dan senjata racun kimia yang menimpa teman McCain. Persoalan menjadi menarik dan penting ketika McCain juga harus menyelesaikan kasusnya dengan istri dan terancamnya jiwa anaknya.

  17. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  18. [Study on family aggregation and risk factors of hepatitis B virus transmission in Chaoyang district, Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Huai; Ma, Jian-xin; Li, Li-qiu; Zhang, Xiu-chun; Li, Shu-ming; Wu, Ke; Li, Qian; Liu, Xiu-ying; Zhang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    To explore the family aggregation and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in Chaoyang district of Beijing. A total of 5266 families were randomly selected for the multi-stage cluster sampling study in Chaoyang district of Beijing in 2010. The family members who aged between 1 and 70 years old and lived constantly in Beijing for over half a year, were recruited as subjects. There were 14 491 subjects in total, including temporary residents who did not have Beijing household account, except foreigners. 5 ml venous blood was drawn from every subject. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the basic information of the population and the risk factors of the hepatitis B transmission. Microparticle enzyme-linked immunoassay was applied to test five indicators of hepatitis B. Negative binomial distribution test was used among the HBsAg positive families to calculate the family aggregation rate of hepatitis B. Single factor analysis and multi-factor logistic regression model were used to analyze the risk factors of HBV transmission. In all, 308 out of 5266 families had HBsAg positive members, accounting for 5.85%.383 out of 14 410 subjects were HBsAg positive, rating at 2.66%. The HBsAg positive rate among subjects under 14 years old was the lowest, at 0.56% (9/1603); and the positive rate among subjects aging between 35 and 44 years old was the highest, at 4.27% (47/1029). Negative binomial distribution test showed that the family aggregation rate of HBV infection was 7.66% (χ² = 15.10, P family aggregation of HBsAg positive showed that 17.39% (8/46) of the transmission was from father to child, 13.04% (6/46) was from mother to child, 30.44% (14/46) was between couples, and another 39.13% (18/46) was between siblings or other relatives. Both single factor analysis and multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that hepatitis B positive family members (OR = 5.40, 95%CI: 5.24 - 5.55), hepatitis B positive friends and colleagues (OR = 1

  19. The effective family and personality factors on felony in adolescent felons of Khorramabad house of correction

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    mandana Saki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.

  20. Associations of physique with the socioeconomic factors of family and regional origin in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao Jian; Huang, Chao Qun; Chen, Hong Miao; Tanaka, Toyoho

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to define and clarify the causes of differences in physique between urban students and rural students in China. Subjects are 2,524 students (male, 838; female, 1686) who entered K University in Shanghai in September, 2001. The data used in this study is based upon K university's Yearly Health Check Record and Students' Family Condition Record. Correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were applied to analyze the relationships between physique and gross family income, family income per capita, latitude, air temperature, precipitation or altitude. Urban students' height and weight are significantly greater than rural students' in both males and females. Both male students and female students are significantly taller and heavier in accordance with per capita increases in students' family income. The height and weight of male and female students whose parents are peasant farmers are least. With regard to the relationship between physique and urban-rural factors, the F value decreases clearly when family income per capita is taken as a covariate, while the F values slightly decrease also when factors of latitude etc. are taken as covariates. The main cause of differing family income is occupational difference between urban areas and rural ones. Students born in urban areas are taller and heavier than those born in rural areas. The main cause of these differences is family income per capita. The main cause of variations in family income is the income difference in occupations.

  1. [A Meta analysis of family risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Sun, Gui-Xiang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to provide a basis for future prevention and treatment of this disease. Following a systematic search for case-control studies on the risk factors for ADHD in China between 2000 and 2014, relevant family risk factors were extracted accordingly. The quality of selected studies was evaluated according to the NOS scale. A Meta analysis on the selected studies was conducted using Stata 12.0 software. A total of 16 studies were selected, involving 2 167 children with ADHD and 2 148 normal controls. Results of Meta analysis showed that good parenting (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.26-0.40), nuclear family (OR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.41-0.76), high education level of father (OR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.41-0.76), high education level of mother (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89), and extroversion of mother (OR=0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61) are favorable factors for ADHD. Poor parental relationship (OR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.17-3.06) and family history of ADHD (OR=5.86, 95% CI: 3.67-9.35) are risk factors for ADHD. Good parenting, nuclear family, high education level of parents, and mother with extroversion are protective factors for ADHD, whereas poor parental relationship and family history of ADHD are associated with an increased risk for ADHD.

  2. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  3. Personal, Familial, and Social Factors Contributing to Addiction Relapse, Ahvaz, Iran

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    Fayazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug addiction is deemed one of the gravest threats to society. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine what factors (personal, familial, or social are correlated with addiction relapse. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 146 addicts referring to addiction treatment centers in the Iranian city of Ahvaz were selected via purposive and non-randomized sampling. The study tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that 46.1% of the participants aged between 20 and 30 years. All the subjects had at least one attempt at quitting drug abuse. Single individuals comprised 52.9% of the study population. The most significant physical factors were lack of appetite (23.9%, numbness and pins and needles (23.3%, and bone pain (22.4%, while the most significant mental factor was loneliness (44%. Concerning the social factors, association with addicted and misleading friends (35.2% had the utmost importance. Furthermore, lack of a permanent job (43% and absence of appropriate family relationships (32%, respectively, constituted the most important factors among the career and familial factors. Conclusions Our results showed that many personal, familial, and social factors play a role in addiction relapse. The high prevalence of return to addiction necessitates further strategies for the more optimal control of these factors.

  4. Parent Involvement in School: Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the association between parental involvement (PI) and children's positive academic performance and social competence. Study examines the relations between a set of family and demographic risk factors and PI. Results reveal different patterns of relations between the risk factors studied-parental education, maternal depression, and…

  5. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  6. Factores de riesgo para la salud familiar: acontecimientos significativos Risk factors for family health: significative events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia María Herrera Santi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda el estudio de aquellos acontecimientos que pueden generar crisis familiares. Se define el concepto de acontecimiento significativo de la vida familiar y se establece una diferenciación de estos con las crisis familiares. Se realiza un recorrido por las diferentes etapas que atraviesa el ciclo de vida familiar y de los acontecimientos significativos que constituyen momentos de riesgo en éste.This work deals with the study of those events that can generate family crises. The concept of significative event of the family life is defined, and it is established a difference between them and the family crises. The different stages through which the family life passes by and the significative events that constitute risk peaks within this cycle are analyzed.

  7. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus

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    Xingyu Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation.

  8. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingyu; Affeldt, Katharyn J; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-10-13

    Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE) of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Luo et al.

  9. Family factors related to children's intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, G S; Bronstein, P

    1993-10-01

    This study examined 3 familial factors--parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades, and general family style--in relation to children's motivational orientation and academic performance. Family, parent, and child measures were obtained in the home from 93 fifth graders and their parents. Teachers provided a measure of classroom motivational orientation, and grades and achievement scores were obtained from school records. Higher parental surveillance of homework, parental reactions to grades that included negative control, uninvolvement, or extrinsic reward, and over- and undercontrolling family styles were found to be related to an extrinsic motivational orientation and to lower academic performance. On the other hand, parental encouragement in response to grades children received was associated with an intrinsic motivational orientation, and autonomy-supporting family styles were associated with intrinsic motivation and higher academic performance. In addition, socioeconomic level was a significant predictor of motivational orientation and academic performance.

  10. The contribution of familial internalizing and externalizing liability factors to borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J I; Zanarini, M C; Mitchell, K S; Choi-Kain, L W; Gunderson, J G

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently display co-morbid mental disorders. These disorders include 'internalizing' disorders (such as major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders) and 'externalizing' disorders (such as substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). It is hypothesized that these disorders may arise from latent 'internalizing' and 'externalizing' liability factors. Factor analytic studies suggest that internalizing and externalizing factors both contribute to BPD, but the extent to which such contributions are familial is unknown. Participants were 368 probands (132 with BPD; 134 without BPD; and 102 with major depressive disorder) and 885 siblings and parents of probands. Participants were administered the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. On confirmatory factor analysis of within-person associations of disorders, BPD loaded moderately on internalizing (factor loading 0.53, S.E. = 0.10, p internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders. In a Cholesky decomposition model, 84% (S.E. = 17%, p internalizing and externalizing factors was accounted for by familial contributions. Familial internalizing and externalizing liability factors are both associated with, and therefore may mutually contribute to, BPD. These familial contributions account largely for the pattern of co-morbidity between BPD and internalizing and externalizing disorders.

  11. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K.; Poon, Gregory M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs’ binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs. PMID:25824951

  12. Factors influencing family physicians' contribution to the child health care workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroff, Laura A; Xierali, Imam M; Petterson, Stephen M; Shipman, Scott A; Puffer, James C; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    We wanted to explore demographic and geographic factors associated with family physicians' provision of care to children. We analyzed the proportion of family physicians providing care to children using survey data collected by the American Board of Family Medicine from 2006 to 2009. Using a cross-sectional study design and logistic regression analysis, we examined the association of various physician demographic and geographic factors and providing care of children. Younger age, female sex, and rural location are positive predictors of family physicians providing care to children: odds ratio (OR) = 0.97 (95% CI, 0.97-0.98), 1.19 (1.12-1.25), and 1.50 (1.39-1.62), respectively. Family physicians practicing in a partnership are more likely to provide care to children than those in group practice: OR = 1.53 (95% CI, 1.40-1.68). Family physicians practicing in areas with higher density of children are more likely to provide care to children: OR = 1.04 (95% CI, 1.03-1.05), while those in high-poverty areas are less likely 0.10 (95% CI, 0.10-0.10). Family physicians located in areas with no pediatricians are more likely to provide care to children than those in areas with higher pediatrician density: OR = 1.80 (95% CI, 1.59-2.01). Various demographic and geographic factors influence the likelihood of family physicians providing care to children, findings that have important implications to policy efforts aimed at ensuring access to care for children. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  13. Homocysteine and metabolic risk factors in individuals with family history of premature ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzecki, Artur; Bukowska, Hanna; Kłoda, Karolina; Chełstowski, Kornel; Gorący, Iwona; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Family history of stroke is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate selected metabolic risk factors and an association between the interaction of family history of premature ischemic stroke (PIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels with other risk factors in individuals with family histo ry of PIS. The study involved 344 healthy individuals, including 143 with family history of PIS and 201 without family history of PIS (control group). In the group with family history of PIS, a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), ApoB/ apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), and glucose values were observed in women, while in men, significantly higher mean values of BMI, SBP and DBP, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, ApoB/ApoA-I, and lower ApoA-I. There was a significant interaction of family history of PIS × Hcy for TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG) in women, and for TC/HDL-C, TC, and TG in men. Higher Hcy levels were associated with significantly higher values of TC/HDL-C and TG both in men and women, and with lower HDL -C levels in women and higher T C and LDL-C levels in men. Men and women with family history of PIS are characterized by an unfavorable shift in the risk factor profile. This effect is additionally enhanced by higher Hcy levels, which might be an indication for primary prevention in these individuals.

  14. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females. Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2% had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas, living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family, high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level, high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level, severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress, conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent, and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.

  15. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2016-11-28

    We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family), high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level), high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level), severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress), conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent), and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.

  16. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  17. Family Factors and Adolescent Problem Drinking in a High-Risk Urban Peruvian Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Katherine Wingert; Bustamante, Inés V; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-01-28

    Family relationships are widely recognized as playing a role in adolescent alcohol use. Although family relationships and parenting vary by culture, limited research has explored these relationships in Latin America. We sought to determine which family factors are associated with adolescent alcohol use in Callao, Peru. Data come from a cross-sectional survey conducted in a public secondary school in Callao, Peru in 2007. A total of 180 11th grade students are included in the analysis. Our main outcome measure was problem drinking, defined as self-report of having ever consumed beer, wine, spirits, or hard alcohol to a point of drunkenness. Logistic regression was used to determine if odds of problem drinking varied by level of parental monitoring (knowledge of activities and whereabouts), positive family relationships, or family conflict, while controlling for demographic and peer variables. Low levels of parental monitoring and low levels of positive family relationships were each associated with significantly higher odds of lifetime problem drinking in analyses adjusted for deviant peer affiliation along with sociodemographic variables (odds ratio (OR) = 4.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-13.5; OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.5-13.0, respectively). Although family conflict was associated with elevated odds of lifetime problem drinking, this did not reach significance (adjusted OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 0.8-5.1). Conclusions/Importance: Interventions designed to prevent adolescent alcohol use in urban Peru may benefit from promoting positive family interactions and parental monitoring skills.

  18. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Adaptation and validation of the Inventory of Family Protective Factors for the Portuguese culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cristina Vieira Carvalho de Oliveira Ferreira Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF for the Portuguese culture. This instrument assesses protective factors that contribute to family resilience. Studies addressing resilience are embedded within the salutogenic paradigm, i.e. it addresses protective factors of individuals or groups without underestimating risk factors or vulnerability.METHOD: in order to assess the IFPF's linguistic and conceptual equivalence, the instrument was translated, retro-translated and the think-aloud protocol was used. We then verified the instrument's sensitiveness, reliability and validity of results to assess its psychometric characteristics. A factor analysis was performed of the principal components with varimax rotation of the scale's items and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for each dimension. A total of 85 families with disabled children, selected through simple random sampling, self-administered the instrument.RESULTS: the IFPF presents psychometric characteristics that are appropriate for the Portuguese population (Cronbach's alpha = .90.CONCLUSION: the IFPF was adapted and validated for the Portuguese culture and is an instrument to be used in studies intended to assess protective factors of family resilience.

  20. Rh factor, family history and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stoll, Mario; De Stéfani, Eduardo; Maisonneuve, Juan E; Mendoza, Beatriz A; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    To explore possible relationships among blood factors, family history of breast cancer (BC) and the risk of the disease, a case-control study was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight hundred and one patients were interviewed, including 252 certified cases of BC and 549 frequency-matched controls. Blood groups (ABO, Rh) were obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age, selected menstrual and reproductive factors, and family history of BC as well as of other cancers. We found that the absence of Rh factor (Rh-) was positively associated with the risk of BC (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.49, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.05-2.11). Stratified analyses by family history of BC showed a strong association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=3.17, 95% CI 1.06-9.47). Also stratified analyses by family history of other cancers showed a positive association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11). Regarding the implications of an inherited factor like Rh and its associations with the family history of BC, it might increase the probability to generate high-risk individuals if further studies confirm the present preliminary findings.

  1. Alcohol and tobacco use among rural Mexican adolescents: individual, familial, and community level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Fernald, Lia C H

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the contributions of individual, family, and community-level factors for explaining alcohol use and smoking among rural Mexican adolescents. As part of a national survey, 3922 adolescents and their mothers from 333 poor, rural communities in seven Mexican states provided cross-sectional data on family-level, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors, and individual-level data on substance use and psychological symptoms. Community standard of living was also assessed. Generalized linear models adjusted for sampling design indicated that adolescents' use of alcohol was associated with being male, older, employment, and having a mother who used alcohol. Being from an indigenous family living in a majority-indigenous community was associated with less alcohol use. Family income, family size, and community standard of living were not directly associated with adolescents' alcohol use. Current smoking was associated with being male, older, and more anxious, having a mother who smoked, and having a mother with higher educational attainment. Further analyses indicated patterns in which adolescents' alcohol use was moderated by gender and ethnicity. Beyond the contribution of male gender and age as risk factors, maternal substance use uniquely explained variability in alcohol and cigarette use among Mexican adolescents from rural communities. Indigenous ethnicity and living in majority-indigenous community settings appeared to confer protective benefits with respect to alcohol. These findings extend prior research in Mexico and in other countries that identify the combined importance of developmental contexts and individual-level factors for adolescent health.

  2. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2002-07-10

    Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

  3. [Mental Health in Children from Families Seeking Asylum in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2007-2009 - Personal and Contextual Risk Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Olaf; Jung, Petra; Häßler, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Mental Health in Children from Families Seeking Asylum in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2007-2009 - Personal and Contextual Risk Factors The study presented describes severity and conditions of various psychiatric symptoms in children from families seeking refuge in Germany 2007-2009 and registered in the province of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Mothers of 58 children (aged 12 years on average, 23 girls, 33 boys) answered the items of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991). First, the burden of disease among refugee children was compared to standard burdens of German children. Second, the extent of symptoms was predicted by person- and context-related factors. Internalizing symptoms were predicted by more proximal factors, such as parental burden of stress and parental education. Externalizing symptoms and social problems were rather predicted by the length of stay in Germany, the reason for migration, the school career and parental education. On one hand, the study underscores the immediate need for intervention among refugee parents and children. On the other hand, structural factors in the country of arrival (length of stay, schooling) play an important role.

  4. Family structure and risk factors for schizophrenia: case-sibling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several family structure-related factors, such as birth order, family size, parental age, and age differences to siblings, have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined how family-structure-related variables modified the risk of schizophrenia in Finnish families with at least one child with schizophrenia born from 1950 to 1976. Methods We used case-sibling design, a variant of the matched case-control design in the analysis. Patients hospitalized for schizophrenia between 1969 and 1996 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and their families from the Population Register Center. Only families with at least two children (7914 sibships and 21059 individuals were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression with sex, birth cohort, maternal schizophrenia status, and several family-related variables as explanatory variables was used in the case-sibling design. The effect of variables with the same value in each sibship was analyzed using ordinary logistic regression. Results Having a sibling who was less than five years older (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.66, or being the firstborn (first born vs. second born 1.62, 1.87–1.4 predicted an elevated risk, but having siblings who were more than ten years older predicted a lower risk (0.66, 0.56–0.79. Conclusions Several family-structure-related variables were identified as risk factors for schizophrenia. The underlying causative mechanisms are likely to be variable.

  5. Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, F.J.; Skinner, T.C.; Beaufort, C.E. de

    2008-01-01

    Aims To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate...... a questionnaire. Family demographic factors that were associated with metabolic outcomes included: parents living together (t = 4.1; P ...-parent disagreement on responsibility for diabetes care practices (F = 8.46; d.f. = 2; P outcomes, but were stronger predictors of metabolic control than age, gender or insulin treatment regimen...

  6. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  7. Proximité familiale et organisation résidentielle de la parentèle dans les élites d’une ville d’Europe du Sud. L’exemple de Naples Familial proximity and residential organisation of the family within the elite of a southern European city. The example of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pfirsch

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available De nombreuses études ont souligné l’importance de la proximité résidentielle entre membres d’une même famille en Europe du Sud. Mais rares sont les travaux qui ont étudié ce phénomène au sein des classes supérieures, où la proximité familiale atteint pourtant des taux records et à une échelle intra-urbaine, alors que les formes d’agrégation familiale dépendent fortement du contexte urbain. C’est sur cette importance des effets de la position sociale et des structures urbaines sur la proximité familiale en Europe du Sud que voudrait insister cet article, en se limitant à un milieu précis, celui des classes supérieures napolitaines. L’enquête s’est fondée sur le croisement de sources quantitatives avec une campagne d’entretiens ayant permis de reconstituer avec précision le parcours résidentiel de 50 parentèles de la vieille bourgeoisie napolitaine dans la ville sur quatre générations. Il en ressort que si les formes de proximité familiale observées dans les classes supérieures de la ville (« quasi-cohabitations » en immeuble et regroupements en rues voisines renvoient bien à des modèles culturels sud-européens, elles revêtent aussi de fortes spécificités car il s’agit de vastes concentrations familiales durablement reproduites dans les mêmes quartiers de centre-ville sur plus de trois générations. Outre les mécanismes « familiaux » du marché du logement, ce sont donc aussi l’emprise patrimoniale sur la ville et la position des familles étudiées dans un cycle d’intégration urbain qui expliquent leur forte concentration dans l’espace.Numerous studies have stressed the importance of the residential proximity of family members in southern Europe. Far fewer studies, however, have examined this phenomenon within the upper social classes, where familial proximity reaches record levels, or at the intra-urban level, although forms of familial aggregation are highly dependent on

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of child maltreatment among migrant families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunjiao; Atkinson-Sheppard, Sally; Liu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prevalence of maltreatment between migrant and local adolescents, and also to explore risk factors associated with the psychological and physical maltreatment in both groups. The results showed that parent-to-child abuse was more prevalent among migrant than local adolescents, with migrant adolescents 1.490 and 1.425 times more likely to be psychologically and physically abused by their parents than their local counterparts. Low academic performance, delinquent behavior, family economic adversity and low parent attachment put migrant adolescents at increased risk of both psychological and physical maltreatment, and neighborhood disorganization was significantly related to psychological aggression among migrant adolescents. The findings confirm that child abuse perpetuated by parents is a serious problem in Mainland China, especially among migrant families, and implications for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Family Factors and Body Mass Index Among Korean-American Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyun; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; McCreary, Linda; Patil, Crystal; Norr, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine family factors related to BMI z-scores and overweight/obesity among Korean-American (KA) preschoolers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 104 KA preschoolers and their mothers in the Chicago metropolitan area. KA mothers completed questionnaires and their preschool-age children's weights and heights were measured. Hierarchical multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were performed. Twenty-two percent of preschoolers were overweight or obese (BMI ≥85th percentile). Family factors explained 30% of the variance in the children's BMI z-scores, with parenting feeding style and family functioning contributing most. In logistic regression, children were more likely to be overweight/obese if: a family had more children, the mother perceived her child as overweight/obese, and the family had regular child routines. Health care providers should consider the family as one unit of care and use that unit to implement culturally appropriate childhood overweight/obesity prevention for Korean-American preschool-aged children. Parental feeding style and parents' attitudes about child weight should be considered when advising Korean-Americans about reducing children's overweight/obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between family factors and child behaviour problems using dyadic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Pan, J; Zhang, X; Yi, C

    2015-11-01

    Parental psychopathology and family issues are key influence factors to child behaviour problems. This study aimed to investigate the dyadic impact of maternal and paternal depression and perceived family functioning on child behaviour problems. Both maternal and paternal depression, perceived family functioning and reported child behaviour problems were collected, respectively. Because of the interdependent characteristic of dyadic data, structural equation modelling was used to examine the relationship among all variables and the mutual influence between mother and father. Results showed that father-perceived family functioning mediated the relationship between parental depression and child behaviour problems, but mother-perceived family functioning did not show this mediation effect. Meanwhile, maternal and paternal depression influenced both of their own and their partner's perceived family functioning. The findings indicated that paternal psychopathology and family functioning should not be overlooked in child behaviour development. In addition, this study underscored the importance to investigate the different impact of father and mother on child development within a dyadic unit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness in adolescents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Mara; Francisković, Tanja; Grgić, Neda; Ercegović, Nela; Graovac, Mirjana; Zecević, Iva

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research is to look into the roles of families' social situation and cohesion in adolescent auto-aggressiveness in Croatia. The research was conducted on a sample of Zagreb high school students which encompassed 701 pupils of both genders aged 14-19. The basic demographic data were obtained using the Structured Demographic and Family Data Questionnaire. Auto-aggressiveness was tested using a section of the Report on Youth Aged 11-18 and the Scale of Auto-destructiveness--SAD, whereas the family cohesion was tested with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales FACES III. The obtained results show differences according to the gender: girls are more prone to auto-aggressiveness than boys (t = -3.385, df = 565, p = 0.001) and girls more often show symptoms of destructiveness (t = -3.809, df = 637, p aggressiveness (t = 2.655, df = 653, p = 0.008). Significant family factors associated with auto-aggressiveness are parents' marital status (chi2 = 18.039, df = 4, p = 0.001), their financial situation (F(2.548) = 4.604, p = 0.010), alcoholic father (chi2 = 9.270, df = 2, p = 0.010), mentally ill mother (t = 5.264, df = 541, p aggressiveness. Family cohesion appears to be considerably associated with auto-aggressiveness and the adolescents that see their families as less cohesive have more mental problems (chi2 = 29.98, df = 2, p aggressiveness in adolescents.

  12. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of family support, the presence of parental screen-time rules and joint family activities with participation in at least one OLTA were assessed using logistic regression. High family support and the presence of parental screen-time rules were associated with higher odds of OLTA participation. Moreover, adolescents playing sports, indoor games and going for walks with their families at least weekly were more likely to participate in OLTA. Conversely, those spending time in joint family TV/video watching on most days were less likely to do so. A supportive family environment and direct parental involvement in their adolescent children's leisure are associated with OLTA participation in early to middle adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The sox family of transcription factors: versatile regulators of stem and progenitor cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abby; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2013-01-03

    Sox family transcription factors are well-established regulators of cell fate decisions during development. Accumulating evidence documents that they play additional roles in adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Remarkably, forced expression of Sox factors, in combination with other synergistic factors, reprograms differentiated cells into somatic or pluripotent stem cells. Dysregulation of Sox factors has been further implicated in diseases including cancer. Here, we review molecular and functional evidence linking Sox proteins with stem cell biology, cellular reprogramming, and disease with an emphasis on Sox2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Family factors that characterize adolescents with severe obesity and their role in weight loss surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Hunsaker, Sanita; Mikhail, Carmen; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; McCullough, Mary Beth; Garland, Beth; Austin, Heather; Washington, Gia; Baughcum, Amy; Rofey, Dana; Smith, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    To comprehensively assess family characteristics of adolescents with severe obesity and whether family factors impact weight loss outcomes following weight loss surgery (WLS). Multisite prospective data from 138 adolescents undergoing WLS and primary caregivers (adolescent: Mage  = 16.9; MBMI = 51.5 kg/m(2) ; caregiver: Mage  = 44.5; 93% female) and 83 nonsurgical comparators (NSComp: adolescent: Mage  = 16.1; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m(2) ; caregiver: Mage  = 43.9; 94% female) were collected using standardized measures at presurgery/baseline and at 1 and 2 years. The majority (77.3%) of caregivers had obesity, with rates of caregiver WLS significantly higher in the WLS (23.8%) versus NSComp group (3.7%, P < 0.001). Family dysfunction was prevalent (≈1 in every two to three families), with rates higher for NSComp than the WLS group. For the WLS group, preoperative family factors (i.e., caregiver BMI or WLS history, dysfunction, social support) were not significant predictors of adolescent weight loss at 1 and 2 years postoperatively, although change in family functioning over time emerged as a significant correlate of percent weight loss. Rates of severe obesity in caregivers as well as family dysfunction were clinically noteworthy, although not related to adolescent weight loss success following WLS. However, change in family communication and emotional climate over time emerged as potential targets to optimize weight loss outcomes. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. The Extended Family as a Source of Support to Elderly Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph

    1985-01-01

    Examined the impact of family and demographic factors on the frequency of support from family members among a sample of 581 Blacks aged 55 years and above. The findings revealed that income, education, region, degree of family interaction, proximity of relatives, and having adult children were determinants of frequency of support. (Author/BL)

  16. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira,Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio,Raquel Sampaio; Braga Neto,Predro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference wit...

  17. Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Associated with Parenting and Family Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control), (b) parent-reported parenting behaviors…

  18. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of

  19. Voices of Family Therapy Doctoral Students of Color: Aspirations and Factors Influencing Careers in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John K.; Stone, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors influencing career aspirations of doctoral students of color in family therapy doctoral programs across the country, with a special focus on careers in the professoriate. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students at varying levels of degree completion. Respondents discussed barriers to careers in academia as…

  20. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  1. The influence of organisational factors and work-family conflict on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the influence of organisational factors and work-family role conflict on organisation commitment among working parents. The participants in the study comprise 200 employees of banking, armed forces, educational, and health institutions with a mean age 37.52 years. About 57% are men while 43.5% ...

  2. Individual and Family Factors Impacting Diabetic Control for the Adolescent: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mary; And Others

    Sixteen adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years and their parents participated in a preliminary study on the impact of family and individual factors on diabetes control for the adolescent. It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between the adolescent's perception of adolescent development, social support, depression, family…

  3. Children at Risk for Academic Failure: A Model of Individual and Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliams, Laura; Beran, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify individual and family risk factors that may explain why some students are at risk for academic failure. Students' self-concept, academic motivation, and their parents' involvement in education were reported by both students and teachers. A latent variable path model fit the data well (Comparative Fit Index…

  4. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  5. [Study on factors associated with family burden of Alzheimer' s disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Junwei; Wang, Xiaocheng; Wang, Jingying; Song, Zejing; Yu, Hongmei

    2015-09-01

    To understand the family burden of Alzheimer' s disease (AD) and associated factors. The subjects were 168 caregivers of patients with AD selected from two class 3A hospitals and three communities in Taiyuan through cluster sampling. The data were collected by using the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) and the Family Burden Scale (FBS) of diseases. Path analysis was applied to identify the factors associated with the total score of CBI. T-test and One-way analysis of variance were applied to identify the factors associated with the total score of FBS. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify the factors associated with family burden of AD. The total score of the caregivers' burden was 52.41±17.07. AD patients' cognitive function had direct (standardized β =-0.280, Pfamily burden was 16.23± 9.00. Univariate analysis showed that the sex, age, education level, cognitive function, daily performance, mental status, depression and dementia rating of AD patients might affect the total score of FBS (Paffected the total score of FBS included the sex (standardized β=0.280, Pfamily burden of AD was mainly associated with the cognitive function and daily performance of AD patients. It is necessary to take targeted measures to reduce the caregiver and family burden of AD.

  6. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  7. Are family factors universally related to metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Hoey, H.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H.; Aman, J.; Martul, P.; Chiarelli, F.; Daneman, D.; Danne, T.; Dorchy, H.; Kaprio, E. A.; Kaufman, F.; Kocova, M.; Mortensen, H. B.; Njolstad, P. R.; Phillip, M.; Robertson, K. J.; Schoenle, E. J.; Urakami, T.; Vanelli, M.; Ackermann, R. W.; Skovlund, S. E.

    Aims To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate.

  8. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  9. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…

  10. Factors Influencing Student Selection of Marriage and Family Therapy Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Katherine M.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation…

  11. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  12. Adolescent School Performance Following Parental Divorce: Are There Family Factors that Can Enhance Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Amanda; Forehand, Rex

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent school achievement and family factors which may mediate negative influence of divorce. Findings from 71 early adolescents and their recently divorced mothers revealed that adolescents with high grade point averages had mothers with lower depression, higher education, less conflict with ex-spouse, and less…

  13. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  14. The Direct and Indirect Effect of Family Factors on the Choice of a College Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, Iu. V.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Russian students shows that the choice of a major and career is strongly influenced by family characteristics, and that there are both direct and indirect influences. It is not clear, however, how much of the effect is due to differences in material resources and how much to social and cultural factors. [Translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  15. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  16. Targeting Family Risk Factors in the Context of Treating Youth Depression: A Survey of Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Olsen, James P.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.; Gamble, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and perceptions of psychologists related to targeting family risk factors when treating youth depression. Participants were practicing psychologists recruited through the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (N = 279). Psychologists completed a brief anonymous survey about addressing…

  17. Family factors and psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: From a social interactional and ecological framework, studies were reviewed that (1) compared family factors in children with epilepsy with those in children from normative groups, healthy children, children with a chronic illness, or siblings; and (2) examined the relationship between

  18. [Family and peer factors related to alcohol abuse and smoking by 15-year-old youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jakub; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the period of adolescence is to experiment with e.g. alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Both family relations and relations with peer groups can be referred to undertaking this kind of behavior by adolescents. The aim of this study was an attempt to assess relationships between joint family and peer-group relations and the frequency of binge drinking and tobacco smoking by 15-year-olds. The study was conducted in 2010/2011 within the framework of the international HBSC study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children) on a group of 1551 people aged 15 years (49.1% boys). It was carried out in schools. Items from the HBSC questionnaire were used to assess the frequency of undertaking risky behaviors. To assess the quality of relations within the family, questions from the FDM II scale (Family Dynamics Measure II) were used, whereas an abbreviated version of the IPPA (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) scale was used to assess the quality of peer relations. Three patterns of relations with family and peers were identified by the use of the cluster analysis methods (k-means method). In the group of girls the differences in the proportions in clusters reflecting the patterns of relations with the family and peers were greater than in boys. 15-year olds who had good relations with peers and poor relations with their family got drunk and smoked tobacco more often than adolescents in other clusters. The frequency of undertaking risk behavior by adolescents is associated with perceptions of social relations. Good family relations, as a protective factor, may partially reduce the negative impact of the peer group on undertaking risk behavior by adolescents. There is a need for further research to answer the question about the trends in the correspondence between the quality of family and peer relations and undertaking risk behaviors.

  19. Phosphate transport in immortalized cell cultures from the renal proximal tubule of normal and Hyp mice: evidence that the HYP gene locus product is an extrarenal factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, T; Econs, M J; Byun, J K; Martel, J; Tenenhouse, H S; Drezner, M K

    1995-09-01

    Whether renal phosphate wasting in X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) results from an intrinsic renal or humoral defect remains controversial. In studies of the murine homolog of XLH, harboring the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen, we obviated the influence of renal cell heterogeneity and impressed memory by comparing Na(+)-phosphate cotransport in immortalized cells from the S1 segment of the proximal tubule. Cells from SV40 transgenic normal and Hyp mice exhibit characteristics of differentiated proximal tubule cells including gluconeogenesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. Surprisingly, however, we found two distinct populations of cells from the S1 proximal tubule of both normal and Hyp mice. In one, PTH treatment increases cAMP accumulation, while in the other both PTH and thyrocalcitonin enhance cAMP production. Kinetic parameters for Na(+)-phosphate cotransport were similar in both subpopulations of cells from normal (Km, 0.29 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM; Vmax, 4.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.4 nmol/mg/5 minutes) and Hyp mice (0.33 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.04; 6.0 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 0.6). More importantly, phosphate transport in S1 cells of either subpopulation from Hyp mice is no different than that of normals. These data indicate that renal proximal tubule cells from Hyp mice have intrinsically normal phosphate transport and support the hypothesis that a humoral abnormality underlies renal phosphate wasting in XLH.

  20. Proximity as a key factor to narrow the relationship between supplier and its customer – a case study in the auto industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Yukio Takeno; Wagner Cezar Lucato; Rosangela Maria Vanalle; Milton Vieira Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Themodern literature shows that the Just in Time (JIT) utilization in therelationship between client and its supplier aims at optimizing the flow in thesupply chain. Nevertheless, there are other aspects to be considered for thefull utilization of the lean supply practices. Among those, the proximity triesto improve the liaison between the client and its provider of materials andcomponents as a possible response to an increasing competitiveness level. Toexplore this subject this work had the ...

  1. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities....../l higher serum total cholesterol (32%), 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) higher smoking level (5 categories) (30%), 0.15 (0.13 to 0.17) kg/m2 higher BMI (43%), and 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) cm lower height (52%). Attenuation increased with shorter age-difference between siblings. Conclusion: About one third of the educational...

  2. Schizophrenia in Malaysian families: A study on factors associated with quality of life of primary family caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Eng J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic illness which brings detrimental effects in the caregivers' health. This study was aimed at highlighting the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with the subjective Quality of Life (QOL of Malaysian of primary family caregivers of subjects with schizophrenia attending an urban tertiary care outpatient clinic in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to study patient, caregiver and illness factors associated with the QOL among 117 individuals involved with caregiving for schizophrenia patients. The study used WHOQOL-BREF to assess caregivers' QOL and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS to assess the severity of patients' symptoms. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS assessed the stress level due to life events. Results The mean scores of WHOQOL-BREF in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were 66.62 (14.36, 61.32 (15.52, 62.77 (17.33, 64.02 (14.86 consecutively. From multiple regression analysis, factors found to be significantly associated with higher QOL were higher educational level among caregivers in social and environmental domains; caregivers not having medical problem/s in physical and psychological domains; later onset and longer illness duration of illness in social domains; patients not attending day care program in environmental domain; lower BPRS score in physical and environmental domains. SRRS score of caregivers was also found to have a significant negative correlation with QOL in environmental and psychological domains. Other factors were not significantly associated with QOL. Conclusion Caregivers with more social advantages such as higher educational level and physically healthier and dealing with less severe illness had significantly higher QOL in various aspects. Supporting the caregivers in some of these modifiable factors in clinical practice is important to achieve their higher level QOL.

  3. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  4. Is family sense of coherence a protective factor against the obesogenic environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Musaad, Salma; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2016-04-01

    Despite greater risk for poor nutrition, inactivity, and overweight, some low-income children are able to maintain a healthy weight. We explore if a strong family sense of coherence (FSOC) acts as a protective factor against childhood obesity for low-income preschool children. Families with a strong FSOC view challenges as predictable, understandable, worthy of engaging, and surmountable. Data were collected from 321 low-income mothers and their preschool children in five states between March 2011 and May 2013. FSOC was assessed using the Family Sense of Coherence Scale. A 16-item checklist was used to assess practicing healthy child behaviors (fruit and vegetable consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals) and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (sweetened beverage and fast food consumption, energy dense snack availability, and screen time). Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from measured height and weight. FSOC was significantly associated with practicing healthy child behaviors (β = 0.32, p family functioning in predicting health behaviors around food consumption and availability, physical activity, and family meals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical students, money, and career selection: students' perception of financial factors and remuneration in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2009-02-01

    Medical students have had a declining interest in family medicine as a career. Some studies have shown a small inverse relationship between debt levels and primary care, but it is unclear how students perceive remuneration in different specialties and how these perceptions might influence career choice. Medical students at one school were surveyed to understand their perceptions of physician remuneration and to gain insight into how these perceptions might affect career selection. Response rate was 72% (560/781 students). Students' estimates of physician income were accurate throughout training, with the overall estimate for family medicine being lower than the actual income by only $10,656. The vast majority of students agreed with the statement that family physicians get paid too little (85%-89% of each class). The importance of payment as a factor in career decision making increased with higher debt and with advancing training. Students are able to accurately predict income by specialty from an early stage of training and have a negative perception of income in family medicine. The perception that family physicians make too little money could be an important driver--or at least a modifier--in the lack of interest in family medicine.

  6. The impact of family and peer protective factors on girls' violence perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Sieving, Renee E; Gower, Amy L

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls' violence involvement and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls' risk for violence. Data were obtained from 253 13-17-year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months after enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls' violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Accumulation of Risk and Promotive Factors Among Young Children in US Military Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cardin, Jean-Francois; Christ, Sharon; Willerton, Elaine; O'Grady, Allison Flittner; Topp, David; Coppola, Elizabeth; Lester, Patricia; Mustillo, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    In the families of the new cohort of war veterans now entering the civilian population in the United States are over two million young children (Cozza, Haskins & Lerner, 2013; Institute of Medicine, 2013). Several noteworthy studies have shown that children exposed to separation from a parent due to combat-related deployment are at elevated risk for a variety of negative consequences (Lester & Flake, 2013). Cozza et al. (2013) argue that existing studies of military children focus too much on the stresses or deficits they experience, failing to give sufficient attention to their strengths, the strengths of their families, or the supports around them. In the current study we focus on risk and promotive factors in the lives of children aged 0-10 in military families. We examine the likelihood of negative outcomes as functions of additive, cumulative, and interactive relationships between risk and promotive factors and children's outcomes. Risk factors, particularly parental depression, community poverty, and cumulative risk, were more strongly associated with children's outcomes than promotive factors. There was, however, a significant risk-protective relationship between accumulations of risk and promotive factors, consistent with promotive conditions operating in a protective fashion under conditions of elevated risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  9. Are familial factors underlying the association between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2013-01-01

    and the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product statistics. A total of 8582 monozygotic (MZ) and 15 788 dizygotic same sex (DZSS) twins were included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of prescription fillings during follow-up (1995-2005) was analysed according to education and income. Results of unpaired and intrapair......OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying...... was still strongly associated with income in the intrapair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors seem to account for part of the observed social inequality in filling of prescription medicine....

  10. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  11. Familial Aggregation of High Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Levels in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mangale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients frequently have high circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α levels. We explored circulating TNF-α levels in SLE families to determine whether high levels of TNF-α were clustered in a heritable pattern. We measured TNF-α in 242 SLE patients, 361 unaffected family members, 23 unaffected spouses of SLE patients, and 62 unrelated healthy controls. Familial correlations and relative recurrence risk rates for the high TNF-α trait were assessed. SLE-affected individuals had the highest TNF-α levels, and TNF-α was significantly higher in unaffected first degree relatives than healthy unrelated subjects (P=0.0025. No Mendelian patterns were observed, but 28.4% of unaffected first degree relatives of SLE patients had high TNF-α levels, resulting in a first degree relative recurrence risk of 4.48 (P=2.9×10-5. Interestingly, the median TNF-α value in spouses was similar to that of the first degree relatives. Concordance of the TNF-α trait (high versus low in SLE patients and their spouses was strikingly high at 78.2%. These data support a role for TNF-α in SLE pathogenesis, and TNF-α levels may relate with heritable factors. The high degree of concordance in SLE patients and their spouses suggests that environmental factors may also play a role in the observed familial aggregation.

  12. Psychological, behavioral and familial factors in obese Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.

  13. Insights into the biological functions of Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Mélanie; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-03-15

    Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in many aspects of embryonic development, regulating processes such as differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, and migration. Two families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) found in metazoans, Dbl and Dock, are responsible for the spatiotemporal activation of Rac and Cdc42 proteins and their downstream signaling pathways. This review focuses on the emerging roles of the mammalian DOCK family in development and disease. We also discuss, when possible, how recent discoveries concerning the biological functions of these GEFs might be exploited for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. Interactions of familial and hormonal risk factors for large bowel cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, P A; Taylor, J O; Trentham-Dietz, A

    1999-08-01

    Family history of colorectal cancer has been consistently associated with an increased personal risk of this disease. Since evidence suggests that hormones are related to colon cancer risk in women, the effect of family history on large bowel incidence may be modified according to endogenous and exogenous hormone levels. We analysed data from a population-based case-control study of female colorectal cancer to evaluate family history and cancer risk. Cases (n = 702) were female residents of Wisconsin with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer, identified through a statewide tumour registry. Controls (n = 2274) were randomly selected from lists of licensed drivers and from rosters of Medicare beneficiaries. All relative risks (RR) were adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and alcohol history, education, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Compared with women who reported no history of cancer in a first degree relative, women with a family history had an RR of 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-2.68). Regardless of which parent was affected, risks were increased about twofold, while sibling history was associated with about a 50% increase in risk. Risk was greater if more than one family member was affected (RR 3.65, 95% CI: 1.81-7.37). The association between family history and risk was stronger for colon cancer than for rectal cancer. There were no indications that exogenous hormonal factors, notably hormone replacement use, modified these risks. There was a suggestion that high parity attenuated the risks associated with family history (P = 0.07). These results confirm that family history of colorectal cancer is associated with a doubling of risk for large bowel cancer in women; some histories were associated with greater risk. This relation was not substantially different among subgroups of women with varying exogenous and endogenous hormone exposures.

  15. Academic failure and child-to-parent violence: Family protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Ibabe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioural problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision and penalty show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  16. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  17. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  18. Extracurricular activity participation moderates impact of family and school factors on adolescents' disruptive behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, Corine M E F

    2015-11-11

    The prevalence of problem behaviours among British adolescents has increased in the past decades. Following Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory and Bronfenbrenner's developmental ecological model, it was hypothesized that youth problem behaviour is shaped in part by social environment. The aim of this project was to explore potential protective factors within the social environment of British youth's for the presentation of disruptive behavioural problems. This study used secondary data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, a cohort study of secondary school students. These data were analysed with generalized estimation equations to take the correlation between the longitudinal observations into account. Three models were built. The first model determined the effect of family, school, and extracurricular setting on presentation of disruptive behavioural problems. The second model expanded the first model by assuming extracurricular activities as protective factors that moderated the interaction between family and school factors with disruptive behavioural problems. The third model described the effect of prior disruptive behaviour on current disruptive behaviour. Associations were found between school factors, family factors, involvement in extracurricular activities and presence of disruptive behavioural problems. Results from the second generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression models indicated that extracurricular activities buffered the impact of school and family factors on the presence of disruptive behavioural problems. For instance, participation in sports activities decreased the effect of bullying on psychological distress. Results from the third model indicated that prior acts of disruptive behaviour reinforced current disruptive behaviour. This study supports Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory and Bronfenbrenner's developmental ecological model; social environment did influence the presence of

  19. Family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity epidemic is now penetrating the developing countries including Pakistan, especially in the affluent urban population. There is no data on association of family-based factors with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. The study aimed to explore the family-based factors associated with overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1SD BMI-for-age z-score and obesity (> +2SD BMI-for-age z-score were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P Results Significant family-based correlates of overweight and obesity included higher parental education (P Conclusion Family-based factors were significantly associated with overweight and obesity among school-aged children in Pakistan. Higher parental education, living in high-income neighborhoods and fewer siblings were independent predictors of overweight. These findings support the need to design evidence-based child health policy and implement targeted interventions, considering the impact of family-based factors and involving communities.

  20. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  1. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O; Lengua, Liliana J; McMahon, Robert J

    2000-11-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent-Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship, Teacher's Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors-parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status-and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations.

  2. Family violence exposure and associated risk factors for child PTSD in a Mexican sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erolin, Kara S; Wieling, Elizabeth; Parra, R Elizabeth Aguilar

    2014-06-01

    This study was undertaken in an effort to help illuminate the deleterious effects of traumatic stress on children and families in Mexico. Rates of exposure to traumatic events, family and community violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were investigated in 87 school-age children and their mothers. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to examine potential family and ecological risk factors for the presence of child PTSD. A total of 51 children (58.6%) reported an event that met the DSM-IV A criteria, and 36 children (41.4%; 20 boys and 16 girls) met criteria for full PTSD. Traumatic exposure in this sample was considerable, particularly intense, and chronic as a result of interpersonal violence in the home and community. Results support the need for preventive systemic interventions targeting the individual level, parent-child dyadic level, and the larger cultural and community context. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interactions: An Additional Layer of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Immink, Richard G H; Angenent, Gerco C

    2017-01-01

    Specific and dynamic gene expression strongly depends on transcription factor (TF) activity and most plant TFs function in a combinatorial fashion. They can bind to DNA and control the expression of the corresponding gene in an additive fashion or cooperate by physical interactions, forming larger protein complexes. The importance of protein-protein interactions between members of a particular plant TF family has long been recognised; however, a significant number of interfamily TF interactions has recently been reported. The biological implications and the molecular mechanisms involved in cross-family interactions have now started to be elucidated and the examples illustrate potential roles in the bridging of biological processes. Hence, cross-family TF interactions expand the molecular toolbox for plants with additional mechanisms to control and fine-tune robust gene expression patterns and to adapt to their continuously changing environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family Context Factors and the Risk of Smoking among Male Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H

    2015-01-01

    Smoking behavior is related to numerous factors, including psychosocial parameters. This study investigated the association between family context factors and smoking among male adolescents. A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted during 2014. The study sampled 900 students from intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Data concerning smoking status, sociodemographic, parental and friends' smoking behavior, and family factors were collected using a self- administered questionnaire. These data were employed to estimate the prevalence of smoking using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Of 900 students, 870 completed the study questionnaire (96.7%). Of the respondents, 181 students (20.8%, 95% CI=18.1%-23.5%) were current smokers, and a much higher prevalence was observed among adolescents with most or all of their friends smoking (48.1%) and those living with neither parent (47.4%). The adjusted risk of smoking increased significantly among adolescents who lived with neither parent (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.1-9.2) and among those who reported little or no parental supervision (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.0-2.1). Family context factors are associated with an increased risk of smoking behavior among male adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Bimbo, Andrea; van der Wal, Froukje; Hennig, Lars; de Folter, Stefan; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by genetic analysis. In the TCP family, however, identification is impeded by relatively low overall sequence similarity. In a search for functionally redundant TCP pairs that control Arabidopsis leaf development, this work performed an integrative bioinformatics analysis, combining protein sequence similarities, gene expression data, and results of pair-wise protein-protein interaction studies for the 24 members of the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family. For this, the work completed any lacking gene expression and protein-protein interaction data experimentally and then performed a comprehensive prediction of potential functional redundant TCP pairs. Subsequently, redundant functions could be confirmed for selected predicted TCP pairs by genetic and molecular analyses. It is demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized class I TCP19 gene plays a role in the control of leaf senescence in a redundant fashion with TCP20. Altogether, this work shows the power of combining classical genetic and molecular approaches with bioinformatics predictions to unravel functional redundancies in the TCP transcription factor family.

  6. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and mutation analysis of factor H gene in two Tunisian families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Habibi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Imen Habibi1,Imen Sfar1,Walid Ben Alaya1, Jihen Methlouthi2, Abdelkrim Ayadi2, Mounira Brahim2, Jacques Blouin3, Raoudha Dhagbouj1, Thouraya Ben Rhomdhane1, Mouna Makhlouf1, Houda Aouadi1, Saloua Ayed-Jendoubi1, Véronique Fremeaux-bacchi3, Tahar Sfar2, Taieb Ben Abdallah1, Khaled Ayed1, Yousr Gorgi11Laboratory of Immunology, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia; 2Paediatric Department, Tahar Sfar Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia; 3Immunology Department, George Pompidou Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: We carried out a protein and genetic investigation of the ¬factor H gene mutations within two families presenting with a diagnostic suspicion of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS. The results within the patients of the first family revealed a factor H-deficiency. Direct sequencing allowed the detection of a 4-nucleotide deletion in the factor H gene. This deletion was found as the homozygote form in the proband and as the heterozygote form in the parents. Protein and functional analyses of the complement system were normal in all members of the second family. However, the molecular investigation for the father showed the presence of an amino acid substitution in the FH gene. Unfortunately, his two affected children died without being investigated for mutations. The functional consequences of these abnormal proteins are still to be demonstrated.Keywords: atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, complement, alternative pathway, factor H, deletion, nucleotide substitution

  7. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and...

  8. The effect of child, family and environmental factors on the participation of young children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marino, Erica; Tremblay, Stephanie; Khetani, Mary; Anaby, Dana

    2018-01-01

    While participation is essential to a child's health and well-being, little is known about participation patterns of young children with disabilities. This study described the participation of children with disabilities under age 6, and examined the extent to which the child's factors (i.e., age, complexity of child's condition), family factors (i.e., general family functioning, income) and environmental factors (i.e., environmental helpfulness) affect participation dimensions (frequency, involvement, desire for change) in three different settings: home, daycare/preschool and community. Cross-sectional design was employed. Parents (n = 90) of children aged 1.4-6 years old (mean = 4.15, SD = 1.03) with disabilities completed the French Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) and Family Assessment Device. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were performed to describe participation patterns and identify the significant explanatory factors in each setting. Participation restriction, based on frequency of activities, was primarily observed in the community setting. Environmental helpfulness (resources, supports) consistently explained participation levels for at least one of the dimensions across all settings, whereas contribution of the child's factors was less evident. Family functioning had a significant effect when examining participation involvement in the community and desire for change in the home setting and, in combination with environmental helpfulness, explained 18% and 21% of the variance respectively. This study emphasizes the role of the environment in supporting participation of young children with disabilities. Findings can re-direct practitioners' attention towards modifying the environment as a primary target of intervention aimed at promoting health through participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RELIGION, ETHNICITY AND FAMILY NON-ECONOMIC FACTORS OF INFLUENCE OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the times, the etiologic perspective on the underground economy is given by the economic, quasieconomic factors and issues concerning the reference of economic subjects to the criminal and fiscal standard. The noneconomic factors such as religion, ethnicity and family were either minimized or constituted the object of summary analyses. The comprehensive evaluation of the phenomenon “underground economy” cannot be made in the absence of taking into consideration of all determinant factors. The composite and multidimensional nature of the underground economy is the result of action and manifestation of economic actors seen as individual or group entities and in which family, ethnic groups (minorities or religion play an important role. The concepts of family, ethnicity, religion function by reference to norms, codes or economic, social or cultural standards. The violation, tampering and misappropriation of the meaning of some norms can have social, legal and last but not least economic consequences. In our opinion the fiscal-economic, institutional and law-marking consequences that generate and sustain the underground phenomenon could be explained and understood better if they were deciphered in a manner closer to the social context depicted by family, ethnicity and religion. Having as background the “underground economy”, some concepts such as fraud behaviour, tax morality, ethnic conflicts or entrepreneurial development (by formalizing informal activities can be interpreted with more pertinence through analysis tools: family bonds, religious habits and characteristics of ethnical groups. This paper represents a pleading for an integrative, multi causal approach of the underground phenomenon.

  10. Age-related macular degeneration: the importance of family history as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W

    2012-03-01

    Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.

  11. A prospective study of Mexican American adolescents' academic success: considering family and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Zeiders, Katherine H; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  12. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:21863379

  13. Parental and Family Factors as Predictors of Threat Bias in Anxious Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom, Jennifer B; Ginsburg, Golda S; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T; Kendall, Philip C; Keeton, Courtney P; Langley, Audra K; Piacentini, John C; Sakolsky, Dara; Albano, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relative predictive value of parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child threat bias, and family dysfunction on child's threat bias in a clinical sample of anxious youth. Participants (N = 488) were part of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal study (CAMS), ages 7-17 years (M = 10.69; SD = 2.80). Children met diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and/or social phobia. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires assessing child threat bias, child anxiety, parent anxiety and family functioning. Child age, child anxiety, parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child's threat bias and child-reported family dysfunction were significantly associated with child threat bias. Controlling for child's age and anxiety, regression analyses indicated that parents' expectation of child's threat bias and child-reported family dysfunction were significant positive predictors of child's self-reported threat bias. Findings build on previous literature by clarifying parent and family factors that appear to play a role in the development or maintenance of threat bias and may inform etiological models of child anxiety.

  14. Factors Associated with a Family's Delay of Decision for Organ Donation After Brain Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Youb; Kim, Jae Il; Lee, Eun-Woo; Jang, Hye-Yeon; Han, Kum Hyun; Oh, Se Won; Roh, Young-Nam

    2017-01-17

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the factors associated with a family's delay of decision for organ donation after brain death, and to investigate the effect of such a delay on organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Medical records and data on counseling about organ donation with the families of 107 brain-dead potential donors between September 2012 and March 2016 at a single tertiary medical center were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS The final consent rate was 58% (62/107), and successful donation was performed in 40% (43/107). Ninety-two families (86%) made a decision within 48 hours, whereas 15 (14%) required more than 48 hours for a final decision. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the independent factors associated with a decision delay were mean arterial pressure ≤60 mm Hg and coma therapy. In the early decision group (donation rates were 55% (51/92) and 39% (36/92), respectively, whereas in the delayed decision group (≥48 hours), these rates were 73% (11/15) and 47% (7/15), respectively. The consent and successful donation rates were not inferior in the delayed decision group. CONCLUSIONS These findings justify continuous efforts to maintain organ viability and to extend counseling to encourage donation even if the family cannot decide immediately.

  15. Education and adult cause-specific mortality--examining the impact of family factors shared by 871 367 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Oyvind; Hoff, Dominic A; Lawlor, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood.......To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood....

  16. Assessing diabetes support in adolescents: factor structure of the Modified Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire (M-DSSQ-Family)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the underlying factor structure of diabetes specific support using a modified diabetes family social support questionnaire, the M-DSSQ-Family, in one half of a sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, confirm it in the second half, test invariance in factor structure

  17. Family factors contribute to general anxiety disorder and suicidal ideation among Latina Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Weiss, Saskia I; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-01-01

    Despite a rapidly growing Latina/o American population, little is known about modifiable factors that could protect Latinas against major psychiatric disorders. The present study explored psychosocial risk (Negative Interaction) and protective factors (Family Cohesion, Social Support, Religious Involvement, Racial and Ethnic Identity) for major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), and suicidal ideation (SI) among Latinas participating in the first national mental health epidemiological survey of Latina Americans. We conducted three sets of logistic regressions, predicting outcomes for 1,427 Latinas identified in the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), the first nationally representative, epidemiological study of Latino and Asian Americans living in the United States. These analyses followed preplanned steps: Model 1 used known predictors as controls and Model 2 added psychosocial risk and predictive factors beyond the known predictors. For each outcome examined, psychosocial risk and protective factors produced a significantly better model fit in Model 2 than sociodemographic and acculturation variables known to predict mental health outcomes in Model 1. Negative Interactions were associated with increased likelihood of GAD and SI, whereas Family Cohesion seemed to be protective against GAD. No psychosocial factors predicted MDD. Differential protective and risk factors for major psychiatric disorders suggest that assessment and intervention may need certain sex-specific components in order to improve health care and prevention for Latinas. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Impacts of biological and family factors on lexical and intellectual development in Mandarin-speaking children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Zhu, Li-Qi

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the impacts of biological factors (age and sex) and family factors (socioeconomic status and parenting style) on the early lexical and intellectual development of children in a longitudinal tracking study. A total of 38 Mandarin-speaking children aged from 18 to 24 months were surveyed using the Putonghua Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (PCDI), the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and a self-designed Questionnaire for Parents. All of the subjects were retested using PCDI and ASQ after 6 months. Biological factors accounted for 65% of the variance in lexical development, 10% of which was attributed to gender, in the first survey. After six months, the contribution of age decreased to 26% and gender had no significant impact. Lexical development could positively predict the intellectual development of children. When age and gender were controlled, it accounted for 22% of the variance in intellectual development. Family socioeconomic factors had no significant impacts on lexical and intellectual development. Children's recognition of people and objects around them with guidance of parents in parenting styles could positively predict the intellectual development of children six months later, which accounted for 10% of the variance. Biological factors play an important role in the early lexical development of children. However, the influence decreases with the increase of age (months). Biological factors, lexical development, and parenting style have a combined influence on children's intellectual development.

  19. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan

    2004-01-01

    transport capacity and expression in the rat proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2 (SKPT), which expresses rat PEPT2 (rPEPT2) in the apical membrane. Treatment of SKPT cells with EGF during cell culture growth caused a dose-dependent decrease in rPEPT2 transport capacity and expression, as determined...... mechanisms in the proximal tubule cells. Our findings indicate that EGF decreases rPEPT2 expression by lowering transcription of the rat PepT2 gene or by decreasing rat PepT2 mRNA stability. Previous investigators routinely used SKPT cell culture media with a high (10 ng/ml) EGF concentration. Our study...... by studies of apical uptake of [14C]glycylsarcosine, rPepT2 mRNA levels, and immunostaining of SKPT cells with a rPEPT2-specific antibody. On the contrary, apical uptake of glucose and lysine was increased in EGF-treated cells, indicating that EGF was not acting generally to decrease apical nutrient uptake...

  20. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  1. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  2. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Results: Binary...... by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. Method: A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal...... logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors...

  3. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  4. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Subin Park; Yeeun Lee

    2016-01-01

    We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with livin...

  5. Auto- and cross-induction within the mammalian epidermal growth factor-related peptide family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J A; Graves-Deal, R; Pittelkow, M R; DuBois, R; Cook, P; Ramsey, G W; Bishop, P R; Damstrup, L; Coffey, R J

    1994-09-09

    Several polypeptide growth factors related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been identified recently, including transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), amphiregulin (AR), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and betacellulin (BTC). These peptides all bind to the EGF receptor (EGFr). In an effort to understand redundancy within this peptide family and interactions among these related peptides, we compared the biological activities of EGF, TGF-alpha, AR, and HB-EGF in an EGF-responsive, nontransformed intestinal epithelial line (RIE-1) and also determined the effect of individual EGF-related peptides on the expression of related family members in these cells. TGF-alpha, AR, HB-EGF, and EGF were equipotent in stimulating [3H]thymidine incorporation by RIE-1 cells and bound the EGFr with equivalent affinity. Each EGF-related peptide induced the mRNA expression of the remaining family members, including BTC. HB-EGF and AR mRNAs were induced rapidly (within 30 min) and to a greater extent than TGF-alpha and BTC mRNAs, suggesting heterogeneity in the molecular mechanisms for induction. This same pattern was observed for all EGF-related peptides tested. A similar pattern of mRNA induction was observed in secondary cultures of human keratinocytes and in LIM1215 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that induction of AR and HB-EGF is, at least in part, regulated at the level of gene transcription. Concurrent treatment with HB-EGF and cycloheximide resulted in superinduction of HB-EGF and AR, suggesting that these peptides are immediate early genes in RIE-1 cells. Our results demonstrate an equivalent biological response to EGF-related peptides in RIE-1 cells and further indicate that extensive auto-induction and cross-induction occur within the EGF-related peptide family in several EGF-responsive epithelial cell types.

  6. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  7. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles eMarco Llorca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two transcription factor families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other’s transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization.

  8. Risk factors in past histories and familial episodes related to development of testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanto, Satoru; Hiramatsu, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Satoh, Makoto; Saito, Seiichi; Fukuzaki, Atsushi; Arai, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the host factors of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients. This study was performed to address a new theory proposed by Skakkebaek called testicular dysgenesis syndrome which claims that cryptorchism, hypospadias, poor semen quality and testicular germ cell tumors are symptoms of an underlying testicular dysgenesis in uterus. The past health histories and familial episodes of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients were examined. The past health histories included cryptorchism, hypospadias, infertility, atrophic testis and inguinal hernia. Of the 240 patients, 13 (5.4%) had a history of cryptorchism or orchidopexy. Two (0.8%) showed existence of hypospadias or had experienced urethroplasty. Among 129 married couples, 104 (80.6%) couples were fertile. Three (1.3%) patients developed testicular tumors after they were diagnosed as infertile or came to the hospital with the complaints of infertility. Four (1.7%) had contralateral atrophic testis. 19 (7.9%) had experienced inguinal herniorrhaphy before age 15. Three (1.3%) had testicular germ cell tumor patients among their family or relatives. The testicular germ cell tumor patients showed a considerable incidence of complications such as cryptorchism, hypospadias and incomplete closure of processus vaginalis. Cryptorchism, perinatal factors and familial factors could be risks for developing testicular germ cell tumors.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor family and combined antisense approach in therapy of lung carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelić, Jasminka; Pavelić, Ljubomir; Karadza, Jerolim; Krizanac, Simun; Unesić, Josip; Spaventi, Sime; Pavelić, Kresimir

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perturbation in a level of any peptide from insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family (ligands, receptors, and binding proteins) seems to be implicated in lung cancer formation; IGF ligands and IGF-I receptor through their mitogenic and anti-apoptotic action, and the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6-P/IGF-IIR) possibly as a tumor suppressor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the identity, role, and mutual relationship of IGFs in lung cancer growth and...

  10. The influence of familial factors on the intelligence-mortality association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, G. T.; Osler, M.; Madsen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the widely reported inverse intelligence-mortality association could be replicated in twin intrapair analyses in which genetic and shared environmental factors are controlled for, as per the study design. Furthermore, the issue of generalizability of twin findings......-mortality associations were replicated in intrapair analyses of all twins and DZ twins where genetic and shared familial factors were partly controlled for, as per the study design. For twin pairs with a difference in intelligence test-score of half a standard deviation or more, the proportion of twin pairs in which...

  11. The Remarkably Diverse Family of T-Box Factors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkema, P G

    2017-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple metazoan animal that is widely used as a model to understand the genetic control of development. The completely sequenced C. elegans genome contains 22 T-box genes, and they encode factors that show remarkable diversity in sequence, DNA-binding specificity, and function. Only three of the C. elegans T-box factors can be grouped into the conserved subfamilies found in other organisms, while the remaining factors are significantly diverged and unlike those in most other animals. While some of the C. elegans factors can bind canonical T-box binding elements, others bind and regulate target gene expression through distinct sequences. The nine genetically characterized T-box factors have varied functions in development and morphogenesis of muscle, hypodermal tissues, and neurons, as well as in early blastomere fate specification, cell migration, apoptosis, and sex determination, but the functions of most of the C. elegans T-box factors have not yet been extensively characterized. Like T-box factors in other animals, interaction with a Groucho-family corepressor and posttranslational SUMOylation have been shown to affect C. elegans T-box factor activity, and it is likely that additional mechanisms affecting T-box factor activity will be discovered using the effective genetic approaches in this organism. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43…

  13. THE FAMILY AS A FACTOR IN THE INTEGRAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the idea of organic unity between mind and body, the interdependence of organism and environment, and the contribution of physical activity, social, emotional and physiological development today is more correct to speak of "education through the physical" than the "physical education". According to this understanding of physical education is turning into a rich activity that not only develop muscles and coordination of movements, but as a whole person - physical education is becoming the backbone of global development. On the other hand, the family is an important factor in physical education because it formed the first paragraph and the first knowledge of the importance and value of physical education. Here is a very important role of parents as well as socio-economic status of families and family circumstances which manifests as a braking or promotion of child development. It is known that children from families that have a negative attitude towards sport and physical culture in general, are usually not involved in any sport or recreational activity. Many parents do not realize the importance of physical education and physical activity for proper development of the child or at least not sufficiently aware of that importance. Therefore they are very poorly or not at all interested in the results that their children achieve in sport and physical education has a negative effect on their further development. The paper analyzes the external factors of physical development and motor skills, especially the influence of family circumstances. The aim of this paper is that analysis of previous research in this field point out the good results and pedagogical implications of established knowledge but also to the synthesis of these findings point to possible practical solutions to defined problems.

  14. Family Risk Factors Associated With Aggressive Behavior in Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shoumei; Wang, Ling; Shi, Yingjuan; Li, Ping

    The study explored family predictors of aggressive behavior in preschool children in China. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1382 preschool children were recruited from ten kindergarten schools in Shanghai, China. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)-aggression subscale, the Parent Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The mean age of the 1382 children was 4.97years (SD=.88), with 55.1% (762) boys, and 44.9% (620) girls. According to the CBCL, the prevalence of aggressive behavior in preschool children was 12.4%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family conflicts (OR = 1.231, 95% CI: 1.115-1.360), hostile/coercive parenting (OR = 1.083, 95% CI: 1.051-1.116), inconsistent parenting between grandparents and parents (OR = 1.658, 95% CI: 1.175-2.341), and more time spent watching TV (OR = 1.999, 95% CI: 1.568-2.550) significantly predicted aggressive behavior of children. Children with more family conflicts who experience hostile/coercive parenting were more likely to engage in aggressive behavior. Moreover, inconsistent parenting attitudes between grandparents and parents, and excessive TV exposure also contributed to childhood aggression. Given that the results of this study show a high prevalence of aggressive behavior in preschool children, future research must pay greater attention to this aspect. Family risk factors identified as relevant to children's aggression in this study provide avenues to develop family-focused strategies for curbing aggression in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. End-of-life care in intensive care units: family routines and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridh, Isabell; Forsberg, Anna; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family care routines and to explore environmental factors when patients die in Swedish intensive care units (ICUs). The main research questions were: what are the physical environmental circumstances and facilities when caring for patients in end-of-life and are there any routines or guidelines when caring for dying patients and their families? A questionnaire was sent to 79 eligible Swedish ICUs in December 2003, addressed to the unit managers. The response rate was 94% (n = 74 units). The findings show that, despite recommendations highlighting the importance of privacy for dying ICU patients and their families, only 11% of the respondents stated that patients never died in shared rooms in their ICU. If a patient dies in a shared room, nurses strive to ensure a dignified goodbye by moving the body to an empty room or to one specially designated for this purpose. The majority (76%) of the units had waiting rooms within the ICU. The study also revealed that there is a need for improvements in the follow-up routines for bereaved families. Many units reported (51%) that they often or almost always offer a follow-up visit, although in most cases the bereaved family had to initiate the follow-up by contacting the ICU. Guidelines in the area of end-of-life care were used by 25% of the ICUs. Further research is necessary to acquire a deeper knowledge of the circumstances under which patients die in ICUs and what impact the ICU environment has on bereaved families.

  16. Factors affecting the cultural competence of visiting nurses for rural multicultural family support in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won-Oak; Im, YeoJin

    2018-01-01

    With the recent growth of multicultural families in the Korean society, the importance of the role of qualified visiting nurses in the delivery of culturally sensitive health care has grown dramatically. As the primary health care provider for multicultural families enrolled in public community-based health care centers, the cultural competence of visiting nurses is an essential qualification for the provision of quality health care for multicultural families, especially in rural areas. Cultural competence of visiting nurses is based on their cultural awareness and empathetic attitude toward multicultural families. This study aimed to examine the levels of cultural competence, empowerment, and empathy in visiting nurses, and to verify the factors that affect the cultural competence of visiting nurses working with rural multicultural families in South Korea. Employing a cross-sectional descriptive study design, data from 143 visiting nurses working in rural areas were obtained. Data collection took place between November 2011 and August 2012. The measurement tools included the modified Korean version of the Cultural Awareness Scale, the Text of Items Measuring Empowerment, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure the level of empathy of visiting nurses. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA, a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and a multiple linear regression analysis. The cultural competence score of the visiting nurses was 3.07 on a 5-point Likert scale (SD = 0.30). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the cultural competence of visiting nurses was significantly influenced by experience of cultural education, empathy, and scores on the meaning subscale of the empowerment tool (R 2  = 10.2%). Institutional support to enhance visiting nurses' empowerment by assuring the significance of their job and specific strategies to enhance their empathy would be helpful to improve the cultural competence of visiting

  17. Associations between family factors and premarital heterosexual relationships among female college students in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Cleland, John; Mehryar, Amir Hooshang

    2011-03-01

    Although premarital heterosexual relationships, especially those involving sexual contact, are discouraged in Iran, particularly for females, a considerable minority of young people are involved in such relationships. However, the determinants of such relationships have not been identified, especially those pertaining to family. In 2005-2006, a random sample of 1,378 unmarried female college students from four universities in Tehran completed anonymous, self-administered surveys that asked whether the respondent had ever had a premarital heterosexual relationship. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between such relationships and family factors, including socioeconomic measures, parent-child communication and closeness, family values and atmosphere, and parental control. Having had a boyfriend was positively associated with paternal income (odds ratio, 1.3), maternal educational attainment (1.3) and more liberal family values (1.3), and negatively associated with parent-child closeness (0.6). Very strict and very relaxed parental control during adolescence were both associated with having had a boyfriend, but only the former was associated with having had premarital sex. In addition, respondents were more likely to have had premarital intercourse if they did not live with both parents (2.0) or if their family had more liberal values (1.3); they had reduced odds of having had sex if they had a closer relationship with their parents (0.7). Good family relationships may reduce the likelihood that youth will engage in premarital sex, possibly by fostering parent-child closeness. Moderate parental control may discourage premarital relationships more effectively than lesser or greater degrees of control.

  18. Identification, cloning and characterization of the tomato TCP transcription factor family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors, which are known to have a wide range of functions in different plant species such as in leaf development, flower symmetry, shoot branching, and senescence. Only a small number of TCP genes has been characterised from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here we report several functional features of the members of the entire family present in the tomato genome. Results We have identified 30 Solanum lycopersicum SlTCP genes, most of which have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis clearly distinguishes two homology classes of the SlTCP transcription factor family - class I and class II. Class II differentiates in two subclasses, the CIN-TCP subclass and the CYC/TB1 subclass, involved in leaf development and axillary shoots formation, respectively. The expression patterns of all members were determined by quantitative PCR. Several SlTCP genes, like SlTCP12, SlTCP15 and SlTCP18 are preferentially expressed in the tomato fruit, suggesting a role during fruit development or ripening. These genes are regulated by RIN (RIPENING INHIBITOR), CNR (COLORLESS NON-RIPENING) and SlAP2a (APETALA2a) proteins, which are transcription factors with key roles in ripening. With a yeast one-hybrid assay we demonstrated that RIN binds the promoter fragments of SlTCP12, SlTCP15 and SlTCP18, and that CNR binds the SlTCP18 promoter. This data strongly suggests that these class I SlTCP proteins are involved in ripening. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SlTCPs bind the promoter fragments of members of their own family, indicating that they regulate each other. Additional yeast one-hybrid studies performed with Arabidopsis transcription factors revealed binding of the promoter fragments by proteins involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway, contributing to the idea that these SlTCP genes are involved in the ripening process. Yeast two-hybrid data shows that SlTCP proteins can form homo and heterodimers, suggesting

  19. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  20. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  1. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  2. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of NAC Domain Transcription Factor Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) domain proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play diverse roles in various plant developmental processes. NAC transcription factors comprise of a large gene family represented by more than 100 members in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean etc. Recently, a preliminary phylogenetic analysis was reported for NAC gene family from 11 plant species. However, no comprehensive study incorporating phylogeny, chromosomal location, gene structure, conserved motifs, and expression profiling analysis has been presented thus far for the model tree species Populus. Results In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of NAC gene family in Populus was performed. A total of 163 full-length NAC genes were identified in Populus, and they were phylogeneticly clustered into 18 distinct subfamilies. The gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved among the subfamilies. The distributions of 120 Populus NAC genes were non-random across the 19 linkage groups (LGs), and 87 genes (73%) were preferentially retained duplicates that located in both duplicated regions. The majority of NACs showed specific temporal and spatial expression patterns based on EST frequency and microarray data analyses. However, the expression patterns of a majority of duplicate genes were partially redundant, suggesting the occurrence of subfunctionalization during subsequent evolutionary process. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to confirm the tissue-specific expression patterns of 25 NAC genes. Conclusion Based on the genomic organizations, we can conclude that segmental duplications contribute significantly to the expansion of Populus NAC gene family. The comprehensive expression profiles analysis provides first insights into the functional divergence among members in NAC gene family. In addition, the high divergence rate of expression patterns after segmental duplications indicates that NAC genes in

  4. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  5. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.

  6. Factors Affecting Family Physicians’ Drug Prescribing: A Cross-Sectional Study in Khuzestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Rational prescription is a considerable issue which must be paid more attention to assess the behavior of prescribers. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting family physicians’ drug prescribing. Methods We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study in Khuzestan province, Iran in 2011. Nine hundred eighty-six prescriptions of 421 family physicians (including 324 urban and 97 rural family physicians were selected randomly. A multivariate Poisson regression was used to investigate potential determinants of the number of prescribed drug per patient. Results The mean of medication per patient was 2.6 ± 1.2 items. In the majority (91.9% of visits a drugs was prescribed. The most frequent dosage forms were tablets, syrups and injection in 30.1%, 26.9%, and 18.7% of cases respectively. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were 29.7% and 17.1% of prescribed drugs respectively. The tablets were the most frequent dosage forms (38.6% of cases in adult’s patients and syrups were the most frequent dosage forms (49% of cases in less than 18 years old. Paracetamols were popular form of NSAIDs in two patients groups. The most common prescribed medications were oral form. Conclusion In Khuzestan, the mean of medication per patient was fewer than national average. Approximately, pattern of prescribed drug by family physicians (including dosage form and type of drugs was similar to other provinces of Iran.

  7. Elongation Factor-1α Accurately Reconstructs Relationships Amongst Psyllid Families (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), with Possible Diagnostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Francesco; Bulman, Simon R; Pitman, Andrew; Armstrong, Karen F

    2017-12-05

    The superfamily Psylloidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) lacks a robust multigene phylogeny. This impedes our understanding of the evolution of this group of insects and, consequently, an accurate identification of individuals, of their plant host associations, and their roles as vectors of economically important plant pathogens. The conserved nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) has been valuable as a higher-level phylogenetic marker in insects and it has also been widely used to investigate the evolution of intron/exon structure. To explore evolutionary relationships among Psylloidea, polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of a 250-bp EF-1α gene fragment was applied to psyllids belonging to five different families. Introns were detected in three individuals belonging to two families. The nine genera belonging to the family Aphalaridae all lacked introns, highlighting the possibility of using intron presence/absence as a diagnostic tool at a family level. When paired with cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences, the 250 bp EF-1α sequence appeared to be a very promising higher-level phylogenetic marker for psyllids. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Impact of demographic factors, early family relationships and depressive symptomatology in teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Tan, Louisa H; Steele, Angela; Black, Kirsten

    2004-04-01

    Teenage pregnancy has been well studied from a demographic risk perspective, but less data examining the early interpersonal family experiences of teenage mothers are available. We aimed to explore the relative impact of demographic, early interpersonal family relationships and depressive symptomatology as associations for teenage, as compared to non-teenage, childbearing. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. Data from consecutive teenage (teenage) and non-teenage (control) subgroups of antenatal women were compared. Subjects were interviewed and completed the following questionnaires: demographic, drug use and lifestyle; early life experiences; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and General Health Questionnaire-28. In multivariate analysis, the following factors had a significant independent association with younger age of motherhood in order of magnitude: a history of parental separation/divorce in early childhood; exposure to family violence in early childhood; illicit drug use (ever or in pregnancy); idealization of the pregnancy; low family income; a positive HADS-A or HADS-D subscale score; and a low level of education. Interventions to reduce the rate of teenage births need to be multifocal and should include strategies to address early childhood exposure to parental separation and violence, reduce idealization of pregnancy, diagnose psychological symptomatology and offer alternative career choices to children defaulting in the education system.

  9. Identification and characterization of the WRKY transcription factor family in Pinus monticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M

    2009-01-01

    The WRKY gene family represents an ancient and highly complex group of transcription factors involved in signal transduction pathways of numerous plant developmental processes and host defense response. Up to now, most WRKY proteins have been identified in a few angiosperm species. Identification of WRKY genes in a conifer species would facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary and function-adaptive process of this superfamily in plants. We performed PCR on genomic DNA to clone WRKY sequences from western white pine (Pinus monticola), one of the most valuable conifer species endangered by white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). In total, 83 P. monticola WRKY (PmWRKY) sequences were identified using degenerate primers targeted to the WRKY domain. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmWRKY members fell into four major groups (1, 2a+2b, 2c, and 2d+2e) described in Arabidopsis and rice. Because of high genetic diversity of the PmWRKY family, a modified AFLP method was used to detect DNA polymorphism of this gene family. Polymorphic fragments accounted for 17%-35% of total PCR products in the AFLP profiles. Among them, one WRKY AFLP marker was linked to the major resistance gene (Cr2) against C. ribicola. The results of this study provide basic genomic information for a conifer WRKY gene family, which will pave the way for elucidating gene evolutionary mechanisms in plants and unveiling the precise roles of PmWRKY in conifer development and defense response.

  10. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Stigum, Hein; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Næss, Øyvind

    2017-03-30

    Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities in the gradient using a discordant sibling design. Norwegian health survey data (1980-2003) was linked to educational and generational data. Participants with a full sibling in the health surveys (228,346 individuals in 98,046 sibships) were included. Associations between attained educational level (7-9 years, 10-11 years, 12 years, 13-16 years, or >16 years) and CVD risk factor levels in the study population was compared with the corresponding associations within siblings. Educational gradients in risk factors were attenuated when factors shared by siblings was taken into account: A one category lower educational level was associated with 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 0.8) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (27% attenuation), 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (30%), 1.0 (1.0 to 1.1) more beats per minute higher heart rate (21%), 0.07 (0.06 to 0.07) mmol/l higher serum total cholesterol (32%), 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) higher smoking level (5 categories) (30%), 0.15 (0.13 to 0.17) kg/m2 higher BMI (43%), and 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) cm lower height (52%). Attenuation increased with shorter age-difference between siblings. About one third of the educational gradients in modifiable CVD risk factors may be explained by factors that siblings share. This implies that childhood environment is important for the prevention of CVD.

  11. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Ariansen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities in the gradient using a discordant sibling design. Methods Norwegian health survey data (1980–2003 was linked to educational and generational data. Participants with a full sibling in the health surveys (228,346 individuals in 98,046 sibships were included. Associations between attained educational level (7–9 years, 10–11 years, 12 years, 13–16 years, or >16 years and CVD risk factor levels in the study population was compared with the corresponding associations within siblings. Results Educational gradients in risk factors were attenuated when factors shared by siblings was taken into account: A one category lower educational level was associated with 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 0.8 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (27% attenuation, 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (30%, 1.0 (1.0 to 1.1 more beats per minute higher heart rate (21%, 0.07 (0.06 to 0.07 mmol/l higher serum total cholesterol (32%, 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2 higher smoking level (5 categories (30%, 0.15 (0.13 to 0.17 kg/m2 higher BMI (43%, and 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2 cm lower height (52%. Attenuation increased with shorter age-difference between siblings. Conclusion About one third of the educational gradients in modifiable CVD risk factors may be explained by factors that siblings share. This implies that childhood environment is important for the prevention of CVD.

  12. A genetic risk factor for thrombophilia in a Han Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoping; Jia, Yicong; Meng, Jingye; Ou, Minglin; Zhu, Peng; Cong, Shan; Luo, Yadan; Sui, Weiguo; Dai, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Thrombophilia is a multifactorial disorder involving environmental and genetic factors. Well‑known factors that result in predisposition to congenital disorders associated with thrombophilia include antithrombin deficiency, protein C and S deficiency, Factor V Leiden mutation, abnormal prothrombin and antiphospholipid syndrome. The present study revealed an association between a mutation of the F2 gene, which codes for coagulation factor II, thrombin, and the risk of thrombophilia in a Han Chinese family, of which four members (I‑2, II‑2, II‑3 and III‑1) had a history of deep venous thromboembolism. The disease was measured in this family using laboratory measurements and computed tomography angiography. To identify the abnormality underlying the increased thrombophilia risk, whole‑exome sequencing technology was used to analyze two affected individuals (II‑2 and III‑1). An exonic missense F2 mutation, T165M (NM_000506:c.C494T:p.T165M;rs5896), was identified from a total of 2,222 and 2,203 genetic variations observed in the two affected individuals, respectively, which were subsequently filtered and confirmed using Sanger sequencing. I‑2, II‑3 and III‑1 shared this mutation with the proband (II‑2), and II‑6 had a heterozygous form of the mutation. This deleterious mutation was not identified in normal controls. The present study may improve understanding of the function of the F2 gene.

  13. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hongjiao; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B; Maddock, Jay E

    2016-01-01

    With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children's health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470) of a child between the ages of 2 and 10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Obesity prevalence (21.7%) did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96) and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96) were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47) was related to higher levels of obesity. The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  14. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  15. Genome-wide identification, classification and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in maize

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    Zhu Su-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock response in eukaryotes is transcriptionally regulated by conserved heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs. Hsf genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants and investigation of the Hsf gene family will serve to elucidate the mechanisms by which plants respond to stress. In recent years, reports of genome-wide structural and evolutionary analysis of the entire Hsf gene family have been generated in two model plant systems, Arabidopsis and rice. Maize, an important cereal crop, has represented a model plant for genetics and evolutionary research. Although some Hsf genes have been characterized in maize, analysis of the entire Hsf gene family were not completed following Maize (B73 Genome Sequencing Project. Results A genome-wide analysis was carried out in the present study to identify all Hsfs maize genes. Due to the availability of complete maize genome sequences, 25 nonredundant Hsf genes, named ZmHsfs were identified. Chromosomal location, protein domain and motif organization of ZmHsfs were analyzed in maize genome. The phylogenetic relationships, gene duplications and expression profiles of ZmHsf genes were also presented in this study. Twenty-five ZmHsfs were classified into three major classes (class A, B, and C according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 10 subclasses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the orthologs from the three species (maize, Arabidopsis and rice were distributed in all three classes, it also revealed diverse Hsf gene family expression patterns in classes and subclasses. Chromosomal/segmental duplications played a key role in Hsf gene family expansion in maize by investigation of gene duplication events. Furthermore, the transcripts of 25 ZmHsf genes were detected in the leaves by heat shock using quantitative real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that ZmHsf genes exhibit different

  16. Dominant values of family purposefulness depending on some socio-demographic factors

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    Nozikova N.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the dominant values of family purposefulness, depending on several socio-demographic factors (sex, and the presence / absence of his family according to the age. 50 girls and 50 boys of 15—18 age participated in the research; 50 women of 21—44 age and 45 men of 20—42 age, who are married and have children. Computer program Osgood of semantic differential technique modified by I.L. Solomina was applied. According to the purpose of the study there are chosen: 1 category of concepts related to the family life (people and groups, events, activities and ideal representation; 2 the concept of markers defining the basic values, stages of life, people, groups of people and attitude to them, gender concepts, activities, emotional feelings and events. It is brought out the dependence of the dominant values from sex factor. So, the girls have the dominance of the value concept “my future family”, the young men — “my future wife”. “The birth of a child” is the general dominant value for male and female, who are married and have children.

  17. Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior: Factors Mediating the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Offspring Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara; Tin, Adrienne; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Zelazny, Jamie; Burke, Ainsley Keller; Melhem, Nadine; Brent, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-reported childhood sexual abuse is associated with major depression and with suicidal behavior. The current study investigates the relationship between reported childhood abuse and the familial transmission of suicidal behavior and other related risk factors. Method 507 offspring of 271 parent probands with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were compared according to the reported childhood abuse history on demographic, diagnostic, and clinical variables related to risk for suicidal behavior. Both self-report and clinical interview measures assessed history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. The study was conducted from May 1997 to February 2004. Results Reported childhood sexual abuse, but not physical abuse, in the proband correlated with suicide attempts, posttraumatic stress disorder, earlier onset of major depressive disorder, higher levels of impulsivity, and greater likelihood of childhood sexual abuse in the offspring and was rarely perpetrated by the affected parent. A reported history of childhood physical abuse was related to more lifetime aggression in the offspring. Conclusions Reported childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for suicidal behavior in parent and offspring. Transmission of suicide risk across generations is related to the familial transmission of sexual abuse and impulsivity. Sexual abuse is not directly transmitted by the victim to the next generation and may be related to family dynamics related to sexual abuse. PMID:18373384

  18. The Familial Factors and Demographic Characteristics of Children with Drug Poisoning

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    Muzaffer Özenir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic characteristics, role of family factors, etiology and the factors affecting the prognosis in children who had been admitted to our hospital between 04 August 2007 and 24 January 2009 due to intoxication and, based on these data, to determine the preventive measures that can be taken. Methods: One hundred and one children (61 girls and 33 boys were included in the study. Patient age and sex, manner of poisoning, time between ingestion of poison and hospital admission, and attitudes and behaviors of families were recorded. Results: The poisoned patients represented 1.23%of all pediatric emergency admissions. The mean age of the patients was 6.75±5.30 years (range: 2-16. Self-poisoning was detected in 49 cases and 52 cases were accidental poisoning. It was seen that adolescent over 12 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning and children aged 2-6 years were more susceptible to accidental poisoning. Paracetamol (13.8% and amitriptyline (10.7% were the most common drugs. Conclusion: Although there are important improvements in the management of intoxication,family education and preventive measurements are of great importance. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013;51:157-61

  19. Families, nurses and organisations contributing factors to medication administration error in paediatrics: a literature review

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    Albara Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication error is the most common adverse event for hospitalised children and can lead to significant harm. Despite decades of research and implementation of a number of initiatives, the error rates continue to rise, particularly those associated with administration. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to explore the factors involving nurses, families and healthcare systems that impact on medication administration errors in paediatric patients. Design: A review was undertaken of studies that reported on factors that contribute to a rise or fall in medication administration errors, from family, nurse and organisational perspectives. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. The title, abstract and full article were reviewed for relevance. Articles were excluded if they were not research studies, they related to medications and not medication administration errors or they referred to medical errors rather than medication errors. Results: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The factors contributing to medication administration errors are communication failure between the parents and healthcare professionals, nurse workload, failure to adhere to policy and guidelines, interruptions, inexperience and insufficient nurse education from organisations. Strategies that were reported to reduce errors were doublechecking by two nurses, implementing educational sessions, use of computerised prescribing and barcoding administration systems. Yet despite such interventions, errors persist. The review highlighted families that have a central role in caring for the child and therefore are key to the administration process, but have largely been ignored in research studies relating to medication administration. Conclusions: While there is a consensus about the factors that contribute to errors, sustainable and effective solutions remain elusive. To date, families have not

  20. Homicide in the western family and background factors of a perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Anna Liisa; Remahl, Anni; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-07-01

    Familicide is a multiple-victim homicide incident in which the killer's spouse and one or more children are slain. A systematic review was conducted to reveal the background factors of western homicide perpetrators. The systematic search was performed in the Arto, Medic, Cinahl, Medline, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier and Social Services abstracts databases. The keywords were familicide, family homicide, familicide-suicide, filicide-suicide, extended suicide, child, murder, family, filicide and infanticide. The searches revealed 4139 references from the databases. The references were filtered and 32 peer-reviewed research articles revealed in years 2004-2014 were selected as data. The articles were analysed using inductive content analysis, by finding all possible background factors related to homicide. The factors were described as percentages of the range. The background factors of familicide perpetrators were categorised as follows: perpetrators who had committed homicide of a child and intimate partner and possibly committed suicide; a father had who killed a child; a mother who had killed a child; a father who had committed a filicide-suicide; and a mother who had committed a filicide-suicide. Psychological instability, violence and crime were found in all these categories of familicides. Perpetrators who had committed a suicide in addition to the familicide had more often been diagnosed with depression, but they sought treatment for mental health problems less often and had violence and self-destructiveness less often in their background than in other familicide categories. Social and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to emerging family problems and be prepared for intervention.

  1. Family history, surgery, and APC mutation are risk factors for desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis: an international cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marry H; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Bülow, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice.......Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice....

  2. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, plife satisfaction was depression (beta=0.090), monthly pocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  3. Impact of Environmental and Familial Factors in a Cohort of Pediatric Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strisciuglio, Caterina; Giugliano, Francesca; Martinelli, Massimo; Cenni, Sabrina; Greco, Luigi; Staiano, Annamaria; Miele, Erasmo

    2017-04-01

    The primary role of environment on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) onset has been recently stressed. We aimed to investigate the effect of environmental factors in an IBD pediatric cohort. A total of 467 subjects (264 IBD and 203 controls) were enrolled. All patients underwent a questionnaire including 5 different groups of environmental risk factors: family history of IBD and autoimmune diseases, perinatal period, home amenities and domestic hygiene, childhood diseases and vaccinations, and diet. In a multivariate model, mother's degree (odds ratio [OR]: 5.5; 2.5-11.6), duration of breast feeding >3rd month (OR: 4.3; 1.6-10.5), father's employment (OR: 3.7; 1.2-8.7), gluten introduction environmental factors are closely linked to IBD onset and may partly explain IBD rise in developed countries.

  4. Factors influencing use of family planning in women living in crisis affected areas of Sub-Saharan Africa: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Kelly; Zielinski, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    far too many women continue to die from pregnancy and childbirth related causes. While rates have decreased in the past two decades, some areas of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa continue to have very high maternal mortality rates. One intervention that has been demonstrated to decrease maternal mortality is use of family planning and modern contraception, yet rates of use in sub-Saharan countries with the highest rates of maternal death remain very low. to review available research and summarize the factors that inhibit or promote family planning and contraceptive use among refugee women and women from surrounding areas living in Sub-Saharan Africa. a review of the literature. Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), OVID, power search, and PubMed databases. studies included were: (1) published in English from 2007 to present; (2) primary research; and (3) focused on family planning and contraceptive use among refugee women and women in surrounding areas. Findings were discussed within the framework of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Utilization of modern contraceptive methods was low. Women were socially influenced to avoid the use of contraceptives by husbands and others in the community. Reasons were a lack of trust in western medicine and the desire to have large families. Low socioeconomic status and proximity of family planning clinics were barriers to access. Women believed that health care providers were unqualified, many described being treated with disrespect in the health clinics. Knowledge and understanding of contraceptives was low; while most women knew different methods were available, there were many misconceptions. Believing that certain contraceptives cause death, infertility and side effects, contributed to fear of use. This lack of knowledge and fear, even with the desire to space and limit births, affected motivation to use

  5. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  6. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  7. Exploration of Individual and Family Factors Related to Community Reintegration in Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Helene; Winter, Laraine; Robinson, Keith; True, Gala; Piersol, Catherine; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Iacovone, Dolores Blazer; Holbert, Laura; Newhart, Brian; Fishman, Deborah; Short, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed. Instruments measured CR, depressive symptoms, physical health, quality of the relationship with the family member, and sociodemographics. Posttraumatic stress disorder and TBI characteristics were determined through record review. Five variables that exhibited significant bivariate relationships with CR (veteran rating of quality of relationship, physical functioning, bodily pain, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and depressive symptoms) were entered into hierarchical regression analysis. In the final analysis, the five variables together accounted for 35% of the variance, but only depression was a significant predictor of CR, with more depressed veterans exhibiting lower CR. Efforts to support CR of Veterans with TBI should carefully assess and target depression, a modifiable factor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Can family risk-factors moderate the link between psychopathy and life-history strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.

  9. Behavioral and Pharmacological Adherence in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Parent-Child Agreement and Family Factors Associated With Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Page H; Carmody, Julia K; Belkin, Mary H; Janicke, David M

    2017-04-21

    This study aimed to evaluate agreement between children and parents on a measure of behavioral and pharmacological adherence in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), and the associations among family factors (i.e., problem-solving skills, routines, communication) and adherence behaviors. In all, 85 children (aged 8-18 years) with SCD and their parents completed questionnaires assessing individual and family factors. Overall parent-child agreement on an adherence measure was poor, particularly for boys and older children. Greater use of child routines was associated with better overall child-reported adherence. Open family communication was associated with higher overall parent-reported adherence. While further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn, results suggest the need to assess child adherence behaviors via both child and parent reports. Findings also suggest that more daily family routines and open family communication may be protective factors for better disease management.

  10. Krüppel Like Factors Family Expression in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; la Cruz, Hugo Arreola-De; Taniguchi-Ponciano, Keiko; Gomez-Virgilio, Laura; Huerta-Padilla, Victor; Ponce-Navarrete, Gustavo; Andonegui-Elguera, Sergio; Jimenez-Vega, Florinda; Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Rodriguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Meraz-Rios, Marco; Figueroa-Corona, Ma Del Pilar; Monroy, Alberto; Pérez-González, Oscar; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2017-05-01

    Krüppel Like Factors (KLF) refers to a family of seventeen members of transcription factors. Involved in several cellular processes. As other cancer types, Cervical Cancer (CC) presents molecular deregulations in transcription factors, but especially Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sequences. Here in this work we analyzed the mRNA expression of all KLF family members in CC-derived cell lines and CC tissues. The cell lines used were HeLa, INBL, RoVa, C4-I, Ms751, ViPa, CaLo, SiHa, CaSki, C33a and ViBo and the non-tumorigenic HaCaT. mRNA expression was analyzed by means of expression microarray and RT-PCR, and KLF5 protein by immunofluorescence. The cell lines were grouped according to HPV genotype as HPV16, HPV18 positive or HPV negative cells. Heterogeneous expression was observed among the cell lines. Despite the heterogeneous expression profile, KLF3, -5, -12, -15 and -16 transcripts were present in all cell lines, KLF4 and -10 which were not expressed in CaSki; KLF11 and 13 were not expressed by Vipa and C4-I, and KLF7 was not expressed by C4-I and Rova. The CC tissue analysis shows expression of most of the KLF members, such as KLF5. KLF5 immunosignal was positive in the three cell lines analyzed. We suggest that KLF expression could not be related to HPV presence/genotype, at least at transcriptional level, and the expression of KLF family members may be necessary in the biology of the CC cells. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bullying, abuse and family conflict as risk factors for chronic pain among Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, J S; Vogel, I; de Waart, F; Westendorp, T; Timman, R; Busschbach, J J V; van de Looij-Jansen, P; de Klerk, C

    2015-11-01

    Psychosocial stress seems to serve as an important risk factor for the occurrence of pain. The present study aims to examine if early adversities, e.g. bullying, abuse and family conflict are risk factors for chronic pain in adolescents. The secondary aim of the present study was to describe the pain characteristics of chronic pain in adolescents in a community sample of Dutch adolescents. Participants in the present study were 15,220 adolescents, attending schools (grade 7 and 8) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Chronic pain was measured with a newly developed questionnaire; the Pain Barometer. Early adversities were measured using single-item questions from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal youth health surveillance system. Cross-sectional associations between early adversities and chronic pain were investigated using logistic multilevel analysis, adjusted for potential confounding. In school year 2010-2011, 9.2% of the 15,220 adolescents reported chronic pain. Physical abuse by others (OR = 1.51, 95% CI =  1.07-2.14), sexual abuse (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.05), family conflict (OR = 1.79, 95% C = 1.61-1.99) and being bullied (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.17-1.29) are more common in adolescents with chronic pain. Physical abuse (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.95-1.71) by parents and parental divorce (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.93-1.22) were not significantly related to chronic pain. The results of the present study suggest that bullying, abuse and family conflict may be risk factors for chronic pain in adolescents. Early signalling these stressors might prevent chronic pain. Early adversities, i.e. physical and sexual abuse, being bullied and family conflict, might be risk factors for developing chronic pain. In addition, the present study suggests that chronic pain is common among Dutch adolescents and interferes with their daily activities. If future studies confirm our results, this knowledge can be used to improve the signalling and prevention of

  12. Familial factors and child characteristics as predictors of injuries in toddlers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Grøgaard, Jens Bernard; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family and child characteristics that put toddlers at risk of injuries. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants The study sample consisted of 26 087 children and their mothers. Outcome measures Family and child characteristics measured before or at 18 months of age were investigated as potential predictors of hospital-attended injuries that occurred between 18 and 36 months of age. Results In the multivariable analysis, younger maternal age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.00), financial problems (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.39), maternal mental distress (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16), having older siblings (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.39), increased gestational age at birth (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07) and male gender (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) were risk factors for hospital-attended injuries. Children with impaired gross motor development had a decreased risk of injury (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.99), whereas those with impaired fine motor development had an increased risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.97). Shyness was a protective factor (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.98). Children with three reported attention problems had a slightly increased risk of hospital-attended injuries (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.72; p=0.035); otherwise, behaviour was not a significant risk factor. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a wide variety of factors were in play as predictors of injuries in young children. Both child-related factors (gender, gestational age at birth, child motor development, shyness and attention) and familial factors (having older siblings, maternal age, financial difficulties and maternal mental health problems) were associated with injuries in toddlers. PMID:22403343

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  14. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  15. The joint impact of family history of myocardial infarction and other risk factors on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J M; Feskens, E.J.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the impact of family history of myocardial infarction on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality. Men and women with a family history had an increased risk for coronary heart disease death, irrespective of other risk factors (RR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.17-2.13 and RR = 2.12; 95% CI =

  16. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  17. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors...

  18. MATERNAL RISK FACTORS AS DETERMINANTS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AMONG ARMED FORCES FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilashrami, M C; Virk, R S; Ganguly, S S; Chatterjee, K

    2000-04-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is responsible for a significant proportion of child morbidity and mortality apart from its possible role in the occurrence of chronic disease in adult life. This study highlights the overall low incidence of LBWs at 13.6% among the Armed Forces families. The Other Ranks had a proportionally higher incidence of LBW at 24.14%. 82.14% of the LBWs occurred in the age group of 20-29 yrs, with only 6.93% of the births being teenage pregnancies. Primiparous women accounted for 54.95% of births but 75% of the LBWs. Smoking was not a significant factor. The findings underscore the need for special attention to other rank families and primiparas. A continued effort at updating the health care facilities provided to the Armed Forces families, and a concerted health and dietary advice by the authorised medical attendants, directed at the primiparous women, will further help lower the incidence of LBWs. The National LBW target of less than 10% by 2000 AD is definitely achievable by the Armed Forces.

  19. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu zipper (bZIP TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes. Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in ten different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones.

  20. Evolution and Classification of the T-Box Transcription Factor Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, A; Ruiz-Trillo, I

    2017-01-01

    T-box proteins are key developmental transcription factors in Metazoa. Until recently they were thought to be animal specific and many T-box classes were considered bilaterian specific. Recent genome data from both early-branching animals and their closest unicellular relatives have radically changed this scenario. Thus, we now know that T-box genes originated in premetazoans, being present in the genomes of some extant early-branching fungi and unicellular holozoans. Here, we update the evolutionary classification of T-box families and review the evolution of T-box function in early-branching animals (sponges, ctenophores, placozoans, and cnidarians) and nonmodel bilaterians. We show that concomitant with the origin of Metazoa, the T-box family radiated into the major known T-box classes. On the other hand, while functional studies are still missing for many T-box classes, the emerging picture is that T-box genes have key roles in multiple aspects of development and in adult terminal cell-type differentiation in different animal lineages. A paradigmatic example is that of Brachyury, the founding member of the T-box family, for which several studies indicate a widely conserved role in regulating cell motility in different animal lineages and probably even before the advent of animal multicellularity. Overall, we here review the evolutionary history of T-box genes from holozoans to animals and discuss both their functional diversity and conservation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Local gene regulation details a recognition code within the LacI transcriptional factor family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Camas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA sequences exhibits no clear patterns of association between amino acids (AAs and nucleotides (NTs. This complexity of protein-DNA interactions raises the question of whether a simple set of wide-coverage recognition rules can ever be identified. Here, we analyzed this issue using the extensive LacI family of transcriptional factors (TFs. We searched for recognition patterns by introducing a new approach to phylogenetic footprinting, based on the pervasive presence of local regulation in prokaryotic transcriptional networks. We identified a set of specificity correlations--determined by two AAs of the TFs and two NTs in the binding sites--that is conserved throughout a dominant subgroup within the family regardless of the evolutionary distance, and that act as a relatively consistent recognition code. The proposed rules are confirmed with data of previous experimental studies and by events of convergent evolution in the phylogenetic tree. The presence of a code emphasizes the stable structural context of the LacI family, while defining a precise blueprint to reprogram TF specificity with many practical applications.

  2. THE ROLE OF FAMILY FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADAPTIVE ABILITIES OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альфия Равилевна Вагапова

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Discusses the problem of development of adaptive abilities of graduates of schools. This paper discusses theoretical approaches to understanding the role of parental family in adaptation process. It is shown that the integral indicators of social and psychological adaptation depends on understanding of parental attitudes high school students , and the acceptability of the parental model determined by the level of conflict in the family. The use of complex techniques allowed us to study possible options for child-parent interaction (n = 40. In the case of identical types of parental behavior at display positive interest increase the values and adaptation possibilities. Ways of understanding of parental attitudes as a guideline, inconsistent, contradictory lead to reduction in integrative indicators of social and psychological adaptation. Also identified by sex - differences, it is shown that the most important for high school students has a positive perception of the father's position, as in the case of deviations difficult adaptation process, there is a trend toward a closed position to face interpersonal interaction. In the event of heightened conflict in parent-child relationship is noted difficult and unacceptable understanding of the parental role . The author comes to the conclusion that family factors play a significant role in the development of adaptive abilities. Applied aspect of research problem can be implemented in practice of psychological counseling services, and to develop programs to optimize the adaptation process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-7

  3. Phylogenetic analysis and positive-selection site detecting of vascular endothelial growth factor family in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwu; Tang, Yanyan; Qi, Bin; Lu, Chuansen; Qin, Chao; Wei, Yunfei; Yi, Jiachao; Chen, Mingwu

    2014-02-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), known to play an important role in vascular homeostasis, vascular integrity and angiogenesis, is little known about the evolutionary relationship of its five members especially the role of gene duplication and natural selection in the evolution of the VEGF family. In this study, seventy-five full-length cDNA sequences from 33 vertebrate species were extracted from the NCBI's GenBank, UniProt protein database and the Ensembl database. By phylogenetic analyses, we investigated the origin, conservation, and evolution of the VEGFs. Five VEGF family members in vertebrates might be formed by gene duplication. The inferred evolutionary transitions that separate members which belong to different gene clusters correlated with changes in functional properties. Selection analysis and protein structure analysis were combined to explain the relationship of the site-specific evolution in the vertebrate VEGF family. Eleven positive selection sites, one transmembrane region and the active sites were detected in this process. © 2013.

  4. Evolutionary Origin, Gradual Accumulation and Functional Divergence of Heat Shock Factor Gene Family with Plant Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, evolved a complex and functionally diverse heat shock factor (HSF gene family to cope with various environmental stresses. However, the limited evolution studies of the HSF gene family have hindered our understanding of environmental adaptations in plants. In this study, a comprehensive evolution analysis on the HSF gene family was performed in 51 representative plant species. Our results demonstrated that the HSFB group which lacks a typical AHA activation domain, was the most ancient, and is under stronger purifying selection pressure in the subsequent evolutionary processes. While, dramatic gene expansion and functional divergence occurred at evolution timescales corresponding to plant land inhabit, which contribute to the emergence and diversification of the HSFA and HSFC groups in land plants. During the plant evolution, the ancestral functions of HSFs were maintained by strong purifying pressure that acted on the DNA binding domain, while the variable oligomerization domain and motif organization of HSFs underwent functional divergence and generated novel subfamilies. At the same time, variations were further accumulated with plant evolution, and this resulted in remarkable functional diversification among higher plant lineages, including distinct HSF numbers and selection pressures of several HSF subfamilies between monocots and eudicots, highlighting the fundamental differences in different plant lineages in response to environmental stresses. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the evolutionary origin, pattern and selection pressure of plant HSFs and delineates critical clues that aid our understanding of the adaptation processes of plants to terrestrial environments.

  5. Factors affecting teachers' attitudes and practice of family life education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, A A; Oyedeji, S O; Johnson, T O

    1992-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by 700 secondary school teachers in Nigeria's Lagos, Kaduna, and Cross-River States revealed a generally positive attitude toward family life education. 53.56% of respondents were female and 31.5%% were or had been married. Their average age was 28.3 years. One third of the teachers were not parents, and only 15.5% had children as old as their students. The teachers expressed agreement with the importance of school-based sex education (71.6%), the potential for family planning to improve health (82.9%), concern with rapid population growth (68.7%), and awareness that teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are major social problems in Nigeria (84.7% and 74.9%, respectively). Most identified ages 10-14 years as the ideal time to talk to children about sex. Half considered it the mother's responsibility to provide sex education, and most felt it is easier to talk to a female child. 45% of teachers agreed that contraceptive services should be available to adolescents. The factors associated with a positive attitude toward family life education were female sex, single marital status, Christian religion, and teaching in a coeducational school.

  6. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Health Knowledge among Freshman College Students with a Family History of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamragouri, Ravikiran N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular health knowledge, perception of risk factors, and health behavior of 69 freshmen with a family history of cardiovascular disease with 154 freshmen without this history. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  8. An Analysis of Family as a Factor Affecting Purchase Decision Process I n Terms Of Costumers of Travel Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramazan Pars Şahbaz; Mustafa Cüneyt Şapçılar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the differences between family factor and kinds of products/services which consumers buy from travel agents, reasons for choosing travel agencies and sources...

  9. Staff Factors Contributing to Family Satisfaction with Long-Term Dementia Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Katharine; Patterson, Tom G; Muers, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review was to critically evaluate empirical evidence regarding staff factors that contribute to families' satisfaction with ongoing care provision for their relatives with dementia in long-term care. Four databases were systematically searched using search terms informed by the aim of the present systematic review. The resulting 14 relevant articles comprised both qualitative and quantitative studies. The findings highlighted three broad areas relating to staff factors that appeared to contribute to families' satisfaction with care provision: family related factors, relating to staff interaction with families; staffing related factors, focusing on staffing organization and composition; and client related factors, focusing on staff interaction with clients and the quality of care provided. The findings have important implications for care staff and managers working in such settings regarding staffing organization, staff training, recruitment and retention. Future research directions are discussed. Families want consistent, knowledgeable staff that interact well and respond appropriately to the needs of their relative as well as their own needs as family members. Staff training in such settings should therefore focus not only on staff education but also on the importance of establishing effective relationships with both clients and families.

  10. SOX family transcription factors involved in diverse cellular events during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2015-12-01

    In metazoa, SOX family transcription factors play many diverse roles. In vertebrate, they are well-known regulators of numerous developmental processes. Wide-ranging studies have demonstrated the co-expression of SOX proteins in various developing tissues and that they occur in an overlapping manner and show functional redundancy. In particular, studies focusing on the HMG box of SOX proteins have revealed that the HMG box regulates DNA-binding properties, and mediates both the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SOX proteins and their physical interactions with partner proteins. Posttranslational modifications are further implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional activities of SOX proteins. In this review, we discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the SOX-partner factor interactions and the functional modes of SOX-partner complexes during development. We particularly emphasize the representative roles of the SOX group proteins in major tissues during developmental and physiological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of life, family burden and associated factors in relatives with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Erdinc; Cicek, Ismet Esra; Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kaya, Nazmiye

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life (QoL), family burden and psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to compare them with healthy controls and their relatives. Forty patients with OCD and 47 of their first-degree relatives as well as 40 healthy subjects and 45 of their first-degree relatives were recruited in this study. OCD and comorbid anxiety or mood disorders were determined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Comorbid Axis II disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Type and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the disability of patients with OCD was evaluated with the WHO DAS II. Family burden and QoL in the relatives were evaluated with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) protocol and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief, respectively. The mean ZBI score of family members of OCD patients was higher than the control relatives. Linear regression analysis indicated that the independent factors associated with ZBI were duration of OCD, comorbid major depressive disorder and poorer insight. Compared with those of control relatives, the QoL of relatives of patients with OCD was significantly lower in all domains. While the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in relatives of OCD patients was significantly higher than the control relatives, the diagnosis of any anxiety disorder did not differ. Our study provides evidence that OCD not only affects the lives of patients but also their family members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MarR family transcription factors: dynamic variations on a common scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deochand, Dinesh K; Grove, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Members of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors are critical for bacterial cells to respond to chemical signals and to convert such signals into changes in gene activity. Obligate dimers belonging to the winged helix-turn-helix protein family, they are critical for regulation of a variety of functions, including degradation of organic compounds and control of virulence gene expression. The conventional regulatory paradigm is based on a genomic locus in which the gene encoding the MarR protein is divergently oriented from a gene under its control; MarR binding to the intergenic region controls expression of both genes by changing the interaction of RNA polymerase with gene promoters. MarR protein oxidation or binding of a small molecule ligand adversely affects DNA binding, resulting in altered expression of the divergent genes. The generality of this simple paradigm, including the regulation of Escherichia coli MarR by direct binding of antibiotics, has been challenged by reports published in recent years. In addition, structural and biochemical analyses of ligand binding to numerous MarR homologs are converging to identify a shared ligand-binding "hot-spot". This review highlights recent research advances that point to shared features, yet at the same time highlights the remarkable flexibility with which members of this protein family implement responses to inducing signals. A more comprehensive understanding of protein function will pave the way towards the development of both antibacterial agents and biosensors that are based on MarR family proteins.

  13. Consumption pattern of lipids and the factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Pasdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing appropriate edible oils and right consumption amounts play an important role in the promotion of public health and prevention of chronic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate the consumption level of various edible oils and factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 500 families selected from six different areas using multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face to face interview using a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire about consumption of different edible oils. Descriptive statistics and regression and chi-square tests were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean of edible oil consumption was 69.75±3.8 g/day per capita, more than half of which (34.7±2.2 g/day was supplied by hydrogenated fat. 31.4% of total daily energy intake was supplied by lipids from which 15.6% was supplied by hydrogenated fat, that is higher than the recommended level, maximum 10% (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and rising consumption of oils instead of fats (r=0.2, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that the daily consumption of hydrogenated fat was higher than half of the lipids consumed by families. Given the complications resulting from saturated fat consumption, decreasing the production of hydrogenated fat and increasing the nutritional knowledge of families through public media and educational programs are highly recommended.

  14. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppari Jorma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct

  15. [Limiting and facilitating factors of changes in the care of families of the critically ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaforteza Lallemand, C; García Mozo, A; Amorós Cerdá, S M; Pérez Juan, E; Maqueda Palau, M; Delgado Mesquida, J

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in an intensive care unit (UCI), with the general purpose of fostering change in clinical practice so as to improve the care offered to families of critically ill patients. As a result of this process, four change-related initiatives were introduced. One specific additional objective was to explore how the unit's background context limited or facilitated change. This paper presents findings based on this objective. Qualitative methodology. Participatory-action research (PAR). DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES: 11 discussion groups incorporating professionals, 5 in-depth interviews with professionals, field diaries kept by the participants, and field diary kept by the lead researcher. Eleven professionals took part in the discussion groups (each one conveyed information made known to them by 3-5 colleagues), 5 professionals were involved in the interviews, and 11 professionals filled in a field diary. A content analysis was performed. Factors limiting change included: 1) Not acknowledging the legitimacy of scientific evidence regarding the families of critically ill patients; 2) Imbalanced power relationships among the members of multi-disciplinary teams; 3) Nurses' lack of involvement in information flow; 4) The organization of time and physical space in the unit. Factors facilitating change: 1) A sense of individual and shared commitment; 2) Leadership in day-to-day matters; 3) A process based on reflection. A process of participatory action research can lead to change in clinical practice, although this is complex and requires substantial input in terms of personal energy. Contextual factors limiting this change are related to the actual structure of the unit, while factors facilitating it are circumstantial ones and are dependent upon individual people. In this sense, professionals working at the bedside are capable of introducing changes to the context in which they work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y

  16. Dissecting the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders on the basis of familial-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Victor; Fañanás, Lourdes; Martín-Reyes, Migdyrai; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2017-09-14

    This study examines the familial aggregation (familiality) of different phenotypic definitions of catatonia in a sample of multiplex families with psychotic and mood disorders. Participants were probands with a lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV functional psychotic disorder, their parents and at least one first-degree relative with a psychotic disorder. The study sample included 441 families comprising 2703 subjects, of whom 1094 were affected and 1609 unaffected. Familiality (h 2 ) was estimated by linear mixed models using family membership as a random effect, with h 2 indicating the portion of phenotypic variance accounted for by family membership. Familiality estimates highly varied for individual catatonia signs (h 2 =0.17-0.65), principal component analysis-derived factors (h 2 =0.29-0.49), number of catatonia signs present (h 2 =0.03-0.43) and severity of the catatonia syndrome (h 2 =0.25-0.59). Phenotypes maximizing familiality estimates included individual signs (mutism and rigidity, both h 2 =0.65), presence of ≥5 catatonia signs (h 2 =0.43), a classical catatonia factor (h 2 =0.49), a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome at a severity level of moderate or higher (h 2 =0.59) and the diagnostic construct of psychosis with prominent catatonia features (h 2 =0.56). Familiality estimates of a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome did not significantly differ across the diagnostic categories of psychotic and mood disorders (h 2 =0.40-0.47). The way in which catatonia is defined has a strong impact on familiality estimates with some catatonia phenotypes exhibiting substantial familial aggregation, which may inform about the most adequate phenotypes for molecular studies. From a familial-genetic perspective, the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders has a transdiagnostic character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with research interest and activity during family practice residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, J L; Hunter, P H; Beasley, J W

    1994-02-01

    Family medicine lacks a tradition of research training during residency. Previous studies of research during residency have surveyed faculty to assess residents' research interests. In contrast, we directly assessed research interest and activity during residency by surveying all 203 Wisconsin family practice residents. The survey instrument was a questionnaire that included questions about the appropriateness of research experience, interest in pursuing research during residency, involvement in research, and perceptions regarding program research support. The importance of factors that encourage research were evaluated. We then used stepwise discriminant analysis to assess whether residents with different levels of interest in research had different perceptions about program support and environmental factors that promote research. Of 143 respondents, most (85%) felt research experience was desirable, and 48% were interested in pursuing research during residency. Only 8% were active in research. Although faculty were perceived as having sufficient research skills and encouraging resident research, few residents responded that dedicated time, seminars on goals and methods of family practice research, or funding were available. Residents with research interests were more likely to respond that their faculty had sufficient research skills and knowledge. Active researchers rated time availability and access to resource personnel as highly important. Those interested, but not active, rated basic information, assistance in identifying topics, and a forum for presentation as highly important. Exposure to skilled and knowledgeable faculty researchers may stimulate interest in research. Teaching research goals and methods, assisting in identifying topics, and providing research forums, especially early in residency, may promote research activity. Dedicated time for research and availability of resource personnel will enhance this activity.

  18. Family history, comorbidity, smoking and other risk factors in microscopic colitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickbom, Anna; Nyhlin, Nils; Montgomery, Scott M; Bohr, Johan; Tysk, Curt

    2017-05-01

    Data on heredity, risk factors and comorbidity in microscopic colitis, encompassing collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), are limited. The aim was to carry out a case-control study of family history, childhood circumstances, educational level, marital status, smoking and comorbidity in microscopic colitis. A postal questionnaire was sent in 2008-2009 to microscopic colitis patients resident in Sweden and three population-based controls per patient, matched for age, sex and municipality. Some 212 patients and 627 controls participated in the study. There was an association with a family history of microscopic colitis in both CC [odds ratio (OR): 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-50.4, P=0.004] and LC (OR not estimated, P=0.008). Current smoking was associated with CC [OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.2, Pcolitis (UC) (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.2-33.7, P=0.002), thyroid disease (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5, P=0.02), coeliac disease (OR: 13.1; 95% CI: 2.7-62.7, P=0.001), rheumatic disease (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0-3.5, P=0.042) and previous appendicectomy (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8, P=0.003), and LC with UC (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 1.7-28.0, P=0.008), thyroid disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, P=0.037) and coeliac disease (OR: 8.7; 95% CI: 2.8-26.7, Pmicroscopic colitis indicates that familial factors may be important. The association with a history of UC should be studied further as it may present new insights into the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis and UC.

  19. Family, school, and community factors and relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M

    2003-09-01

    This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement.

  20. Premorbid adjustment profiles in psychosis and the role of familial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quee, Piotr J; Meijer, Julia H; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, André; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Meijer, Carin J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-08-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and the role of familial factors. A total of 666 patients with psychosis (predominantly schizophrenia), 673 siblings, 575 parents, and 585 controls were included in this study. Cluster analyses were performed on the patients' scores of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS), using information on domains (social, academic) and age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence). Resulting profiles were compared with characteristics in patients and their unaffected relatives. Six clusters, labeled normal, social intermediate, academic decline, overall decline, overall intermediate, and overall impaired adjustment, were identified in patients. Patients in different clusters differed from each other on cognitive, clinical, and functional characteristics after disease onset. Heterogeneity in the patient population may be explained in part by the adjustment profile prior to disease onset. This is in line with theories that propose different etiologies in the development of psychosis. Patient profiles were expressed in unaffected siblings, suggesting a role for familial factors. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Psychological, social and familial factors associated with tobacco cessation among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The younger individuals quit smoking, the greater the health benefits. We studied the role of adolescent and concurrent psychological, social and familial factors in successful tobacco cessation in a general population sample of French young adults. Our data came from participants of the TEMPO cohort study and their parents (members of the GAZEL cohort study) in France. Among regular smokers (n = 678), Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios of self-reported tobacco cessation of at least 12 months in relation to individual and socioenvironmental variables. On average, participants (mean: 28.9 years) smoked for 10.51 years (SD = 5.9); the majority had attempted to quit smoking at least once (59.5%). In multiple regression analyses, cannabis use in the preceding year and recent financial difficulties were both negatively associated with successful smoking cessation. Conversely, living with a partner and, for women only, recent pregnancy or childbirth were associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco cessation. This study highlights the importance of young adults' cannabis use, family situation and socioeconomic context with regard to their smoking behavior. Physicians and public health decision makers aiming to decrease the burden of tobacco smoking should take into consideration these social and behavioral factors.

  2. Family risk factors and adolescent substance use: moderation effects for temperament dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, T A; Sandy, J M; Yaeger, A; Shinar, O

    2001-05-01

    This research tested for moderation in the relation of family risk factors (parent-child conflict, family life events, and parental substance use) to adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana). A sample of 1,810 participants was surveyed at the mean age of 11.5 years and followed with 2 yearly assessments. Temperament dimensions were assessed with the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey and the Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability Inventory. Multiple-group latent growth analyses indicated moderation occurred through (a) alteration of effects of parental variables on the adolescent substance use intercept and on the peer substance use intercept and slope and (b) alteration of the effect of the peer substance use intercept on the adolescent substance use slope. The impact of parental risk factors was decreased among participants with higher task attentional orientation and positive emotionality (resilience effect) and was increased among participants with higher activity level and negative emotionality (vulnerability effect). Results from self-report data were corroborated by independent teacher reports.

  3. An Evaluation of Mi Familia No Fuma: Family Cohesion and Impact on Secondhand Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jon; Kelly, Michael; Garcia, Pema; Taylor, Thom

    2010-01-01

    Background: Family cohesion may be a factor to prevent exposure of Hispanics in United States to secondhand smoke. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate one permutation of Mi Familia No Fuma (MFNF) and its resulting outputs or proximal client outcomes. Methods: MFNF is an approach to secondhand smoke prevention, using family cohesion…

  4. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-time. In addition, N = 7472 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, or conduct disorders in the family. Furthermore, male sex, more recent year of birth, and living in the capital city of Copenhagen were also significantly associated with having SUD. The family load explained 30% of the SUD manifestation in the case-probands. The findings in the total SUD group were mostly replicated in the two major subgroups of pure alcohol or multiple substance use disorders. These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide additional evidence for the strong family aggregation and further risk factors in SUD. The pattern of risk factors is largely the same for the total group of SUD and the major subgroups of pure alcohol and multiple substance use disorders.

  5. The predictive factors for perceived social support among cancer patients and caregiver burden of their family caregivers in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oven Ustaalioglu, Basak; Acar, Ezgi; Caliskan, Mecit

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify the predictive factors for the perceived family social support among cancer patients and caregiver burden of their family caregivers. Participants were 302 cancer patients and their family caregivers. Family social support scale was used for cancer patients, burden interview was used for family caregivers.All subjects also completed Beck depression invantery. The related socio-demographical factors with perceived social support (PSS) and caregiver burden were evaluated by correlation analysis. To find independent factors predicting caregiver burden and PSS, logistic regression analysis were conducted. Depression scores was higher among patients than their family caregivers (12.5 vs. 8). PSS was lower in depressed patients (p < .001). Family caregiver burden were also higher in depressive groups (p < .001). Among patients only the depression was negatively correlated with PSS (p < .001, r = -2.97). Presence of depression (p < .001, r = 0.381) was positively correlated and family caregiver role was negatively correlated (p < .001, r = -0.208) with caregiver burden. Presence of depression was the independent predictor for both, lower PSS for patients and higher burden for caregivers. The results of this study is noteworthy because it may help for planning any supportive care program not only for patients but together with their caregiver at the same time during chemotherapy period in Turkish population.

  6. Family quality of life among families with a child who has a severe neurodevelopmental disability: Impact of family and child socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Mitchell; Karni-Visel, Yael; Tamir, Ada; Genizi, Jacob; Roth, Dana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine family quality of life (FQOL) of Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability and its relation to socio-demographics. The cohort included caregivers of 70 children ages (mean ± standard deviation) 5.36 ± 3.53 years. Families were two-parent (85.7%), lived in the periphery (67.1%) and included Jews (60%), Muslims (18.6%), Druze (14.3%) and Christians (7.1%). Religiosity included: secular (38.6%), traditional (31.4%), religious (30%). Children's diagnosis included autistic spectrum disorder (41.4%), intellectual disability (21.4%), cerebral palsy (17.1%), genetic syndromes (17.1%) and sensorineural hearing loss (2.9%). Degree of support (1-minimal,5-greatest) required by the child was 3.67 ± 1.28 for physical and 3.49 ± 1.36 for communication. Primary caregivers completed the FQOL Survey. Domain scores were highest for family relations and lowest for financial well-being. Dimension scores were highest for importance and lowest for opportunities. Overall FQOL approximated average. Jewish families and residents of a major urban area reported higher and more religious families reported lower overall FQOL. Regression analysis found ethnicity contributing to overall FQOL and domain scores with residence contributing to support from services. Ethnicity and child dependence contributed to dimension scores. Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability report average FQOL scores. However, family and child dependence characteristics affect FQOL scores. Professionals working with these families should consider FQOL information when making recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golovey L.A; Savenysheva S.S; Engelgardt E.E

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children...

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  9. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  10. The fibroblast growth factor 8 family in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estienne, Anthony; Price, Christopher A

    2018-01-01

    Several growth factor families have been shown to be involved in the function of the female reproductive tract. One subfamily of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, namely the FGF8 subfamily (including FGF17 and FGF18), has become important as Fgf8 has been described as an oocyte-derived factor essential for glycolysis in mouse cumulus cells and aberrant expression of FGF18 has been described in ovarian and endometrial cancers. In this review, we describe the pattern of expression of these factors in normal ovaries and uteri in rodents, ruminants and humans, as well as the expression of their receptors and intracellular negative feedback regulators. Expression of these molecules in gynaecological cancers is also reviewed. The role of FGF8 and FGF18 in ovarian and uterine function is described, and potential differences between rodents and ruminants have been highlighted especially with respect to FGF18 signalling within the ovarian follicle. Finally, we identify major questions about the reproductive biology of FGFs that remain to be answered, including (1) the physiological concentrations within the ovary and uterus, (2) which cell types within the endometrial stroma and theca layer express FGFs and (3) which receptors are activated by FGF8 subfamily members in reproductive tissues. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-wide classification and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. Plant MYB proteins are characterized by a highly conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. MYB proteins are classified into four major groups namely, 1R-MYB, 2R-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB based on the number and position of MYB repeats. MYB transcription factors are involved in plant development, secondary metabolism, hormone signal transduction, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. A comparative analysis of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis will help reveal the evolution and function of MYB genes in plants. Results A genome-wide analysis identified at least 155 and 197 MYB genes in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that MYB family genes possess relatively more number of introns in the middle as compared with C- and N-terminal regions of the predicted genes. Intronless MYB-genes are highly conserved both in rice and Arabidopsis. MYB genes encoding R2R3 repeat MYB proteins retained conserved gene structure with three exons and two introns, whereas genes encoding R1R2R3 repeat containing proteins consist of six exons and five introns. The splicing pattern is similar among R1R2R3 MYB genes in Arabidopsis. In contrast, variation in splicing pattern was observed among R1R2R3 MYB members of rice. Consensus motif analysis of 1kb upstream region (5′ to translation initiation codon) of MYB gene ORFs led to the identification of conserved and over-represented cis-motifs in both rice and Arabidopsis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that several members of MYBs are up-regulated by various abiotic stresses both in rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusion A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of chromosomal distribution, tandem repeats and phylogenetic relationship of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggested their evolution via duplication. Genome-wide comparative analysis of MYB genes and their expression analysis

  13. Risk factors for post-operative periprosthetic fractures following primary total hip arthroplasty with a proximally coated double-tapered cementless femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, K; Bersang, A; Nielsen, C S

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify patient- and surgery-related risk factors for sustaining an early periprosthetic fracture following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed using a double-tapered cementless femoral component (Bi-Metric femoral stem; Biomet Inc., Warsaw, Indiana...... ratio were recorded post-operatively. Periprosthetic fractures were identified and classified according to the Vancouver classification. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early periprosthetic fracture. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 713 days (1 to 2058). A total of 48...... significant two times increased risk over time for post-operative fracture. CONCLUSION: Dorr type C is an independent risk factor for early periprosthetic fracture, following THA using a double tapered cementless stem such as the Bi-Metric. Surgeons should take bone morphology into consideration when planning...

  14. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Stroke in Familial Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Bird, Thomas D; Bennett, David A; Boeve, Bradley F; Brickman, Adam M; Cruchaga, Carlos; Faber, Kelley; Foroud, Tatiana M; Farlow, Martin; Goate, Alison M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Lantigua, Rafael; Manly, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Rosenberg, Roger; Schaid, Daniel J; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Sweet, Robert A; Mayeux, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The contribution of cardiovascular disease (CV) and cerebrovascular disease to the risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been long debated. Investigations have shown that antecedent CV risk factors increase the risk for LOAD, although other investigations have failed to validate this association. To study the contribution of CV risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease) and the history of stroke to LOAD in a data set of large families multiply affected by LOAD. The National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease family study (hereinafter referred to as NIA-LOAD study) is a longitudinal study of families with multiple members affected with LOAD. A multiethnic community-based longitudinal study (Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project [WHICAP]) was used to replicate findings. The 6553 participants in the NIA-LOAD study were recruited from 23 US Alzheimer disease centers with ongoing data collection since 2003; the 5972 WHICAP participants were recruited at Columbia University with ongoing data collection since 1992. Data analysis was performed from 2003 to 2015. Generalized mixed logistic regression models tested the association of CV risk factors (primary association) with LOAD. History of stroke was used for the secondary association. A secondary model adjusted for the presence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. A genetic risk score, based on common variants associated with LOAD, was used to account for LOAD genetic risk beyond the APOE ε4 effect. Mediation analyses evaluated stroke as a mediating factor between the primary association and LOAD. A total of 6553 NIA-LOAD participants were included in the analyses (4044 women [61.7%]; 2509 men [38.3%]; mean [SD] age, 77.0 [9] years), with 5972 individuals from the WHICAP study included in the replication sample (4072 women [68.2%]; 1900 men [31.8%]; mean [SD] age, 76.5 [7.0] years). Hypertension was associated

  16. Co-Localization of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1, Casein Kinase-2β, and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells as Demonstrated by Dual Immunofluorescence and in Situ Proximity Ligation Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Sahil S; Nygard, Karen; Dhruv, Manthan R; Biggar, Kyle; Abu Shehab, Majida; Shun-Cheng Li, Shawn; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2017-10-14

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 influences fetal growth by modifying insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) bioavailability. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation, which markedly increases its affinity for IGF-I, is regulated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and casein kinase (CSNK)-2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the cellular localization and potential interactions of IGFBP-1, CSNK-2β, and mTOR as a prerequisite for protein-protein interaction. Analysis of dual immunofluorescence images indicated a potential perinuclear co-localization between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β and a nuclear co-localization between CSNK-2β and mTOR. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) indicated proximity between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β as well as mTOR and CSNK-2β but not between mTOR and IGFBP-1. Three-dimensional rendering of the PLA images validated that IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β interactions were in the perinuclear region and mTOR and CSNK-2β interactions were predominantly perinuclear rather than nuclear as indicated by mTOR and CSNK-2β co-localization. Compared with control, hypoxia and rapamycin treatment showed markedly amplified PLA signals for IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β (approximately 18-fold, P = 0.0002). Stable isotope labeling with multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry demonstrated that hypoxia and rapamycin treatment increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at Ser98/Ser101/Ser119/Ser174 but most considerably (106-fold) at Ser169. We report interactions between CSNK-2β and IGFBP-1 as well as mTOR and CSNK-2β, providing strong evidence of a mechanistic link between mTOR and IGF-I signaling, two critical regulators of cell growth via CSNK-2. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire in Latino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles T; Perreira, Krista M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan M; Bentley, Margaret E; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Thompson, Amanda L

    2016-05-01

    Parent feeding practices affect risk of obesity in children. Latino children are at higher risk of obesity than the general population, yet valid measure of feeding practices, one of which is the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ), have not been formally validated in Spanish. To validate the IFSQ among Latino families, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis of pressuring, restrictive, and responsive feeding constructs from the IFSQ. The IFSQ was administered at the 12-month visit in the Greenlight study, a multi-center cluster randomized trial to prevent obesity. Parents were included if they were of Latino origin (n = 303) and completed an English or Spanish language modified IFSQ (without the indulgence construct). Scores from nine sub-constructs of the IFSQ were compared between English and Spanish language versions. We tested reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and performed confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor loadings and goodness of fit characteristics, modifying constructs to achieve best fit. Of 303 parents completing the IFSQ, 84% were born outside the US, and 74% completed the IFSQ in Spanish. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.28 to 0.61 for the laissez-faire sub-constructs and from 0.58 to 0.83 for the pressuring, restrictive, and responsive sub-constructs. Results for all coefficients were similar between participants responding to an English and Spanish version of the IFSQ. Goodness of fit indices ranged from CFI 0.82-1 and RMSEA 0.00-0.31, and the model performed best in pressuring-soothing (CFI 1.0, RMSEA 0.00) and restrictive-amount (CFI 0.98, RMSEA 0.1) sub-constructs. In a sample of Latino families, pressuring, restrictive, and responsive constructs performed well. The modified IFSQ in both English and Spanish-speaking Latino families may be used to assess parenting behaviors related to early obesity risk in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Roadway Proximity with Fasting Plasma Glucose and Metabolic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in a Cross-Sectional Study of Cardiac Catheterization Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease needs to be better understood in order to address the adverse impact o.f air pollution on human health.Objective: We examined associations between roadway proximi...

  19. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes –174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR = 1.23, IC95% 1.01–1.5 and highest levels of hsCRP (p = 0.02, whereas genotype –572 GG was associated with T2D (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.04–1.47 with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.02–1.51. The genotypes –174 GC/CC and –572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  20. Family and individual factors associated with substance involvement and PTS symptoms among adolescents in greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L; La Greca, Annette M; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and their parents were interviewed at the adolescent's intake into substance abuse treatment, 16 to 46 months postdisaster. Independent measures included hurricane impact variables (initial loss/disruption and perceived life threat); demographic and predisaster variables (family income, gender, predisaster adolescent substance use, predisaster trauma exposure, and parental substance abuse); postdisaster family factors (parental psychopathology, family cohesion, and parental monitoring); and postdisaster adolescent delinquency. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that adolescent substance involvement was associated with higher family income, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency. Adolescent-reported PTS symptoms were associated with greater hurricane-related initial loss/disruption, lower family cohesion (adolescent report), and more adolescent delinquency, whereas parent-reported adolescent PTS symptoms were associated with greater parental psychopathology, lower parental monitoring (adolescent report), and lower family cohesion (parent report). The results suggest that hurricane impact was related only to adolescent-reported PTS. However, certain postdisaster family and individual risk factors (low family cohesion and parental monitoring, more adolescent delinquency) were associated both with adolescent substance involvement and with PTS symptoms. Identification of these factors suggests directions for future research as well as potential target areas for screening and intervention with substance-abusing adolescents after disasters. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing the family consent rate for organ donation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, W; Allen, J; Manara, A R; Murphy, P G; Gardiner, D; Poppitt, E

    2016-09-01

    The refusal rate for organ donation in the UK is 42%, among the highest in Europe. We extracted data on every family approach for donation in UK ICUs or Emergency Departments between 1st April 2012 and 30th September 2013, and performed multiple logistic regression to identify modifiable factors associated with consent. Complete data were available for 4703 of 4899 approaches during the study period. Consent for donation after brain death was 68.9%, and for donation after circulatory death 56.5% (p organ donation in the approach were strongly associated with consent (p donation after circulatory death than for donation after brain death, even after accounting for the impact of prior knowledge of patients' wishes. Involvement of the specialist nurse in the approach, encouraging family discussions about donation wishes and promotion of the organ donor register are key strategies to increase UK consent rates, and are supported by this study. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Diminished criminal responsibility ofalcohol intoxicated homicide offenders according ofdemographic factors, family rate and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sieradzka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol intoxication is commonly considered as a risk factor of a criminal offence. This study is an attempt to assess selected demographic data, family situation, and alcohol dependence in homicide offenders or a severe body injury in relation to a judgment of diminished criminal responsibility. The examined group consisted of 90 suspects in the pub‑ lic prosecutor’s investigation. The subjects underwent a six-week forensic psychiatry observation during 2004–2008 at the Forensic Psychiatry Unit in High Security Prison No in Łódź. Analysed retrospectively was the medical documentation collected during the forensic psychiatry observation, including available medical documentation and categorical forensic psychiatry observation opinions issued by two expert psychiatrists. According to the collected materials, it was established that in the performed study none of the offenders who during ethanol intoxication committed a homicide or a severe body injury was acknowledged to be criminally responsible. A greatly diminished criminal responsibility was significantly more frequently evaluated in the case of divorced subjects who were not witnesses to aggression in their families and were not punished with a court verdict. Among the subjects with a greatly diminished criminal responsibility the alcohol dependence was diagnosed much less frequently. Besides, the offenders with a great‑ ly diminished criminal responsibility were older than those with a slightly diminished responsibility and evaluated as criminally responsible.

  4. Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2006-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are a group of proteins that control cellular processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Recent progress has been made in the cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis TFs on the genome scale, especially on the cloning of open reading frames (ORFs), sequence analysis and the expression profiling of different TF families. Huge difference in numbers of subfamily members were found for Arabidopsis MYB, C2H2 (Zn), C3H-type 1 (Zn), C3H-type 2 (Zn) TFs by independent research groups, mainly because of differences in bioinformatic search stringency. However, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain very different numbers of TFs in the WRKY, NAC, bZIP, MADS, ALFIN-like, GRAS and C2C2 (Zn)-dof families, indicating a possible divergence of biological functions from dicots to monocots. TFs have also been found to play key roles in the biosynthesis and signaling of plant hormones, in cell growth and differentiation, and in photomorphogenesis.

  5. Evaluation of phytochemicals from medicinal plants of Myrtaceae family on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Sianglum, Wipawadee; Saising, Jongkon; Lethongkam, Sakkarin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2017-05-01

    Virulence factors regulated by quorum sensing (QS) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of an opportunistic human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in causing infections to the host. Hence, in the present work, the anti-virulence potential of the medicinal plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals from Myrtaceae family was evaluated against P. aeruginosa. In the preliminary screening of the tested medicinal plant extracts, Syzygium jambos and Syzygium antisepticum demonstrated a maximum inhibition in QS-dependent violacein pigment production by Chromobacterium violaceum DMST 21761. These extracts demonstrated an inhibitory activity over a virulence factor, pyoverdin, production by P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 23 and 12 phytochemicals from the extracts of S. jambos and S. antisepticum respectively. Three top-ranking phytochemicals, including phytol, ethyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, selected on the basis of docking score in molecular docking studies lowered virulence factors such as pyoverdin production, protease and haemolytic activities of P. aeruginosa to a significant level. In addition, the phytochemicals reduced rhamnolipid production by the organism. The work demonstrated an importance of plant-derived compounds as anti-virulence drugs to conquer P. aeruginosa virulence towards the host. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Novel factor H mutation associated with familial membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandary, Hadas; Davidovits, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a rare disease, accounting for 3-5% of all cases of primary nephritic syndrome. We report an uncommon case of familial MPGN type I associated with a new mutation in the complement factor H gene (CFH). Clinical data were collected on three siblings with known factor H deficiency who presented with MPGN. All underwent immunological and genetic assays. Their parents and ten healthy adults served as controls for the DNA analysis. All three children presented with recurrent episodes of hematuria and proteinuria, the youngest starting at age 5 months. One child currently has nephrotic syndrome and end-stage renal disease. All of the children were found to be homozygous for a C.262C > A (p.Pro88Thr) mutation in exon 3 of CFH that is associated with a quantitative/functional deficiency of factor H. The parents of the three siblings were found to be heterozygous for the mutation. None of the controls carried this mutation. Different mutations in CFH may be responsible for different glomerular diseases, including MPGN type I. A modifier gene or an environmental trigger may contribute to this phenotype-genotype discrepancy. Understanding the role of the alternative complement pathway in this disease would allow us to offer these patients more targeted therapy, including a clinical trial of eculizumab.

  7. Molecular phylogenetic and expression analysis of the complete WRKY transcription factor family in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai-Fa; Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wu, Ling-Juan; Xie, Dao-Xin

    2012-04-01

    The WRKY transcription factors function in plant growth and development, and response to the biotic and abiotic stresses. Although many studies have focused on the functional identification of the WRKY transcription factors, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression analysis of the complete WRKY family in maize. In this study, we identified 136 WRKY proteins coded by 119 genes in the B73 inbred line from the complete genome and named them in an orderly manner. Then, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five species was performed to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these WRKY genes, and the result showed that gene duplication is the major driving force for the origin of new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. Chromosomal location analysis of maize WRKY genes indicated that 20 gene clusters are distributed unevenly in the genome. Microarray-based expression analysis has revealed that 131 WRKY transcripts encoded by 116 genes may participate in the regulation of maize growth and development. Among them, 102 transcripts are stably expressed with a coefficient of variation (CV) value of transcripts produced by 25 WRKY genes with the CV value of >15% are further analysed to discover new organ- or tissue-specific genes. In addition, microarray analyses of transcriptional responses to drought stress and fungal infection showed that maize WRKY proteins are involved in stress responses. All these results contribute to a deep probing into the roles of WRKY transcription factors in maize growth and development and stress tolerance.

  8. Identification and expression profiles of the WRKY transcription factor family in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Liang-Bo; Guo, Dong; Li, Chang-Zhu; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2012-07-25

    In plants, WRKY proteins constitute a large family of transcription factors. They are involved in many biological processes, such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. A large number of WRKY transcription factors have been reported from Arabidopsis, rice, and other higher plants. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of castor bean (Ricinus communis) has allowed a genome-wide search for R. communis WRKY (RcWRKY) transcription factors and the comparison of these positively identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. A total of 47 WRKY genes were identified in the castor bean genome. According to the structural features of the WRKY domain, the RcWRKY are classified into seven main phylogenetic groups. Furthermore, putative orthologs of RcWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice could now be assigned. An analysis of expression profiles of RcWRKY genes indicates that 47 WRKY genes display differential expressions either in their transcript abundance or expression patterns under normal growth conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning.Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors.Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents.Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00.Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  10. Familial Associations of Intense Preoccupations, an Empirical Factor of the Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Domain of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Lang, Colleen M.; Kryzak, Lauren; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical heterogeneity of autism likely hinders efforts to find genes associated with this complex psychiatric disorder. Some studies have produced promising results by restricting the sample according to the expression of specific familial factors or components of autism. Previous factor analyses of the restricted, repetitive…

  11. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  12. Aggressive, Delinquent, and Violent Outcomes of School Bullying: Do Family and Individual Factors Have a Protective Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bender, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Bullying perpetration at school is a long-term predictor of aggression, delinquency, and violence. Most research concentrates on risk factors for such developments, whereas protective factors have been rarely addressed. Therefore, the present study investigates potentially protective effects of family and child characteristics in a prospective…

  13. School, Family, and Peer Factors and Their Association with Substance Use in Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how relationships among family, school, and peer factors relate to likelihood of substance use in Hispanic adolescents. Results indicated that only perceived peer substance use was directly related to adolescents’ own substance use. A significant interaction was found between parental monitoring and peer use vis-à-vis substance use, which suggests that the relationship between parental monitoring and the adolescents’ own use was significantly stronger among youth who reported that more of their friends used substances. Implications of these results for the design of substance use preventive interventions are discussed. Editors’ Strategic Implications: This research is promising both in terms of the implications for targets of prevention programming and for the application of ecodevelopmental theory, which might guide similar efforts with different cultural groups. PMID:19949868

  14. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: psychosocial factors and adjustment of pediatric patient and his/her family. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Marín, Marián; Gómez-Rico, Irene; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disease in children, with a very low incidence in the first months of life and reaching its peak during puberty (10-15 years old is the age group with the highest incidence at the time of onset). Based on the review of the scientific literature, our objective is to study the main psychosocial factors associated with the adjustment of these pediatric patients and their families. Research underscore the following risk factors: situational (stressful life events), personal (additional physical diseases, low self-esteem, emotional disturbances), and interpersonal (family breakdown and conflicts), and also protection factors (coping strategies, social support, fluent communication). There is a pressing need to deal with the disturbances that affect these diabetic patients and their families, by implementing effective health care psychological interventions that take into account psychosocial factors associated with the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  15. B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF behaves as an acute phase reactant in acute pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Pongratz

    Full Text Available To determine if B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF acts as an acute phase reactant and predicts severity of acute pancreatitis.40 patients with acute pancreatitis were included in this single center cohort pilot study. Whole blood and serum was analyzed on day of admission and nine consecutive days for BAFF, c-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, procalcitonin (PCT, and leucocyte numbers. Different severity Scores (Ranson, APACHE II, SAPS II, SAPS III and the clinical course of the patient (treatment, duration of stay, duration ICU were recorded.Serum BAFF correlates with CRP, an established marker of severity in acute pancreatitis at day of admission with a timecourse profil similar to IL-6 over the first nine days. Serum BAFF increases with Ranson score (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 10.8; p = 0.03 similar to CRP (Kruskal-Wallis: Chi2 = 9.4; p = 0.05 . Serum BAFF, IL-6, and CRP levels are elevated in patients that need intensive care for more than seven days and in patients with complicated necrotizing pancreatitis. Discriminant analysis and receiver operator characteristics show that CRP (wilks-lambda = 0.549; ROC: AUC 0.948 and BAFF (wilks-lambda = 0.907; ROC: AUC 0.843 serum levels at day of admission best predict severe necrotizing pancreatitis or death, outperforming IL-6, PCT, and number of leucocytes.This study establishes for the first time BAFF as an acute phase reactant with predictive value for the course of acute pancreatitis. BAFF outperforms established markers in acute pancreatitis, like IL-6 and PCT underscoring the important role of BAFF in the acute inflammatory response.

  16. T-box family of transcription factor-TBX5, insights in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting; Qiao, Longwei; Wang, Qian; Mi, Rui; Chen, Jinnan; Lu, Yaojuan; Gu, Junxia; Zheng, Qiping

    2017-01-01

    The T-box gene family refers to a group of transcription factors that share a highly conserved, sequence-specific DNA-binding domain (T-box) containing around 180-amino acids. According to HUGO gene nomenclature committee (HGNC), there are 18 T-box family members. These T-box genes have been implicated essential roles during embryogenesis and cardiac development, given their specific expression pattern in developing mammalian heart for several T-box genes, including TBX5. TBX5 is consisted of three transcriptional variants which cover 9 exons and encode two distinct isoforms that differ in N-terminus. TBX5 is probably the most frequently studied T-box gene over the past decade due to the typical cardiac defects observed in Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), which is caused by TBX5 mutation. Most of the mutations are within exons 3-7 where locate sequence coding for the T-box domain. Notably, a variety of cardiac defects, as well as abnormalities in limb and other organs have been seen in HOS syndrome with different kinds of TBX5 mutations, suggesting a heterogeneous disease mechanism. We have performed a meta-analysis of TBX5 and found a significant correlation between its single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3825214 (A to G), and risk of atrial fibrillation and its subtypes, supporting TBX5 as a master transcription factor for cardiac development. In addition, bioinformatics analysis of this SNP identified several TFs that may be affected for their binding affinity with TBX5. Identification and characterization of more TBX5 mutations and SNPs hold promise for therapeutic strategy targeting TBX5 associated developmental abnormalities and diseases.

  17. Identification and characterization of NF-Y transcription factor families in Canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mingxiang; Yin, Xiangzhen; Lin, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Qingsong; Liu, Guohong; Zhao, Gengmao

    2014-01-01

    NF-Y (NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y), a heterotrimeric transcription factor, is composed of NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC proteins in yeast, animal, and plant systems. In plants, each of the NF-YA/B/C subunit forms a multi-member family. NF-Ys are key regulators with important roles in many physiological processes, such as drought tolerance, flowering time, and seed development. In this study, we identified, annotated, and further characterized 14 NF-YA, 14 NF-YB, and 5 NF-YC proteins in Brassica napus (canola). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NF-YA/B/C subunits were more closely clustered with the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) homologs than with rice OsHAP2/3/5 subunits. Analyses of the conserved domain indicated that the BnNF-YA/B/C subfamilies, respectively, shared the same conserved domains with those in other organisms, including Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis, and Oryza sativa (rice). An examination of exon/intron structures revealed that most gene structures of BnNF-Y were similar to their homologs in Arabidopsis, a model dicot plant, but different from those in the model monocot plant rice, suggesting that plant NF-Ys diverged before monocot and dicot plants differentiated. Spatial-tempo expression patterns, as determined by qRT-PCR, showed that most BnNF-Ys were widely expressed in different tissues throughout the canola life cycle and that several closely related BnNF-Y subunits had similar expression profiles. Based on these findings, we predict that BnNF-Y proteins have functions that are conserved in the homologous proteins in other plants. This study provides the first extensive evaluation of the BnNF-Y family, and provides a useful foundation for dissecting the functions of BnNF-Y.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of auxin response factor (ARF gene family in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yirong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxin signaling is vital for plant growth and development, and plays important role in apical dominance, tropic response, lateral root formation, vascular differentiation, embryo patterning and shoot elongation. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are the transcription factors that regulate the expression of auxin responsive genes. The ARF genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants. The first draft of full maize genome assembly has recently been released, however, to our knowledge, the ARF gene family from maize (ZmARF genes has not been characterized in detail. Results In this study, 31 maize (Zea mays L. genes that encode ARF proteins were identified in maize genome. It was shown that maize ARF genes fall into related sister pairs and chromosomal mapping revealed that duplication of ZmARFs was associated with the chromosomal block duplications. As expected, duplication of some ZmARFs showed a conserved intron/exon structure, whereas some others were more divergent, suggesting the possibility of functional diversification for these genes. Out of these 31 ZmARF genes, 14 possess auxin-responsive element in their promoter region, among which 7 appear to show small or negligible response to exogenous auxin. The 18 ZmARF genes were predicted to be the potential targets of small RNAs. Transgenic analysis revealed that increased miR167 level could cause degradation of transcripts of six potential targets (ZmARF3, 9, 16, 18, 22 and 30. The expressions of maize ARF genes are responsive to exogenous auxin treatment. Dynamic expression patterns of ZmARF genes were observed in different stages of embryo development. Conclusions Maize ARF gene family is expanded (31 genes as compared to Arabidopsis (23 genes and rice (25 genes. The expression of these genes in maize is regulated by auxin and small RNAs. Dynamic expression patterns of ZmARF genes in embryo at different stages were detected which suggest that maize ARF genes may

  19. The proximal pathway of metabolism of the chlorinated signal molecule differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Morandini, P.; Offer, J.; Traynor, D.; Nayler, O; Neuhaus, D; Taylor, G W; Kay, R R

    1995-01-01

    Stalk cell differentiation during development of the slime mould Dictyostelium is induced by a chlorinated alkyl phenone called differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1). Inactivation of DIF-1 is likely to be a key element in the DIF-1 signalling system, and we have shown previously that this is accomplished by a dedicated metabolic pathway involving up to 12 unidentified metabolites. We report here the structure of the first four metabolites produced from DIF-1, as deduced by m.s., n.m.r. an...

  20. Resilience factors associated with adaptation in families with deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlert, Ingrid A; Greeff, Abraham P

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to identify and explore resilience qualities that help protect and support families facing the adversity associated with having a child with hearing loss. The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation (M. A. McCubbin & H. I. McCubbin, 1993, 1996) provided the study's theoretical framework. The 54 participating families resided in Western Cape Province, South Africa, and were identified according to the nature of the crisis (having a child with hearing loss) and the family's developmental phase. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used for data collection. The results showed that family time and routines, social support, affirming communication, family hardiness, problem-solving skills, religion, a search for meaning, and acceptance of the child's hearing status were associated with family resilience. Strengthening these elements helps families to grow, meet challenges, and reestablish balance and harmony within the family system.

  1. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract View references (39) Objective This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. Method A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were...... born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-Time. In addition, N = 7472 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched...... for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. Results SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety...

  2. Depressive symptoms in parents of adolescents with myelomeningocele: the association of clinical, adolescent neuropsychological functioning, and family protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Timothy J; Woodrome, Stacey E; Fastenau, Philip S; Buran, Constance F; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if neuropsychological functioning and family protective factors are related to depressive symptoms in parents of adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC). Fifty adolescents (28 females, 22 males; predominately Caucasian; ages 12-21 years, M=15.7, SD=2.4) and their parents from a large Midwestern MMC Program participated in a cross-sectional descriptive mixed-methods study. Participants completed measures of adolescent clinical status (WeeFIM®, Demographic and Clinical Information Form), neuropsychological (NP) functioning, family protective factors and parents' depressive symptoms. Parents' depressive symptoms correlated significantly with NP functioning in the domains of Mental Processing Speed, Psychomotor Speed, Executive Functioning, Fine Motor Skills, and Language, and with each self-reported family protective factor. Multiple regression analysis revealed independent main effects for the NP variable, Executive Functioning and the Family Protective Factors Composite (p 0.10). Clinicians are especially encouraged to include assessment of parental depressive symptoms if the adolescent has executive functioning impairments or if the parents have few family protective factors.

  3. The Promotive and Protective Effects of Family Factors in the Context of Peer and Community Risks for Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kuhn, Alison M; Farrell, Albert D

    2016-04-01

    A clearer understanding of the promotive factors that reduce adolescents' involvement in aggression and the protective factors that mitigate the influence of risk factors that emerge during adolescence is needed to inform prevention efforts. This study examined the promotive and protective influences of family factors on physical aggression using data collected from aggressive and socially-influential adolescents (N = 537; 35 % female) at the beginning of sixth grade and at three subsequent waves across the following 3 years. Family characteristics (i.e., better family functioning, higher perceived parental support for nonviolence, and lower parental support for fighting) at the start of the sixth grade exerted promotive effects that reduced levels of aggression at subsequent waves. Some support was also found for protective influences. A foundation of good family functioning at the start of sixth grade buffered adolescents from the risks from delinquent peers, from the spring of sixth grade to the spring of seventh grade. Low parental support for fighting reduced risks associated with witnessing community violence, from the fall to the spring of sixth grade, but at low levels of risk only. These findings suggest that interventions targeting high-risk adolescents might benefit by enhancing both promotive and protective family factors.

  4. FGF7 signals are relayed to autocrine EGF family growth factors to induce branching morphogenesis of mouse salivary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kera, Hayashi; Yuki, Satoshi; Nogawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    The Matrigel-embedded epithelium of the mouse submandibular gland undergoes branching morphogenesis when cultured in medium supplemented with fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), whereas it elongates a stalk with limited branching in medium with only FGF7. Because LPA is a well-known activator of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling, we hypothesized the involvement of autocrine EGF family growth factors in the branching morphogenesis. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies showed that three members, Tgfa, Hbegf,and Nrg1 of the EGF family were expressed in the epithelium cultured with FGF7 + LPA as well as in the epithelium freshly isolated from the rudiments. All the growth factors induced extensive branching morphogenesis in the Matrigel-embedded epithelium in the presence of LPA. Tyrphostin AG112, an inhibitor of EGF signaling, severely impaired branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 + LPA without exogenous addition of EGF family growth factors to the culture medium. The shaking cultures, which were expected to decrease the concentration of autocrine growth factors near the epithelium by promoting their diffusion, significantly reduced branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 + LPA. Autocrine EGF family growth factors are involved in epithelial branching morphogenesis induced by FGF7 + LPA. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Parhofer, Klaus-Georg; Schwandt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study11 and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults) from Turkey (TUR), Eastern Europe (EEU) and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU) were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER) residents (3253 children, 2491 adults). The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were overweight. The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles.

  6. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  7. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

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    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  8. [Family factors associated with co-dependency in nurses at a hospital in Cancun, Quintana Roo, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Amaro, Margarita; Martínez-Torres, Jorge; Ureña Bogarín, Enrique Leobardo

    2014-05-01

    Identifying family factors associated with the presence of co-dependency in nurses of a regional hospital in Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cross-sectional, comparative study. City of Cancun (México). A random sample of 200nurses who met the inclusion criteria (having a partner for over a year, to be at work on the day of the interview), and who gave informed consent, completed three questionnaires during different shifts. Age, educational level, socioeconomic status, type of family structure, life cycle stage, co-dependency and family functioning. A total of 200nurses, with mean age of 36±8years, took part. The most common socioeconomic status was high (48%), and 47.5% had graduate studies. A co-dependency level of 20.5% (95%CI: 15-26.5) was found. Family factors associated with the presence of co-dependency were; family dysfunction, prevalence ratio (PR)=9.62 (95%CI: 3.47-27.3), stage of independence, PR=3.41 (95%CI: 1.44-7.86), single parent, PR=6.35 (95%CI: 2.41-16.68), and time with partner less than 5 years, PR=3.41 (95%CI: 1.54-7.85). It was found that family dysfunction and being a single parent were significantly associated with co-dependency in hospital nurses, therefore, on being able to identify these factors, family physicians can improve their dynamics and functioning by family study, and improving effective communication with nursing staff and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

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    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, Sclerostin, and Bone Microarchitecture in Patients With Osteoporotic Fractures of the Proximal Femur: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlyn, Philipp K E; Cornelius, Norina; Haffner, Dieter; Zaage, Franziska; Kasch, Cornelius; Schober, Hans-Christof; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Fischer, Dagmar-C

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional observational cohort study was designed to simultaneously investigate bone microarchitecture and serum markers of bone metabolism in elderly osteoporotic patients experiencing a trochanteric or femoral neck fracture. Special emphasis was put on renal function, sclerostin and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Eighty-two patients (median age: 84 years; 49 trochanteric fractures) scheduled for emergency surgery due to an osteoporotic fracture participated. Bone specimens for ex vivo microcomputed X-ray tomography were sampled during surgery. Blood samples for laboratory workup were collected before surgery (t0) and 1 day afterward (t1). Fifty-eight patients consented to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning of the lumbar spine and/or contralateral femoral neck after recovery during the in-patient stay. Samples were grouped according to the site of fracture. Regression coefficients were controlled for age and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), if appropriate. Patients experiencing a femoral neck fracture presented with better preserved renal function (eGFR) and lower C-terminal fragment of fibroblast growth factor-23 (cFGF-23) concentrations compared to those with trochanteric fractures. By contrast, serum sclerostin was similar at both time points and did not differ between groups. Age-adjusted correlation analysis revealed negative associations between eGFR and cFGF-23 determined at t1 (R=-0.34; pfemoral neck fractures, respectively. Our study provides evidence that not only an age-related decline of renal function but also the type of skeletal injury may contribute to the circulating concentrations of cFGF-23. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-17

    The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members' decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members' personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members' experiences with LTC facilities. This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and used a structured questionnaire to perform face-to-face interviews. This study used nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) to categorize the decision-making factors affecting family members' choices of LTC facilities. The results showed that when making decisions about the placement of family members, spouses chose facilities according to their own life experiences, children considered medical treatment convenience, grandchildren preferred to collect relevant information on facilities, and other relatives preferred to decide based on introductions from government departments. These results help clarify how different family roles affect decision-making processes regarding the choice of LTC facilities. In particular, spouses and female relatives require an interventional service mechanism that provides consultation or referral information.

  12. Coactivator-dependent acetylation stabilizes members of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandomenico, Valeria; Simonsson, Maria; Grönroos, Eva; Ericsson, Johan

    2003-04-01

    Members of the SREBP family of transcription factors control cholesterol and lipid homeostasis and play important roles during adipocyte differentiation. The transcriptional activity of SREBPs is dependent on the coactivators p300 and CBP. We now present evidence that SREBPs are acetylated by the intrinsic acetyltransferase activity of p300 and CBP. In SREBP1a, the acetylated lysine residue resides in the DNA-binding domain of the protein. Coexpression with p300 dramatically increases the expression of both SREBP1a and SREBP2, and this effect is dependent on the acetyltransferase activity of p300, indicating that acetylation of SREBPs regulates their stability. Indeed, acetylation or mutation of the acetylated lysine residue in SREBP1a stabilizes the protein. We demonstrate that the acetylated residue in SREBP1a is also targeted by ubiquitination and that acetylation inhibits this process. Thus, our studies define acetylation-dependent stabilization of transcription factors as a novel mechanism for coactivators to regulate gene expression.

  13. Multiple health risk behaviour in Czech adolescents: family, school and geographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kážmér, Ladislav; Dzúrová, Dagmara; Csémy, Ladislav; Spilková, Jana

    2014-09-01

    The study examines the relationship of family, school and geographic factors in relation to the prevalence of different health risk behaviours among Czech adolescents (aged 15-16 years) based on cross-sectional study design. Risk behaviours such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and marijuana use among adolescents have often been shown to co-occur with each other. Data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs 2007 were used. A total of 7616 students from the Czech Republic were analysed in the study. About two thirds of students (63.5%) did not engage in any type of considered health risk behaviour, 21.1% reported one risk, 10.8% two risks, and 4.6% three risks. Thus, in sum 15.4% of Czech, students were engaged in multiple risk behaviour forms. Separate multilevel logistic regression models were performed in order to explore the redistribution of factors on categories of multiple health risk behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Family association study of Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelski, Paweł; Skibińska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Zaremba, Dorota; Jasiak, Maria; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning. An etiopathological role for immunologic abnormalities in schizophrenia was hypothesized. Inflammatory markers are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Several studies have investigated the possible effects of antipsychotics on inflammation and neurogenesis. Additionally, antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy has been under investigation as a treatment option for schizophrenia. Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFB1) signaling is critical for many biological processes, including proliferation, development, differentiation and regeneration. Multiple members of the TGFB1 superfamily play a role in the developing nervous system and are regulated by neuronal activity. We conducted family-based study to assess whether TGFB1 gene is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia in Polish population. Two functional polymorphisms: rs1800469 (C-509T) and rs1800470 (T869C) of TGFB1 gene were analyzed within a group of 147 trios (patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their healthy parents) using Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT). No association of these polymorphisms with schizophrenia was found in Polish population. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed.

  15. Factors associated with chronic diseases among the elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Fernanda Batista; Pinho, Lucinéia; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The profile of a sample population of elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Teófilo Otoni, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described, and the factors associated with diseases prevalence examined. Using simple random sampling, 385 elderly were interviewed using Form A and Elderly Form from the Primary Health Care Information System. The majority of the sample (83.1%) self-reported at least one disease, 69.9% had hypertension, and 17.7% had diabetes. Poisson regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with hypertension and other diseases were being non-white, having a low level of education, medication use, dental prosthesis use, and lack of a private health plan. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among women and individuals who depended on other people to live. It can be concluded that this sample population of elderly has a generally low socioeconomic status and are more susceptible to developing diseases, particularly hypertension. Diabetes should be controlled although had relatively low prevalence. It is suggested investments in structuring the health system network to provide adequate care for the elderly and in training health professionals to play an effective role in improving the quality of life of the elderly in Brazil.

  16. Factors associated with prostate cancer patients' and their spouses' satisfaction with a family-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet; Falahee, Margaret; Bickes, Joan; Schafenacker, Ann; Walker, Julie; Mood, Darlene; Northouse, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Only a few programs are designed to help couples cope with the effects of prostate cancer, and typically, only their intervention outcomes are reported. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer patients' and their spouses' satisfaction with an efficacious supportive-educative, family-based intervention, and factors associated with their satisfaction. We assessed the relationship of overall satisfaction with the intervention to (1) the patients' and spouses' appraisal and the resource and quality-of-life baseline scores and (2) changes in those scores after completing the intervention. Results showed that participants were very satisfied with the program. Patients who had higher scores on baseline measures, indicating more positive appraisal of their illness, better use of resources (eg, coping, self-efficacy), and higher overall quality of life, reported more satisfaction with the intervention. For spouses, few baseline measures were related to their satisfaction; however, spouses who reported positive changes after intervention (less negative appraisal and uncertainty, better communication) reported higher satisfaction with the program. Although satisfied with the program, factors associated with patients' and spouses' satisfaction differed. To translate effective interventions to clinical practice settings, it is important to assess participants' satisfaction with program content and delivery, as well as program outcomes.

  17. Factors Associated with Prostate Cancer Patients’ and their Spouses’ Satisfaction with a Family-based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet; Falahee, Margaret; Bickes, Joan; Schafenacker, Ann; Walker, Julie; Mood, Darlene; Northouse, Laurel

    2011-01-01

    Issue Only a few programs are designed to help couples to cope with the effects of prostate cancer, and typically only their intervention outcomes are reported. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer patients’ and their spouses’ satisfaction with an efficacious supportive-educative, family-based intervention, and factors associated with their satisfaction. We assessed the relationship of overall satisfaction with the intervention to 1) the patients’ and spouses’ appraisal and the resource and quality of life baseline scores and 2) changes in those scores after completing the intervention. Findings Results showed participants were very satisfied with the program. Patients who had higher scores on baseline measures, indicating more positive appraisal of their illness, better use of resources (e.g., coping, self-efficacy), and higher overall quality of life, reported more satisfaction with the intervention. For spouses, few baseline measures were related to their satisfaction; however, spouses who reported positive changes following intervention (less negative appraisal and uncertainty, better communication) reported higher satisfaction with the program. Conclusion Although satisfied with the program, factors associated with patients’ and spouses’ satisfaction differed. In order to translate effective interventions to clinical practice settings, it is important to assess participants’ satisfaction with program content and delivery as well as program outcomes. PMID:19816159

  18. Family and intellectual abilities of adolescents as the factors of adolescents’ prosocial behaviour

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    Jelić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have offered important findings on the frequency of negative forms of social behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and typically developing children. However, there is a lack of studies dealing with the link between the prosocial behaviour of youth and family variables. The aim of the conducted research was to study the degree of connection of the quality of parenting and the level of intellectual development of adolescents with the prosocial behaviour of adolescents. The sample consisted of 416 respondents, aged 12 to 18, divided into two groups. One group comprised 210 adolescents (130 typically developing adolescents and 80 adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities without parental care, and the other group included 206 adolescents (130 typically developing adolescents and 76 adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities with parental care. For the assessment of prosocial behaviour we used the subscale Prosocial behaviour from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires - SDQ. The results have confirmed that, regardless of intellectual status, young people without parental care exhibited prosocial behaviour significantly less frequently than young people with parental care. The findings are discussed within the context of the starting model. The concluding part of the paper points to the fact that cognitive deficits are not a limiting factor in the development of prosocial behaviour of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities and that further research is needed on the influence of environmental factors on the exhibition of prosocial behaviour in adolescents.

  19. A Model for Dimerization of the SOX Group E Transcription Factor Family.

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    Sarah N Ramsook

    Full Text Available Group E members of the SOX transcription factor family include SOX8, SOX9, and SOX10. Preceding the high mobility group (HMG domain in each of these proteins is a thirty-eight amino acid region that supports the formation of dimers on promoters containing tandemly inverted sites. The purpose of this study was to obtain new structural insights into how the dimerization region functions with the HMG domain. From a mutagenic scan of the dimerization region, the most essential amino acids of the dimerization region were clustered on the hydrophobic face of a single, predicted amphipathic helix. Consistent with our hypothesis that the dimerization region directly contacts the HMG domain, a peptide corresponding to the dimerization region bound a preassembled HMG-DNA complex. Sequence conservation among Group E members served as a basis to identify two surface exposed amino acids in the HMG domain of SOX9 that were necessary for dimerization. These data were combined to make a molecular model that places the dimerization region of one SOX9 protein onto the HMG domain of another SOX9 protein situated at the opposing site of a tandem promoter. The model provides a detailed foundation for assessing the impact of mutations on SOX Group E transcription factors.

  20. Factors affecting family satisfaction with inpatient end-of-life care.

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    Erin Sadler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little data exists addressing satisfaction with end-of-life care among hospitalized patients, as they and their family members are systematically excluded from routine satisfaction surveys. It is imperative that we closely examine patient and institution factors associated with quality end-of-life care and determine high-priority target areas for quality improvement. METHODS: Between September 1, 2010 and January 1, 2012 the Canadian Health care Evaluation Project (CANHELP Bereavement Questionnaire was mailed to the next-of-kin of recently deceased inpatients to seek factors associated with satisfaction with end-of-life care. The primary outcome was the global rating of satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included rates of actual versus preferred location of death, associations between demographic factors and global satisfaction, and identification of targets for quality improvement. RESULTS: Response rate was 33% among 275 valid addresses. Overall, 67.4% of respondents were very or completely satisfied with the overall quality of care their relative received. However, 71.4% of respondents who thought their relative did not die in their preferred location favoured an out-of-hospital location of death. A common location of death was the intensive care unit (45.7%; however, this was not the preferred location of death for 47.6% of such patients. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed respondents who believed their relative died in their preferred location were 1.7 times more likely to be satisfied with the end-of-life care that was provided (p = 0.001. Items identified as high-priority targets for improvement included: relationships with, and characteristics of health care professionals; illness management; communication; and end-of-life decision-making. INTERPRETATION: Nearly three-quarters of recently deceased inpatients would have preferred an out-of-hospital death. Intensive care units were a common, but not preferred

  1. Factors affecting family satisfaction with inpatient end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Erin; Hales, Brigette; Henry, Blair; Xiong, Wei; Myers, Jeff; Wynnychuk, Lesia; Taggar, Ru; Heyland, Daren; Fowler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Little data exists addressing satisfaction with end-of-life care among hospitalized patients, as they and their family members are systematically excluded from routine satisfaction surveys. It is imperative that we closely examine patient and institution factors associated with quality end-of-life care and determine high-priority target areas for quality improvement. Between September 1, 2010 and January 1, 2012 the Canadian Health care Evaluation Project (CANHELP) Bereavement Questionnaire was mailed to the next-of-kin of recently deceased inpatients to seek factors associated with satisfaction with end-of-life care. The primary outcome was the global rating of satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included rates of actual versus preferred location of death, associations between demographic factors and global satisfaction, and identification of targets for quality improvement. Response rate was 33% among 275 valid addresses. Overall, 67.4% of respondents were very or completely satisfied with the overall quality of care their relative received. However, 71.4% of respondents who thought their relative did not die in their preferred location favoured an out-of-hospital location of death. A common location of death was the intensive care unit (45.7%); however, this was not the preferred location of death for 47.6% of such patients. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed respondents who believed their relative died in their preferred location were 1.7 times more likely to be satisfied with the end-of-life care that was provided (p = 0.001). Items identified as high-priority targets for improvement included: relationships with, and characteristics of health care professionals; illness management; communication; and end-of-life decision-making. Nearly three-quarters of recently deceased inpatients would have preferred an out-of-hospital death. Intensive care units were a common, but not preferred, location of in-hospital deaths. Family satisfaction with end

  2. Do alcoholic beverages, obesity and other nutritional factors modify the risk of familial colorectal cancer? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Touvier, Mathilde; Latino-Martel, Paule

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with family history of colorectal cancer are at higher risk of colorectal cancer than the general population. Until now, guidelines for familial colorectal cancer risk have only pointed at early diagnosis efforts via screening tests and surveillance, and payed scarce or no attention to lowering exposure to modifiable risk factors, notably nutritional factors. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies investigating the associations between nutritional factors, family history of colorectal cancer, and colorectal cancer risk. From the 5312 abstracts identified until December 2016, 184 full text articles were examined for eligibility. Finally, 31 articles (21 from case-control studies, 9 from cohort studies and 1 from an intervention study) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Mainly, the combinations of family history of colorectal cancer and higher consumptions of alcoholic beverages, red or processed meat, or overweight/obesity increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Consistently, a strong increase is observed with the combinations of family history of colorectal cancer and unhealthy dietary patterns/lifestyles. Statistically significant interactions between these nutritional factors, family history of colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer risk are reported. Other data are inconclusive and additional prospective studies are needed. For the first time, our findings highlight that addressing high consumption of alcoholic beverages, red or processed meat, and overweight/obesity, and more largely the exposure to multiple unhealthy dietary/nutritional behaviors could offer new perspectives of prevention to individuals with family history of colorectal cancer. A better information of these patients and of health professionals on these nutritional modifiable risk factors is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parent and family factors associated with service use by young people with mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Siobhan M; Jorm, Anthony F; Toumbourou, John W; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-12-01

    To conduct a systematic review of parent and family factors associated with service use for young people with mental health problems, to inform early intervention efforts aimed at increasing service use by young people. A systematic search of academic databases was performed. Articles were included in the review if they had: a sample of young people aged between 5 and 18 years; service use as the outcome measure; one or more parental or family variables as a predictor; and a comparison group of non-service using young people with mental health problems. In order to focus on factors additional to need, the mental health symptoms of the young person also had to be controlled for. Stouffer's method of combining P-values was used to draw conclusions as to whether or not associations between variables were reliable. Twenty-eight articles were identified investigating 15 parental or family factors, 7 of which were found to be associated with service use for a young person with mental health needs: parental burden, parent problem perception, parent perception of need, parent psychopathology, single-parent household, change in family structure and being from the dominant ethnic group for the United States specifically. Factors not found to be related to service use were: family history of service use, parent-child relationship quality, family functioning, number of children, parent education level, parent employment status, household income and non-urban location of residence. A number of family-related factors were identified that can inform effective interventions aimed at early intervention for mental health problems. Areas requiring further research were also identified. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis: a systematic review of facilitating and hindering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassom, Erica; Giacco, Domenico; Dirik, Aysegul; Priebe, Stefan

    2014-10-03

    To synthesise the evidence on implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis with a focus on barriers, problems and facilitating factors. Systematic review of studies evaluating the involvement of families in tripartite communication between health professionals, 'families' (or other unpaid carers) and adult patients, in a single-family context. A theoretical thematic analysis approach and thematic synthesis were used. A systematic electronic search was carried out in seven databases, using database-specific search strategies and controlled vocabulary. A secondary manual search of grey literature was performed as well as using forwards and backwards snowballing techniques. A total of 43 studies were included. The majority featured qualitative data (n=42), focused solely on staff perspectives (n=32) and were carried out in the UK (n=23). Facilitating the training and ongoing supervision needs of staff are necessary but not sufficient conditions for a consistent involvement of families. Organisational cultures and paradigms can work to limit family involvement, and effective implementation appears to operate via a whole team coordinated effort at every level of the organisation, supported by strong leadership. Reservations about family involvement regarding power relations, fear of negative outcomes and the need for an exclusive patient-professional relationship may be explored and addressed through mutually trusting relationships. Implementing family involvement carries additional challenges beyond those generally associated with translating research to practice. Implementation may require a cultural and organisational shift towards working with families. Family work can only be implemented if this is considered a shared goal of all members of a clinical team and/or mental health service, including the leaders of the organisation. This may imply a change in the ethos and practices of clinical teams, as well as the establishment of

  5. Level of male involvement and associated factors in family planning services utilization among married men in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Mihretie; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-12-02

    Men's participation is crucial to the success of family planning programs and women's empowerment and associated with better outcomes in reproductive health such as contraceptive acceptance and continuation, and safer sexual behaviors. Limited choice and access to methods, attitudes of men towards family planning, perceived fear of side-effects, poor quality of available services, cultural or religious oppositions and gender-based barriers are some of the reasons for low utilization of family planning. Hence, this study assessed the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2013. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 524 eligible samples. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires. Epi Info and SPSS were used to enter and analyze the data; univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to display the outputs. Only 44 (8.4%) respondents were using or directly participating in the use of family planning services mainly male condoms. The reasons mentioned for the low participation were the desire to have more children, wife or partner refusal, fear of side effects, religious prohibition, lack of awareness about contraceptives and the thinking that it is the only issue for women. Opinion about family planning services, men approval and current use of family planning methods were associated with male involvement in the services utilization. In this study, the level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization. Governmental and nongovernmental organizations, donors and relevant stakeholders should ensure availability, accessibility and sustained advocacy for use of family planning

  6. Factors Determining Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Africa: A Systematic Review of Mixed Evidence.

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    Gizachew Assefa Tessema

    Full Text Available Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health in Africa, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of contraceptive uptake. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on factors determining the quality of care in family planning services in Africa.Quantitative and qualitative studies undertaken in Africa, published in English, in grey and commercial literature, between 1990 and 2015 were considered. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using standardized tools. Findings from the quantitative studies were summarized using narrative and tables. Client satisfaction was used to assess the quality of care in family planning services in the quantitative component of the review. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the qualitative study findings.From 4334 records, 11 studies (eight quantitative, three qualitative met the review eligibility criteria. The review found that quality of care was influenced by client, provider and facility factors, and structural and process aspects of the facilities. Client's waiting time, provider competency, provision/prescription of injectable methods, maintaining privacy and confidentiality were the most commonly identified process factors. The quality of stock inventory was the most commonly identified structural factor. The quality of care was also positively associated with privately-owned facilities. The qualitative synthesis revealed additional factors including access related factors such as 'pre-requisites to be fulfilled by the clients and cost of services, provider workload, and providers' behaviour.There is limited evidence on factors determining quality of care in family planning services in Africa that shows quality of care is influenced by multiple factors. The evidence suggests that lowering access barriers and avoiding unnecessary pre-requisites for taking

  7. Place of Care at End of Life: What Factors Are Associated With Patients' and Their Family Members' Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Alvona Zi Hui; Tan, Julia Shi Yu; Jinxuan, Tan; Lyn, Teo Yi; Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Goh, Cynthia Ruth

    2016-08-01

    Few Asian studies have elucidated factors influencing patients and their family members on their preferred place of care at the end of life. This pilot study describes the perceptions of Singaporean patients with cancer and their family members that affect their choices in place of care. Patients with cancer and their family members were surveyed at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. This convenience sample was recruited from April to July 2012. Fourteen pairs of patients and their family members (N = 28) were recruited. A majority of patients (64.3%) and family members (71.4%) were found to have a preferred place of care at the end of life. Of the respondents who expressed a preference (n = 19), 88.9% of patients and 90.0% of family members named "home" as their preferred place of care. Quality of care at home was rated "good" or "excellent" by all patients and 85.7% of family members. Home is the most favored choice among patients and family members who have a preferred place of care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A Leader Intron of a Soybean Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A Gene Interacts with Proximal Promoter Elements to Regulate Gene Expression in Synthetic Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available Introns, especially the first intron in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR, can significantly impact gene expression via intron-mediated enhancement (IME. In this study, we demonstrate the leader intron of a soybean elongation factor 1A (eEF1A gene (GmScreamM8 was essential for the high activity of the native promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of the GmScreamM8 leader intron with regulatory element sequences from several soybean eEF1A promoters was studied using synthetic promoters, which consisted of element tetramers upstream of a core promoter used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp reporter gene. Element tetramers, placed upstream of a GmScreamM8 core promoter, showed very high activity using both transient expression in lima bean cotyledons and stable expression in soybean hairy roots, only if the native leader intron was included, suggesting an interaction between intronic sequences and promoter elements. Partial deletions of the leader intron showed that a 222 bp intronic sequence significantly contributed to very high levels of GFP expression. Generation of synthetic intron variants with a monomeric or trimeric repeat of the 222 bp intronic sequence, yielded almost two-fold higher expression compared to the original intron, while partial deletion of the 222 bp intronic repeated sequence significantly decreased gene expression, indicating that this intronic sequence was essential for the intron-element interaction enhancement.

  10. Sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor and parathyroid hormone restores lost cancellous bone mass and strength in the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, T.J.; Ratkus, A.M.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) can restore lost cancellous bone mass and strength at a severely osteopenic skeletal site in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were...... subjected to sham surgery or ovariectomy at 3 months of age and maintained untreated for the first year after surgery. At 15 months of age, groups of baseline control and OVX rats were killed and catheters were inserted in the jugular veins of all remaining rats. Two groups of OVX rats were injected...... intravenously (iv) daily with bFGF for 14 days at a dose of 200 microg/kg body weight. At the end of bFGF treatment, one group was killed whereas the other group was subjected to 8 weeks of treatment with synthetic human PTH 1-34 [hPTH(1-34)] consisting of subcutaneous (sc) injections 5 days/week at a dose...

  11. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-11-21

    to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. analisar os fatores associados ao conhecimento dos adultos jovens sobre histórico familiar de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC). estudo transversal analítico, com 579 adultos jovens de escolas públicas, com coleta de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de fatores de risco em formulário, analisados utilizando-se regressão logística (backward elimination). detectou-se associação estatística de idade, situação conjugal, classificação da pressão arterial e circunferência abdominal com conhecimento do histórico familiar de AVC. No modelo final de regressão logística, observou-se associação estatística do conhecimento sobre histórico familiar de AVC com situação conjugal com companheiro (ORa=1,61[1,07-2,42]; p=0,023), circunferência abdominal (ORa=0,98[0,96-0,99]; p=0,012) e pressão arterial normal (ORa=2,56[1,19-5,52]; p=0,016). foi constatada associação de fatores socioeconômicos e de

  12. Time as an integrating factor in a family in foreign researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorodilina M.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign researches examining family relationships as presented in the family members’ memory. The researches regard the family as a social group represented by the nuclear family’s interpersonal relationships, as well as inter-generational relationships, which determines the mechanism and the establishment of its identity. The family is considered a complex unity of "systems in time". The article describes foreign experience of studying the concepts of family time by analyzing family narratives and autobiographical material. The methods professionals use to study the family time and the involvement of everyone in active construction of family history texts, family practices and rituals of socio-psychological value, are explained in the article. The methodologies of the following questionnaires were analyzed: “The family routines inventory” by E.W. Jensen, S.A. James, W.T. Boyce and S.A. Hartnett; “The family ritual questionnaire” by B.H. Fiesea and C.A. Kline; “Family time questionnaire” by A.S. Ellington.

  13. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data f