Sample records for proximal ejecta deposits

  1. Nano particles as the primary cause for long-term sunlight suppression at high southern latitudes following the Chicxulub impact - evidence from ejecta deposits in Belize and Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajda, Vivi; Ocampo, Adriana; Ferrow, Embaie


    Life on Earth was sharply disrupted 66 Ma ago as an asteroid hit the sea-floor in what is today Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Approximately 600 km3 of sedimentary rock were vapourized, ejected into the atmosphere and subsequently deposited globally as an ejecta apron and fallout layer. Proximal ejecta...

  2. Distal ejecta from lunar impacts: Extensive regions of rocky deposits (United States)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Carter, Lynn M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.


    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Radiometer, Mini-RF, and LRO Camera data were used to identify and characterize rocky lunar deposits that appear well separated from any potential source crater. Two regions are described: 1) A ∼18,000 km2 area with elevated rock abundance and extensive melt ponds and veneers near the antipode of Tycho crater (167.5°E, 42.5°N). This region has been identified previously, using radar and imaging data. 2) A much larger and more diffuse region, covering ∼730,000 km2, centered near 310°E, 35°S, containing elevated rock abundance and numerous granular flow deposits on crater walls. The rock distributions in both regions favor certain slope azimuths over others, indicating a directional component to the formation of these deposits. The spatial distribution of rocks is consistent with the arrival of ejecta from the west and northwest at low angles (∼10-30°) above the horizon in both regions. The derived age and slope orientations of the deposits indicate that the deposits likely originated as ejecta from the Tycho impact event. Despite their similar origin, the deposits in the two regions show significant differences in the datasets. The Tycho crater antipode deposit covers a smaller area, but the deposits are pervasive and appear to be dominated by impact melts. By contrast, the nearside deposits cover a much larger area and numerous granular flows were triggered. However, the features in this region are less prominent with no evidence for the presence of impact melts. The two regions appear to be surface expressions of a distant impact event that can modify surfaces across wide regions, resulting in a variety of surface morphologies. The Tycho impact event may only be the most recent manifestation of these processes, which likely have played a role in the development of the regolith throughout lunar history.

  3. The Vakkejokk Breccia: An Early Cambrian proximal impact ejecta layer in the North-Swedish Caledonides (United States)

    Ormö, J.; Nielsen, A. T.; Alwmark, C.


    The ≤27 m thick Vakkejokk Breccia is intercalated in autochthon Lower Cambrian along the Caledonian front north of Lake Torneträsk, Lapland, Sweden. The spectacular breccia is here interpreted as a proximal ejecta layer associated with an impact crater, probably 2-3 km in size, located below Caledonian overthrusts immediately north of the main breccia section. The impact would have taken place in a shallow-marine environment 520 Ma ago. The breccia comprises i) a strongly disturbed lower polymict subunit with occasional, in themselves brecciated, crystalline mega-clasts locally exceeding 50 m surrounded by contorted sediments; ii) a middle, commonly normally graded, crystalline-rich, polymict subunit, in turn locally overlain by iii) a thin fine-grained quartz sandstone, mobilization of the sediments. The middle subunit and the uppermost quartz sandstone are considered resurge deposits. The top conglomerate may be caused by subsequent wave reworking and slumping of material from the elevated rim. Quartz grains showing planar deformation features are present in the graded polymict subunit and the upper sandstone, that is, the inferred resurge deposits.

  4. Overview of the Chicxulub impactite and proximal ejecta (United States)

    Claeys, Ph


    Several types of impactites have now been recovered from the various wells drilled in the Chicxulub crater in Yucatan. The old Pemex wells (Yucatan 6 and Chicxulub 1) contain a highly heterogeneous and stratified suevite, which upper unit is unusually rich in carbonates, impact breccia and a possibly an impact melt at the very bottom of C1. They are located towards the crater center (C1), on the flank of the peak ring (Y6). The thickness of impactite in this zone exceeds 250 m. The UNAM wells just outside the crater rim reveal sedimentary breccia and a fall-out suevite richer in silicate melt and basement fragments, than its crater equivalent. There, the thickness of the impactite was probably several hundred meters, considering that its top might have been eroded. It can also be speculated that a cover of fall-back suevite extended over the ejecta blanket in Yucatan, all the way to Belize and perhaps even to the region of Tabasco, in Southern Mexico. The recently drilled Yaxcopoil contains about 100 m of impactites, which is currently under study. Preliminary data seem to show less variability than the material recovered from Y6. As in the UNAM well, the impactite is dominated by basement material, and shows alternating severely altered and better preserved horizons.

  5. Evidence for self-secondary cratering of Copernican-age continuous ejecta deposits on the Moon (United States)

    Zanetti, M.; Stadermann, A.; Jolliff, B.; Hiesinger, H.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Plescia, J.


    Crater size-frequency distributions on the ejecta blankets of Aristarchus and Tycho Craters are highly variable, resulting in apparent absolute model age differences despite ejecta being emplaced in a geologic instant. Crater populations on impact melt ponds are a factor of 4 less than on the ejecta, and crater density increases with distance from the parent crater rim. Although target material properties may affect crater diameters and in turn crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) results, they cannot completely reconcile crater density and population differences observed within the ejecta blanket. We infer from the data that self-secondary cratering, the formation of impact craters immediately following the emplacement of the continuous ejecta blanket by ejecta from the parent crater, contributed to the population of small craters (primary crater flux (N(1) = 3.4 × 10-5). Using the cratering flux recorded on Tycho impact melt deposits calibrated to accepted exposure age (109 ± 1.5 Ma) as ground truth, and using similar crater distribution analyses on impact melt at Aristarchus Crater, we infer the age of Aristarchus Crater to be ∼280 Ma. The broader implications of this work suggest that the measured cratering rate on ejecta blankets throughout the Solar System may be overestimated, and caution should be exercised when using small crater diameters (i.e. < 300 m on the Moon) for absolute model age determination.

  6. Chromium isotope evidence in ejecta deposits for the nature of Paleoproterozoic impactors (United States)

    Mougel, Bérengère; Moynier, Frédéric; Göpel, Christa; Koeberl, Christian


    Non-mass dependent chromium isotopic signatures have been successfully used to determine the presence and identification of extra-terrestrial materials in terrestrial impact rocks. Paleoproterozoic spherule layers from Greenland (Grænsesø) and Russia (Zaonega), as well as some distal ejecta deposits (Lake Superior region) from the Sudbury impact (1849 ± 0.3 Ma) event, have been analyzed for their Cr isotope compositions. Our results suggest that 1) these distal ejecta deposits are all of impact origin, 2) the Grænsesø and Zaonega spherule layers contain a distinct carbonaceous chondrite component, and are possibly related to the same impact event, which could be Vredefort (2023 ± 4 Ma) or another not yet identified large impact event from that of similar age, and 3) the Sudbury ejecta record a complex meteoritic signature, which is different from the Grænsesø and Zaonega spherule layers, and could indicate the impact of a heterogeneous chondritic body.

  7. New morphological mapping and interpretation of ejecta deposits from Orientale Basin on the Moon (United States)

    Morse, Zachary R.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Tornabene, Livio L.


    Orientale Basin is one of the youngest and best-preserved multi-ring impact basins in the Solar System. The structure is ∼950 km across and is located on the western edge of the nearside of the Moon. The interior of the basin, which possesses three distinct rings and a post-impact mare fill, has been studied extensively using modern high-resolution datasets. Exterior to these rings, Orientale has an extensive ejecta blanket that extends out radially for at least 800 km from the basin rim in all directions and covers portions of both the nearside and farside of the Moon. These deposits, known as the Hevelius Formation, were first mapped using photographic data from the Lunar Orbiter IV probe. In this study, we map in detail the morphology of each distinct facies observed within the Orientale ejecta blanket using high resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) elevation data. We identified 5 unique facies within the ejecta blanket. Facies A is identified as a region of hummocky plains located in a low-lying topographic region between the Outer Rook and Cordillera rings. This facies is interpreted to be a mix of crater-derived impact melt and km-scale blocks of ballistic ejecta and host rock broken up during the modification stage and formation of the Cordillera ring. Facies B is an inner facies marked by radial grooves extending outward from the direction of the basin center. This facies is interpreted as the continuous ballistic ejecta blanket. Facies C consists of inner and outer groupings of flat smooth-surfaced deposits isolated in local topographic lows. Facies D displays characteristic sinuous ridges and lobate extensions. Facies C and D are interpreted to be impact melt-rich materials, which manifest as flows and ponds. Our observations suggest that these facies were emplaced subsequent to the ballistic ejecta blanket - most likely during the modification

  8. Geologic Mapping of Ejecta Deposits in Oppia Quadrangle, Asteroid (4) Vesta (United States)

    Garry, W. Brent; Williams, David A.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Mest, Scott C.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Tosi, Federico; Schafer, Michael; LeCorre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Jaumann, Ralf; hide


    Oppia Quadrangle Av-10 (288-360 deg E, +/- 22 deg) is a junction of key geologic features that preserve a rough history of Asteroid (4) Vesta and serves as a case study of using geologic mapping to define a relative geologic timescale. Clear filter images, stereo-derived topography, slope maps, and multispectral color-ratio images from the Framing Camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft served as basemaps to create a geologic map and investigate the spatial and temporal relationships of the local stratigraphy. Geologic mapping reveals the oldest map unit within Av-10 is the cratered highlands terrain which possibly represents original crustal material on Vesta that was then excavated by one or more impacts to form the basin Feralia Planitia. Saturnalia Fossae and Divalia Fossae ridge and trough terrains intersect the wall of Feralia Planitia indicating that this impact basin is older than both the Veneneia and Rheasilvia impact structures, representing Pre-Veneneian crustal material. Two of the youngest geologic features in Av-10 are Lepida (approximately 45 km diameter) and Oppia (approximately 40 km diameter) impact craters that formed on the northern and southern wall of Feralia Planitia and each cross-cuts a trough terrain. The ejecta blanket of Oppia is mapped as 'dark mantle' material because it appears dark orange in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' colorratio image and has a diffuse, gradational contact distributed to the south across the rim of Rheasilvia. Mapping of surface material that appears light orange in color in the Framing Camera 'Clementine-type' color-ratio image as 'light mantle material' supports previous interpretations of an impact ejecta origin. Some light mantle deposits are easily traced to nearby source craters, but other deposits may represent distal ejecta deposits (emplaced greater than 5 crater radii away) in a microgravity environment.

  9. Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions (United States)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.; Ross, P.-S.; White, J. D. L.


    The volume, grain size, and depositional facies of material deposited outside an explosion crater, ejecta, are sensitive to the depth of the explosion, the explosion energy, and the presence or absence of a crater before the explosion. We detonate buried chemical explosives as an analog for discrete volcanic explosions in experiments to identify unique characteristics of proximal, medial, and distal ejecta facies and their distribution from a range of scaled depths in undisturbed and cratered ground. Ejecta are here discussed in terms of three facies: (1) proximal ejecta, which form a constructional landform around a crater; (2) medial ejecta, which form a continuous sheet deposit that thins much more gradually with distance; and (3) distal ejecta that are deposited as isolated clasts. The extent of proximal ejecta away from the crater, relative to crater size, is not sensitive to scaled depth, but the volume proportion of proximal ejecta to the total ejecta deposit is sensitive to the presence of a crater and scaled depth. Medial ejecta distribution and volume contributions are both sensitive to the presence of a crater and to scaled depth. Distal ejecta distance is dependent on scaled depth and the presence of a crater, while the volume proportion of distal ejecta is less sensitive to scaled depth or presence of a crater. Experimental facies and deposit structures inferred from observations of jet dynamics are used to suggest facies associations anticipated from eruptions dominated by explosions of different scaled depth configurations. We emphasize that significant differences in tephra ring deposits can result from the effects of scaled depth and preexisting craters on ejecta dynamics, and are not necessarily related to fundamental differences in explosion mechanisms or degree of magma fragmentation.

  10. Mini-RF's Perspective of the Lunar Western Hemisphere and Orientale Basin's Ejecta Deposits (United States)

    Cahill, J.; Patterson, G. W.; Raney, R. K.; Bussey, B.; Turtle, E. P.; Mini-RF Science Team


    The usefulness of radar is its sensitivity to surface roughness, subsurface scatterers, and composition. This attribute has provided a way to examine the nearside lunar surface and subsurface physical properties for several decades (Thompson et al. 1970). However, during this time radar was used relatively infrequently compared to other orbital instruments and techniques (e.g., near-infrared, neutron, and gamma-ray spectroscopy) to study the lunar surface. This was partly due to Earth-based surveys yielding data with lower spatial resolution, a limited variety of products, and coverage limited to the nearside of the Moon. That said, Earth-based radar products have continually improved in quality and studies derived from these data yielded a steady stream of additional information regarding the distribution of surface and subsurface geologic deposits, rock abundance, and accessing the possibility of water-ice on the lunar surface (e.g., Campbell et al. (2002), Campbell et al. (2005), Ghent et al. (2008), etc). These topics are uniquely in line with intended objectives of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), which are to gather as much relevant information for the lunar physical environment as possible to enable future human exploration. Studies of the lunar western hemisphere's physical properties is a prime example of very relevant science being limited by the available spatial coverage of the area. Ghent et al. (2008)'s examination of the influence of Orientale ejecta on the southern highlands megaregolith was instrumental for not only identifying the extent and distribution of Orientale ejecta on the nearside of the Moon, but also for more fully characterizing its physical properties. Here, we present a spatially more comprehensive perspective of Orientale using radar data recently acquired by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) payload. Using Mini-RF we build upon previous work derived from Earth-based radar

  11. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Estimated thickness of ejecta deposits compared to to crater rim heights. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Leake, M. A.


    The area of the continuous ejecta deposits on mercury was calculated to vary from 2.24 to 0.64 times the crater's area for those of diameter 40 km to 300 km. Because crater boundaries on the geologic map include the detectable continuous ejecta blanket, plains exterior to these deposits must consist of farther-flung ejecta (of that or other craters), or volcanic deposits flooding the intervening areas. Ejecta models are explored.

  12. The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in the shallow northeastern Mexican foreland basins: Evidence for paleoseismic liquefaction, tsunami deposition, and Chicxulub ejecta (United States)

    Schulte, Peter; Smit, Jan; Deutsch, Alex; Friese, Andrea; Beichel, Kilian


    Understanding the depositional sequence and composition of impact ejecta is critical for the interpretation of timing and effects of the Chicxulub impact regarding the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Preliminary investigations have shown that the shallow La Popa and Parras foreland basins in northeastern Mexico both feature outstanding and continuous 3D exposures of the Chicxulub ejecta-rich, K-Pg boundary event deposit (Lawton et al., 2005). The m-thick sand-siltstone interval directly underlying the ejecta-rich mass flows shows evidence of slumping and liquefaction, locally leading to complete disorganization and disruption of the pre-impact late Cretaceous sedimentary sequence. The subsequent ejecta-rich sequence consists of an up to one m-thick basal carbonate-rich bed that discontinuously fills a valley-like topography. Besides abundant silicic and carbonate ejecta spherules (up to 50%) that are excellently preserved, this bed includes abundant mollusks and gastropod shells, as well as vertebrate bones and teeth. The conglomeratic bed is overlain by a series of alternating fine- to medium grained calcareous sandstones with shell debris and ejecta that were deposited by repeated currents / mass flow events incorporating varying source areas. Hummocky-cross-stratified strata that mark the return to a normal out-shelf depositional regime conformably overly these sandstones. We interpret this sequence as evidence for presumably seismic-induced sediment liquefaction followed by a series of impact-related tsunami deposits. The specific depositional sequence and Fe-Mg-rich ejecta composition as well as the petrography of the sandstones all closely link the K-Pg boundary sequence in the La Popa and Parras basin to the well-known deep-water K-Pg sites in the Gulf of Mexico (e.g. El Mimbral; Smit et al., 1996; Schulte and Kontny, 2005). Lawton, T.F., et al., 2005, Geology, v. 33, p. 81-84. Smit, J. et al., 1996, GSA Special Paper v. 307, p

  13. High-resolution studies of double-layered ejecta craters: Morphology, inherent structure, and a phenomenological formation model (United States)

    Wulf, Gerwin; Kenkmann, Thomas


    The ejecta blankets of impact craters in volatile-rich environments often possess characteristic layered ejecta morphologies. The so-called double-layered ejecta (DLE) craters are characterized by two ejecta layers with distinct morphologies. The analysis of high-resolution image data, especially HiRISE and CTX, provides new insights into the formation of DLE craters. A new phenomenological excavation and ejecta emplacement model for DLE craters is proposed based on a detailed case study of the Martian crater Steinheim—a well-preserved DLE crater—and studies of other DLE craters. The observations show that the outer ejecta layer is emplaced as medial and distal ejecta that propagate outwards in a debris avalanche or (if saturated with water) a debris flow mode after landing, overrunning previously formed secondary craters. In contrast, the inner ejecta layer is formed by a translational slide of the proximal ejecta deposits during the emplacement stage that overrun and superimpose parts of the outer ejecta layer. Based on our model, DLE craters on Mars are the result of an impact event into a rock/ice mixture that produces large amounts of shock-induced vaporization and melting of ground ice, leading to high ejection angles, proximal landing positions, and an ejecta curtain with relatively wet (in terms of water in liquid form) composition in the distal part versus dryer composition in the proximal part. As a consequence, basal melting of ice components in the ejecta at the transient crater rim, which is induced by frictional heating and the enhanced pressure at depth, initiates an outwards directed collapse of crater rim material in a translational slide mode. Our results indicate that similar processes may also be applicable for other planetary bodies with volatile-rich environments, such as Ganymede, Europa, and the Earth.

  14. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket (United States)

    Griscom, D. L.


    idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10-20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed), preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal) upland deposits and the (proximal) Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations) still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation. Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages) and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor). The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major revision of the current stratigraphic column of the M

  15. New insights into Holocene eruption episodes from proximal deposit sequences at Mt. Taranaki (Egmont), New Zealand (United States)

    Torres-Orozco, Rafael; Cronin, Shane J.; Pardo, Natalia; Palmer, Alan S.


    Upper stratovolcano flanks contain the most nuanced depositional record of long eruption episodes, but steep, irregular terrain makes these sequences difficult to correlate and interpret. This necessitates development of a detailed and systematic approach to describing localized depositional facies and relating these to eruptive processes. In this work, the late-Holocene eruption history of Mt. Taranaki/Egmont, New Zealand, was re-assessed based on a study of proximal deposits spanning the 14C-dated age range of 5.0-0.3 cal ka B.P. Mt. Taranaki is a textbook-example stratovolcano, with geological evidence pointing to sudden switches in scale, type and frequency of eruptions over its 130 ka history. The proximal stratigraphy presented here almost doubles the number of eruptions recognized from previous soil-stratigraphy studies. A total of 53 lithostratigraphic bed-sets record eruptions of the summit crater and parasitic vents like Fanthams Peak (the latter between 3.0 and 1.5 cal ka B.P.). At least 12 of the eruptions represented by these bed-sets comprise deposits comparable with or thicker than those of the latest sub-Plinian eruption of AD 1655. The largest eruption episode represented is the 4.6-4.7-cal ka B.P. Kokowai. Contrasting eruption styles were identified, from stable basaltic-andesite eruption columns at Fanthams Peak, to andesitic lava-dome extrusion, blasts and partial collapse of unstable eruption columns at Mt. Taranaki's summit. The centemetre-scale proximal deposit descriptions were used to identify several previously unknown, smaller eruption events. These details are indispensable for building a comprehensive probabilistic event record and in the development of realistic eruptive scenarios for complex eruption episodes prior to re-awakening of a volcano.

  16. Comet Ejecta in Aerogel (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for annotated image This image shows a particle impact on the aluminum frame that holds the aerogel tiles. The debris from the impact shot into the adjacent aerogel tile producing the explosion pattern of ejecta framents captured in the material. A nice cratering experiment.

  17. Glass geochemistry of pyroclastic deposits from the Aeolian Islands in the last 50 ka: A proximal database for tephrochronology (United States)

    Albert, Paul G.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; Smith, Victoria C.; Di Traglia, Federico; Pistolesi, Marco; Morris, Anna; Donato, Paola; De Rosa, Rosanna; Sulpizio, Roberto; Keller, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Menzies, Martin


    Volcanic ash (Aeolian Islands is reported distally as layers in sedimentary archives from across the central Mediterranean region. Here we present volcanic glass geochemistry of proximal tephra deposits from explosive eruptions on the islands of Vulcano, Lipari, Salina and Stromboli spanning approximately the last 50 ka using grain-specific EMPA and LA-ICP-MS. This comprehensive database of volcanic glass compositions (> 1000 analyses) provides a basis for proximal-distal and distal-distal tephra correlations. Tephra deposits from the different Aeolian Islands are geochemically diverse; with some individual eruptions showing diagnostic geochemical heterogeneity recognised both stratigraphically and/or spatially. Major element glass analyses reveal that Vulcano (0-21 ka) and Stromboli (4-13 ka) have erupted potassic (shoshonitic and K-series) tephra with broadly overlapping compositions, but data presented here demonstrates that their eruptive products can be distinguished using either TiO2 contents or their HFSE/Th ratios. Whilst individual volcanic sources often produce successive tephra deposits with near identical major and minor element compositions through time (i.e., Lipari, Vulcano), trace element glass data can help to decipher successive eruptions. Changes in LREE and Th concentrations of volcanic glasses erupted spanning approximately the last 50 ka greatly enhance the potential to discriminate successive eruptive units on Lipari. The new proximal glass database has been used to verify new (Ionian Sea; core M25/4-12) and existing distal occurrences of Aeolian Island derived tephra enabling the reassessments of past ash dispersals. Finally, proximal and distal data have been used to establish an integrated proximal-distal eruptive event stratigraphy for the Aeolian Islands.

  18. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.


    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  19. Topographic Analysis of the Asymmetric Ejecta of Zunil Crater, Mars (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Sharpton, V. L.


    The 10.1 km diameter crater Zunil (7.7oN, 166.2oE) has many of the attributes of a fresh impact crater on Mars, including pitted material on the crater floor, an extensive field of secondary craters, as well as thermally-distinct crater rays. But unlike most craters of this size and location, Zunil crater displays a striking azimuthal variation in ejecta deposits with both fluidized and ballistic ejecta. Here we investigate the geometric attributes of the crater cavity and rim to try to identify the cause of this ejecta asymmetry, as well as the possible explanation for the formation of the ballistic ejecta. To accomplish this, we have created a digital elevation model (DEM) from stereo Context Camera (CTX) images, using the Ames Stereo Pipeline software. We used CTX frames F06_038250_1877 and G05_020211_1877 to produce a DEM with a nominal spatial resolution of 24 m/pixel, and use this DEM to conduct a detailed morphometric analysis of the crater in order to ascertain the nature of this "lobate-ballistic ejecta dichotomy", as well as derive new information on local target properties and the nature of the impact process itself. Measuring the rim height and radius at one-degree increments of azimuth, we find there are numerous places on the rim crest that are both higher and wider, or lower and narrower, than is typical for Zunil crater. There are places where rim height and radius are both close to average, while in other places both the rim height and radius are larger or smaller than the average. There is also a lack of consistency between the geometry of the crater and the type of ejecta; namely no direct correlation between rim height, crater radius, and ejecta type, but a slight negative correlation between radius and rim height for parts of the crater which possess ballistic ejecta. We find good circumstantial evidence that some of the target rock within which Zunil crater formed may have been dry at the time of impact compared to other craters of this size

  20. Ejecta evolution during cone impact

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy


    We present findings from an experimental investigation into the impact of solid cone-shaped bodies onto liquid pools. Using a variety of cone angles and liquid physical properties, we show that the ejecta formed during the impact exhibits self-similarity for all impact speeds for very low surface tension liquids, whilst for high-surface tension liquids similarity is only achieved at high impact speeds. We find that the ejecta tip can detach from the cone and that this phenomenon can be attributed to the air entrainment phenomenon. We analyse of a range of cone angles, including some ogive cones, and impact speeds in terms of the spatiotemporal evolution of the ejecta tip. Using superhydrophobic cones, we also examine the entry of cones which entrain an air layer.

  1. Synthesis and modeling of uniform complex metal oxides by close-proximity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Musselman, Kevin P; Vaynzof, Yana; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L


    A close-proximity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) reactor is developed for synthesizing high quality multicomponent metal oxides for electronics. This combines the advantages of a mechanically controllable substrate-manifold spacing and vertical gas flows. As a result, our AP-CVD reactor can rapidly grow uniform crystalline films on a variety of substrate types at low temperatures without requiring plasma enhancements or low pressures. To demonstrate this, we take the zinc magnesium oxide (Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O) system as an example. By introducing the precursor gases vertically and uniformly to the substrate across the gas manifold, we show that films can be produced with only 3% variation in thickness over a 375 mm(2) deposition area. These thicknesses are significantly more uniform than for films from previous AP-CVD reactors. Our films are also compact, pinhole-free, and have a thickness that is linearly controllable by the number of oscillations of the substrate beneath the gas manifold. Using photoluminescence and X-ray diffraction measurements, we show that for Mg contents below 46 at. %, single phase Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O was produced. To further optimize the growth conditions, we developed a model relating the composition of a ternary oxide with the bubbling rates through the metal precursors. We fitted this model to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measured compositions with an error of Δx = 0.0005. This model showed that the incorporation of Mg into ZnO can be maximized by using the maximum bubbling rate through the Mg precursor for each bubbling rate ratio. When applied to poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) hybrid solar cells, our films yielded an open-circuit voltage increase of over 100% by controlling the Mg content. Such films were deposited in short times (under 2 min over 4 cm(2)).

  2. X-Ray Heating of the Ejecta of Supernova 1987A (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Larsson, Josefin; Fransson, Claes; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter; McCray, Richard


    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Band R band images from 1994 to 2009 show that the optical luminosity of SN 1987A has transitioned from being powered by radioactive decay of Ti-44 to energy deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material (Larsson et al. 2011, Nature, 474, 484). The B and R band flux from the densest, central parts of the ejecta followed the expected exponential decline until 2001 (about day 5000) when the flux in these bands started increasing, more than doubling by the end of 2009. This increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays from the shock interaction of the fast-moving outer ejecta with the inner circumstellar ring. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejecta, enabling us to analyze the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.

  3. The Crater Ejecta Distribution on Ceres (United States)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Neesemann, Adrian; Schulzeck, Franziska; Krohn, Katrin; Gathen, Isabel; Otto, Katharina; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher


    Since March 6 2015 the Dawn spacecraft [1] has been in orbit around the dwarf planet Ceres. At small crater diameters Ceres appears to be peppered with secondary craters that often align in chains or form clusters. Some of such possible crater chains follow curved geometries and are not in a radial orientation with respect to possible source craters [2]. Ceres is a fast rotating body ( 9 h per revolution) with comparatively low surface gravity ( 0.27 m/s2). A substantial fraction of impact ejecta may be launched with velocities similar to Ceres' escape velocity (510 m/s), which implies that many ejected particles follow high and long trajectories. Thus, due to Ceres' fast rotation the distribution pattern of the reimpacting ejected material is heavily affected by Coriolis forces that results in a highly asymmetrical and curved pattern of secondary crater chains. In order to simulate flight trajectories and distribution of impact ejected material for individual craters on Ceres we used the scaling laws by [3] adjusted to the Cerean impact conditions [4] and the impact ejecta model by [5]. These models provide the starting conditions for tracer particles in the simulation. The trajectories of the particles are computed as n-body simulation. The simulation calculates the positions and impact velocities of each impacting tracer particle with respect to the rotating surface of Ceres, which is approximated by a two-axis ellipsoid. Initial results show a number of interesting features in the simulated deposition geometries of specific crater ejecta. These features are roughly in agreement with features that can be observed in Dawn imaging data of the Cerean surface. For example: ray systems of fresh impact craters, non-radial crater chains and global scale border lines of higher and lower color ratio areas. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Germany, grants 50 OW

  4. Phase Doppler anemometry as an ejecta diagnostic (United States)

    Bell, D. J.; Chapman, D. J.


    When a shock wave is incident on a free surface, micron sized pieces of the material can be ejected from that surface. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) is being developed to simultaneously measure the sizes and velocities of the individual shock induced ejecta particles; providing an important insight into ejecta phenomena. The results from experiments performed on the 13 mm bore light gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London are presented. Specially grooved tin targets were shocked at pressures of up to 14 GPa, below the melt on release pressure, to generate ejecta particles. These experiments are the first time that PDA has been successfully fielded on dynamic ejecta experiments. The results and current state of the art of the technique are discussed along with the future improvements required to optimise performance and increase usability.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, P.O. Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Dewey, Daniel [MIT Kavli Institute, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Mori, Koji [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Lee, Jae-Joon, E-mail: [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)


    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of –2300 ≲ v{sub r}  ≲ 1400 km s{sup –1}. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity versus projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ∼90'' (corresponding to ∼3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ∼4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 10{sup 51} erg, we estimate the total ejecta mass to be ≲8 M {sub ☉}, and we propose an upper limit of ≲35 M {sub ☉} on the progenitor's mass.

  6. The Global Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Impact Ejecta (United States)

    Smit, J.

    The Chicxulub crater ejecta stratigraphy is reviewed, in the context of the stratigraphy of underlying and overlying rock sequences. The ejecta sequence is regionally grouped in (a) thick polymict and monomict breccia sequences inside the crater and within 300 km from the rim of the crater known from drill holes in and close to the breater, and exposures near the border of Yucatan and Belize; (b) Gulf of Mexico region, <2500 m from the crater, with up to 9 m thick, complex, tsunami-wave influenced, tektite-bearing sequences in shallow marine (<500 m deep) environments and tektite bearing, decimeter thick gravity-flow deposits in deep water sites; (c) an intermediate region between 2500 and 4000 km from the crater where centimeter thick, tektite-bearing layers occur, and (d) a global distal region with a millimeter thin ejecta layer. The distal ejecta layer is characterized by sub-millimeter sized microkrystites, often rich in Ni-rich spinels and (altered) clinopyroxene. Wherever present, the ejecta layers mark exactly the sudden mass-mortality horizon of the K/T boundary. What exactly caused the mass mortality is still uncertain, but it appears the main event leading to the K/T mass extinctions.

  7. High resolution seismic stratigraphy and Mass Transport Deposits of the proximal continental margin, offshore Quarteira, South Portugal: Preliminary Results. (United States)

    Duarte, Débora; Santos, Joana; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Roque, Cristina


    More than 300 nautical miles of multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired in the scope of the ASTARTE project (Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), off Quarteira, Algarve, South Portugal. The main goal of this very high resolution multichannel seismic survey was to obtain high-resolution images of the sedimentary record to try to discern the existence of high energy events, possibly tsunami backwash deposits associated with large magnitude earthquakes generated at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary This seismic dataset was processed at the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), with the SeisSpace PROMAX Seismic Processing software. A tailor-made processing flow was applied, focusing in the removal of the seafloor multiple and in the enhancement of the superficial layers. A sparker source, using with 300 J of energy and a fire rate of 0,5 s was used onboard Xunauta, an 18 m long vessel. The preliminary seismostratigraphic interpretation of the Algarve ASTARTE seismic dataset allowed the identification of a complex sequence seismic units of progradational and agradational bodies as well as Mass Transported Deposits (MTD). The MTD package of sediments has a very complex internal structure, 20m of thickness, is apparently spatially controlled by an escarpment probably associated to past sea level low stands. The MTD covers across an area, approximately parallel to an ancient coastline, with >30 km (length) x 5 km (across). Acknowledgements: This work was developed as part of the project ASTARTE (603839 FP7) supported by the grant agreement No 603839 of the European Union's Seventh. The Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera acknowledges support by Landmark Graphics (SeisWorks) via the Landmark University Grant Program.

  8. Subsurface volatile content of martian double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters (United States)

    Viola, Donna; McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane


    Excess ice is widespread throughout the martian mid-latitudes, particularly in Arcadia Planitia, where double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters also tend to be abundant. In this region, we observe the presence of thermokarstically-expanded secondary craters that likely form from impacts that destabilize a subsurface layer of excess ice, which subsequently sublimates. The presence of these expanded craters shows that excess ice is still preserved within the adjacent terrain. Here, we focus on a 15-km DLE crater that contains abundant superposed expanded craters in order to study the distribution of subsurface volatiles both at the time when the secondary craters formed and, by extension, remaining today. To do this, we measure the size distribution of the superposed expanded craters and use topographic data to calculate crater volumes as a proxy for the volumes of ice lost to sublimation during the expansion process. The inner ejecta layer contains craters that appear to have undergone more expansion, suggesting that excess ice was most abundant in that region. However, both of the ejecta layers had more expanded craters than the surrounding terrain. We extrapolate that the total volume of ice remaining within the entire ejecta deposit is as much as 74 km3 or more. The variation in ice content between the ejecta layers could be the result of (1) volatile preservation from the formation of the DLE crater, (2) post-impact deposition in the form of ice lenses; or (3) preferential accumulation or preservation of subsequent snowfall. We have ruled out (2) as the primary mode for ice deposition in this location based on inconsistencies with our observations, though it may operate in concert with other processes. Although none of the existing DLE formation hypotheses are completely consistent with our observations, which may merit a new or modified mechanism, we can conclude that DLE craters contain a significant quantity of excess ice today.

  9. Influence of shockwave profile on ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Tim C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hammerberg, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rigg, Paulo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buttler, William T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Gerald D [NST GOLETA, CA; Turley, William D [NST GOLETA, CA


    This effort investigates the relation between shock-pulse shape and the amount of micron-scale fragments ejected (ejecta) upon shock release at the metal/vacuum interface of shocked Sn targets. Two shock-pulse shapes are considered: a supported shock created by impacting a Sn target with a sabot that was accelerated using a powder gun; and an unsupported or Taylor shockwave, created by detonation of high explosive that was press-fit to the front-side of the Sn target. Ejecta production at the back-side or free-side of the Sn coupons were characterized through use of piezoelectric pins. Assay foils, optical shadowgraphy, and x-ray attenuation.

  10. Evolutionary signatures in complex ejecta and their driven shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia


    Full Text Available We examine interplanetary signatures of ejecta-ejecta interactions. To this end, two time intervals of inner-heliospheric (≤1AU observations separated by 2 solar cycles are chosen where ejecta/magnetic clouds are in the process of interacting to form complex ejecta. At the Sun, both intervals are characterized by many coronal mass ejections (CMEs and flares. In each case, a complement of observations from various instruments on two spacecraft are examined in order to bring out the in-situ signatures of ejecta-ejecta interactions and their relation to solar observations. In the first interval (April 1979, data are shown from Helios-2 and ISEE-3, separated by ~0.33AU in radial distance and 28° in heliographic longitude. In the second interval (March-April 2001, data from the SOHO and Wind probes are combined, relating effects at the Sun and their manifestations at 1AU on one of Wind's distant prograde orbits. At ~0.67AU, Helios-2 observes two individual ejecta which have merged by the time they are observed at 1AU by ISEE-3. In March 2001, two distinct Halo CMEs (H-CMEs are observed on SOHO on 28-29 March approaching each other with a relative speed of 500kms-1 within 30 solar radii. In order to isolate signatures of ejecta-ejecta interactions, the two event intervals are compared with expectations for pristine (isolated ejecta near the last solar minimum, extensive observations on which were given by Berdichevsky et al. (2002. The observations from these two event sequences are then intercompared. In both event sequences, coalescence/merging was accompanied by the following signatures: heating of the plasma, acceleration of the leading ejecta and deceleration of the trailing ejecta, compressed field and plasma in the leading ejecta, disappearance of shocks and the strengthening of shocks driven by the accelerated ejecta. A search for reconnection signatures at the interface between the two ejecta in the March 2001 event was inconclusive

  11. Jet ejecta mass upon oblique impact (United States)

    Yang, W.; Ahrens, T. J.; Miller, G. H.; Petach, M. B.

    Theoretical models in the jetting regime for symmetric and asymmetric impact of thin plates predict the mass and velocity of jetted material upon oblique impact. However, experimental constraints on the amount of material which form jets upon oblique impact are not known. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted in which tungsten (W) flyer plates at speeds of 1.5 to 2.0 km/s were obliquely impacted into carbon targets at 30 deg in the regime of jetting, yielding radiation temperatures in the about 3200 K range. Both framing-camera and flash X-ray imaging were conducted. Broad cm-sized craters induced by jet ejecta on 2024 Al witness plates were used to infer jet mass. We infer, from measured witness plate crater volumes, that jet masses in the range of 0.01 to 0.06 g are produced by a 32 mm diameter, 6 mm thick W impactor. This is about one to two orders of magnitude less than those calculated from present theoretical models. In contrast, in refractory material experiments, the mass of gabbro ejecta trapped in styrofoam is 0.52 g, which is similar to that calculated.

  12. Timing and Distribution of Single-Layered Ejecta Craters Imply Sporadic Preservation of Tropical Subsurface Ice on Mars (United States)

    Kirchoff, Michelle R.; Grimm, Robert E.


    Determining the evolution of tropical subsurface ice is a key component to understanding Mars's climate and geologic history. Study of an intriguing crater type on Mars—layered ejecta craters, which likely form by tapping subsurface ice—may provide constraints on this evolution. Layered ejecta craters have a continuous ejecta deposit with a fluidized-flow appearance. Single-layered ejecta (SLE) craters are the most common and dominate at tropical latitudes and therefore offer the best opportunity to derive new constraints on the temporal evolution of low-latitude subsurface ice. We estimate model formation ages of 54 SLE craters with diameter (D) ≥ 5 km using the density of small, superposed craters with D D 1 km indicates that ice could be preserved as shallow as 100 m or less at those locations. Finally, there is a striking spatial mixing in an area of highlands near the equator of layered and radial (lunar-like ballistic) ejecta craters; the latter form where there are insufficient concentrations of subsurface ice. This implies strong spatial heterogeneity in the concentration of tropical subsurface ice.

  13. The global stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary impact ejecta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.


    The Chicxulub crater ejecta stratigraphy is reviewed, in the context of the stratigraphy of underlying and overlying rock sequences. The ejecta sequence is regionally grouped in (a) thick polymict and monomict breccia sequences inside the crater and within 300 km from the rim of the crater known

  14. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  15. Experimental hypervelocity impact into quartz sand - Distribution and shock metamorphism of ejecta (United States)

    Stoeffler, D.; Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J.; Polkowski, G.


    Results are presented for vertical impacts of 0.3-g cylindrical plastic projectiles into noncohesive quartz sand in which vertical and horizontal reference strate were employed by using layers of colored sand. The impacts were performed at velocities of 5.9-6.9 km/sec with a vertical gun ballistic range. The craters, 30-33 cm in diameter, reveal a radial decay of the ejecta mass per unit area with a power of -2.8 to -3.5. Material displaced from the upper 15% of the crater depth d is represented within the whole ejecta blanked, material from deeper than 28% of d is deposited inside 2 crater radii, and no material from deeper than 33% of d was ejected beyond the crater rim. Shock-metamorphosed particles (glassy agglutinates, cataclastic breccias, and comminuted quartz) amount to some 4% of the total displaced mass and indicate progressive zones of decay of shock intensity from a peak pressure of 300 kbar. The shock-metamorphosed particles and the shock-induced change in the grain size distribution of ejected samples have close analogies to the basic characteristics of the lunar regolith. Possible applications to regolith formation and to ejecta formations of large-scale impact craters are discussed.

  16. X-Ray Illumination of the Ejecta of Supernova 1987A (United States)

    Larsson, J.; Fransson, C.; Oestlin, G.; Groeningsson, P.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kozma, C.; Sollerman, J.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Chevalier, R. A.; hide


    When a massive star explodes as a supernova, substantial amounts of radioactive elements-primarily Ni-56, Ni-57 and Ti-44 are produced. After the initial from shock heating, the light emitted by the supernova is due to the decay of these elements. However, after decades, the energy powering a supernova remnant comes from the shock interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding medium. The transition to this phase has hitherto not been observed: supernovae occur too infrequently in the Milky Way to provide a young example, and extragalactic supernovae are generally too faint and too small. Here we report observations that show this transition in the supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellan Cloud. From 1994 to 200l, the ejecta faded owing to radioactive decay of Ti-44 as predicted. Then the flux started to increase, more than doubling by the end of 2009. We show that this increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejects, enabling us to analyse the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.

  17. Calculation of ejecta thickness and structural uplift for Lunar and Martian complex crater rims. (United States)

    Krüger, Tim; Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas


    Crater rims of simple and complex craters have an elevation that is formed during the excavation stage of crater formation. For simple crater rims it is believed that the elevation is due to the sum of two equal parts, the thickness of the most proximal impact ejecta blanket (overturned flap) plus the thickness that results from plastic deformation including injection [1, 2, 3]. We intend to measure and quantify the kinematics of mass movements, especially concerning the question why complex impact craters have elevated crater rims like simple craters and precisely constrain the ejecta thickness and structural uplift of Lunar and Martian crater rims to understand what the main contributor to the elevated rim is [4]. We investigated a pristine 16 km-diameter unnamed Martian complex crater (21.52°N, 184.35°) and the lunar complex craters Bessel (21.8°N, 17.9°E) 16 km in diameter and Euler (23.3°N, 29.2°W) 28 km in diameter [5, 6]. In the crater walls of these craters we found columnar lavas on Mars and basaltic layering on the Moon. We used the uppermost layers of these exposed outcrops along the crater wall to determine the dip of the target rocks (Mars) and to distinguish between the bedrock and the overlying ejecta. We precisely measured the structural uplift and ejecta thickness of these complex craters. The unnamed crater on Mars has a mean rim height of 375.75 m, with a structural uplift of 233.88 m (57.44%), exposed as columnar lavas and the superposing ejecta has a height of 141.87 m (43.56%). For the Lunar complex crater Euler the mean total rim height is 790 ± 100 m, with a minimal structural uplift of 475 ± 100 m (60 ± 10 %), exposed as basaltic layers [e.g., 7, 8] and a maximum ejecta thickness of 315 ± 100 m (40 ± 10%). The Lunar complex crater Bessel has a total rim height of 430 ± 15 m , with a minimal structural uplift of 290 ± 15 m (67 ± 3 %), exposed as basaltic layers and a maximum ejecta thickness of 140 ± 115 m (33 ± 3%). For the

  18. Evolutionary signatures in complex ejecta and their driven shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia


    Full Text Available We examine interplanetary signatures of ejecta-ejecta interactions. To this end, two time intervals of inner-heliospheric (≤1AU observations separated by 2 solar cycles are chosen where ejecta/magnetic clouds are in the process of interacting to form complex ejecta. At the Sun, both intervals are characterized by many coronal mass ejections (CMEs and flares. In each case, a complement of observations from various instruments on two spacecraft are examined in order to bring out the in-situ signatures of ejecta-ejecta interactions and their relation to solar observations. In the first interval (April 1979, data are shown from Helios-2 and ISEE-3, separated by ~0.33AU in radial distance and 28° in heliographic longitude. In the second interval (March-April 2001, data from the SOHO and Wind probes are combined, relating effects at the Sun and their manifestations at 1AU on one of Wind's distant prograde orbits. At ~0.67AU, Helios-2 observes two individual ejecta which have merged by the time they are observed at 1AU by ISEE-3. In March 2001, two distinct Halo CMEs (H-CMEs are observed on SOHO on 28-29 March approaching each other with a relative speed of 500kms-1 within 30 solar radii. In order to isolate signatures of ejecta-ejecta interactions, the two event intervals are compared with expectations for pristine (isolated ejecta near the last solar minimum, extensive observations on which were given by Berdichevsky et al. (2002. The observations from these two event sequences are then intercompared. In both event sequences, coalescence/merging was accompanied by the following signatures: heating of the plasma, acceleration of the leading ejecta and deceleration of the trailing ejecta, compressed field and plasma in the leading ejecta, disappearance of shocks and the strengthening of shocks driven by the accelerated ejecta. A search for reconnection signatures at the interface between the two ejecta in the March 2001 event was

  19. The Detection of Impact Ejecta on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Li, Y. W.; Srama, R.; Grun, E.


    Based on the recent data, the LDEX (Lunar Dust EXperiment) sensor onboard lunar orbiter LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) already identified the existence of a dust cloud above the lunar surface down to 10 km [1]. Instruments placed on the lunar surface can monitor both secondary ejecta of interplanetary dust impact and lofted dust by electric force. This paper will fucus on the measurement for impact ejecta. Considering the trajectory of the ejecta, we suggest to mount the instrument with a elevation angle of + 15±. The detection of falling down ejecta population is considered as the main science goal. We recorded to add a articulate mechanism to allow the detector scanning by at lest ± 15±) in order to sperate the two ejcta populations.

  20. Two layers of Australian impact ejecta in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Gupta, S.M.; Kodagali, V.N.

    buried in older horizons beneath the seafloor at stratigraphic levels, conforming to the radiometric age of the strewn field. Thus, at first glance, there appear to be 2 layers of Australian impact ejecta in the Indian Ocean. However, the manganese...

  1. (U) An Analytic Study of Piezoelectric Ejecta Mass Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We consider the piezoelectric measurement of the areal mass of an ejecta cloud, for the specific case where ejecta are created by a single shock at the free surface and fly ballistically through vacuum to the sensor. To do so, we define time- and velocity-dependent ejecta “areal mass functions” at the source and sensor in terms of typically unknown distribution functions for the ejecta particles. Next, we derive an equation governing the relationship between the areal mass function at the source (which resides in the rest frame of the free surface) and at the sensor (which resides in the laboratory frame). We also derive expressions for the analytic (“true”) accumulated ejecta mass at the sensor and the measured (“inferred”) value obtained via the standard method for analyzing piezoelectric voltage traces. This approach enables us to derive an exact expression for the error imposed upon a piezoelectric ejecta mass measurement (in a perfect system) by the assumption of instantaneous creation. We verify that when the ejecta are created instantaneously (i.e., when the time dependence is a delta function), the piezoelectric inference method exactly reproduces the correct result. When creation is not instantaneous, the standard piezo analysis will always overestimate the true mass. However, the error is generally quite small (less than several percent) for most reasonable velocity and time dependences. In some cases, errors exceeding 10-15% may require velocity distributions or ejecta production timescales inconsistent with experimental observations. These results are demonstrated rigorously with numerous analytic test problems.

  2. Proximal nailfold microhemorrhage events are manifested as distal cuticular (eponychial) hemosiderin-containing deposits (CEHD) (syn. Maricq sign) and can aid in the diagnosis of dermatomyositis and systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey D; Sontheimer, Richard D


    Many patients present with cutaneous signs and symptoms that suggest a diagnosis on the autoimmune disease spectrum. During the "acute phase" of disease activity, patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and dermatomyositis (DM) have characteristic nailfold findings, including dilated capillaries, microhemorrhages, and hemosiderin deposits. To review the literature on the presentation of microhemorrhages and to highlight the differences (in terms of terminology, characterization, and clinical relevance) between proximal microhemorrhage events and the distal products, often thought of as "hemosiderin deposits" located in the cuticle (eponychium). Because we found no studies directly showing these cuticular products are in fact "hemosiderin-containing," we conducted a direct staining experiment in vivo using Prussian blue in order to increase our confidence that these products are indeed hemosiderin-containing and that the terminology is accurate for further use. In July-December 2014, the MeSH function in PubMed was used to identify approximately 165 articles relating to capillaroscopy. We reviewed these articles for mention of microhemorrhages and hemosiderin deposits. In addition, we used PubMed and Google Scholar searches for "hemosiderin + nail", "Prussian Blue + nail", and "hemosiderin deposit." We found no papers reporting the use of Prussian Blue directly on nailfolds of patients with SSc and DM in vivo. In our literature review, "microhemorrhages" and "hemosiderin deposits" were often used synonymously, yet they are clearly distinct entities. We present a case in which the presence of these deposits supported a diagnosis of amyopathic DM. We used Prussian blue staining solution to visualize the cuticular (eponychial) hemosoderin-containing deposits (CEHD) - distal cuticular products that reflect previous proximal nailfold microhemorrhage events. CEHD can serve as an indicator of active autoimmune disease, particularly in SSc and DM. CEHD are in fact

  3. Impact ejecta dynamics in an atmosphere - Experimental results and extrapolations (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.


    It is noted that the impacts of 0.635-cm aluminum projectiles at 6 km/sec into fine pumice dust, at 1 atm, generate a ball of ionized gas behind an expanding curtain of upward moving ejecta. The gas ball forms a toroid which dissolves as it is driven along the interior of the ejecta curtain, by contrast to near-surface explosions in which a fireball envelops early-time crater growth. High frame rate Schlieren photographs show that the atmosphere at the base of the ejecta curtain is initially turbulent, but later forms a vortex. These experiments suggest that although small size ejecta may be decelerated by air drag, they are not simply lofted and suspended but become incorporated in an ejecta cloud that is controlled by air flow which is produced by the response of the atmosphere to the impact. The extrapolation of these results to large body impacts on the earth suggests such contrasts with laboratory experiments as a large quantity of impact-generated vapor, the supersonic advance of the ejecta curtain, the lessened effect of air drag due to the tenuous upper atmosphere, and the role of secondary cratering.

  4. Searching for Biosignatures in Exoplanetary Impact Ejecta (United States)

    Cataldi, Gianni; Brandeker, Alexis; Thébault, Philippe; Singer, Kelsi; Ahmed, Engy; de Vries, Bernard L.; Neubeck, Anna; Olofsson, Göran


    With the number of confirmed rocky exoplanets increasing steadily, their characterization and the search for exoplanetary biospheres are becoming increasingly urgent issues in astrobiology. To date, most efforts have concentrated on the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. Instead, we aim to investigate the possibility of characterizing an exoplanet (in terms of habitability, geology, presence of life, etc.) by studying material ejected from the surface during an impact event. For a number of impact scenarios, we estimate the escaping mass and assess its subsequent collisional evolution in a circumstellar orbit, assuming a Sun-like host star. We calculate the fractional luminosity of the dust as a function of time after the impact event and study its detectability with current and future instrumentation. We consider the possibility to constrain the dust composition, giving information on the geology or the presence of a biosphere. As examples, we investigate whether calcite, silica, or ejected microorganisms could be detected. For a 20 km diameter impactor, we find that the dust mass escaping the exoplanet is roughly comparable to the zodiacal dust, depending on the exoplanet's size. The collisional evolution is best modeled by considering two independent dust populations, a spalled population consisting of nonmelted ejecta evolving on timescales of millions of years, and dust recondensed from melt or vapor evolving on much shorter timescales. While the presence of dust can potentially be inferred with current telescopes, studying its composition requires advanced instrumentation not yet available. The direct detection of biological matter turns out to be extremely challenging. Despite considerable difficulties (small dust masses, noise such as exozodiacal dust, etc.), studying dusty material ejected from an exoplanetary surface might become an interesting complement to atmospheric studies in the future.

  5. Simulating regolith ejecta due to gas impingement (United States)

    Chambers, Wesley Allen; Metzger, Philip; Dove, Adrienne; Britt, Daniel


    Space missions operating at or near the surface of a planet or small body must consider possible gas-regolith interactions, as they can cause hazardous effects or, conversely, be employed to accomplish mission goals. They are also directly related to a body's surface properties; thus understanding these interactions could provide an additional tool to analyze mission data. The Python Regolith Interaction Calculator (PyRIC), built upon a computational technique developed in the Apollo era, was used to assess interactions between rocket exhaust and an asteroid's surface. It focused specifically on threshold conditions for causing regolith ejecta. To improve this model, and learn more about the underlying physics, we have begun ground-based experiments studying the interaction between gas impingement and regolith simulant. Compressed air, initially standing in for rocket exhaust, is directed through a rocket nozzle at a bed of simulant. We assess the qualitative behavior of various simulants when subjected to a known maximum surface pressure, both in atmosphere and in a chamber initially at vacuum. These behaviors are compared to prior computational results, and possible flow patterns are inferred. Our future work will continue these experiments in microgravity through the use of a drop tower. These will use several simulant types and various pressure levels to observe the effects gas flow can have on target surfaces. Combining this with a characterization of the surface pressure distribution, tighter bounds can be set on the cohesive threshold necessary to maintain regolith integrity. This will aid the characterization of actual regolith distributions, as well as informing the surface operation phase of mission design.

  6. Searching for Biosignatures in Exoplanetary Impact Ejecta. (United States)

    Cataldi, Gianni; Brandeker, Alexis; Thébault, Philippe; Singer, Kelsi; Ahmed, Engy; de Vries, Bernard L; Neubeck, Anna; Olofsson, Göran


    With the number of confirmed rocky exoplanets increasing steadily, their characterization and the search for exoplanetary biospheres are becoming increasingly urgent issues in astrobiology. To date, most efforts have concentrated on the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. Instead, we aim to investigate the possibility of characterizing an exoplanet (in terms of habitability, geology, presence of life, etc.) by studying material ejected from the surface during an impact event. For a number of impact scenarios, we estimate the escaping mass and assess its subsequent collisional evolution in a circumstellar orbit, assuming a Sun-like host star. We calculate the fractional luminosity of the dust as a function of time after the impact event and study its detectability with current and future instrumentation. We consider the possibility to constrain the dust composition, giving information on the geology or the presence of a biosphere. As examples, we investigate whether calcite, silica, or ejected microorganisms could be detected. For a 20 km diameter impactor, we find that the dust mass escaping the exoplanet is roughly comparable to the zodiacal dust, depending on the exoplanet's size. The collisional evolution is best modeled by considering two independent dust populations, a spalled population consisting of nonmelted ejecta evolving on timescales of millions of years, and dust recondensed from melt or vapor evolving on much shorter timescales. While the presence of dust can potentially be inferred with current telescopes, studying its composition requires advanced instrumentation not yet available. The direct detection of biological matter turns out to be extremely challenging. Despite considerable difficulties (small dust masses, noise such as exozodiacal dust, etc.), studying dusty material ejected from an exoplanetary surface might become an interesting complement to atmospheric studies in the future. Key Words: Biosignatures

  7. A Numerical Impact Ejecta Model for the Deep Impact Mission (United States)

    Richardson, J. E.; Melosh, H. J.


    In July of 2005, the Deep Impact spacecraft will release a 370 kg impactor into the path of comet 9P/Tempel 1, and then move to a save distance to observe the resulting collision and it's effects. As part of the mission planning for this event, we have developed a numerical, Monte-Carlo simulation which models (via ``tracer particles") the ejecta plume, ejecta blanket, and impact crater area resulting from a specified impact on an irregularly shaped target body (modeled in 3-dimensional polygon fashion). The target body can be placed in a simple rotation state about one of its principal axes, with the impact site and projectile/target parameters selected by the user. The model is based upon the impact ejecta scaling laws developed by Housen, Schmidt, and Holsapple (1983), modified to more properly simulate late-stage ejection velocities and ejecta plume shape changes (ejection angle variations). Additionally, a target strength parameter has been added to allow the simulation of strength-dominated cratering events as well as the more familiar gravity-dominated cratering events. This model has two primary uses: (1) Coupled with an appropriate display module, it will be used in planning the instrument image sequences for the comet flyby spacecraft, allowing us to simulate the acquired images from a number of possible impact scenarios. (2) It will provide a method for directly modeling the behavior of the actually observed ejecta plume, which will then be used to estimate the mass/density of Temple 1 based upon the effects of the comet's gravity field on crater formation and ejecta plume behavior. In addition, measurements of the observed ejecta plume size and expansion velocity as a function of time can be compared to a family of expected behavior curves produced by our numerical model, in order to improve this mass/density estimation.

  8. The Ejecta Evolution of Deep Impact: Insight from Experiments (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.


    The Deep Impact (DI) probe impacted comet 9P/Tempel 1 at an angle of ~30° from local horizontal with a velocity of 10.2 km/s. Examination of the resulting ballistic (e.g., non-vapor driven) ejecta revealed phenomena that largely followed expectations from laboratory investigations of oblique impacts into low-density porous material, including a downrange bias, uprange zone of avoidance, and cardioid (curved) rays (Schultz, et al, 2005, 2007). Modeling of the impact based on canonical models and scaling laws (Richardson, et al, 2007) allowed a first-order reconstruction of the event, but did not fully represent the three-dimensional nature of the ejecta flow-field in an oblique impact essential for interpretation of the DI data. In this study, we present new experimental measurements of the early-time ejecta dynamics in oblique impacts that allow a more complete reconstruction of the ballistic ejecta from the impact, including visualization of the DI encounter and predictions for the upcoming re-encounter with Tempel 1. A suite of hypervelocity 30° impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) for the purpose of interpreting the Deep Impact event. A technique based on Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) permitted non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity within the ejecta curtain. The PTV system developed at the AVGR utilizes a laser light sheet projected parallel to the impact surface to illuminate horizontal “slices” of the ejecta curtain that are then recorded by multiple cameras. Particle displacement between successive frames and cameras allows determination of the three-component velocity of the ejecta curtain. Pioneering efforts with a similar technique (Anderson, et al, 2003, 2006) characterized the main-stage ejecta velocity distributions and demonstrated that asymmetries in velocity and ejection angle persist well into the far-field for oblique impacts. In this study, high-speed cameras

  9. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una


    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass

  10. (U) An Analytic Examination of Piezoelectric Ejecta Mass Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Ongoing efforts to validate a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) based ejecta source model [1, 2, 3] in LANL ASC codes use ejecta areal masses derived from piezoelectric sensor data [4, 5, 6]. However, the standard technique for inferring masses from sensor voltages implicitly assumes instantaneous ejecta creation [7], which is not a feature of the RMI source model. To investigate the impact of this discrepancy, we define separate “areal mass functions” (AMFs) at the source and sensor in terms of typically unknown distribution functions for the ejecta particles, and derive an analytic relationship between them. Then, for the case of single-shock ejection into vacuum, we use the AMFs to compare the analytic (or “true”) accumulated mass at the sensor with the value that would be inferred from piezoelectric voltage measurements. We confirm the inferred mass is correct when creation is instantaneous, and furthermore prove that when creation is not instantaneous, the inferred values will always overestimate the true mass. Finally, we derive an upper bound for the error imposed on a perfect system by the assumption of instantaneous ejecta creation. When applied to shots in the published literature, this bound is frequently less than several percent. Errors exceeding 15% may require velocities or timescales at odds with experimental observations.

  11. Interstellar and ejecta dust in the cas a supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hwang, Una, E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR). Using low-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 μm), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 μm), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at ∼9 and 21 μm and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features and is best fit by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray-emitting shocked ejecta, but it is also evident in regions where shocked interstellar or circumstellar material is expected. However, the identification of dust composition is not unique, and each spectrum includes an additional featureless dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. Most of the dust mass in Cas A is associated with this unidentified cold component, which is ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}. The mass of warmer dust is only ∼0.04 M {sub ☉}.

  12. LCROSS Impact Conditions and Ejecta Evolution: Insight from Experiments (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.; Colaprete, A.


    The ejecta distribution resulting from an impact event reflects the impact conditions and target material properties. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission will provide a rare look at subsurface materials. The LCROSS impact will excavate regolith from a permanently shadowed crater on the south pole of the moon. The impactor, named the Earth-Departure-Upper-Stage (EDUS), will impact the surface at ~2.5km/s at an angle of greater than 80° from horizontal. The trailing Shepherding Spacecraft (SSc) will record the impact and take measurements of the ejecta in coordination with a comprehensive earth-based observational campaign. Prior studies have explored the predicted ejecta mass/velocity distribution and general ejecta dynamics through computational modeling (Korycansky, et al 2009) and scaling laws(Schultz, 2006, Heldmann et al 2007). At very early times, however, these models and scaling laws break down. It is this high-speed component of the ejected material that will reach the sunlight horizon first and will be recorded by the SSc. Thus to interpret the initial conditions of the impact from the LCROSS ejecta plume, the early-time ejecta distribution must be understood. A suite of impact experiments (performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range, or AVGR) were designed to interpret LCROSS conditions. These experiments reveal that early in the cratering process, when the projectile is still coupling its energy and momentum to the target surface, ejection velocity is higher than predicted by dimensional scaling laws (Housen, et al 1983). Moreover, the ejection angles of this early-time component are initially lower than predicted, and sweep upward tens of degrees to reach nominal ejection angles (~45° for impacts into sand). Low-density projectiles (such as the EDUS) yield even lower ejection angles throughout much of crater growth, thereby indicating a shallower depth of coupling. An estimate of mass above a given height calculated

  13. Imaging the Chemical Distribution in Type Ia SN Ejecta (United States)

    Fesen, Robert


    We know Type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of CO white dwarfs, but we don't know the specifics of how the nuclear burning process proceeds from the core outward once it starts. The thermonuclear instability is thought to start off as a subsonic, turbulent deflagration or burning wave but then, at some point, may transition into a blast or detonation wave. In such "delayed detonation" models, differences between normal and subluminous Type Ia SNe reflect differences in the amount of burning that has occurred in the pre-detonation phase. More burning helps to pre-expand the WD before passage of the detontation wave, which then results in different final element abundances and internal Fe-rich ejecta structure. Directly imaging the 2-D chemical distribution of ejecta from a Type Ia SN is actually possible in the case of the subluminous Type Ia SN 1885, which occurred on the near-side of M31's central bulge. This 119 year old remnant is visible -- from its core to its outer edge -- via strong optical/UV Ca and Fe line absorptions. Remarkably, the SNR appears to still be in a nearly free expansion phase, meaning that the elemental stratification seen present today accurately reflects SN Ia explosive nucleosynthesis physics. We propose to obtain ACS WFC/HRC images of SN 1885 in order to take advantage of this extraordinary situation: Having a young, nearby Type Ia SN remnant visible in silhouette against a galaxy-size light table. These unique observations will reveal a SN Ia's Ca and Fe ejecta distribution, density structure, sphericity, and ionization state as a function of expansion velocity, thereby confronting various SN Ia models with detailed ejecta stratification and expansion velocity maps.

  14. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  15. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho (United States)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.


    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  16. Radioactive decay products in neutron star merger ejecta: heating efficiency and γ-ray emission (United States)

    Hotokezaka, K.; Wanajo, S.; Tanaka, M.; Bamba, A.; Terada, Y.; Piran, T.


    The radioactive decay of the freshly synthesized r-process nuclei ejected in compact binary mergers powers optical/infrared macronovae (kilonovae) that follow these events. The light curves depend critically on the energy partition among the different decay products and it plays an important role in estimates of the amount of ejected r-process elements from a given observed signal. We show that 20-50 per cent of the total radioactive energy is released in γ-rays on time-scales from hours to a month. The number of emitted γ-rays per unit energy interval has roughly a flat spectrum between a few dozen keV and 1 MeV so that most of the energy is carried by ˜1 MeV γ-rays. However, at the peak of macronova emission the optical depth of the γ-rays is ˜0.02 and most of the γ-rays escape. The loss of these γ-rays reduces the heat deposition into the ejecta and hence reduces the expected macronova signals if those are lanthanides dominated. This implies that the ejected mass is larger by a factor of 2-3 than what was previously estimated. Spontaneous fission heats up the ejecta and the heating rate can increase if a sufficient amount of transuranic nuclei are synthesized. Direct measurements of these escaping γ-rays may provide the ultimate proof for the macronova mechanisms and an identification of the r-process nucleosynthesis sites. However, the chances to detect these signals are slim with current X-ray and γ-ray missions. New detectors, more sensitive by at least a factor of 10, are needed for a realistic detection rate.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Bond, Howard E.; Sparks, William B.; Meakes, M. G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Long, Lindsey A.; Meyer, Paul I.; Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Road, Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Chesneau, O. [Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur-CNRS-UMR 6203, Dept Gemini, Avenue Copernic, F-06130 Grasse (France); De Marco, O., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)


    New imaging of V605 Aql, was obtained in 2009 with HST/WFPC2, which had a nova-like outburst in 1919, and is located at the center of the planetary nebula (PN), A58. This event has long been ascribed to a final helium shell flash, but it has been suggested recently that it may instead have been an ONe nova. The new images provide an 18 yr baseline for the expansion of the ejecta from the 1919 event. In addition, the central star has been directly detected in the visible for the first time since 1923, when it faded from sight due to obscuration by dust. The expansion of the ejecta has a velocity of {approx}200 km s{sup -1}, and an angular expansion rate of {approx}10 mas yr{sup -1}, consistent with a 1919 ejection. This implies a geometric distance of 4.6 kpc for V605 Aql, consistent with previous estimates. The gas mass in the central knot of ejecta was previously estimated to be 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun }. It is estimated that warm dust associated with this gas has a mass of {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun }. There is also evidence for a significant amount, 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }, of cold (75 K) dust, which may be associated with its PN. The knot ejected in 1919 is asymmetrical and is approximately aligned with the asymmetry of the surrounding PN. Polarimetric imaging was obtained to investigate whether the 2001 spectrum of V605 Aql was obtained primarily in scattered light from dust in the central knot, but the signal-to-noise in the data was insufficient to measure the level of polarization.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Mg-rich Ejecta in LMC Supernova Remnant N49B (United States)

    Park, Sangwook; Bhalerao, Jayant


    The supernova remnant (SNR) N49B in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a peculiar example of a core-collapse SNR that shows the shocked metal-rich ejecta enriched only in Mg without evidence for a similar overabundance in O and Ne. Based on archival Chandra data, we present results from our extensive spatially resolved spectral analysis of N49B. We find that the Mg-rich ejecta gas extends from the central regions of the SNR out to the southeastern outermost boundary of the SNR. This elongated feature shows an overabundance for Mg similar to that of the main ejecta region at the SNR center, and its electron temperature appears to be higher than the central main ejecta gas. We estimate that the Mg mass in this southeastern elongated ejecta feature is ˜10% of the total Mg ejecta mass. Our estimated lower limit of >0.1 M⊙ on the total mass of the Mg-rich ejecta confirms the previously suggested large mass for the progenitor star (M ≳ 25 M⊙). We entertain scenarios of an SNR expanding into a nonuniform medium and an energetic jet-driven supernova in an attempt to interpret these results. However, with the current results, the origins of the extended Mg-rich ejecta and the Mg-only-rich nature of the overall metal-rich ejecta in this SNR remain elusive.

  19. A numerical study of the interaction between two ejecta in the interplanetary medium: one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonzalez-Esparza


    Full Text Available We studied the heliospheric evolution in one and two dimensions of the interaction between two ejecta-like disturbances beyond the critical point: a faster ejecta 2 overtaking a previously launched slower ejecta 1. The study is based on a hydrodynamic model using the ZEUS-3-D code. This model can be applied to those cases where the interaction occurs far away from the Sun and there is no merging (magnetic reconnection between the two ejecta. The simulation shows that when the faster ejecta 2 overtakes ejecta 1 there is an interchange of momentum between the two ejecta, where the leading ejecta 1 accelerates and the tracking ejecta 2 decelerates. Both ejecta tend to arrive at 1AU having similar speeds, but with the front of ejecta 1 propagating faster than the front of ejecta 2. The momentum is transferred from ejecta 2 to ejecta 1 when the shock initially driven by ejecta 2 passes through ejecta 1. Eventually the two shock waves driven by the two ejecta merge together into a single stronger shock. The 2-D simulation shows that the evolution of the interaction can be very complex and there are very different signatures of the same event at different viewing angles; however, the transferring of momentum between the two ejecta follows the same physical mechanism described above. These results are in qualitative agreement with in-situ plasma observations of "multiple magnetic clouds" detected at 1AU.

  20. A new model of the lunar ejecta cloud (United States)

    Christou, A. A.


    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such "dust exospheres" have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2, 3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the recent investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Planetary Analog Geologic Settings: Impact Ejecta, Volcanics, and Fluvial Terrains (United States)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Carter, L. M.; Garry, W.; Williams, K. K.; Morgan, G. A.; Daubar, I.; Bussey, B.


    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar and martian surfaces, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future landed scientific or engineering operations. Results and interpretations presented here from impact ejecta (Barringer Meteorite Crater), volcanic deposits (Northern Arizona cinders overlying lavas, columnar-jointed Columbia River flood basalts, Hawaii lava flows), and terrains influenced by fluvial-related activity (channeled scablands megaflood bar, Mauna Kea glacio-fluvial deposits) focus on defining the radar "fingerprint" of geologic materials and settings that may be analogous to those found on the Moon and Mars. The challenge in using GPR in geologic investigations is the degree to which different geologic features and processes can be uniquely identified and distinguished in the data. Our approach to constraining this is to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize GPR signatures of different geological environments and to compare them with "ground-truth" observations of subsurface exposures immediately adjacent or subjacent to our GPR transects. Several sites were chosen in each field area based on accessibility, visual access to the subsurface, and presence of particular geologic features of interest. The interpreted distribution of blocks in impact ejecta at Meteor Crater, using a 400 MHz antenna (wavelength of 75 cm) is 1.5-3 blocks per m^3 in the upper 1 m (and 0.5-1 blocks per m^3 in the upper two meters), which is close to the in situ measured block distribution of 2-3 blocks larger than 0.25-0.30 m per m^3. This is roughly the detection limit to be expected from the λ/3 resolution approximation of radar wavelength and indicates that the 400 MHz GPR is characterizing the block population in ejecta. While megaflood bar deposits are also reflector-rich, individual reflectors are in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, O.; Janka, H.-T.; Schwarz, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Obergaulinger, M. [Departament d´Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, Edifici d´Investigació Jeroni Muñoz, C/ Dr. Moliner, 50, E-46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain); Bauswein, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    We present the first special relativistic, axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of black hole-torus systems (approximating general relativistic gravity) as remnants of binary-neutron star (NS–NS) and neutron star–black hole (NS–BH) mergers, in which the viscously driven evolution of the accretion torus is followed with self-consistent energy-dependent neutrino transport and the interaction with the cloud of dynamical ejecta expelled during the NS–NS merging is taken into account. The modeled torus masses, BH masses and spins, and the ejecta masses, velocities, and spatial distributions are adopted from relativistic merger simulations. We find that energy deposition by neutrino annihilation can accelerate outflows with initially high Lorentz factors along polar low-density funnels, but only in mergers with extremely low baryon pollution in the polar regions. NS–BH mergers, where polar mass ejection during the merging phase is absent, provide sufficiently baryon-poor environments to enable neutrino-powered, ultrarelativistic jets with terminal Lorentz factors above 100 and considerable dynamical collimation, favoring short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs), although their typical energies and durations might be too small to explain the majority of events. In the case of NS–NS mergers, however, neutrino emission of the accreting and viscously spreading torus is too short and too weak to yield enough energy for the outflows to break out from the surrounding ejecta shell as highly relativistic jets. We conclude that neutrino annihilation alone cannot power sGRBs from NS–NS mergers.

  3. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.


    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  4. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos


    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  5. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  6. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 4: Flow Ejecta Crater Distribution (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.


    Flow ejecta craters - craters surrounded by lobate ejecta blankets - are found throughout the study area. The ratio of the crater's diameter to that of the flow ejecta in this region is approximately 40 to 45%. Flow ejecta craters are dominantly sharply defined craters, with slightly degraded craters being somewhat less common. This is probably indicative of the ejecta's relatively low resistence to weathering and susceptibility to burial. Flow ejecta craters here seem to occur within a narrow range of crater sizes - the smallest being about 4km in diameter and the largest being about 27km in diameter. Ejecta blankets of craters at 4km are easily seen and those of smaller craters are simply not seen even in images with better than average resolution for the region. This may be due to the depth of excavation of small impacting bodies being insufficient to reach volatile-rich material. Flow ejecta craters above 24km are rare, and those craters above 27km do not display flow ejecta blankets. This may be a result of an excavation depth so great that the volatile content of the ejecta is insufficient to form a fluid ejecta blanket. The geomorphic/geologic unit appears also to play an important role in the formation of flow ejecta craters. Given the typical size range for the occurrence of flow ejecta craters for most units, it can be seen that the percentage of flow ejecta craters to the total number of craters within this size range varies significantly from one unit to the next. The wide variance in flow ejecta crater density over this relatively small geographical area argues strongly for a lithologic control of their distribution.

  7. The Search for Sustainable Subsurface Habitats on Mars, and the Sampling of Impact Ejecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lindgren


    Full Text Available On Earth, the deep subsurface biosphere of both the oceanic and the continental crust is well known for surviving harsh conditions and environments characterized by high temperatures, high pressures, extreme pHs, and the absence of sunlight. The microorganisms of the terrestrial deep biosphere have an excellent capacity for adapting to changing geochemistry, as the alteration of the crust proceeds and the conditions of their habitats slowly change. Despite an almost complete isolation from surface conditions and the surface biosphere, the deep biosphere of the crustal rocks has endured over geologic time. This indicates that the deep biosphere is a self-sufficient system, independent of the global events that occur at the surface, such as impacts, glaciations, sea level fluctuations, and climate changes. With our sustainable terrestrial subsurface biosphere in mind, the subsurface on Mars has often been suggested as the most plausible place to search for fossil Martian life, or even present Martian life. Since the Martian surface is more or less sterile, subsurface settings are the only place on Mars where life could have been sustained over geologic time. To detect a deep biosphere in the Martian basement, drilling is a requirement. However, near future Mars sample return missions are limited by the mission’s payload, which excludes heavy drilling equipment and restrict the missions to only dig the topmost meter of the Martian soil. Therefore, the sampling and analysis of Martian impact ejecta has been suggested as a way of accessing the deeper Martian subsurface without using heavy drilling equipment. Impact cratering is a natural geological process capable of excavating and exposing large amounts of rock material from great depths up to the surface. Several studies of terrestrial impact deposits show the preservation of pre-impact biosignatures, such as fossilized organisms and chemical biological markers. Therefore, if the Martian

  8. Energy and mass distributions of impact ejecta blankets on the moon and Mercury (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.


    The paper applies previously calculated impact-induced flow fields (O'Keefe and Ahrens, 1977) resulting from interaction of 5-cm radius gabbroic anorthosite impactor with a half-space of the same material, at various velocities, to obtain mass and energy ejecta distributions. Whereas earlier results described the ejecta distribution from a 15 km/s impact of an iron object on the moon in terms of mass vs. distance, the present results describe, at a given distance from the impact, the energy content as a function of depth, i.e., the thermal structure of ejecta blankets. Pertinent computational methods are included, and several tables and plots supplement the text.

  9. The Stickney Crater ejecta secondary impact crater spike on Phobos: Implications for the age of Stickney and the surface of Phobos (United States)

    Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.


    A global and uniformly distributed spike of secondary impact craters on Phobos with diameters (D) energy conversion inefficiencies of the crater formation process. We also calculate the pre- and post-impact Phobos moment of inertia that further contributes to the desynchronizing effect. The majority of the Stickney ejecta that exited from Phobos was trapped in orbits around Mars until it later accumulated back onto Phobos over a period of sufficient period of desynchronized rotation exposed the entire surface of Phobos to ejecta that returned from martian orbits. In view of how all or most craters observed inside Stickney Crater approximate the size/frequency distribution (SFD) of Stickney secondary impacts, it is infeasible to derive an age for Stickney Crater based on an assumption of background impacts ( 2.8-4.2 Ga according to Schmedemann et al. (2014)). In view of how crater-counting is unworkable for age-dating Stickney Crater we conclude an alternate age for Stickney Crater of 0.1-0.5 Ga that is constrained instead by the boulder evidence of Thomas et al. (2000), the boulder destruction rate analysis of Basilevsky et al. (2013, 2015), and the observed space weathering of Phobos regolith (Cipriani et al., 2011; Pieters et al., 2014). Assessing several implications of our model we 1) summarize the crater SFD and temporal nature of the Stickney secondary impact spike on Phobos, 2) predict the global equivalent thickness of deposits on Phobos from Stickney ejecta and subsequent secondary impact gardening, 3) examine the hypothesis that the Stickney impact was a trailing hemisphere event on Phobos that reoriented Phobos to its present-day synchronous ;tidal lock; longitude, 4) set limits on the volume of low-velocity Stickney ejecta that is available to produce Phobos grooves from rolling boulders, and 5) estimate the crater SFD of a meteor spike on Mars from a trailing hemisphere Stickney impact.

  10. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  11. Small graben in the southeastern ejecta blanket of the lunar Copernicus crater: Implications for recent shallow igneous intrusion on the Moon (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Huang, Qian; Zeng, Zuoxun; Xiao, Long


    Dozens of linear graben that are about 10-400 m wide and less than 1 km long are recognized in the southeastern continuous ejecta deposits of Copernicus, supporting that Copernican-aged tectonism has occurred on the Moon. Fault geometry analysis suggests that the bounding faults of the graben have formed within the ejecta deposits. The graben are exclusively located on a local high-relief area, but they are not formed by mass wasting, because the topographic slope is substantially less than the repose angle of typical lunar materials, and no other extensional structures are visible on similar high-relief areas at the continuous ejecta deposits of Copernicus. The orientations of the graben all point to the center of Copernicus, but the topography of Copernicus is little compensated after formation, suggesting that the graben were not caused by possible crustal isostatic readjustment. This graben system is one of the three examples on the Moon that were interpreted to be caused by shallow igneous intrusions in the format of laccoliths. The currently available GRAIL gravity data have a lower spatial resolution than the size of the graben, so the gravity data cannot resolve the hypothesized sub-kilometer-scale laccoliths beneath the graben. While laccolith intrusion to a depth of about 80 m is required to explain the formation of this graben system, the laccolith intrusion scenario is not consistent with the geological context of the graben. A compressional structure is visible close to the graben system, and their spatial configuration and similar preservation states are consistent with being generically related. A close examination of the other two sets of graben that were also interpreted to have no associated compressional structures actually reveals spatially-related lobate scarps and wrinkle ridges in the vicinity. Therefore, shallow igneous intrusion is not plausible or necessary to explain to formation of Copernican-aged graben on the Moon, and they are most

  12. Comprehensive investigation of the dynamics of micron and submicron lunar ejecta in heliocentric space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrave, A.D.


    The forces which act on micron and submicron dust particles in interplanetary space are studied in detail. Particular attention is given to Mie scattering theory as it applies to the calculation of the force due to radiation pressure. All of the forces are integrated into a computer model to study the heliocentric orbits of lunar ejecta. It is shown that lunar ejecta contribute to a geocentric dust cloud, as well as to a heliocentric dust belt.

  13. Nebular Hydrogen Absorption in the Ejecta of Eta Carinae (United States)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Ishibashi, K.; Davidson, K.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Eta Carinae and immediate ejecta reveal narrow Balmer absorption lines in addition to the nebular-scattered broad P-Cygni absorptions. The narrow absorption correlates with apparent disk structure that separates the two Homunculus lobes. We trace these features about half way up the Northern lobe until the scattered stellar Balmer line doppler-shifts redward beyond the nebular absorption feature. Three-dimensional data cubes, made by mapping the Homunculus at Balmer alpha and Balmer beta with the 52 x 0.1 arcsecond aperture and about 5000 spectral resolving power, demonstrate that the absorption feature changes slowly in velocity with nebular position. We have monitored the stellar Balmer alpha line profile of the central source over the past four years. The equivalent width of the nebular absorption feature changes considerably between observations. The changes do not correlate with measured brightness of Eta Carinae. Likely clumps of neutral hydrogen with a scale size comparable to the stellar disk diameter are passing through the intervening light path on the timescales less than several months. The excitation mechanism involves Lyman alpha radiation (possibly the Lyman series plus Lyman continuum) and collisions leading to populating the 2S metastable state. Before the electron can jump to the ground state by two photon emission (lifetime about 1/8 second), a stellar Balmer photon is absorbed and the electron shifts to an NP level. We see the absorption feature in higher Balmer lines, and but not in Paschen lines. Indeed we see narrow nebular Paschen emission lines. At present, we do not completely understand the details of the absorption. Better understanding should lead to improved insight of the unique conditions around Eta Carinae that leads to these absorptions.

  14. NOx production and rainout from Chicxulub impact ejecta reentry (United States)

    Parkos, Devon; Alexeenko, Alina; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay


    The Chicxulub impact 66.0 Ma ago initiated the second biggest extinction in the Phanerozoic Eon. The cause of the concurrent oceanic nitrogen isotopic anomaly, however, remains elusive. The Chicxulub impactor struck the Yucatán peninsula, ejecting 2 × 1015 kg of molten and vaporized rock that reentered globally as approximately 1023 microscopic spherules. Here we report that modern techniques indicate that this ejecta generates 1.5 × 1014 moles of NOx, which is enough to cause the observed nitrogen enrichment of the basal layer. Additionally, reentry-based NO production would explain the anomalously heavy isotopic composition of the observed nitrogen. We include N, O, N2, O2, and NO species in simulations of nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow around a reentering spherule. We then determine the net production of NO from all the spherules and use turbulence models to determine how quickly this yield diffuses through the atmosphere. Upon reaching the stratosphere and troposphere, cloud moisture absorbs the NOx and forms nitric acid. We model this process and determine the acidity of the resulting precipitation, which peaks about 1 year after the impact. The precipitation ultimately reaches the upper ocean, where we assume that the well-mixed surface layer is 100 m deep. We then model the naturally occurring carbonate/bicarbonate buffer and determine the net pH. We find that insufficient NOx reaches the ocean to directly cause the observed end-Cretaceous oceanic extinction via acidification and buffer removal. However, the resulting nitrates are sufficient to explain the concurrent nitrogen isotopic anomaly and facilitate an end-Cretaceous algae bloom.

  15. Renal cadmium deposition and injury as a result of accumulation of cadmium-metallothionein (CdMT) by the proximal convoluted tubules--A light microscopic autoradiography study with 109CdMT. (United States)

    Dorian, C; Gattone, V H; Klaasen, C D


    Chronic, but not acute, exposure to inorganic Cd produces renal damage. However, a single injection of cadmium bound to metallothionein (CdMT) produces renal injury. It is hypothesized that an interorgan redistribution of Cd as CdMT is responsible for the chronic nephrotoxic effect of Cd. To better understand the mechanism(s) of CdMT-induced nephrotoxicity, the intrarenal distribution of 109CdMT was examined. 109CdMT isolated from rat liver was injected into mice at a nonnephrotoxic dose (0.1 mg Cd/kg, iv). The radioactivity in the kidney reached a maximum level (85% of the dose) as early as 30 min following administration and remained essentially constant for up to 7 days after injection. Within the kidney, 109Cd distributed almost entirely to the cortex. Light microscopic autoradiography of the kidney showed that, within the cortex, 109Cd distributed preferentially to the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal convoluted tubules. Within the S1 and S2 segments, the concentration of 109Cd in the basal and apical parts of the cells was similar to that after the nonnephrotoxic dose of CdMT, but after a nephrotoxic dose (0.3 mg Cd/kg) the radioactivity distributed preferentially to the apical portion of the cells. In contrast, light microscopic autoradiography studies with 109CdCl2 revealed that 109Cd was more evenly distributed throughout the proximal tubules. Moreover, after administration of a large dose of inorganic Cd (3 mg Cd/kg), a similar concentration of Cd was found in the convoluted and straight proximal tubules. These data support the hypothesis that CdMT-induced nephrotoxicity might be due, at least in part, to its preferential uptake of CdMT into the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubules, the site of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  16. Estimating the Contribution of Dynamical Ejecta in the Kilonova Associated with GW170817 (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Bergmann, G.; Bernuzzi, S.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietrich, T.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Larson, S. L.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Liu, X.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; (LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration


    The source of the gravitational-wave (GW) signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two-week-long electromagnetic (EM) counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter examines how the mass of the dynamical ejecta can be estimated without a direct electromagnetic observation of the kilonova, using GW measurements and a phenomenological model calibrated to numerical simulations of mergers with dynamical ejecta. Specifically, we apply the model to the binary masses inferred from the GW measurements, and use the resulting mass of the dynamical ejecta to estimate its contribution (without the effects of wind ejecta) to the corresponding kilonova light curves from various models. The distributions of dynamical ejecta mass range between {M}{ej}={10}-3-{10}-2 {M}⊙ for various equations of state, assuming that the neutron stars are rotating slowly. In addition, we use our estimates of the dynamical ejecta mass and the neutron star merger rates inferred from GW170817 to constrain the contribution of events like this to the r-process element abundance in the Galaxy when ejecta mass from post-merger winds is neglected. We find that if ≳10% of the matter dynamically ejected from binary neutron star (BNS) mergers is converted to r-process elements, GW170817-like BNS mergers could fully account for the amount of r-process material observed in the Milky Way.

  17. Exploring hotspots of pneumococcal pneumonia and potential impacts of ejecta dust exposure following the Christchurch earthquakes. (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Mitchell, Peter; Apparicio, Philippe


    The etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is well-known. Yet, some events may increase its incidence. Natural disasters may worsen air quality, a risk factor for PP. We investigated spatial/spatio-temporal clustering of PP pre- and post-earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The earthquakes resulted in deaths, widespread damage and liquefaction ejecta (a source of air-borne dust). We tested for clusters and associations with ejecta, using 97 cases (diagnosed 10/2008-12/2011), adjusted for age and area-level deprivation. The strongest evidence to support the potential role of ejecta in clusters of PP cases was the: (1) geographic shift in the spatio-temporal cluster after deprivation adjustment to match the post-earthquake clusters and; (2) increased relative risk in the fully-adjusted post-earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake cluster. The application of spatial statistics to study PP and ejecta are novel. Further studies to assess the long-term impacts of ejecta inhalation are recommended particularly in Christchurch, where seismic activity continues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  19. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  20. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  1. Proper Motions of η Carinae's Outer Ejecta and Its Eruptive History (United States)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan


    η Carinae, the most extreme luminous blue variable in our Galaxy, underwent a Great Eruption in the 1800s and ejected significant mass into the well-known bipolar Homunculus. But η Car's outer ejecta, a spread of dense, nitrogen-rich knots outside the Homunculus, have led to suspicion that the Great Eruption was not this star's first major mass-loss event. We have measured proper motions for nearly 800 distinct features in the outer ejecta using 21 years of HST WFPC2 and ACS imaging. With motions measured across sixteen baselines, we find that the outer ejecta are expanding ballistically and belong to three age groups: one dating to the mid-1200s, another to the mid-1500s, and a third to the early 1800s, associated with but perhaps predating the peak of the Great Eruption. These three age groups are separated in space and radial velocity. There is no evidence for interaction between the dense ejecta that could be powering η Car's soft X-ray shell, which is instead likely driven by fast, rarefied ejecta from the Great Eruption striking the older dense ejecta. The thirteenth-century event was strikingly asymmetric, ejecting mass almost entirely to one side of the star. The sixteenth-century event displays bipolar symmetry, but along a different axis than the current Homunculus. These observations provide constraints on theoretical models of η Car's behavior, as viable models must explain the repetition, timescale, and asymmetry of these major mass-loss events. For more details, see Kiminki, Reiter, & Smith (2016, MNRAS, 463, 845).

  2. The Three-Dimensional Expansion of the Ejecta from Tycho's Supernova Remnant (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Coyle, Nina; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; DePasquale, Joseph M.; Seitenzahl, Ivo Rolf; Hewitt, John W.; Blondin, John M.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.


    We present the first three-dimensional measurements of the velocity of various ejecta knots in Tycho's supernova remnant, known to result from a Type Ia explosion. Chandra X-ray observations over a 12-year baseline from 2003 to 2015 allow us to measure the proper motion of nearly 60 ``tufts'' of Si-rich ejecta, giving us the velocity in the plane of the sky. For the line of sight velocity, we use two different methods: a non-equilibrium ionization model fit to the strong Si and S lines in the 1.2-2.8 keV regime, and a fit consisting of a series of Gaussian lines. These methods give consistent results, allowing us to determine the red or blue shift of each of the knots. Assuming a distance of 3.5 kpc, we find total velocities that range from 2400 to 6600 km s$^{-1}$, with a mean of 4430 km s$^{-1}$. We find several regions where the ejecta knots have overtaken the forward shock. These regions have proper motions in excess of 6000 km s$^{-1}$. Some Type Ia supernova explosion models predict a velocity asymmetry in the ejecta. We find no such velocity asymmetries in Tycho, and discuss our findings in light of various explosion models, favoring those delayed detonation models with relatively vigorous and symmetrical deflagrations. Finally, we compare measurements with models of the remnant's evolution that include both smooth and clumpy ejecta profiles, finding that both ejecta profiles can be accommodated by the observations.

  3. Theoretical considerations for black hole formation in supernova ejecta (United States)

    Hayes, Andrew Paul


    This work hypothesizes that supernovae and other extreme astrophysical phenomena, recently recognized as much more inhomogeneous and turbulent than previously supposed, give rise to and then eject substellar-mass or Dwarf Black Holes (DBHs), along with their other ejecta. Two independent methods for detecting regions within a data set from a simulation of a high energy astrophysical event, such as a supernova, that are unstable to gravitational collapse. These methods can be used where the resolution, spatial domain, time span, and/or treatment of general relativity of the simulation may not be sufficient to evolve the region to gravitational collapse natively. The first method seeks acoustic instability against gravitational collapse. That is, some hypothetical bodies exhibit perturbative eigenmodes that grow in amplitude, rather than oscillate, and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar derived a theorem to prove whether such modes exist for a given distribution of matter. The Chandrasekhar (acoustic) stability theorem is adapted for use within a hot, dense medium. The accuracy of this method is demonstrated by applying it to various spherical mass distributions whose stability is known through other means. This method has already been used in the analysis of data sets from three simulations, with negative results. The adaptation is limited to DBHs of masses above a minimum threshold, however, prompting the division of DBH progenitors into Type I, the more massive subclass that can be treated fully within the acoustic stability framework, and Type II, which range in mass from the bottom of the Type I mass range down to arbitrarily small. The second method for detecting instability against gravitational collapse seeks gravitational collapse induced by inward-propagating, spherically symmetric shocks in the Groah and Temple [1, 2] (GST) theoretical prescription. Using the only extant general-relativistic shockwave simulator, written by Zeke Vogler, it is revealed that all

  4. Spatial Distribution of Mg-Rich Ejecta in LMC Supernova Remnant N49B


    Park, Sangwook; Bhalerao, Jayant


    The supernova remnant (SNR) N49B in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a peculiar example of a core-collapse SNR to show the shocked metal-rich ejecta enriched only in Mg without evidence for a similar overabundance in O and Ne. Based on archival Chandra data we present results from our extensive spatially-resolved spectral analysis of N49B. We find that the Mg-rich ejecta gas extends from the central regions of the SNR out to the southeastern outermost boundary of the SNR. This elongated feature ...

  5. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  6. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  7. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  8. Density functional theory study of CeDx with application to ejecta break-up in reactive gases (United States)

    Bjorgaard, Josiah; Sheppard, Daniel


    When ejecta are produced in a reactive gas, the diffusion of the reacting gas into the ejecta particles may have an important effect on break-up. This can influence the rate of break-up, particle size, and composition. In this study, density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the properties of CeDx in support of experiments of Ce ejected into Dgas. Under these conditions, the diffusion of D into Ce ejecta is of fundamental importance to the ejecta physics. We perform quantum molecular dynamics simulations to derive fundamental quantities including temperature dependent diffusion coefficients, x dependent heat capacity, and reflectivity. Our results are interpreted in terms of relative phase composition of ejecta and discussed in application to experiments.

  9. Momentum Enhancement from Hypervelocity Crater Ejecta: Implications for the AIDA Target (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Durda, D. D.; Patmore, E. B.; Jack, S. J.; Molesky, M. J.; Strait, M. M.; Macke, R. M.


    We performed hypervelocity impact cratering of porous meteorites and terrestrial pumice and found higher values of the momentum enhancement factor due to ejecta than found in hydrocode modeling. This has important implications for kinetic impact deflection of small, hazardous asteroids and on the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mossion.

  10. Luminous Type IIP SN 2013ej with high-velocity 56Ni ejecta (United States)

    Utrobin, V. P.; Chugai, N. N.


    We explore the well-observed Type IIP supernova 2013ej with peculiar luminosity evolution. It is found that the hydrodynamic model cannot reproduce in detail the bolometric luminosity at both the plateau and the radioactive tail. Yet the ejecta mass of 23-26 M⊙ and the kinetic energy of (1.2-1.4) × 1051 erg are determined rather confidently. We suggest that the controversy revealed in hydrodynamic simulations stems from the strong asphericity of the 56Ni ejecta. An analysis of the asymmetric nebular H α line and of the peculiar radioactive tail made it possible to recover parameters of the asymmetric bipolar 56Ni ejecta with the heavier jet residing in the rear hemisphere. The inferred 56Ni mass is 0.039 M⊙, twice as large compared to a straightforward estimate from the bolometric luminosity at the early radioactive tail. The bulk of ejected 56Ni has velocities in the range of 4000-6500 km s-1. The linear polarization predicted by the model with the asymmetric ionization produced by bipolar 56Ni ejecta is consistent with the observational value.

  11. Development of a multiple wavelength extinction diagnostic for measuring ejecta particle size distributions. (United States)

    Steele, Paul; Compton, Steve; Jacoby, Barry; Filip, Catalin; Frank, Matthias; Phillips, Danial; Sinibaldi, Jose O.


    Mie's solution of Maxwell's equations for the interaction of light with spherical particles shows that particle diameter has a dramatic impact on the amount of light scattered or absorbed by a particle. The ratio of particle size to wavelength is particularly important. By measuring the transmission through a sheet of ejecta at multiple wavelengths and making certain assumptions, it is possible to estimate the ejecta particle size distribution. The Multiple Wavelength Extinction (MWE) diagnostic is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to do just that. Various potential system configurations were initially evaluated using a computer model developed in MATLAB. Inexpensive hardware (MWE Beta) was acquired for a basic proof-of-concept experiment using calibrated test particles. Encouraging results enabled procurement of better hardware. Characterization and testing of this MWE 1.0 system is ongoing. MWE 2.0 is now being designed. Ejecta experiments require a high explosive drive, an array of ejecta diagnostics and containment vessels, all of which are readily available at LLNL's High Explosives Application Facility. LLNL-ABS-723858. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Effect of Scale, Material Strength, and Loading on Ejecta Formation from Explosively Driven Aluminum (United States)

    Georges, W.; Loiseau, J.; Higgins, A.; Zimmermann, J.


    When a shock wave reaches the free surface of a material with surface asperities, particles can be ejected from the surface. The mass and velocity of the ejecta depend on the strength and profile of the shock wave, the material in which the wave travels, and the finish of the free surface. In the present study, aluminum targets with machined triangular perturbations on the free surface were shock loaded by high explosives to 12.0 and 19.4 GPa and by plate impact to 14.5 GPa. In all experiments, the aluminum remained in the solid phase. Two scales of perturbations were tested: 30-μm-deep and 500-μm-deep V-shaped grooves with a 60° tip angle. The perturbation growth and ejecta formation were quantified using photonic doppler velocimetry and piezoelectric pins. It was found that the maximum observed velocity from the perturbed surface was nearly identical for both scales but that ejecta formed only when the larger scale perturbations were used. This result may be attributed to a scale effect caused by the smaller perturbation being on the scale of the grain size of the material. When the shock loading was removed by placing an air or vacuum gap between an explosive and the aluminum target, no ejecta was detected to within the instrumentation limits.

  13. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  14. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  15. Dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and kilonova signature of black hole—neutron star merger ejecta (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel; Lippuner, Jonas; Desai, Dhruv; Roberts, Luke F.


    We investigate the ejecta from black hole—neutron star mergers by modeling the formation and interaction of mass ejected in a tidal tail and a disk wind. The outflows are neutron-rich, giving rise to optical/infrared emission powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements (a kilonova). Here we perform an end-to-end study of this phenomenon, where we start from the output of a fully-relativistic merger simulation, calculate the post-merger hydrodynamical evolution of the ejecta and disk winds including neutrino physics, determine the final nucleosynthetic yields using post-processing nuclear reaction network calculations, and compute the kilonova emission with a radiative transfer code. We study the effects of the tail-to-disk mass ratio by scaling the tail density. A larger initial tail mass results in fallback matter becoming mixed into the disk and ejected in the subsequent disk wind. Relative to the case of a disk without dynamical ejecta, the combined outflow has lower mean electron fraction, faster speed, larger total mass, and larger absolute mass free of high-opacity Lanthanides or Actinides. In most cases, the nucleosynthetic yield is dominated by the heavy r-process contribution from the unbound part of the dynamical ejecta. A Solar-like abundance distribution can however be obtained when the total mass of the dynamical ejecta is comparable to the mass of the disk outflows. The kilonova has a characteristic duration of 1 week and a luminosity of  ∼ 1041 erg s-1 , with orientation effects leading to variations of a factor  ∼2 in brightness. At early times (< 1 d) the emission includes an optical component from the (hot) Lanthanide-rich material, but the spectrum evolves quickly to the infrared thereafter.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Josefin [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper [Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kjaer, Karina; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jerkstrand, Anders [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mattila, Seppo [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); McCray, Richard [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)


    We present a study of the morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A based on images and spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as integral field spectroscopy from VLT/SINFONI. The HST observations were obtained between 1994 and 2011 and primarily probe the outer H-rich zones of the ejecta. The SINFONI observations were obtained in 2005 and 2011 and instead probe the [Si I]+[Fe II] emission from the inner regions. We find a strong temporal evolution of the morphology in the HST images, from a roughly elliptical shape before {approx}5000 days, to a more irregular, edge-brightened morphology with a ''hole'' in the middle thereafter. This transition is a natural consequence of the change in the dominant energy source powering the ejecta, from radioactive decay before {approx}5000 days to X-ray input from the circumstellar interaction thereafter. The [Si I]+[Fe II] images display a more uniform morphology, which may be due to a remaining significant contribution from radioactivity in the inner ejecta and the higher abundance of these elements in the core. Both the H{alpha} and the [Si I]+[Fe II] line profiles show that the ejecta are distributed fairly close to the plane of the inner circumstellar ring, which is assumed to define the rotational axis of the progenitor star. The H{alpha} emission extends to higher velocities than [Si I]+[Fe II], as expected from theoretical models. There is no clear symmetry axis for all the emission. Instead, we find that the emission is concentrated to clumps and that the emission is distributed somewhat closer to the ring in the north than in the south. This north-south asymmetry may be partially explained by dust absorption. We compare our results with explosion models and find some qualitative agreement, but note that the observations show a higher degree of large-scale asymmetry.

  17. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact (United States)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.


    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  18. Evolution of fluid-like granular ejecta generated by sphere impact

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy


    We present results from an experimental study of the speed and shape of the ejecta formed when a solid sphere impacts onto a granular bed. We use high-speed imaging at frame rates up to 100 000 f.p.s. to provide direct measurement of individual grain velocities and ejecta angles as well as the overall evolution of the granular ejecta. For larger grain sizes, the emergence velocities of the grains during the early stage flow, i.e. before the main ejecta curtain forms, increase with the kinetic energy of the impacting sphere but are inversely proportional to the time from impact. We also observe that the fastest grains, which can obtain velocities up to five times that of the impacting sphere (V g/V 0 = 5), generally emerge at the earliest times and with the lowest ejection angles. As the grain size is decreased, a more fluid-like behaviour is observed whereby the ejected material first emerges as a thin sheet of grains between the sphere and the bed surface, which is also seen when a sphere impacts a liquid pool. In this case, the sheet velocity is approximately double that of the impacting sphere (V s/V 0 = 2) and independent of the bulk packing fraction. For the finest grains we provide evidence of the existence of a vortex ring inside the ejecta curtain where grains following the air flow are entrained through the curtain. In contrast to predictions from previous studies, we find that the temporal evolution of the ejecta neck radius is not initially quadratic but rather approaches a square-root dependence on time, for the finest grains with the highest impact kinetic energy. The evolution therefore approaches that seen for the crown evolution in liquid drop impacts. By using both spherical glass beads and coarse sands, we show that the size and shape distribution are critical in determining the post-impact dynamics whereby the sands exhibit a qualitatively different response to impact, with grains ejected at lower speeds and at later times than for the glass

  19. Dissecting a supernova impostor's circumstellar medium: MUSEing about the SHAPE of η Carinae's outer ejecta (United States)

    Mehner, A.; Steffen, W.; Groh, J. H.; Vogt, F. P. A.; Baade, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Davidson, K.; de Wit, W. J.; Humphreys, R. M.; Martayan, C.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.


    Aims: The role of episodic mass loss is one of the outstanding questions in massive star evolution. The structural inhomogeneities and kinematics of their nebulae are tracers of their mass-loss history. We conduct a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic analysis of the ejecta of η Car outside its famous Homunculus nebula. Methods: We carried out the first large-scale integral field unit observations of η Car in the optical, covering a field of view of 1'× 1' centered on the star. Observations with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) reveal the detailed three-dimensional structure of η Car's outer ejecta. Morpho-kinematic modeling of these ejecta is conducted with the code SHAPE. Results: The largest coherent structure in η Car's outer ejecta can be described as a bent cylinder with roughly the same symmetry axis as the Homunculus nebula. This large outer shell is interacting with the surrounding medium, creating soft X-ray emission. Doppler velocities of up to 3000 km s-1 are observed. We establish the shape and extent of the ghost shell in front of the southern Homunculus lobe and confirm that the NN condensation can best be modeled as a bowshock in the orbital/equatorial plane. Conclusions: The SHAPE modeling of the MUSE observations provides a significant gain in the study of the three-dimensional structure of η Car's outer ejecta. Our SHAPE modeling indicates that the kinematics of the outer ejecta measured with MUSE can be described by a spatially coherent structure, and that this structure also correlates with the extended soft X-ray emission associated with the outer debris field. The ghost shell immediately outside the southern Homunculus lobe hints at a sequence of eruptions within the time frame of the Great Eruption from 1837-1858 or possibly a later shock/reverse shock velocity separation. Our 3D morpho-kinematic modeling and the MUSE observations constitute an invaluable dataset to be confronted with future

  20. Mini-RF bistatic observations of Copernican crater ejecta on the Moon (United States)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T. S.


    The Mini-RF radar is current operating in a bistatic configuration using the Goldstone DSS-13 and Arecibo Observatory as transmitters in X-band (4.2-cm) and S-band (12.6 cm), respectively. A typical product examining the scattering properties of the lunar surface that can be derived from backscattered microwave radiation is the Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR). Here, we examine the ejecta blankets of Copernican aged craters on the lunar surface in both S- and X-band to examine the scattering properties of young crater ejecta. Several observed craters exhibit a clear opposition effect at low bistatic (phase) angles. This opposition effect is consistent with optical studies of lunar soils done in the laboratory, but these observations are the first time this effect has been measured on the Moon at radar wavelengths. Differences in the CPR behaviour as a function of bistatic angle may also provide opportunities for relative age dating between Copernican craters.

  1. The role of the ejecta magnetic flux on the two-step Forbush decreases (United States)

    Masías Meza, Jimmy; Dasso, Sergio

    A Forbush Decrease (FD) is a depression in the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) background intensity, and are usually associated to the passage of an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME). Magnetic Clouds (MCs) are a subset of ICMEs that are well studied, and are known to cause the deepest FDs. Usually, FDs present two steps in the depression profile, one associated to the shock arrival, and a steeper one restricted to the duration of the ejecta passage. There is a wide variety of processes responsible for the GCR depressions. For instance: the enhanced solar wind (SW) convection, reduced diffusion coefficients, enhanced adiabatic cooling, increase of the coherent magnetic field, etc. Our aim is to make a selection of FD events filtering those associated to well studied magnetic structures, such as Magnetic Clouds (MCs), in order to minimize the mixing processes involved in the ICME-GCR interactions in the resulting sample, and to study statistical properties. We determine the parameters of each FD profile and look for correlations with the associated MC parameters. We propose a method to decompose the FD profile into shock and ejecta components, and investigate correlations with the associated amplitudes of the ejecta components. We introduce the parameter, ``magnetic flux per unit length F/L'', and investigate its importance in the context of a simple ``diffusive barrier'' model. According to the correlations found, the two-step events are better represented by the ``diffusive barrier'' model, and the flux F/L is the parameter that better correlates with these events.

  2. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  4. Evolution of Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) Profiles of Kilometer-scale Craters on the Lunar Maria (United States)

    King, I. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Thomson, B. J.; Minton, D. A.; Watters, W. A.


    When sufficiently large impact craters form on the Moon, rocks and unweathered materials are excavated from beneath the regolith and deposited into their blocky ejecta. This enhances the rockiness and roughness of the proximal ejecta surrounding fresh impact craters. The interior of fresh craters are typically also rough, due to blocks, breccia, and impact melt. Thus, both the interior and proximal ejecta of fresh craters are usually radar bright and have high circular polarization ratios (CPR). Beyond the proximal ejecta, radar-dark halos are observed around some fresh craters, suggesting that distal ejecta is finer-grained than background regolith. The radar signatures of craters fade with time as the regolith grows.

  5. External Shock in a Multi-bursting Gamma-Ray Burst: Energy Injection Phase Induced by the Later Launched Ejecta (United States)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Huang, Bao-Quan; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Mu, Hui-Jun; Liang, En-Wei


    Central engines of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be intermittent and launch several episodes of ejecta separated by a long quiescent interval. In this scenario, an external shock is formed due to the propagation of the first launched ejecta into the circum-burst medium and the later launched ejecta may interact with the external shock at a later period. Owing to the internal dissipation, the later launched ejecta may be observed at a later time (t jet). In this paper, we study the relation of t b and t jet, where t b is the collision time of the later launched ejecta with the formed external shock. It is found that the relation of t b and t jet depends on the bulk Lorentz factor (Γjet) of the later launched ejecta and the density (ρ) of the circum-burst medium. If the value of Γjet or ρ is low, the t b would be significantly larger than t jet. However, the t b ∼ t jet can be found if the value of Γjet or ρ is significantly large. Our results can explain the large lag of the optical emission relative to the γ-ray/X-ray emission in GRBs, e.g., GRB 111209A. For GRBs with a precursor, our results suggest that the energy injection into the external shock and thus more than one external-reverse shock may appear in the main prompt emission phase. According to our model, we estimate the Lorentz factor of the second launched ejecta in GRB 160625B.

  6. The LCROSS Ejecta Plume Revealed: First Characterization from Earth-based Imaging (United States)

    Miller, C.; Chanover, N.; Hermalyn, B.; Strycker, P. D.; Hamilton, R. T.; Suggs, R. M.


    On October 9, 2009, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck the floor of Cabeus crater. We observed the LCROSS impact site at 0.5-second intervals throughout the time of impact in the V-band (491 to 591 nm) using the Agile camera on the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Our initial analysis of these images showed that the ejecta plume could be no brighter than 9.5 magnitudes/arcsec^2. (Chanover et al. 2011, JGR). We subsequently applied a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique to filter out time-varying seeing distortions and image registration errors from an 8-minute sequence of images centered on the LCROSS impact time and unambiguously detected the evolving plume below the noise threshold. This is the first and only reported image detection of the LCROSS plume from ground-based instruments. Our detection is consistent with an ejecta plume that reaches peak brightness between 12 and 20 seconds after impact and fades to an undetectable level within 90 seconds after impact. This is consistent with in situ observations made by the LCROSS Shepherding Satellite (LCROSS S/SC) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that observed the impact from above (Colaprete et al., and Hayne et. al., 2010, Science). To test our detection method, we compared the brightness profiles derived from our impact image sequence to those extracted from a sequence with a simulated ejecta pattern. We performed 3-D ballistic simulations of trial impacts, starting with initial particle ejection angles and velocities derived from laboratory measurements made with the NASA Ames Vertical Gun of impacts of hollow test projectiles (Hermalyn et. al., 2012, Icarus). We extracted images from these simulations at 0.5-second intervals, combined them with a computer generated lunar landscape, and introduced image distortions due to time-varying seeing conditions and instrumental noise sources to produce a synthetic ejecta image sequence. We then re

  7. Freely Expanding Knots of X-Ray-emitting Ejecta in Kepler’s Supernova Remnant (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Hughes, John P.


    We report measurements of proper motion, radial velocity, and elemental composition for 14 compact X-ray-bright knots in Kepler’s supernova remnant (SNR) using archival Chandra data. The knots with the highest speed show both large proper motions (μ ˜ 0.″11-0.″14 yr-1) and high radial velocities (v ˜ 8700-10,020 km s-1). For these knots the estimated space velocities (9100 km s-1 ≲ v 3D ≲ 10,400 km s-1) are similar to the typical Si velocity seen in supernovae (SNe) Ia near maximum light. High-speed ejecta knots appear only in specific locations and are morphologically and kinematically distinct from the rest of the ejecta. The proper motions of five knots extrapolate back over the age of Kepler’s SNR to a consistent central position. This new kinematic center agrees well with previous determinations, but is less subject to systematic errors and denotes a location about which several prominent structures in the remnant display a high degree of symmetry. These five knots are expanding at close to the free expansion rate (expansion indices of 0.75 ≲ m ≲ 1.0), which we argue indicates either that they were formed in the explosion with a high density contrast (more than 100 times the ambient density) or that they have propagated through regions of relatively low density (n H white dwarf for models of SNe Ia. Other knots show lower speeds and expansion indices consistent with decelerated ejecta knots or features in the ambient medium overrun by the forward shock. Our new accurate location for the explosion site has well-defined positional uncertainties, allowing for a great reduction in the area to be searched for faint surviving donor stars under non-traditional single-degenerate SNe Ia scenarios; because of the lack of bright stars in the search area the traditional scenario remains ruled out.

  8. Quantification of shock-induced melting and its distribution in the Ejecta (United States)

    Engelmann, J.; Wünnemann, K.; Luther, R.; Zhu, M.-H.


    In contrast to lunar regolith, which is dominated by impact melt particles (agglutinates), samples from the asteroid Itokawa (25143), collected by the Hayabusa mission, exhibit a strong deficit in agglutinates. To investigate the amount of shock-induced melting and its distribution in the ejecta we simulate hypervelocity impacts into targets with varying gravity and quantify the amount and distribution of generated melt that is ejected. We find that even at relatively low impact velocities and high target porosity (representing asteroidal condition) a significant amount of melting occurs. Our models also predict that in case of vertical impacts a significant amount of the generated melt remains inside the crater and is not ejected.

  9. Transfer of impact ejecta material from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos. (United States)

    Chappaz, Loïc; Melosh, Henry J; Vaquero, Mar; Howell, Kathleen C


    The Russian Phobos-Grunt spacecraft originally planned to return a 200 g sample of surface material from Phobos to Earth. Although it was anticipated that this material would mainly be from the body of Phobos, there is a possibility that such a sample may also contain material ejected from the surface of Mars by large impacts. An analysis of this possibility is completed by using current knowledge of aspects of impact cratering on the surface of Mars and the production of high-speed ejecta that might reach Phobos or Deimos.

  10. On the possibility of dust condensation in the ejecta of supernova 1987a


    Gehrz, R. D.; Ney, E P


    We suggest that supernova 1987a may condense dust of substantial visual optical thickness as do many novae. The dust will act as a calorimeter of the photon luminosity of any central engine that is dominant at the time of dust formation. Observations of novae suggest that dust formation may occur when the expanding ejecta reach a temperature of 1000 K. The early luminosity of the supernova may be dominated by radioactivity that is unrelated to the central engine that determines the energy bal...

  11. Properties of Neutrino-driven Ejecta from the Remnant of a Binary Neutron Star Merger: Pure Radiation Hydrodynamics Case (United States)

    Fujibayashi, Sho; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Shibata, Masaru


    We performed general relativistic, long-term, axisymmetric neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations for the remnant formed after a binary neutron star merger, which consists of a massive neutron star and a torus surrounding it. As an initial condition, we employ the result derived in a three-dimensional, numerical relativity simulation for the binary neutron star merger. We investigate the properties of neutrino-driven ejecta. Due to the pair-annihilation heating, the dynamics of the neutrino-driven ejecta are significantly modified. The kinetic energy of the ejecta is about two times larger than that in the absence of pair-annihilation heating. This suggests that the pair-annihilation heating plays an important role in the evolution of merger remnants. The relativistic outflow, which is required for driving gamma-ray bursts, is not observed because the specific heating rate around the rotational axis is not sufficiently high, due to the baryon loading caused by the neutrino-driven ejecta from the massive neutron star. We discuss the condition for launching the relativistic outflow and the nucleosynthesis in the ejecta.

  12. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  13. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  14. Hitomi Observations of the LMC SNR N132D: Fast and Asymmetric Iron-rich Ejecta (United States)

    Miller, Eric D.; Hitomi Collaboration


    We present Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) observations of N132D, a young, ~2500 year-old, X-ray bright, O-rich core-collapse supernova remnant in the LMC. Despite a very short observation of only 3.7 ksec, the SXS easily detects the line complexes of He-like S K and Fe K with 16-17 counts in each. The Fe K feature is measured for the first time at high spectral resolution, and we find that the Fe K-emitting material is highly redshifted at ~1000 km/s compared to the local LMC ISM, indicating (1) that it arises from the SN ejecta, and (2) that this ejecta is highly asymmetric, since no corresponding blue-shifted component is found. The S K-emitting material has a velocity consistent with the local LMC ISM, and is likely swept-up ISM material. These results are consistent with spatial mapping of these emission lines with XMM-Newton and Chandra, which show the Fe K concentrated in the interior of the remnant and the S K tracing the outer shell. Most importantly, they highlight the power of high-spectral-resolution imaging observations, and demonstrate the new window that has been opened with Hitomi and will be greatly widened with future missions such as the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) and Athena.

  15. Ejecta from shocked metals: Comparative simulations using molecular dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (United States)

    Dyachkov, Sergey; Parshikov, Anatoly; Zhakhovsky, Vasily


    Experimental methods of observation of early stage of shock-induced ejecta from metal surface with micrometer-sized perturbations are still limited in terms of following a complete sequence of processes having microscale dimensions and nanoscale times. To get an insight into micro-jet formation the ejecting from tin and copper samples is simulated in detail by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Such a comparative study shows, with some exception, a good similarity between material flows in nanometer- and micrometer-sized samples. We demonstrate that the jet velocity profiles and mass distributions obtained by both methods are similar, even for a MD sample with the linear size of 100 nm. It is shown that the bigger MD sample is simulated, the better agreement with SPH results is achieved for spike velocities of liquid jets due to decrease of surface tension effect. The calculated ejecta masses do nonetheless agree well for all sizes of interest. Material strength effect is also discussed in our comparative MD and SPH study. At relatively weak shock loading the plastic flow and jet formation is strongly arrested in MD sample due to a higher yield strength of solid at very high strain rates evolving on MD scale. In such conditions MD results are not scaled well to SPH results obtained at several order less strain rates.

  16. The effect of ambient pressure on ejecta sheets from free-surface ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.


    We present observations from an experimental study of the ablation of a free liquid surface promoted by a focused laser pulse, causing a rapid discharge of liquid in the form of a very thin conical-shaped sheet. In order to capture the dynamics, we employ a state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed video camera capable of capturing events at (Formula presented.) fps with shutter speeds down to 20 ns, whereby we were able to capture not only the ejecta sheet, but also the shock wave, emerging at speeds of up to 1.75 km/s, which is thus found to be hypersonic (Mach 5). Experiments were performed at a range of ambient pressures in order to study the effect of air drag on the evolution of the sheet, which was always observed to dome over, even at pressures as low as 3.8 kPa. At reduced pressures, the extended sheet evolution led to the formation of interference fringe patterns from which, by comparison with the opening speed of rupture, we were able to determine the ejecta thickness. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. On the possibility of dust condensation in the ejecta of supernova 1987a. (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Ney, E P


    We suggest that supernova 1987a may condense dust of substantial visual optical thickness as do many novae. The dust will act as a calorimeter of the photon luminosity of any central engine that is dominant at the time of dust formation. Observations of novae suggest that dust formation may occur when the expanding ejecta reach a temperature of 1000 K. The early luminosity of the supernova may be dominated by radioactivity that is unrelated to the central engine that determines the energy balance for the long-term development of the supernova. We discuss the possibility that a constant luminosity central power source such as a pulsar dominates the luminosity of the supernova ejecta by the time that dust can condense and argue that, if a shell mass of more than a few tenths of one solar mass was ejected, emission from dust may be observable in the thermal infrared spectral region. Maximum dust optical depth should occur by late 1987 or early 1988. If the dust becomes optically thick, the visual light from the supernova may drop precipitously. The characteristics of an optically thick dust shell as a calorimeter of the luminosity of the central engine are discussed and are related to previous observations of dust formation in type II supernovae. It is suggested that dust of several chemical compositions may form at different epochs.

  18. Momentum Enhancement due to Crater Ejecta during Hypervelocity Impact of Highly Porous and Consolidated Rock (United States)

    Walker, James; Chocron, Sidney; Grosch, Donald; Durda, Daniel; Housen, Kevin


    Experiments were performed with impacts of 2.54- to 4.45-cm-diameter aluminum spheres at 2.1 km/s into both consolidated rock (granite) and highly porous rock (pumice). Measured in these experiments was the momentum enhancement -- that is, how much momentum is transferred to the rock by the impactor. The transferred momentum is greater than the impactor due to the crater ejecta. The momentum enhancement is characterized by β , which is the ratio of the momentum transferred to the target and the momentum of the impactor. High speed video recorded the impact event, the ejecta from the target, and the motion of the target (hung in a ballistic pendulum arrangement). Constitutive models of rock that include porosity and crush-up behavior when incorporated into impact physics codes (specifically CTH and EPIC) show good agreement with crater depth, but they do not show good agreement with momentum enhancement. This paper will review the data and place it in the context of other momentum enhancement data, including the nonlinear effect of scale size. It will also explore the difficulties in large-scale numerical modeling of the momentum enhancement. An application of this data is determining the effectiveness of deflecting asteroids and comet nuclei by hypervelocity impacts.

  19. Relevance of Pitted Material and Impact Melt to Early Martian Hydrothermalism and Habitability; Ries Ejecta Deposits as a Martian Analogue (United States)

    Caudill, C. M.; Greenberger, R. N.; Tornabene, L. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Flemming, R. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.


    Hydrothermal features are investigated at the Ries impact structure as potentially analogous to crater-related pitted material in Martian ancient terrains, which may reveal shallow sub-surface hydrothermal environments and prime exploration targets.

  20. (U) Physics Validation of the RMI-Based Ejecta Source Model Implementation in FLAG: L2 Milestone #6035 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, I. L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Los Alamos Physics and Engineering Models (PEM) program has developed a model for Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) based ejecta production from shock-melted surfaces, along with a prescription for a self-similar velocity distribution (SSVD) of the resulting ejecta particles. We have undertaken an effort to validate this source model using data from explosively driven tin coupon experiments. The model’s current formulation lacks a crucial piece of physics: a method for determining the duration of the ejecta production interval. Without a mechanism for terminating ejecta production, the model is not predictive. Furthermore, when the production interval is hand-tuned to match time-integrated mass data, the predicted time-dependent mass accumulation on a downstream sensor rises too sharply at early times and too slowly at late times because the SSVD overestimates the amount of mass stored in the fastest particles and underestimates the mass stored in the slowest particles. The functional form of the resulting m(t) is inconsistent with the available time-dependent data; numerical simulations and analytic studies agree on this point. Simulated mass tallies are highly sensitive to radial expansion of the ejecta cloud. It is not clear if the same effect is present in the experimental data but if so, depending on the degree, this may challenge the model’s compatibility with tin coupon data. The current implementation of the model in FLAG is sensitive to the detailed interaction between kinematics (hydrodynamic methods) and thermodynamics (material models); this sensitivity prohibits certain physics modeling choices. The appendices contain an extensive analytic study of piezoelectric ejecta mass measurements, along with test problems, excerpted from a longer work (LA-UR-17-21218).

  1. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  2. Meteorite impact ejecta - Dependence of mass and energy lost on planetary escape velocity (United States)

    Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.


    The amounts of material and energy which escape a planet in a meteorite impact event is calculated as functions of impact and escape velocities. Results are obtained from the computed flow induced by the impact of iron and gabbroic anorthosite spheres onto a half-space of anorthosite at impact velocities of 5 to 45 km/sec. The impact-induced flows were determined by a numerical method using the mass, momentum, and energy conservation relations in finite-difference approximation, within an Eulerian computational grid. The impact velocities at which ejecta losses equal meteorite mass gains are found to be approximately 20, 35, and 45 km/sec for anorthosite objects and approximately 25, 35, and 40 km/sec for iron objects striking anorthosite surfaces for the gravity fields of the moon, Mercury and Mars.

  3. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the stars' rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang


    We present new (3+1) dimensional numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) mergers that take into account the NS spins. We consider different spin configurations, aligned or antialigned to the orbital angular momentum, for equal and unequal mass BNS and for two equations of state. All the simulations employ quasiequilibrium circular initial data in the constant rotational velocity approach, i.e. they are consistent with Einstein equations and in hydrodynamical equilibrium. We study the NS rotation effect on the energetics, the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. For dimensionless spin magnitudes of $\\chi\\sim0.1$ we find that spin-orbit interactions and also spin-induced-quadrupole deformations affect the late-inspiral-merger dynamics. The latter is, however, dominated by finite-size effects. Spin (tidal) effects contribute to GW phase differences up to 5 (20) radians accumulated during the last eight orbits to...

  4. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, D. S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pazuchanics, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaufman, M. I. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tibbitts, A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tunnell, T. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marks, D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capelle, G. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Grover, M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marshall, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Stevens, G. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); LaLone, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

  5. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, Danny S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pazuchanics, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Randall P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaufman, M. I. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tibbitts, A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tunnell, T. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marks, D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capelle, G. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Grover, M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marshall, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Stevens, G. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); LaLone, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  6. Kilonova from post-merger ejecta as an optical and near-Infrared counterpart of GW170817 (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohta, Kouji; Kawabata, Koji S.; Abe, Fumio; Aoki, Kentaro; Asakura, Yuichiro; Baar, Stefan; Barway, Sudhanshu; Bond, Ian A.; Doi, Mamoru; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Furusawa, Hisanori; Honda, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Miyazaki, Shota; Morihana, Kumiko; Nagashima, Hiroki; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Nakata, Fumiaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Ohshima, Tomohito; Okita, Hirofumi; Saito, Tomoki; Sumi, Takahiro; Tajitsu, Akito; Takahashi, Jun; Takayama, Masaki; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Ichi; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Tristram, Paul J.; Yasuda, Naoki; Zenko, Tetsuya


    Recent detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star (NS) merger event GW170817 and identification of an electromagnetic counterpart provide a unique opportunity to study the physical processes in NS mergers. To derive properties of ejected material from the NS merger, we perform radiative transfer simulations of kilonova, optical and near-infrared emissions powered by radioactive decays of r-process nuclei synthesized in the merger. We find that the observed near-infrared emission lasting for >10 d is explained by 0.03 M⊙ of ejecta containing lanthanide elements. However, the blue optical component observed at the initial phases requires an ejecta component with a relatively high electron fraction (Ye). We show that both optical and near-infrared emissions are simultaneously reproduced by the ejecta with a medium Ye of ˜0.25. We suggest that a dominant component powering the emission is post-merger ejecta, which exhibits that the mass ejection after the first dynamical ejection is quite efficient. Our results indicate that NS mergers synthesize a wide range of r-process elements and strengthen the hypothesis that NS mergers are the origin of r-process elements in the Universe.

  7. An Impact Sensor System for the Characterization of the Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta Environment (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Burchell, M.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Stansbery, E.; Blum, Jurgen; Cooke, William; Pisacane, V.


    The Impact Sensor for Micrometeoroid and Lunar Secondary Ejecta (IMMUSE) project aims to apply and integrate previously demonstrated impact sensing subsystems to characterize the micrometeoroid and lunar secondary (MMSE) environment on the surface of the Moon. Once deployed, data returned from IMMUSE will benefit: (1) Fundamental Lunar Science: providing data to improve the understanding of lunar cratering processes and dynamics of the lunar regolith. (2) Lunar Exploration Applied Science: providing an accurate MMSE environment definition for reliable impact risk assessments, cost-effective shielding designs, and mitigation measures for long-term lunar exploration activities. (3) Planetary Science: providing micrometeoroid data to aid the understanding of asteroidal collisions and the evolution of comets. A well-established link between micrometeoroid impacts and lunar regolith is also key to understanding other regolith-covered bodies from remote-sensing data. The IMMUSE system includes two components: (1) a large area (greater than or equal to 1 m2) micrometeoroid detector based on acoustic impact and fiber optic displacement sensors and (2) a 100 cm2 lunar secondary ejecta detector consisting of dual-layer laser curtain and acoustic impact sensors. The combinations of different detection mechanisms will allow for a better characterization of the MMSE environment, including flux, particle size/mass, and impact velocity. IMMUSE is funded by the NASA LASER Program through 2012. The project fs goal is to reach a Technical Readiness Level of 4 in preparation for a more advanced development beyond 2012. Several prototype subsystems have been constructed and subjected to low impact and hypervelocity impact tests. The presentation will include a status review and preliminary test results.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  9. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  11. Geochemistry of K/T-boundary Chicxulub ejecta of NE-Mexico (United States)

    Harting, M.; Deutsch, A.; Rickers, K.


    Many K/T sections all over the world contain impact spherules supposed related to the Chicxulub event. This study focus on ejecta layers in NE-Mexican profiles. We carried out systematic XRF and synchrotron radiation measurements on such spherules at the HASYLAB and ANKA facilities as well as microprobe analyses (CAMECA SX50). Area scans on tektite-like material of the Bochil section reveal a pronounced zonation in the inner part, dominated by Ba and Sr whereas secondary CaCO3 dominates in the altered margin. The composition of the spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section differ significantly from the Beloc (Haiti) and Bochil tektite glasses. At Mesa-Juan Perez, spherules are either extremely rich in Fe and Ca or consist of smectite, some of those carry carbonate inclusions. Yttrium, La and Ce are zoned within the smectite with concentrations below the detection limit and up to 20 æg/g The Ca-rich inclusions are enriched in Y (up to 35 æg/g) and La (18 æg/g) and, compared to the surrounding smectite, also in Ce (up to 34 æg/g). The Ce enrichment in spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section indicates impact-melted carbonates of the Yucatan carbonate platform as possible precursor rocks. Recent investigations focus on the chemistry of melt rock samples from the PEMEX wells Yucatan-6 and Chicxulub-1: Their average composition (mean of 250 data points in wt-percent ) is 61.6 for SiO2, 0.16 for TiO2, 18.07 for Al2O3, 0.01 for Cr2O3, 1.98 for Na2O, 1.5 for FeO, 0.05 for MnO, 0.01 for NiO, 0.31 for MgO, 9.14 for K2O, 3.44 for CaO, and 0.01 for SO2. These results are in some cases comparable to the geochemistry of ejecta glasses, e.g. from Beloc (Haiti).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, John; Dewey, Daniel; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Heine, Sarah N. T.; Canizares, C. R.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Sato, Kosuke, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    We present the analysis of 21 bright X-ray knots in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant from observations spanning 10 yr. We performed a comprehensive set of measurements to reveal the kinematic and thermal state of the plasma in each knot, using a combined analysis of two high energy resolution High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and four medium energy resolution Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) sets of spectra. The ACIS electron temperature estimates agree with the HETG-derived values for approximately half of the knots studied, yielding one of the first comparisons between high resolution temperature estimates and ACIS-derived temperatures. We did not observe the expected spectral evolution-predicted from the ionization age and density estimates for each knot-in all but three of the knots studied. The incompatibility of these measurements with our assumptions has led us to propose a dissociated ejecta model, with the metals unmixed inside the knots, which could place strong constraints on supernova mixing models.

  14. Shock-produced ejecta from tin: Comparative study by molecular dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics methods (United States)

    Dyachkov, S. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.


    Experimental methods of observation of early stage of shock-induced ejecta from metal surface with micrometer-sized perturbations are still limited in terms of following a complete sequence of processes having microscale dimensions and nanoscale times. Therefore, simulations by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods can shed of light on details of micro-jet evolution. The size of simulated sample is too restricted in MD, but the simulations with large enough number of atoms can be scaled well to the sizes of realistic samples. To validate such scaling the comparative MD and SPH simulations of tin samples are performed. SPH simulation takes the realistic experimental sizes, while MD uses the proportionally scaled sizes of samples. It is shown that the velocity and mass distributions along the jets simulated by MD and SPH are in a good agreement. The observed difference in velocity of spikes between MD and experiments can be partially explained by a profound effect of surface tension on jets ejected from the small-scale samples.

  15. Preliminary Results from the Triple Fission-Ejecta Correlations Trial (TRIFECTA) at ORNL (United States)

    Peters, William; Smith, M. S.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Temanson, E.; Smith, K.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Thornsberry, C.; Jones, K. L.; Grzywacz, R.; Cizewski, J. A.


    Despite fission having been studied for almost 80 years, there is a shortage of data on the correlations of multiple fission products needed to benchmark advanced theoretical models of fission. A pioneering experiment underway at ORNL, the Triple Fission-Ejecta Correlations Trial (TRIFECTA), involves the measurement of energy and angular correlations between prompt 252Cf fission neutrons and gamma rays with respect to one fission fragment in time-coincidence. The mass of one fragment is determined, with 4 amu precision, by using 2 micro-channel plate timing detectors and a silicon total-energy detector. Time-coincident data from auxiliary detectors are also recorded: 6 NaI detectors to measure gamma-ray multiplicity, 1 HPGe detector to measure the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum, and an array of 28 VANDLE modules to measure the neutron spectrum and multiplicity. For the first time, correlations between coincident fragment - gamma - neutron fission products can be studied, as a function of fragment mass. Utilizing certain unique gamma-ray transitions recorded by the HPGe detector, we were able to determine the neutron energy and angular correlations of specific fission fragments. Preliminary results on neutron - neutron angular correlations, gamma-ray vs. neutron multiplicity, and other correlations will be presented, along with plans for future improvements. Work supported in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of ORNL, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy. Done...processed 708 records...16:18:14

  16. P/2010 A2: evidence for conical impact ejecta from a novel modeling technique (United States)

    Kleyna, Jan


    P/2010 A2 is an object on an asteroidal orbit that was seen to have an extended tail or trail on January 2010. HST imaging revealed a complicated structure of arcs and knots. This tail could have arisen from 1) sublimation activity; 2) an impact event; or 3) rotational disruption. We developed a new modeling technique to address this question, tracing the orbital development of impact debris cones into debris trails. We found that P/2010 A2 was fit well by a initial ejecta cone with an opening angle of 40° to 50°, in agreement with numerical and laboratory simulations of cratering events. Mapping debris orbits to sky positions suggests that the distinctive arc features in the debris correspond to the same debris cone inferred from the broad envelope of the extended dust tail. From the velocity of the debris, and from the presence of a velocity maximum at around 15 cm s-1, we infer that the surface of P2010 A2 probably has a very low strength (1 kPa), comparable to lunar regolith. This modeling technique will be of use in analyzing the origin of other newly discovered active objects.

  17. Very Deep inside the SN 1987A Core Ejecta: Molecular Structures Seen in 3D (United States)

    Abellán, F. J.; Indebetouw, R.; Marcaide, J. M.; Gabler, M.; Fransson, C.; Spyromilio, J.; Burrows, D. N.; Chevalier, R.; Cigan, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Gomez, H. L.; Janka, H.-Th.; Kirshner, R.; Larsson, J.; Lundqvist, P.; Matsuura, M.; McCray, R.; Ng, C.-Y.; Park, S.; Roche, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; van Loon, J. Th.; Wheeler, J. C.; Woosley, S. E.


    Most massive stars end their lives in core-collapse supernova explosions and enrich the interstellar medium with explosively nucleosynthesized elements. Following core collapse, the explosion is subject to instabilities as the shock propagates outward through the progenitor star. Observations of the composition and structure of the innermost regions of a core-collapse supernova provide a direct probe of the instabilities and nucleosynthetic products. SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of very few supernovae for which the inner ejecta can be spatially resolved but are not yet strongly affected by interaction with the surroundings. Our observations of SN 1987A with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are of the highest resolution to date and reveal the detailed morphology of cold molecular gas in the innermost regions of the remnant. The 3D distributions of carbon and silicon monoxide (CO and SiO) emission differ, but both have a central deficit, or torus-like distribution, possibly a result of radioactive heating during the first weeks (“nickel heating”). The size scales of the clumpy distribution are compared quantitatively to models, demonstrating how progenitor and explosion physics can be constrained.

  18. Confirmation of dust condensation in the ejecta of supernova 1987a. (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Ney, E P


    Shortly after its outburst, we suggested that supernova 1987a might condense a dust shell of substantial visual optical thickness as many classical novae do and predicted that dust might form within a year after the explosion. A critical examination of recent optical and infrared observations reported by others confirms that dust grains had begun to grow at a temperature of 1000 K after 300 days and that the dust shell had become optically thick by day 600. After day 600, the infrared luminosity closely followed the intrinsic luminosity expected for thermalized 56Co gamma rays, demonstrating that the luminosity is powered by radioactivity and that the dust is outside the radioactivity zone. The infrared luminosity sets an upper limit to the soft intrinsic bolometric luminosity of a pulsar central engine. This upper limit for the pulsar in supernova 1987a is the same luminosity as the Crab pulsar has today 936 years after its formation. It is unlikely that the rotation rate for a pulsar in supernova 1987a can be much higher than approximately 30 revolutions per sec. The relatively long time required for the shell to grow to maximum optical depth as compared with the dust in nova shells may be related to the relatively low outflow velocity of the condensible ejecta.

  19. Recreating the Deep Impact's Ejecta Cloud: Estimating Optical Depth, Albedo, and Composition Using SPICE and the Shape Model (United States)

    Barnett, William; A'Hearn, M. F.; Farnham, T. L.; Hoban, S.


    On July 4, 2005, Deep Impact struck the surface of Comet 9P/Tempel 1, excavating a large cloud of material from deep inside the nucleus of the comet. King et al. (2007) and A'Hearn et al. (2008) have studied the properties of ejected material that crossed the limb of the comet. As a follow-up, we observe the shadow on the surface of the nucleus to analyze the material before it crosses the limb. In this study, we attempt to create a three-dimensional model of the cloud of ejecta to estimate the optical depth and albedo of particles within the layers of Tempel 1's nucleus. This will allow us to constrain the composition of these particles. We use images taken by the Medium Resolution Instrument (MRI) along with SPICE data and the Shape Model to determine how light naturally falls onto the surface near the impact site. From this information, we measure the brightness around the impact site as a function of time due to the shadow created by the ever-changing cloud of ejecta. Next, we will create a three-dimensional model of the cloud to determine which parts of the cloud are creating the corresponding areas of the shadow. This allows for an estimation of the optical depth of the cloud. This study has implications for understanding the layering present within short-period comets, for it may tell us something about the materials that were around during the evolution of the Solar System. This research is supported by the NASA PDS Small Bodies Node and College Student Investigators. A'Hearn, M. F., et al.. Optical Depth and Albedo of the Deep Impact Ejecta in the First Minutes. ACM, 2008. King, A., M, et al, The Properties of Comet Tempel 1 as Determined Through the Cometary Ejecta. BAAS 38, 449 (DPS 2007).

  20. Fe-rich ejecta in the supernova remnant G352.7–0.1 with Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezer, A. [TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute, ODTU Campus, Ankara, 06531 (Turkey); Gök, F., E-mail: [Akdeniz University, Faculty of Education, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Antalya, 07058 (Turkey)


    In this work, we present results from a ∼201.6 ks observation of G352.7–0.1 using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer on board Suzaku X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from the remnant is well described by two-temperature thermal models of non-equilibrium ionization with variable abundances with a column density of N{sub H} ∼ 3.3 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. The soft component is characterized by an electron temperature of kT{sub e} ∼ 0.6 keV, an ionization timescale of τ ∼ 3.4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3} s, and enhanced Si, S, Ar, and Ca abundances. The hard component has kT{sub e} ∼ 4.3 keV, τ ∼ 8.8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} s, and enhanced Fe abundance. The elemental abundances of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe are found to be significantly higher than the solar values that confirm the presence of ejecta. We detected strong Fe K-shell emission and determined its origin to be the ejecta for the first time. The detection of Fe ejecta with a lower ionization timescale favors a Type Ia origin for this remnant.

  1. Caught in the Act: UV spectroscopy of the ejecta-companion collision from a type Ia supernova (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas


    There is now significant observational evidence for both of the leading models proposed to explain the origin of type Ia supernovae (SNe). While the majority of SNe Ia likely come from the merger of two white dwarf (WD) stars (known as the double degenerate model), a significant fraction are the result of a WD accreting mass from the hydrogen envelope of a binary companion (known as the single degenerate model). Eventually, as the accreting WD approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, the onset of unstable burning occurs ultimately leading to a thermonuclear explosion. With observational evidence for both channels firmly in place, future efforts to better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia will require detailed studies of individual systems.A fundamental expectation of the single degenerate model is that the collision of the blast wave with the donor star will produce a unique signature - a bright and rapidly declining UV pulse. This UV signal has only been previously observed in a single SN. Here, we propose to undertake STIS UV spectroscopy of one infant type Ia SN with similarly strong UV emission. The spectra will provide unique and detailed insight into the ejecta-companion interaction while also probing the chemical abundance of the outermost layers of the SN ejecta. The ejecta-companion signature is only visible UV, and HST/STIS is the only instrument capable of obtaining the spectra that are needed as a detailed probe of the interaction physics.

  2. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)


    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  3. Ejecta evolutions and fates from the AIDA impact on the secondary of the binary asteroid Didymos: a NEOShield-2 project contribution (United States)

    Michel, P.; Yu, Y.


    We simulated the evolutions and fates of ejecta produced by the impact of a projectile of the secondary of the binary asteroid Didymos, in the framework of the AIDA space mission project. Our results show how these evolutions and fates depend on the impact location on the secondary and ejection speeds of the ejecta. This information can be used to defined safe positions for an observing spacecraft and to better understand the outcome of an impact in the environment of a binary asteroid.

  4. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  5. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  6. REBOUND-ing Off Asteroids: An N-body Particle Model for Ejecta Dynamics on Small Bodies (United States)

    Larson, Jennifer; Sarid, Gal


    Here we describe our numerical approach to model the evolution of ejecta clouds. Modeling with an N-body particle method enables us to study the micro-dynamics while varying the particle size distribution. A hydrodynamic approach loses many of the fine particle-particle interactions included in the N-body particle approach (Artemieva 2008).We use REBOUND, an N-body integration package (Rein et al. 2012) developed to model various dynamical systems (planetary orbits, ring systems, etc.) with high resolution calculations at a lower performance cost than other N-body integrators (Rein & Tamayo 2017). It offers both symplectic (WHFast) and non-symplectic (IAS15) methods (Rein & Spiegel 2014, Rein & Tamayo 2015). We primarily use the IAS15 integrator due to its robustness and accuracy with short interaction distances and non-conservative forces. We implemented a wrapper (developed in Python) to handle changes in time step and integrator at different stages of ejecta particle evolution.To set up the system, each particle is given a velocity away from the target body’s surface at a given angle within a defined ejecta cone. We study the ejecta cloud evolution beginning immediately after an impact rather than the actual impact itself. This model considers effects such as varying particle size distribution, radiation pressure, perturbations from a binary component, particle-particle collisions and non-axisymmetric gravity of the target body. Restrictions on the boundaries of the target body’s surface define the physical shape and help count the number of particles that land on the target body. Later, we will build the central body from individual particles to allow for a wider variety of target body shapes and topographies.With our particle modeling approach, individual particle trajectories are tracked and predicted on short, medium and long timescales. Our approach will be applied to modeling of the ejecta cloud produced during the Double Asteroid Redirection Test

  7. Maar-diatreme geometry and deposits: Subsurface blast experiments with variable explosion depth (United States)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.; Ross, P.-S.; White, J. D. L.; Taddeucci, J.


    maar-diatreme volcanoes, which have craters cut into preeruption landscapes (maars) underlain by downward-tapering bodies of fragmental material commonly cut by hypabyssal intrusions (diatremes), are produced by multiple subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Although many maar-diatremes have been studied, the link between explosion dynamics and the resulting deposit architecture is still poorly understood. Scaled experiments employed multiple buried explosions of known energies and depths within layered aggregates in order to assess the effects of explosion depth, and the morphology and compaction of the host on the distribution of host materials in resulting ejecta, the development of subcrater structures and deposits, and the relationships between them. Experimental craters were 1-2 m wide. Analysis of high-speed video shows that explosion jets had heights and shapes that were strongly influenced by scaled depth (physical depth scaled against explosion energy) and by the presence or absence of a crater. Jet properties in turn controlled the distribution of ejecta deposits outside the craters, and we infer that this is also reflected in the diverse range of deposit types at natural maars. Ejecta were dominated by material that originated above the explosion site, and the shallowest material was dispersed the farthest. Subcrater deposits illustrate progressive vertical mixing of host materials through successive explosions. We conclude that the progressive appearance of deeper-seated material stratigraphically upward in deposits of natural maars probably records the length and time scale for upward mixing through multiple explosions with ejection by shallow blasts, rather than progressive deepening of explosion sites in response to draw down of aquifers.

  8. Development of an ejecta particle size measurement diagnostic based on Mie scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Martin Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buttler, William Tillman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frayer, Daniel K. [National Security Tech, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grover, Michael [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Monfared, Shabnam Kalighi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Gerald D. [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Stone, Benjamin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turley, William Dale [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.


    The goal of this work is to determine the feasibility of extracting the size of particles ejected from shocked metal surfaces (ejecta) from the angular distribution of light scattered by a cloud of such particles. The basis of the technique is the Mie theory of scattering, and implicit in this approach are the assumptions that the scattering particles are spherical and that single scattering conditions prevail. The meaning of this latter assumption, as far as experimental conditions are concerned, will become clear later. The solution to Maxwell’s equations for spherical particles illuminated by a plane electromagnetic wave was derived by Gustav Mie more than 100 years ago, but several modern treatises discuss this solution in great detail. The solution is a complicated series expansion of the scattered electric field, as well as the field within the particle, from which the total scattering and absorption cross sections as well as the angular distribution of scattered intensity can be calculated numerically. The detailed nature of the scattering is determined by the complex index of refraction of the particle material as well as the particle size parameter, x, which is the product of the wavenumber of the incident light and the particle radius, i.e. x = 2rπ= λ. Figure 1 shows the angular distribution of scattered light for different particle size parameters and two orthogonal incident light polarizations as calculated using the Mie solution. It is obvious that the scattering pattern is strongly dependent on the particle size parameter, becoming more forward-directed and less polarizationdependent as the particle size parameter increases. This trend forms the basis for the diagnostic design.

  9. The role of proximity caps during the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs (United States)

    Ghosh, S. C.; Biesinger, M. C.; LaPierre, R. R.; Kruse, P.


    This study provides a deeper insight into the chemistry and physics of the common engineering practice of using a proximity cap, while annealing compound semiconductors such as GaAs. We have studied the cases of a GaAs proximity cap, a Si proximity cap, and no proximity cap. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been found that annealing increases the gallium to arsenic ratio in the oxide layer in all cases. During the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs, it has been observed that GaAs proximity caps also serve as a sacrificial layer to accelerate the desorption of oxide species. In all cases surface deterioration due to pit formation has been observed, and the depth of pits is found to depend on the effective role played by the capping material. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis provides additional evidence that pits mainly consist of elemental As and gallium oxide, with most of the elemental As situated at the pit-substrate interface. Deposition of a thin layer of gold and subsequent annealing to 500°C for 300s under different capping conditions shows the use of a proximate cap to be practically insignificant in annealing Au deposited films.

  10. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  12. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Signatures of hypermassive neutron star lifetimes on r-process nucleosynthesis in the disc ejecta from neutron star mergers (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Fernández, Rodrigo; Roberts, Luke F.; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian D.; Ott, Christian D.


    We investigate the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the winds ejected by accretion discs formed in neutron star mergers. We compute the element formation in disc outflows from hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) remnants of variable lifetime, including the effect of angular momentum transport in the disc evolution. We employ long-term axisymmetric hydrodynamic disc simulations to model the ejecta, and compute r-process nucleosynthesis with tracer particles using a nuclear reaction network containing ˜8000 species. We find that the previously known strong correlation between HMNS lifetime, ejected mass and average electron fraction in the outflow is directly related to the amount of neutrino irradiation on the disc, which dominates mass ejection at early times in the form of a neutrino-driven wind. Production of lanthanides and actinides saturates at short HMNS lifetimes (≲10 ms), with additional ejecta contributing to a blue optical kilonova component for longer-lived HMNSs. We find good agreement between the abundances from the disc outflow alone and the solar r-process distribution only for short HMNS lifetimes (≲10 ms). For longer lifetimes, the rare-earth and third r-process peaks are significantly underproduced compared to the solar pattern, requiring additional contributions from the dynamical ejecta. The nucleosynthesis signature from a spinning black hole (BH) can only overlap with that from an HMNS of moderate lifetime (≲60 ms). Finally, we show that angular momentum transport not only contributes with a late-time outflow component, but that it also enhances the neutrino-driven component by moving material to shallower regions of the gravitational potential, in addition to providing additional heating.

  14. Relativistic simulations of long-lived reverse shocks in stratified ejecta: the origin of flares in GRB afterglows (United States)

    Lamberts, A.; Daigne, F.


    The X-ray light curves of the early afterglow phase from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) present a puzzling variability, including flares. The origin of these flares is still debated, and often associated with a late activity of the central engine. We discuss an alternative scenario where the central engine remains short-lived and flares are produced by the propagation of a long-lived reverse shock in a stratified ejecta. Here we focus on the hydrodynamics of the shock interactions. We perform one-dimensional ultrarelativistic hydrodynamic simulations with different initial internal structure in the GRB ejecta. We use them to extract bolometric light curves and compare with a previous study based on a simplified ballistic model. We find a good agreement between both approaches, with similar slopes and variability in the light curves, but identify several weaknesses in the ballistic model: the density is underestimated in the shocked regions, and more importantly, late shock reflections are not captured. With accurate dynamics provided by our hydrodynamic simulations, we confirm that internal shocks in the ejecta lead to the formation of dense shells. The interaction of the long-lived reverse shock with a dense shell then produces a fast and intense increase of the dissipated power. Assuming that the emission is due to the synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated electrons, and that the external forward shock is radiatively inefficient, we find that this results in a bright flare in the X-ray light curve, with arrival times, shapes, and duration in agreement with the observed properties of X-ray flares in GRB afterglows.

  15. Computer modeling of large asteroid impacts into continental and oceanic sites: Atmospheric, cratering, and ejecta dynamics (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Schuster, S. H.; Rosenblatt, M.; Grant, L. B.; Hassig, P. J.; Kreyenhagen, K. N.


    Numerous impact cratering events have occurred on the Earth during the last several billion years that have seriously affected our planet and its atmosphere. The largest cratering events, which were caused by asteroids and comets with kinetic energies equivalent to tens of millions of megatons of TNT, have distributed substantial quantities of terrestrial and extraterrestrial material over much or all of the Earth. In order to study a large-scale impact event in detail, computer simulations were completed that model the passage of a 10 km-diameter asteroid through the Earth's atmosphere and the subsequent cratering and ejecta dynamics associated with impact of the asteroid into two different targets, i.e., an oceanic site and a continental site. The calcuations were designed to broadly represent giant impact events that have occurred on the Earth since its formation and specifically represent an impact cratering event proposed to have occurred at the end of Cretaceous time. Calculation of the passage of the asteroid through a U.S. Standard Atmosphere showed development of a strong bow shock that expanded radially outward. Behind the shock front was a region of highly shock compressed and intensely heated air. Behind the asteroid, rapid expansion of this shocked air created a large region of very low density that also expanded away from the impact area. Calculations of the cratering events in both the continental and oceanic targets were carried to 120 s. Despite geologic differences, impacts in both targets developed comparable dynamic flow fields, and by approx. 29 s similar-sized transient craters approx. 39 km deep and approx. 62 km across had formed. For all practical purposes, the atmosphere was nearly completely removed from the impact area for tens of seconds, i.e., air pressures were less than fractions of a bar out to ranges of over 50 km. Consequently, much of the asteroid and target materials were ejected upward into a near vacuum. Effects of secondary

  16. Detectability Factors for Earth-based Imaging of the LCROSS Ejecta Plume (United States)

    Strycker, Paul D.; Schotte, Jonathan M.; Temme, Ruth L.; Chanover, Nancy J.


    NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission delivered a kinetic impactor into Cabeus Crater on 9 October 2009 [1, 2]. Observing campaigns from Earth-based telescopes at multiple facilities attempted to obtain temporally-resolved imaging of the ejecta plume [3], but no Earth-based imaging detections were reported until 2013 after processing images with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) filtering [4]. Subsequently, PCA filtering has revealed plume detections in two additional cameras and also confirmed a non-detection from one telescope [5, 6]. This combination of detection and non-detection data is useful in determining the criteria for detectability in future observations of transient events. The goal of this work is to identify factors contributing to detectability and to establish thresholds applicable to the LCROSS event. We take the data containing detections and then degrade a specific factor in them until the plume is no longer detectable. These derived thresholds for factors (e.g., scattered light, temporal resolution, spatial resolution, field of view, and signal-to-noise of the illuminated foreground of Cabeus) can be compared to the properties of the actual non-detection data to identify problems specific to its observing conditions or observational setup. The percent differences between the thresholds and both the detection data and non-detection data may also reveal the relative importance of these detectability factors. This work was supported by NASA’s Lunar Data Analysis Program through grant number NNX15AP92G. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.References: [1] Colaprete, A. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 463-468. [2] Schultz, P. H. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 468-472. [3] Heldmann, J. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev., 167:93-140, doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9759-y. [4] Strycker, P. D. et al. (2013) Nat. Commun., 4

  17. Investigation of the enhanced spatial density of submicron lunar ejecta between L values 1.2 and 3.0 in the earth's magnetosphere: Theory (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Goad, H. S.


    Initial results from the measurement conducted by the dust particle experiment on the lunar orbiting satellite Lunar Explorer 35 (LE 35) were reported with the data interpreted as indicating that the moon is a significant source of micrometeroids. Primary sporadic and stream meteoroids impacting the surface of the moon at hypervelocity was proposed as the source of micron and submicron particles that leave the lunar craters with velocities sufficient to escape the moon's gravitational sphere of influence. No enhanced flux of lunar ejecta with masses greater than a nanogram was detected by LE 35 or the Lunar Orbiters. Hypervelocity meteoroid simulation experiments concentrating on ejecta production combined with extensive analyses of the orbital dynamics of micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space have shown that a pulse of these lunar ejecta, with a time correlation relative to the position of the moon relative to the earth, intercepts the earth's magnetopause surface (EMPs). As shown, a strong reason exists for expecting a significant enhancement of submicron dust particles in the region of the magnetosphere between L values of 1.2 and 3.0. This is the basis for the proposal of a series of experiments to investigate the enhancement or even trapping of submicron lunar ejecta in this region. The subsequent interaction of this mass with the upper-lower atmosphere of the earth and possible geophysical effects can then be studied.

  18. Lunar Anorthosite Deposits: The Big Picture (United States)

    Peterson, C. A.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, J. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Spudis, P. D.


    Evidence strongly suggests that Earth's Moon, early in its history, was covered with a deep magma ocean. As the magma cooled and crystallized, pyroxene and olivine grains settled to the bottom, and eventually plagioclase feldspar formed a floatation crust. At first, the continuing flux of impactors easily breached the thin but growing floatation crust and mixed it with magma from below. Crust thick enough to resist further penetration became underplated with pure anorthosite (rock containing at least 90 Analysis of Earth-based near-IR reflection spectra of features on the Moon's nearside has revealed the locations of outcrops of pure anorthosite that may be remnants of the flotation crust. Nearside anorthosite deposits very commonly are found on or very near basin rings. Anorthosites in the inner rings of basins such as Humorum, Grimaldi, and Orientale were derived from beneath more mafic-rich layers in the pre-impact target sites. In addition, the anorthosites associated with the outer rings of Nectaris and other basins are found in the central peaks and walls of large impact craters and were derived from layers deep beneath the crater target sites. In the early 1990s, two spacecraft, Galileo and Clementine, returned multispectral data sets that allow further investigation of the distribution of anorthosite on the Moon, including areas of the farside for which no previous multispectral data existed. Iron maps derived from these data suggest that pure anorthosite may be quite abundant on certain farside surfaces. Farside anorthosite distribution may be largely related to the emplacement of the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. Near the basin rim, thick blankets of SPA ejecta appear to cover the original crust, while in more distal regions the thinner cover of SPA ejecta (and mafic-contaminated upper crust) has been completely scattered away by subsequent impacts to reveal the underlying anorthosite.

  19. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  20. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  2. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  3. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  4. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  5. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  7. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  8. V1369 Cen High-resolution Panchromatic Late Nebular Spectra in the Context of a Unified Picture for Nova Ejecta (United States)

    Mason, Elena; Shore, Steven N.; De Gennaro Aquino, Ivan; Izzo, Luca; Page, Kim; Schwarz, Greg J.


    Nova Cen 2013 (V1369 Cen) is the fourth bright nova observed panchromatically through high-resolution UV+optical multiepoch spectroscopy. It is also the nova with the richest set of spectra (in terms of both data quality and number of epochs) thanks to its exceptional brightness. Here, we use the late nebular spectra taken between day ∼250 and day ∼837 after outburst to derive the physical, geometrical, and kinematical properties of the nova. We compare the results with those determined for the other panchromatic studies in this series: T Pyx, V339 Del (nova Del 2013), and V959 Mon (nova Mon 2012). From this we conclude that in all these novae the ejecta geometry and phenomenology can be consistently explained by clumpy gas expelled during a single, brief ejection episode and in ballistic expansion, and not by a wind. For V1369 Cen the ejecta mass (∼1 × 10‑4 M⊙) and filling factor (0.1 ≤ f ≤ 0.2) are consistent with those of classical novae but larger (by at least an order of magnitude) than those of T Pyx and the recurrent novae. V1369 Cen has an anomalously high (relative to solar) N/C ratio that is beyond the range currently predicted for a CO nova, and the Ne emission line strengths are dissimilar to those of typical ONe or CO white dwarfs.

  9. Computer simulations of large asteroid impacts into oceanic and continental sites--preliminary results on atmospheric, cratering and ejecta dynamics (United States)

    Roddy, D.J.; Schuster, S.H.; Rosenblatt, M.; Grant, L.B.; Hassig, P.J.; Kreyenhagen, K.N.


    Computer simulations have been completed that describe passage of a 10-km-diameter asteroid through the Earth's atmosphere and the subsequent cratering and ejecta dynamics caused by impact of the asteroid into both oceanic and continental sites. The asteroid was modeled as a spherical body moving vertically at 20 km/s with a kinetic energy of 2.6 ?? 1030 ergs (6.2 ?? 107 Mt ). Detailed material modeling of the asteroid, ocean, crustal units, sedimentary unit, and mantle included effects of strength and fracturing, generic asteroid and rock properties, porosity, saturation, lithostatic stresses, and geothermal contributions, each selected to simulate impact and geologic conditions that were as realistic as possible. Calculation of the passage of the asteroid through a U.S. Standard Atmosphere showed development of a strong bow shock wave followed by a highly shock compressed and heated air mass. Rapid expansion of this shocked air created a large low-density region that also expanded away from the impact area. Shock temperatures in air reached ???20,000 K near the surface of the uplifting crater rim and were as high as ???2000 K at more than 30 km range and 10 km altitude. Calculations to 30 s showed that the shock fronts in the air and in most of the expanding shocked air mass preceded the formation of the crater, ejecta, and rim uplift and did not interact with them. As cratering developed, uplifted rim and target material were ejected into the very low density, shock-heated air immediately above the forming crater, and complex interactions could be expected. Calculations of the impact events showed equally dramatic effects on the oceanic and continental targets through an interval of 120 s. Despite geologic differences in the targets, both cratering events developed comparable dynamic flow fields and by ???29 s had formed similar-sized transient craters ???39 km deep and ???62 km across. Transient-rim uplift of ocean and crust reached a maximum altitude of nearly

  10. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Mizusawa, Trisha [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Williams, Robert; Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), whose 0.1 arcsec resolution reveals hundreds of cometary-like structures with long axes aligned toward GK Per. One or both ends of the structures often show a brightness enhancement relative to the structures' middle sections, but there is no simple regularity to their morphologies (in contrast with, for example, the Helix nebula). Some of structures' morphologies suggest the presence of slow-moving or stationary material with which the ejecta is colliding, while others suggest shaping from a wind emanating from GK Per itself. The most detailed expansion map of any classical nova's ejecta was created by comparing HST images taken in successive years. Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 narrowband images and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra demonstrate that the physical conditions in this nova's ejecta vary strongly on spatial scales much smaller than those of the ejecta. Directly measuring accurate densities and compositions, and hence masses of this and other nova shells, will demand data at least as resolved spatially as those presented here. The filling factor of the ejecta is 1% or less, and the nova ejecta mass must be less than 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }. A modest fraction of the emission nebulosities vary in brightness by up to a factor of two on timescales of one year. Finally, we present the deepest images yet obtained of a jet-like feature outside the main body of GK Per nebulosity, and the first spectrum of that feature. Dominated by strong, narrow emission lines of [N II], [O II], [O III], and [S II], this feature is probably a shock due to ejected material running into stationary interstellar matter, slowly moving ejecta from a previous nova episode, or circumbinary matter present before 1901. An upper limit to the mass of the jet is of order a few times 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }. If the jet mass is close to this limit then the

  12. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti (United States)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.


    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  13. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  14. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  15. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  16. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  17. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  20. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  1. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  2. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  3. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  4. Analysis of ejecta fate from proposed man-made impactors into near-Earth objects --- a NEOShield study (United States)

    Schwartz, S.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.


    Asteroids measuring 100 meters across tend to impact the Earth once every 5,000 years on average [1]. Smaller bodies enter into the Earth's atmosphere more frequently, but may detonate before reaching the surface. Conversely, impacts from larger bodies are more rare [2], but can come with devastating global consequences to living species. In 2005, a United States Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect, by 2020, 90 percent of near-Earth objects (NEOs) having diameters of 140 meters or greater [3]. One year prior, ESA's Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel (NEOMAP) recommended the study of a kinetic impactor mission as a priority in the framework of NEO risk assessment [4]. A ''Phase-A'' study of such a mission, Don Quixote, took place at ESA until 2007. In accordance with NEOMAP and with the Target NEO Global Community's recommendations in 2011 [5], the NEOShield Project is being funded for 3.5 years by the European Commission in its FP7 program. NEOShield began in 2012 and is primarily, but not exclusively, a European consortium of research institutions and engineering industries that aims to analyze promising mitigation options and provide solutions to the critical scientific and technical obstacles involved in confronting threats posed by the small bodies in the neighborhood of the Earth's orbit [6]. To further explore the NEO threat mitigation via the strategy of kinetic impact, building upon the Don Quixote study, the idea is to target a specific NEO for impact and attempt to quantify the response. How long do ejecta remain aloft and where do they end up? Fragments that are ejected at high speeds escape, but what about material moving at or near the escape speed of the NEO or that suffer energy-dissipating collisions after being ejected? Where would be a ''safe'' location for an observing spacecraft during and subsequent to the impact? Here, we outline the early phases of an ongoing numerical investigation of the fate of the material ejected from a

  5. A solar-type star polluted by calcium-rich supernova ejecta inside the supernova remnant RCW 86 (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Langer, Norbert; Fossati, Luca; Bock, Douglas C.-J.; Castro, Norberto; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Greiner, Jochen; Johnston, Simon; Rau, Arne; Tauris, Thomas M.


    When a massive star in a binary system explodes as a supernova, its companion star may be polluted with heavy elements from the supernova ejecta. Such pollution has been detected in a handful of post-supernova binaries 1 , but none of them is associated with a supernova remnant. We report the discovery of a binary G star strongly polluted with calcium and other elements at the position of the candidate neutron star [GV2003] N within the young galactic supernova remnant RCW 86. Our discovery suggests that the progenitor of the supernova that produced RCW 86 could have been a moving star, which exploded near the edge of its wind bubble and lost most of its initial mass because of common-envelope evolution shortly before core collapse, and that the supernova explosion might belong to the class of calcium-rich supernovae — faint and fast transients 2,3 , the origin of which is strongly debated 4-6 .

  6. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  7. Phase holograms in PMMA with proximity effect correction (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, R. E.


    Complex computer generated phase holograms (CGPH's) have been fabricated in PMMA by partial e-beam exposure and subsequent partial development. The CGPH was encoded as a sequence of phase delay pixels and written by the JEOL JBX-5D2 E-beam lithography system, a different dose being assigned to each value of phase delay. Following carefully controlled partial development, the pattern appeared rendered in relief in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The exposure dose was in the range 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and very aggressive development in pure acetone led to low contrast. This enabled etch depth control to better than plus or minus lambda(sub vis)/60. That result was obtained by exposing isolated 50 micron square patches and measuring resist removal over the central area where the proximity effect dose was uniform and related only to the local exposure. For complex CGPH's with pixel size of the order of the e-beam proximity effect radius, the patterns must be corrected for the extra exposure caused by electrons scattered back up out of the substrate. This has been accomplished by deconvolving the two-dimensional dose deposition function with the desired dose pattern. The deposition function, which plays much the same role as an instrument response function, was carefully measured under the exact conditions used to expose the samples. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 1 cm square, and consisted of up to 100 million 0.3-2.0 micron square pixels. Data files were up to 500 MB long and exposure times ranged to tens of hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated that had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85 percent efficiency.

  8. Analysis of the flux and polarization spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2001el: Exploring the geometry of the high-velocity Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Wang, Lifan; Howell, D.A.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Hoeflich, Peter; Baade, Dietrich; Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P.H.


    SN 2001el is the first normal Type Ia supernova to show a strong, intrinsic polarization signal. In addition, during the epochs prior to maximum light, the CaII IR triplet absorption is seen distinctly and separately at both normal photospheric velocities and at very high velocities. The unusual, high-velocity triplet absorption is highly polarized, with a different polarization angle than the rest of the spectrum. The unique observation allows us to construct a relatively detailed picture of the layered geometrical structure of the supernova ejecta: in our interpretation, the ejecta layers near the photosphere (v approximately 10,000 km/s) obey a near axial symmetry, while a detached, high-velocity structure (v approximately 18,000-25,000 $ km/s) of CaII line opacity deviates from the photospheric axisymmetry. By partially obscuring the underlying photosphere, the high-velocity structure causes a more incomplete cancellation of the polarization of the photospheric light, and so gives rise to the polarization peak of the high-velocity IR triplet feature. In an effort to constrain the ejecta geometry, we develop a technique for calculating 3-D synthetic polarization spectra and use it to generate polarization profiles for several parameterized configurations. In particular, we examine the case where the inner ejecta layers are ellipsoidal and the outer, high-velocity structure is one of four possibilities: a spherical shell, an ellipsoidal shell, a clumped shell, or a toroid. The synthetic spectra rule out the clearly discriminated if observations are obtained from several different lines of sight. Thus, assuming the high velocity structure observed for SN 2001el is a consistent feature of at least known subset of type Ia supernovae, future observations and analyses such as these may allow one to put strong constraints on the ejecta geometry and hence on supernova progenitors and explosion mechanisms.

  9. Formation of rubrene nanocrystals by laser ablation in liquids utilizing MAPLE deposited thin films (United States)

    O'Malley, Sean M.; Amin, Mitesh; Borchert, James; Jimenez, Richard; Steiner, Matt; Fitz-Gerald, James M.; Bubb, Daniel M.


    Nanoparticles (NPs) of the organic semiconductor rubrene were formed utilizing the laser ablation in liquids (LAL) method. Thin-films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) served as the ablation targets. We note in the case of amorphous films targets, the absorbed energy is below the threshold value needed for ablation; though polycrystalline films irradiated under the same LAL conditions result in ejecta. It is suggested this stems from an increase in the effective absorption through light trapping within crystalline domains. An observed red-shift in the absorption edge is attributed to the polar aqueous environment and to the crystalline phase.

  10. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  11. Dynamics and Deposits of Coignimbrite Plumes (United States)

    Engwell, Samantha; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Neri, Augusto


    Fine ash in the atmosphere poses a significant hazard, with potentially disastrous consequences for aviation and, on deposition, health and infrastructure. Fine-grained particles form a large proportion of ejecta in Plinian volcanic clouds. However, another common, but poorly studied phenomena exists whereby large amounts of fine ash are injected into the atmosphere. Coignimbrite plumes form as material is elutriated from the top of pyroclastic density currents. The ash in these plumes is considerably finer grained than that in Plinian plumes and can be distributed over thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere. Despite their significance, very little is known regarding coignimbrite plume formation and dispersion, predominantly due to the poor preservation of resultant deposits. As a result, consequences of coignimbrite plume formation are usually overlooked when conducting hazard and risk analysis. In this study, deposit characteristics and numerical models of plumes are combined to investigate the conditions required for coignimbrite plume formation. Coignimbrite deposits from the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption (Magnitude 7.7, 39 ka) are well sorted and very fine, with a mode of between 30 and 50 microns, and a significant component of respirable ash (less than 10 microns). Analogous distributions are found for coignimbrite deposits from Tungurahua 2006 and Volcan de Colima (2004-2006), amongst others, regardless of magnitude, type or chemistry of eruption. These results indicate that elutriation processes are the dominant control on coignimbrite grainsize distribution. To further investigate elutriation and coignimbrite plume dynamics, the numerical plume model of Bursik (2001) is applied. Model sensitivity analysis demonstrates that neutral buoyancy conditions (required for the formation of the plume) are controlled by a balance between temperature and gas mass flux in the upper most parts of the pyroclastic density current. In addition, results emphasize the

  12. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  13. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  14. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  15. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  16. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  17. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  18. Clast analysis of potential resurge deposits as part of the Vakkejokk Breccia in the Torneträsk area, northern Sweden - a proposed impact ejecta layer


    Minde, Peder


    In the northern part of Swedish Caledonides, north of Lake Torneträsk is a 7 km long exposure of a breccia layer. The layer thins westwards and eastwards from the central part where it is up to 27 m thick. It is called the Vakkejokk Breccia after the type section. The breccia has been described in literature since about a century, but its origin is enigmatic. The breccia layer is since the summer of 2012 investigated by three geologists specialized in impact craters, Paleozoic sediments, and ...

  19. Samples from Martian craters: Origin of the Martian soil by hydrothermal alteration of impact melt deposits and atmospheric interactions with ejecta during crater formation (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.


    The origin of the Martian soil is an important question for understanding weathering processes on the Martian surface, and also for understanding the global geochemistry of Mars. Chemical analyses of the soil will provide an opportunity to examine what may be a crustal average, as studies of loess on the Earth have demonstrated. In this regard the origin of the Martian soil is also important for understanding the chemical fractionations that have affected the composition of the soil. Several processes that are likely to contribute to the Martian soil are examined.

  20. Magnetic/isotopic characteristic of the spherule-rich impact ejecta blanket from the Chicxulub crater: analog for robotic exploration of similar deposits on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther


    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2007), s. 12-12 ISSN 0016-7592. [Rocky Mountain Section - Annual Meeting /59./. 07.05.2007-09.05.2007, St. George] Keywords : magnetic * isotopes * spherules * impact * Mars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  2. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  3. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  4. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  6. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  8. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  11. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.


    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  12. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  13. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  14. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  15. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  16. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  17. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  18. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  19. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  20. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  2. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays. (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M


    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  3. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  4. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  5. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.


    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  6. Disruption of tephra fall deposits caused by lava flows during basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.


    Observations in the USA, Iceland and Tenerife, Canary Islands reveal how processes occurring during basaltic eruptions can result in complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents. Observations illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter sheet-form fall deposits. Complexity arises through synchronous and alternating effusive and explosive activity that results in intercalated lavas and tephra deposits. Tephra deposits can become disrupted into mounds and ridges by lateral and vertical displacement caused by movement (including inflation) of underlying pāhoehoe lavas and clastogenic lavas. Mounds of tephra can be rafted away over distances of 100 s to 1,000 s m from proximal pyroclastic constructs on top of lava flows. Draping of irregular topography by fall deposits and subsequent partial burial of topographic depressions by later lavas can result in apparent complexity of tephra layers. These processes, deduced from field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in the studied proximal regions where fallout was synchronous or alternated with inflation of subjacent lava sheets. These mechanisms may lead to diachronous contact relationships between fall deposits and lava flows. Such complexities may remain cryptic due to textural and geochemical quasi-homogeneity within sequences of interbedded basaltic fall deposits and lavas. The net effect of these processes may be to reduce the usefulness of data collected from proximal fall deposits for reconstructing basaltic eruption dynamics.

  7. Ballistic properties of ejecta from a laser shock-loaded groove: smoothed particles hydrodynamics compared with experiments (United States)

    Roland, Caroline; de Resseguier, Thibaut; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Tangiang, Diouwel; Toulminet, Marc; Soulard, Laurent


    The interaction of a shock wave with a rough free surface may lead to micrometric material ejection of high velocity (km/s-order). This microjetting phenomenon is a key issue for many applications, such as industrial safety, pyrotechnics or inertial confinement fusion experiments. We have studied this process from single V-shaped grooves of various angles in copper and tin samples shock-loaded by a high energy laser. Experimental details are presented elsewhere in this conference [T. de Rességuier, C. Roland et al., abstract #000154]. As the Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics formulation is well-suited for the high strains involved in jet expansion and for subsequent fragmentation, this mesh-free method was chosen to simulate microjetting. Computed predictions are compared to experimental results including jet tip and planar surface velocities, spall fracture, and size distribution of the fragments inferred from both fast shadowgraphy and post-recovery observations. Special focus is made on the dependence of the ballistic properties (velocity and mass distributions) of the ejecta on numerical parameters such as the initial inter-particular distance, the smoothing length and a random noise introduced to simulate inner irregularities of the material.

  8. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Kasen, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Elias, J.; Briceño, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Margutti, R.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Brown, W.; Annis, J.; Bahramian, A.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H.-Y.; Clemens, J. C.; Dennihy, E.; Dunlap, B.; Holz, D. E.; Marchesini, E.; Massaro, F.; Moskowitz, N.; Pelisoli, I.; Rest, A.; Ricci, F.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Strader, J.


    We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the Southern Astrophysical Research and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly fading blue component (T≈ 5500 K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than ≳ 4.5 days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at ˜7900 Å at t≲ 4.5 days. The colors, rapid evolution, and featureless spectrum are consistent with a “blue” kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light r-process nuclei with atomic mass number A≲ 140. This indicates a sightline within {θ }{obs}≲ 45^\\circ of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests ˜0.03 M ⊙ of blue ejecta, with a velocity of ˜ 0.3c. The required lanthanide fraction is ˜ {10}-4, but this drops to < {10}-5 in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of ≲ 12 km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to r-process nucleosynthesis.

  9. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Kasen, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Elias, J.; Briceño, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Margutti, R.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Brown, W.; Annis, J.; Bahramian, A.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H. -Y.; Clemens, J. C.; Dennihy, E.; Dunlap, B.; Holz, D. E.; Marchesini, E.; Massaro, F.; Moskowitz, N.; Pelisoli, I.; Rest, A.; Ricci, F.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Strader, J.


    We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the SOAR and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly-fading blue component ($T\\approx5500$ K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than $\\gtrsim 4.5$ days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at $\\sim 7900$ \\AA\\ at $t\\lesssim 4.5$ days. The colours, rapid evolution and featureless spectrum are consistent with a "blue" kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light $r$-process nuclei with atomic mass number $A\\lesssim 140$. This indicates a sight-line within $\\theta_{\\rm obs}\\lesssim 45^{\\circ}$ of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests $\\sim0.03$ M$_\\odot$ of blue ejecta, with a velocity of $\\sim 0.3c$. The required lanthanide fraction is $\\sim 10^{-4}$, but this drops to $<10^{-5}$ in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of $\\lesssim 12$ km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  10. Dynamics of Large-Scale Solar-Wind Streams Obtained by the Double Superposed Epoch Analysis: 2. Comparisons of CIRs vs. Sheaths and MCs vs. Ejecta (United States)

    Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Y.


    This work is a continuation of our previous article (Yermolaev et al. in J. Geophys. Res. 120, 7094, 2015), which describes the average temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and field parameters in large-scale solar-wind (SW) streams: corotating interaction regions (CIRs), interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs including both magnetic clouds (MCs) and ejecta), and sheaths as well as interplanetary shocks (ISs). As in the previous article, we use the data of the OMNI database, our catalog of large-scale solar-wind phenomena during 1976 - 2000 (Yermolaev et al. in Cosmic Res., 47, 2, 81, 2009) and the method of double superposed epoch analysis (Yermolaev et al. in Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177, 2010a). We rescale the duration of all types of structures in such a way that the beginnings and endings for all of them coincide. We present new detailed results comparing pair phenomena: 1) both types of compression regions ( i.e. CIRs vs. sheaths) and 2) both types of ICMEs (MCs vs. ejecta). The obtained data allow us to suggest that the formation of the two types of compression regions responds to the same physical mechanism, regardless of the type of piston (high-speed stream (HSS) or ICME); the differences are connected to the geometry ( i.e. the angle between the speed gradient in front of the piston and the satellite trajectory) and the jumps in speed at the edges of the compression regions. In our opinion, one of the possible reasons behind the observed differences in the parameters in MCs and ejecta is that when ejecta are observed, the satellite passes farther from the nose of the area of ICME than when MCs are observed.

  11. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi


    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  12. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  13. Summary of Results from Analyses of Deposits of the Deep-Ocean Impact of the Eltanin Asteroid (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Gersonde, Rainer


    Deposits of the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact are unique in the known geological record. The only known example of a km-sized asteroid to impact a deep-ocean (5 km) basin, is the most meterorite-rich locality known. This was discovered as an Ir anomaly in sediments from three cores collected in 1965 by the USNS Eltanin. These cores contained mm-sized shock-melted asteroid materials and unmelted meteorite fragments. Mineral chemistry of meteorite fragments, and siderophole concentrations in melt rocks, indicate that the parent asteroid was a low-metal (4\\%) mesosiderite. A geological exploration of the impact in 1995 by Polarstern expedition ANT-XIV4 was near the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5 W), and successfully collected three cores with impact deposits. Analyses showed that sediments as old as Eocene were eroded by the impact disturbance and redeposited in three distinct units. The lowermost is a chaotic assemblage of sediment fragments up to 50 cm in size. Above this is a laminated sand-rich unit that deposited as a turbulent flow, and this is overlain by a more fine-grained deposit of silts and clays that settled from a cloud of sediment suspended in the water column. Meteoritic ejecta particles were concentrated near the base of the uppermost unit, where coarse ejecta caught up with the disturbed sediment. Here we will present results from a new suite of cores collected on Polarstern expedition ANT-XVIIU5a. In 2001, the Polarstern returned to the impact area and explored a region of 80,000 sq-km., collecting at least 16 sediment cores with meteoritic ejecta. The known strewn field extends over a region 660 by 200 km. The meteoritic ejecta is most concentrated in cores on the Freeden seamounts, and in the basins to the north, where the amount of meteoritic material deposited on the ocean floor was as much as 3 g/sq-cm. These concentrations drop off to the north and the east to levels as low as approximately 0.1 g/sq-cm. We were unable to sample the

  14. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures]. (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C


    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  15. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.


    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  16. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor


    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  17. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  18. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  19. The Disruption of Tephra Fall Deposits by Basaltic Lava Flows (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Blake, S.


    Complex physical and stratigraphic relationships between lava and proximal tephra fall deposits around vents of the Roza Member in the Columbia River Basalt Province, (CRBP), USA, illustrate how basaltic lavas can disrupt, dissect (spatially and temporally) and alter tephra fall deposits. Thin pahoehoe lobes and sheet lobes occur intercalated with tephra deposits and provide evidence for synchronous effusive and explosive activity. Tephra that accumulated on the tops of inflating pahoehoe flows became disrupted by tumuli, which dissected the overlying sheet into a series of mounds. During inflation of subjacent tumuli tephra percolated down into the clefts and rubble at the top of the lava, and in some cases came into contact with lava hot enough to thermally alter it. Lava breakouts from the tumuli intruded up through the overlying tephra deposit and fed pahoehoe flows that spread across the surface of the aggrading tephra fall deposit. Non-welded scoria fall deposits were compacted and welded to a depth of ~50 cm underneath thick sheet lobes. These processes, deduced from the field relationships, have resulted in considerable stratigraphic complexity in proximal regions. We also demonstrate that, when the advance of lava and the fallout of tephra are synchronous, the contacts of some tephra sheets can be diachronous across their extent. The net effect is to reduce the usefulness of pyroclastic deposits in reconstructing eruption dynamics.

  20. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures. (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A


    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  1. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers


    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.


    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  2. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery


    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe


    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  3. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  4. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu


    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  5. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  7. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital]. (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire


    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  9. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of plasmonic nanostructured gold on flexible transparent polymers at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    McCann, Ronán; Hughes, Cian; Bagga, Komal; Stalcup, Apryll; Vázquez, Mercedes; Brabazon, Dermot


    In this paper, we outline a novel technique for the deposition of nanostructured thin films utilizing a modified form of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We demonstrate confined atmospheric PLD (CAP) for the deposition of gold on cyclic olefin polymer substrates. The deposition process is a simplified form of conventional PLD, with deposition conducted under atmospheric conditions and the substrate and target in close proximity. It was found that this confinement results in the deposition of nanostructured thin films on the substrate. Infrared spectroscopy showed no significant change of polymer surface chemistry as a result of the deposition process, and optical spectroscopy revealed plasmonic behavior of the resulting thin film. The effect of laser fluence on the deposition process was also examined with more uniform films deposited at higher fluences.

  11. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers. (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard


    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  12. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  13. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  14. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  15. Trioctahedral micas in xenolithic ejecta from recent volcanism of the Somma-Vesuvius (Italy): Crystal chemistry and genetic inferences (United States)

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Scordari, Fernando; Lacalamita, Maria; Schingaro, Emanuela; Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Petti, Carmela; Mondillo, Nicola


    This study reports the first crystal chemical database resulting from a detailed structural investigation of trioctahedral micas found in xenolithic ejecta produced during the AD 1631, 1872 and 1944 eruptions, three explosive episodes of recent volcanic period of Vesuvius volcano (Southern Italy). Three xenolith types were selected: metamorphic/metasomatic skarns, pyrometamorphic/hydrothermally altered nodules and mafic cumulates. They are related to different magma chemistry and effusive styles: from sub-plinian and most evolved (AD 1631 eruption) to violent strombolian with medium evolution degree (AD 1872 eruption) to vulcanian-effusive, least evolved (AD 1944 eruption) event, respectively. Both xenoliths and micas were investigated employing multiple techniques: the xenoliths were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and quantitative energy-dispersive microanalysis; the micas were studied by electron probe microanalysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The mica-bearing xenoliths show variable texture and mineralogical assemblage, clearly related to their different origin. Based on the major oxide chemistry, only one xenolithic sample falls in the skarn compositional field from the Somma-Vesuvius literature, some fall close to the skarns and cumulate fields, others plot close to the syenite/foidolite/essexite field. A subgroup of the selected ejecta does not fall or approach any of the compositional fields. Trace and rare earth element patterns show some petrological affinity between studied xenoliths and erupted magmas with typical Eu, Ta and Nb negative anomalies. Strongly depleted patterns were detected for the 1631 metamorphic/metasomatic skarns xenoliths. Three distinct mica groups were distinguished: 1) Mg-, Al-rich, low Ti-bearing, low to moderate F-bearing varieties (1631 xenolith), 2) Al-moderate, F- and Mg-rich, Ti-, Fe-poor varieties (1872 xenolith), and 3

  16. Systematic retrieval of ejecta velocities and gas fluxes at Etna volcano using L-Band Doppler radar (United States)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Donnadieu, Franck


    Strombolian-type volcanic activity is characterized by a series of gas bubbles bursting at the top of a magma column and leading to the ejection of lava clots and gas emission at the surface. The quantitative analysis of physical parameters (e.g., velocity, size, and mass fluxes) controlling the emission dynamics of these volcanic products is very important for the understanding of eruption source mechanisms but remains difficult to obtain in a systematic fashion. Ground-based Doppler radar is found to be a very effective tool for measuring ejecta velocities at a high acquisition rate and close to the emission source. We present here a series of measurements carried out at Mt. Etna's Southeast crater, using an L-band volcanological Doppler radar, during the 4 July 2001 Strombolian eruptions. Doppler radar data are supplemented by the analysis of video snapshots recorded simultaneously. We provide here a set of physical parameters systematically retrieved from 247 Strombolian explosions spanning 15 min and occurring during the paroxysm of the eruption from 21:30 to 21:45 UT. The time-average values give a maximum particle velocity of V_{{}}^p = {94}.{7}± {24} {{m/s}} , a bulk lava jet velocity of {V_{{{{PW - rad}}}}} = {37}.{6}± {1}.{9} {{m/s}} , and an initial gas velocity at the source vent of V_0^g = {118}.{4}± {36} {{m/s}} . The time-averaged particle diameter is found to be about {D_{{{{PW - rad}}}}} = {4}.{2}± {2}.{1} {{cm}} . The volume and mass gas fluxes are estimated from time-averaged source gas velocities over the sequence duration at Q_v^g = {3} - {11} × {1}{0^{{3}}}{{{m}}^{{3}}}{{/s}} and Q_m^g = 0.{5} - {2} × {1}{0^{{3}}}{{kg/s}} , respectively.

  17. Poor lysosomal membrane integrity in proximal tubule cells of haptoglobin 2-2 genotype mice with diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Asleh, Rabea; Nakhoul, Farid M; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Awad, Hoda; Farbstein, Dan; Levy, Nina S; Nakhoul, Nakhoul; Iancu, Theodore C; Manov, Irena; Laue, Michael; Traber, Maret G; Lebold, Katie M; Levy, Andrew P


    The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype is a major determinant of progression of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). The major function of the Hp protein is to bind and modulate the fate of extracorpuscular hemoglobin and its iron cargo. We have previously demonstrated an interaction between the Hp genotype and the DM on the accumulation of iron in renal proximal tubule cells. The primary objective of this study was to determine the intracellular localization of this iron in the proximal tubule cell and to assess its potential toxicity. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a marked accumulation of electron-dense deposits in the lysosomes of proximal tubules cells in Hp 2-2 DM mice. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to perform elemental analysis of these deposits and demonstrated that these deposits were iron rich. These deposits were associated with lysosomal membrane lipid peroxidation and loss of lysosomal membrane integrity. Vitamin E administration to Hp 2-2 DM mice resulted in a significant decrease in both intralysosomal iron-induced oxidation and lysosomal destabilization. Iron-induced renal tubular injury may play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy and may be a target for slowing the progression of renal disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  19. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  20. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  1. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai


    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  2. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  3. Electro-Deposition Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  4. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  5. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause. (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R


    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  6. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  7. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon. (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L


    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  8. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events. (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R


    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  9. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)]. (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria


    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  10. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  11. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture. (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad


    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  13. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability (United States)



    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  14. New proximal tephras at Somma-Vesuvius: evidences of a pre-caldera, large (?) explosive eruption (United States)

    Sparice, Domenico; Scarpati, Claudio; Mazzeo, Fabio Carmine; Petrosino, Paola; Arienzo, Ilenia; Gisbert, Guillem; Petrelli, Maurizio


    A 5 m thick pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sequence, never reported before, comprising a pumice fall deposit has been recognized in a disused quarry near Pollena Trocchia, on the NW slope of Somma-Vesuvius. It is composed of three stratigraphic units: a pumice fall deposit that underlies a pyroclastic density current deposit; they are overlain by a volcaniclastic unit emplaced during a quiescent period of the volcano. The pyroclastic deposits are separated by a horizon of reworked material indicating the emplacement from two distinct eruptive events. The pumice fall deposit has been subject of a detailed investigation. It consists of an ash bed overlaid by a roughly stratified pumice fall layer. The presence of ballistic clasts indicates the proximal nature of this deposit and its stratigraphic position below the Pomici di Base (22 ka) Plinian deposit allows constraining its age to the pre-caldera period (22-39 ky) of activity of Somma-Vesuvius. Samples have been collected in order to perform sedimentological (grain size and componentry), geochemical and isotopic analyses. Samples range from moderately to poorly sorted and show a trachytic composition. The comparison with literature data of compatible deposits vented from Somma-Vesuvius (Schiava, Taurano and Codola eruptions as well as borehole data) allows excluding any correlation with already known Vesuvian products suggesting that the analysed products are ascribable to a new, pre-caldera, explosive eruption. We name this new event ;Carcavone eruption;. Based on thickness, maximum lithic clasts and orientation of impact sags, showing a provenance from SE, we envisage the emplacement from a Plinian style eruption vented in the northern sector of the current caldera.

  15. Deposit Games with Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.


    In a deposit game coalitions are formed by players combining their capital. The proceeds of their investments then have to be divided among those players. The current model extends earlier work on capital deposits by allowing reinvestment of returns. Two specific subclasses of deposit games are

  16. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  17. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  18. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V


    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M


    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  20. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  1. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V


    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  2. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.


    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  3. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing (United States)

    Miller, A. A.; Cao, Y.; Piro, A. L.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bue, B. D.; Cenko, S. B.; Dhawan, S.; Ferretti, R.; Fox, O. D.; Fremling, C.; Goobar, A.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; McCully, C.; Nugent, P. E.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Kulkarni, S. R.


    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15{+/- }0.070.15 days before our first detection. In the ∼24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ∼2 mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for ≳ 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after ∼7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the {(B-V)}0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive 56Ni in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  4. The Manson impact crater: Estimation of the energy of formation, possible size of the impacting asteroid or comet, and ejecta volume and mass (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Anderson, R. R.


    A research program on the Manson impact structure has substantially improved our knowledge of the detailed features of this eroded crater. As part of our structural studies, we have derived a value of 21 km for the diameter of the final transient cavity formed during crater excavation. With this information, we can estimate the energy of formation of the Manson crater and the possible size of the impacting asteroid or comet. In addition, we have estimated the near- and far-field ejecta volumes and masses.

  5. Data analysis to separate particles of different speed regimes and charges. [lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment and pioneer space probe data (United States)

    Wolf, H.


    Although the instruments on the lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment (LEAM) and the Pioneer 8 and 9 space probes were essentially similar, a comparison of their results indicates that different sets of particles caused the different responses. On Pioneer, the events were caused by the impact of cosmic dust, the so-called beta particles expelled from the vicinity of the sun by solar radiation pressure, augmented by extremely high energy but definitely identifiable interstellar grains. On the moon, the events were due to the impact of slowly moving, highly charged lunar dust being propelled electrostatically across the terminator. Both theoretical analysis and experimental testing confirming these conclusions are discussed.

  6. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement. (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A


    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  7. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection. (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  8. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J


    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  9. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy. (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  10. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems. (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles


    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  11. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John


    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  12. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures. (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing


    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  13. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke


    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  14. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  15. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination. (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  16. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  17. Dynamics of large-scale solar-wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch analysis. 2. CIR.vs.Sheath and MC.vs.Ejecta comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Yermolaev, Yu I; Nikolaeva, N S; Yermolaev, M Yu


    This work is a continuation of our previous paper [Yermolaevetal2015] which describes the average temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and field parameters in large-scale solar-wind (SW) streams: CIR, ICME (both MC and Ejecta) and Sheath as well as the interplanetary shock (IS). Like in the previous work we use data of OMNI database, our catalog of large-scale solar-wind phenomena during 1976--2000 [Yermolaevetal2009] and the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method [Yermolaevetal2010]: re-scaling the duration of interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide. We present new detailed results of comparison of two pair phenomena: (1) both types of compression regions (CIR.vs.Sheath) and (2) both types of ICMEs (MC.vs.Ejecta). Obtained data allows us to suggest that the formation of all types of compression regions has the same physical mechanism irrespective of piston (High-Speed Stream (HSS) or ICME) type and differences are...

  18. An HST Survey of Cassiopeia A's Reverse Shock, High-Velocity Ejecta, and Shocked Clouds of Pre-SN Mass Loss (United States)

    Fesen, Robert


    The young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) provides us with the clearest look at the properties and explosion dynamics of a high mass, core-collapse supernova (CCSN). With an explosion date around 1670, Cas A is the youngest Galactic core-collapse SNR known and, at an estimated distance of 3.4 kpc, it is also among the closest. Cas A's main shell ejecta knots are typically 0.1 - 0.5 arcsec in size and can show emission and morphological changes on timescales of just a few months. No other remnant, with the exception of SN 1987A, shows such rapid optical changes across large portions of its structure.Here we propose a new, complete optical survey of Cas A, the first since 2004, in order to measure the velocity and asymmetry of Cas A's reverse shock front across the whole remnant and map the distribution of its high-velocity outer ejecta, particularly in regions which align to the motion of the central compact source. Halpha images of the remnant's shocked CSM clumps will also provide strong tests of shock-cloud models across a broad range of cloud densities and sizes. These data will constitute a rich and unique archive both for Cas A and the general study of high mass CCSNe.

  19. Sun-to-Earth Characteristics of Two Coronal Mass Ejections Interacting Near 1 AU: Formation of a Complex Ejecta and Generation of a Two-step Geomagnetic Storm (United States)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé


    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  20. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities


    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET


    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  1. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen


    Ermler, Romy


    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  2. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  3. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.


    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  4. Stratiform chromite deposit model (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.


    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  5. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)


    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  6. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.


    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  7. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler]. (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M


    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures. (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong


    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Altruism by age and social proximity. (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  10. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G


    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  11. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh


    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  12. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  13. Altruism by age and social proximity (United States)


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  14. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel


    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  15. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  16. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.


    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  17. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  18. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  19. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng


    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  20. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  1. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes. (United States)

    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J


    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  2. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  3. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh


    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  4. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  5. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  6. The Importance of Physical Models for Deriving Dust Masses and Grain Size Distributions in Supernova Ejecta. I. Radiatively Heated Dust in the Crab Nebula (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli


    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 Solar Mass, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 micron. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  7. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion. (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian


    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  8. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars (United States)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.


    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ˜100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m × 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite

  9. Deposition and Resuspension Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Horst, T. W.; Sehmel, G. A.; Hodgson, W. H.; Lloyd, F. D.; Orgill, M. M.; Bander, T. J.; Thorp, J. M.; Schwendiman, L. C.; Young, J. A.; Tanner, T. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Petersen, M. R.; Hadlock, R. K.; Droppo, J. G.; Woodruff, R. K.


    Nineteen papers are covered in this section. Significant contributions were made in 1975 in both the theoretical and the more practical experimental measurements of particle deposition and resuspension. Solutions of theoretical deposition-resuspension equations were formulated and nondimensionalized air and ground concentrations were predicted as a function of distance. In other theoretical studies assumptions and analyses regarding surface boundary conditions were investigated and methods presented whereby they can be fitted together within a single theoretical framework. Deposition in vegetation canopies was considered; formulations were developed and conclusions drawn regarding canopy filtration efficiency. Dry deposition of gases was shown to be rate-limited by many processes, and experiments and equipment were designed to measure gradients of SO/sub 2/ and deposition fluxes. A computer model was improved and used to predict downwind concentrations for a generalized area source. A dimensional analysis correlation was formulated from experimental particle deposition velocity data, but was found to show insignificant improvement when compared statistically with an earlier derived correlation. Wind tunnel measurements of deposition velocities to gravel beds and scaled trees showed that particles will penetrate very significantly to underlying surfaces. Initial field experiments measured deposition velocity to sagebrush canopies. Other controlled field studies were initiated for measuring resuspension, including resuspension from truck traffic. Suspension of soil and the size distribution of particles airborne under various air regimes were studied. In the large METROMEX study done near St. Louis, several pollutants were sampled and analyzed as a function of distance. These studies gave insight into the relative inportance of dry deposition and atmospheric dispersion as mechanisms for reducing air concentrations. (auth)

  10. Particle size-density relationships in pyroclastic deposits: using component subpopulations to elucidate depositional conditions (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C. A.; Brand, B. D.; Taddeucci, J.


    Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging currents of hot gas, ash, and rock that travel at velocities up to 150 m/s down the flanks of volcanoes. PDCs are the most dangerous hazard associated with explosive volcanic eruptions, but because of current opacity and the risk inherent to observing PDCs in real time, their processes are poorly understood. Geologists rely on depositional relationships to lend insight into PDC transport and depositional processes. Outcrop exposure is typically incomplete, however, and the extent to which outcrop-scale depositional characteristics are representative of the parent current is still uncertain. The May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (MSH) produced multiple PDCs, burying the area north of the crater under 10s of meters of PDC deposits. Deep drainage erosion over the past 30 years has exposed these deposits in three dimensions, allowing a detailed study of deposit structures to be conducted for a variety of locations and depositional regimes with distance from source. We examine the grain size distribution and density characteristics of the discrete component subpopulations that make up the solids fraction of PDC deposits, focusing on changes associated with lateral facies variation, distance from source, and degree of topographic roughness. We analyze the grain size and density relationships of the component subpopulations using sequential fragmentation / transport theory (SFT), and use crystal morphoscopy to determine how different regional transport systems effect feldspar and hornblende crystal shape following the methods of Taddeucci and Palladino ((2002) Particle size-density relationships in pyroclastic deposits: inferences for emplacement processes. Bull Volcanol 64:273-284). Calculations of representative proximal and distal samples indicate juvenile pumice densities of ~1.3g/mL, accidental lithic densities of ~2.7g/mL, and crystal densities of ~2.6g/mL. We observe a general decrease in grain size and

  11. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.


    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  12. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  13. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing. (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian


    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  14. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography. (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J


    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  15. Transport dynamics calculated under the full Mie scattering theory for micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space (United States)

    Hyde, T. W.; Alexander, W. M.


    In 1967, Lunar Explorer 35 was launched from the earth and placed into a stable orbit around the moon. The data from the dust particle experiment on this spacecraft were essentially continuous over a 5-yr period from the time of insertion in lunar orbit. Analysis of this data has been interpreted to show that micron-sized lunar ejecta leave the moon and traverse through selenocentric and cislunar space and obtain either interplanetary/heliocentric orbits or intercept the earth's magnetosphere and move into geocentric orbits. Extensive studies of the orbital trajectories of lunar particles in this size range have now been conducted that include a calculation of the solar radiation force using the full Mie scattering theory. A significant flux of particles with radii less than 0.1 micron are found to intercept the earth's magnetopause surface. This flux is shown to be strongly dependent upon both the particle's density and its index of refraction.

  16. The Earth's passage of the April 11, 1997 coronal ejecta: geomagnetic field fluctuations at high and low latitude during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lepidi


    Full Text Available An analysis of the low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at an Antarctic (Terra Nova Bay and a low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy station during the Earth's passage of a coronal ejecta on April 11, 1997 shows that major solar wind pressure variations were followed at both stations by a high fluctuation level. During northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions and when Terra Nova Bay is close to the local geomagnetic noon, coherent fluctuations, at the same frequency (3.6 mHz and with polarization characteristics indicating an antisunward propagation, were observed simultaneously at the two stations. An analysis of simultaneous measurements from geosynchronous satellites shows evidence for pulsations at approximately the same frequencies also in the magnetospheric field. The observed waves might then be interpreted as oscillation modes, triggered by an external stimulation, extending to a major portion of the Earth's magnetosphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  17. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study. (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür


    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  18. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  19. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  20. Automatic Payroll Deposit System. (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.


    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  1. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  2. Podiform chromite deposits (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  3. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member


    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane


    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  4. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  5. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  6. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M


    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  7. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  8. Proximity to urban parks and mental health. (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah


    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  9. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.


    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  10. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus. (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel


    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  11. Sedimentological characteristics and depositional processes of sediment gravity flows in rift basins: The Palaeogene Dongying and Shahejie formations, Bohai Bay Basin, China (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Chen, Hongde; Zhong, Yijiang; Wang, Jun; Xu, Changgui; Chen, Anqing; Du, Xiaofeng


    Sediment gravity flow deposits are common, particularly in sandy formations, but their origin has been a matter of debate and there is no consensus about the classification of such deposits. However, sediment gravity flow sandstones are economically important and have the potential to meet a growing demand in oil and gas exploration, so there is a drive to better understand them. This study focuses on sediment gravity flow deposits identified from well cores in Palaeogene deposits from the Liaodong Bay Depression in Bohai Bay Basin, China. We classify the sediment gravity flow deposits into eight lithofacies using lithological characteristics, grain size, and sedimentary structures, and interpret the associated depositional processes. Based on the scale, spatial distribution, and contact relationships of sediment gravity flow deposits, we defined six types of lithofacies associations (LAs) that reflect transformation processes and depositional morphology: LA1 (unconfined proximal breccia deposits), LA2 (confined channel deposits), LA3 (braided-channel lobe deposits), LA4 (unconfined lobe deposits), LA5 (distal sheet deposits), and LA6 (non-channelized sheet deposits). Finally, we established three depositional models that reflect the sedimentological characteristics and depositional processes of sediment gravity flow deposits: (1) slope-apron gravel-rich depositional model, which involves cohesive debris flows deposited as LA1 and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA5; (2) non-channelized surge-like turbidity current depositional model, which mainly comprises sandy slumping, suspended load dominated turbidity currents, and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA5 and LA6; and (3) channelized subaqueous-fan depositional model, which consists of non-cohesive bedload dominated turbidity currents, suspended load dominated turbidity currents, and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA2-LA5, originating from sustained extrabasinal turbidity currents

  12. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC


    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  13. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel De la Sen


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  14. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  15. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome (United States)

    ... can range from mild to severe. In particular, vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) ... Some affected individuals have an unusually large head size ( macrocephaly ). People with proximal 18q deletion syndrome often ...

  17. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park. (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana


    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  18. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  19. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  20. [A case of proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the perineum]. (United States)

    Murashima, Takaya; Kamibeppu, Toyoharu; Hiromasa, Tukino; Mukai, Syoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki


    Epithelioid sarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms which occur more often in young people. They tend to relapse, metastatize and show poor prognosis. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcomas arise from the more proximal part of body and are more malignant than distal-type epithelioid sarcomas. We present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma which occurred in the perineum. A 24-year-old male visited our hospital with the chief complaint of pain in the perineum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor 30×23×17 mm in diameter in the perineal region. The tumor was excised regionally and the pathological examination with immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. The patient is free of recurrence and metastasis one year after local excision.

  1. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  2. TETRAPOLIS - an exercise in building the complexities of proximity space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Blidariu; Diana Giurea


    ... student’s intuitive ways for understanding these vicinities, their physical and symbolic proximities, through participatory tactics and certain poetic/architectural tools required in the phenomenological build-up of space...

  3. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.


    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.


    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  4. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture


    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D


    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  5. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination


    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...

  6. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  7. Partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome: a new case. (United States)

    Nucaro, A; Faedda, A; Cao, A; Boccone, L


    We report a case of partial proximal trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) performed with whole chromosome 10 specific painting and specific yac clones. The phenotypic findings, compared to those found in other published cases with the same karyotype, support the recognition of a distinctive partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome (10q11-->q22).

  8. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.


    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  9. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  10. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology


    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben


    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitatio...

  11. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai


    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  12. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation. (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E


    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas


    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  14. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.


    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  15. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.


    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  16. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids. (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Lithofacies and depositional environment of the Amasiri Sandstone, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria (United States)

    Okoro, A. U.; Igwe, E. O.


    Eight lithofacies typical of tidally-influenced shelf, mass flow and turbidity current processes characterize the Amasiri Sandstone (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the southern Benue Trough, Nigeria. The cross bedded sandstone lithofacies (Sxm) in Afikpo area were deposited in tidally influenced, shallow sandy shoreline environment while similar lithofacies associated with the conglomeratic lithofacies (Sfc) in Akpoha are proximal canyon-fill deposits. The conglomeratic lithofacies with rip-up clasts together with the massive, horizontal-bedded lithofacies (Smm) and parallel-laminated sandstone lithofacies (Sfl) in Akpoha were deposited in confined channels in proximal submarine canyon setting. The wavy/ripple-laminated sandstone lithofacies (Sfw) and very fine grained bioturbated sandstones lithofacies (Sfb) represent weakly confined distributary splay and unconfined associations in proximal to distal submarine canyon settings. The bioturbated mudstone lithofacies (Msb) and parallel-laminated mudstones lithofacies (Msl) comprise the bypass/levees association in the inner to outer shelf and in the distal canyon settings. Overall, these lithofacies indicate deposition in shelf to deep water depositional environments.

  18. Proximity effect and Andreev reflection in single-C{sub 60} junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Jonathan; Neel, Nicolas; Kroeger, Joerg [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)


    Single C{sub 60} molecules deposited on an ultrathin oxide film on Nb(110) were investigated using a low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope. Spectroscopy of the differential conductance (dI/dV) in the tunnelling range indicates proximity-induced superconductivity in junctions comprising the oxide layer as well as single C{sub 60} molecules. Andreev reflection is enhanced upon controlled fabrication of tip-surface contacts. With decreasing electrode separation the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer energy gap gradually evolves into a zero-bias peak in dI/dV spectra reflecting the spectroscopic signature of Andreev reflection. The current-voltage characteristics of the tunnelling and contact junctions are well described by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory. Our spectroscopic data evidence the influence of the electrodes' atomic-scale structure on electron transport across normal metal-superconductor interfaces.

  19. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander


    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  20. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: the role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry


    Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo


    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  1. DNH 109: A fragmentary hominin near-proximal ulna from Drimolen, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher


    Full Text Available We describe a fragmentary, yet significant, diminutive proximal ulna (DNH 109 from the Lower Pleistocene deposits of Drimolen, Republic of South Africa. On the basis of observable morphology and available comparative metrics, DNH 109 is definitively hominin and is the smallest African Plio-Pleistocene australopith ulna yet recovered. Mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the proximal diaphysis immediately distal to the m. brachialis sulcus in DNH 109 yield an elliptical area (π/4 *m-l*a-p that is smaller than the A.L. 333-38 Australopithecus afarensis subadult from Hadar. Given the unusually broad mediolateral/anteroposterior diaphyseal proportions distal to the brachialis sulcus, the osseous development of the medial and lateral borders of the sulcus, and the overall size of the specimen relative to comparative infant, juvenile, subadult and adult comparative hominid ulnae (Gorilla, Pan and Homo, it is probable that DNH 109 samples an australopith of probable juvenile age at death. As a result of the fragmentary state of preservation and absence of association with taxonomically diagnostic craniodental remains, DNH 109 cannot be provisionally assigned to any particular hominin genus (Paranthropus or Homo at present. Nonetheless, DNH 109 increases our known sample of available Plio-Pleistocene subadult early hominin postcrania.

  2. Quantitative Disentanglement of the Spin Seebeck, Proximity-Induced, and Ferromagnetic-Induced Anomalous Nernst Effect in Normal-Metal-Ferromagnet Bilayers (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Panagiota; Klewe, Christoph; Meier, Daniel; Manos, Orestis; Kuschel, Olga; Wollschläger, Joachim; Bouchenoire, Laurence; Brown, Simon D.; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Reiss, Günter; Kuschel, Timo


    We identify and investigate thermal spin transport phenomena in sputter-deposited Pt /NiFe2Ox (4 ≥x ≥0 ) bilayers. We separate the voltage generated by the spin Seebeck effect from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) contributions and even disentangle the ANE in the ferromagnet (FM) from the ANE produced by the Pt that is spin polarized due to its proximity to the FM. Further, we probe the dependence of these effects on the electrical conductivity and the band gap energy of the FM film varying from nearly insulating NiFe2O4 to metallic Ni33Fe67. A proximity-induced ANE could only be identified in the metallic Pt /Ni33Fe67 bilayer in contrast to Pt /NiFe2Ox (x >0 ) samples. This is verified by the investigation of static magnetic proximity effects via x-ray resonant magnetic reflectivity.

  3. Investigation on characterization of Ereen coal deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jargalmaa


    Full Text Available The Ereen coal deposit is located 360 km west from Ulaanbaatar and 95 km from Bulgan town. The coal reserve of this deposit is approximately 345.2 million tons. The Ereen coal is used directly for the Erdenet power plant for producing of electricity and heat. The utilization of this coal for gas and liquid product using gasification and pyrolysis is now being considered. The proximate and ultimate analysis show that the Ereen coal is low rank D mark hard coal, which corresponds to subbituminous coal. The SEM images of initial coal sample have compact solid pieces. The SEM image of carbonized and activated carbon samples are hard material with high developed macro porosity structure. The SEM images of hard residue after thermal dissolution in autoclave characterizes hard pieces with micro porous structure in comparison with activated carbon sample. The results of the thermal dissolution of Ereen coal in tetralin with constant weight ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at the 450ºC show that 38% of liquid product can be obtained by thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 18-21

  4. XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the ejecta-dominated mixed-morphology galactic supernova remnant G352.7–0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Napier, Jared P. [Space Science Center, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Kargaltsev, Oleg; Brehm, Derek, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, 308 Samson Hall, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)


    We present a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7–0.1 using archival data from observations made with the XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Prior X-ray observations of this SNR had revealed a thermal center-filled morphology that contrasts with a shell-like radio morphology, thus establishing G352.7–0.1 as a member of the class of Galactic SNRs known as mixed-morphology SNRs (MMSNRs). Our study confirms that the X-ray emission comes from the SNR interior and must be ejecta dominated. Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton may be fit satisfactorily with a single thermal component (namely a non-equilibrium ionization component with enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur). In contrast, spectra extracted by Chandra from certain regions of the SNR cannot always be fit by a single thermal component. For those regions, a second thermal component with solar abundances or two thermal components with different temperatures and thawed silicon and sulfur abundances (respectively) can generate a statistically acceptable fit. We argue that the former scenario is more physically plausible: on the basis of parameters of our spectral fits, we calculate physical parameters including X-ray emitting mass (∼45 M {sub ☉} for solar abundances). We find no evidence for overionization in the X-ray emitting plasma associated with the SNR: this phenomenon has been seen in other MMSNRs. We have conducted a search for a neutron star within the SNR by using a hard (2-10 keV) Chandra image but could not identify a firm candidate. We also present (for the first time) the detection of infrared emission from this SNR as detected at 24 μm by the MIPS on board Spitzer. Finally, we discuss the properties of G352.7–0.1 in the context of other ejecta-dominated MMSNRs.

  5. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart


    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  6. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Koljonen, Paul Aarne; Fang, Christian; Lau, Tak Wing; Leung, Frankie; Cheung, Nigel W K


    To report the outcome after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) through the deltoid-splitting approach for proximal humeral fractures. 10 men and 30 women aged 37 to 88 years underwent MIPO through the deltoid-splitting approach using the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System or the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate for 2-part (n=18), 3-part (n=20), and 4-part (n=2) proximal humeral fractures. The rehabilitation protocol was standardised. All 40 patients were followed up at 3 months, 34 (85%) at 6 months, 30 (75%) at one year, and 13 (33%) at 2 years. Two patients had malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis, infection, nerve palsy, or nonunion. The mean Constant score at one year and 2 years was 75 and 87.5, respectively. The Constant score at 6 months correlated to that at one year (r=0.926, pfracture grade, or hand dominance. MIPO for fixation of proximal humeral fractures using a locking plate is safe and effective in enabling an early return of shoulder function.

  7. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang


    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  8. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye


    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  9. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus. (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Han-Soo


    Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkateswarlu


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  11. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  12. Results of the proximal humerus endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Mikailov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection, compare the functional results with the results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with extensive damage of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin. Material and methods. Between 2001 and 2013 38 proximal humeral reconstructions were performed in our clinic: using monopolar endoprostheses - 26 (68% and modular systems with reversible head -12 (32%. The control group included 46 patients with extensive lesions of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin, operated in our clinic in the period from 2006 to 2012. Term follow-up of patients ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Assessment of functional results was carried out in a period from six months to one year. Results. The seven-year survival according the Kaplan - Meier method for patients with primary malignant tumors of the proximal humerus (25 patients was 77%. In the study group the average value of functional outcome MSTS score was 77.7%. Unipolar prosthesis showed a bad result, both in the control (61,3% MSTS, 60,7 Neer and in the main (67,7% MSTS, 61,1 Neer study groups. Conclusion. Currently the method of choice which doesn’t impair the oncologic component of treatment patients with shoulder neoplastic lesions is its replacement with modular reversible systems in combination with additional soft tissue fixation.

  13. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries. (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H


    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  14. Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar (United States)

    Andrianjakavah, Prosper Rakotovao; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Rakotondrazafy, Michel; Giuliani, Gaston


    The Ianapera emerald deposit is located in the Neoproterozoic Vohibory Block of southern Madagascar. The local geology consists of intercalated migmatitic gneissic units and calcareous metasedimentary rocks, containing boudinaged metamorphosed mafic/ultramafic lenses, all intruded by pegmatite veins. These units occur near the hinge of the tightly folded Ianapera antiform, within a few kilometers of the Ampanihy shear zone. Emerald mineralization is hosted by metasomatic phlogopite veins, and bodies developed within the mafic/ultramafic rocks. Based on field and textural relationships, we distinguish proximal and distal styles of mineralization. Proximal mineralization occurs at the contact of pegmatite veins with mafic/ultramafic units; in the distal style, pegmatites are not observed. Three types of emeralds could be distinguished, mainly on the basis of color and mineral zoning. Some of these emeralds have the most Al-depleted and Cr-rich composition ever recorded. Another characteristic feature to the Ianapera deposit and, to our knowledge, yet unreported, is the association of some emeralds with scapolite in metasomatised mafic rocks. Mineral inclusions are common in most emeralds and include phlogopite, carbonates, barite, K-feldspar, quartz, pyrite, zircon, monazite, bastnaesite, phenakite, plus Fe and Cr oxides. However, feldspar and rare earth element-bearing minerals occur predominantly in proximal emeralds, which also have a more incompatible trace-element signature than distal emeralds. We propose a model related to syn- to post-tectonic magmatic-hydrothermal activity. Pegmatitic bodies intruded units of the Ianapera antiform probably during tectonic relaxation. Exsolution of fluids rich in halogens and incompatible elements from the cooling pegmatites caused hydrothermal metasomatism of Cr-bearing mafic/ultramafic rocks in direct contact with the pegmatites. Local fracturing favored fluid infiltration, permitting the formation of distal mineralization

  15. The Earth's passage of the April 11, 1997 coronal ejecta: geomagnetic field fluctuations at high and low latitude during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lepidi

    Full Text Available An analysis of the low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at an Antarctic (Terra Nova Bay and a low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy station during the Earth's passage of a coronal ejecta on April 11, 1997 shows that major solar wind pressure variations were followed at both stations by a high fluctuation level. During northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions and when Terra Nova Bay is close to the local geomagnetic noon, coherent fluctuations, at the same frequency (3.6 mHz and with polarization characteristics indicating an antisunward propagation, were observed simultaneously at the two stations. An analysis of simultaneous measurements from geosynchronous satellites shows evidence for pulsations at approximately the same frequencies also in the magnetospheric field. The observed waves might then be interpreted as oscillation modes, triggered by an external stimulation, extending to a major portion of the Earth's magnetosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  16. The Proximity Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Brown, G; Cragg, D; Crook, M; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlowska, A H; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; ten Kate, H H J; Rochford, J; Sole, D


    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  17. The proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroidal magnets (United States)

    Haug, F.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; ten Kate, H.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, G.; Cragg, D.; Crook, M.; Orlowska, A. H.; Rochford, J.; Sole, D.; Mayri, C.


    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  18. How to improve outcome in surgery for Proximal Hypospadias? (United States)

    Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar


    To evaluate the role of subdartos fascial tissue as watertight layer in improving outcome for 2-stage proximal hypospadias surgery. The experimental study was conducted at the Department of Urology, Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised an audit of patients with proximal hypospadias who underwent surgery from July 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011. The initial two-stage repair of proximal hypospadias led to a high rate of urethrocutanous fistula formation (Group A), and, thus, a modification was introduced and subdartos facial double layer was applied over the urethral suture line (Group B). The results were compared regarding age, type of hypospadias, graft failure and urethrocutanous fistula in these patients. There were 27 patients in Group A and 16(59.3%) of them ended up having urethrocutanous fistula. Group B had 25 patients and only 2(8%) had fistula formation. The application of dartos facial flap waterproofing layer reduced fistula rate.

  19. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona


    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  20. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage. (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto


    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  1. One-stage surgical correction of proximal hypospadias. (United States)

    Joseph, V T


    Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.


    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  3. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan


    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  4. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben


    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical...... work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity....

  5. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures. (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal


    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  6. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)


    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  7. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. (United States)

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke


    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events.

  8. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik


    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  9. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter


    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  10. Arthroscopic-assisted removal of proximal tibia locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gille Justus


    Full Text Available Abstract We present a new technique to remove plates from the proximal tibia arthroscopic-assisted with all advantages of the minimally invasive surgery and the possibility to treat concomitant intraarticular pathologies. The initial results (n = 7 are promising with an increase of the Lysholm score in all cases studied [preop. median 78 (range 32–100, postop. median 89 (range 60–100]. In conclusion, arthroscopic-assisted hardware removal at the proximal tibia is feasible and may provide patients with all the benefits of minimal-invasive hardware removal. The described technique can be recommended for all surgeons familiar with arthroscopic surgery.

  11. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect. (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Uchida, K; Shiomi, Y; Qiu, Z; Hou, D; Tian, D; Nakayama, H; Jin, X-F; Saitoh, E


    This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

  12. Proximal focal humeral deficiency in a large breed dog. (United States)

    Kalff, S; Gemmill, T


    A 26-week-old female Boerboel was referred for evaluation of progressive left thoracic limb lameness. Computed tomography and radiographic evaluation revealed radiolucency of the caudal region of the proximal humeral metaphysis, absence of the humeral head, and gross distortion of the glenoid. Given the severe glenohumeral deformation, arthrodesis of the left shoulder was performed using orthogonal locking bone plates, lag screw fixation, and bone grafting. Despite late implant failure, arthrodesis was successful in this case, and satisfactory limb function was restored. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a case of a focal developmental deficiency of the proximal humerus reported in a dog.

  13. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.


    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  14. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz


    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  15. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto


    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  16. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang


    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  17. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition


    SHY, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir


    Deposit insurance schemes in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  18. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier (United States)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo


    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement

  19. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste Disposal Sites in Nigeria. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  1. outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through decreased bone mineral density, disruption of bone micro-architecture and reduction in non- collagenous proteins. Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to manage, particularly in the osteoporotic bone, where the fracture is usually .... is followed by pendulum shoulder exercises which gradually graduate to active ...

  2. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  3. Case report of LCP pediatric hip osteosynthesis of a proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report demonstrating the experience of the department of pediatric orthopaedics of the University Orthopedic Hospital at Sofia Medical University in the treatment of an intertrochanteric proximal femoral fracture in a child with osteopetrosis. We performed open fracture reduction with stable 120° LCP ...

  4. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  5. Noncycling mappings and best proximity pair results in Hilbert and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new class of noncyclic mappings, called generalized noncyclic relatively nonexpansive, is introduced and used to study the existence of best proximity pairs in the setting of uniformly convex Banach spaces. We also obtain a weak convergence theorem for noncyclic relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of ...

  6. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It decreases the rate of fistula formation; disruption; stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Index Word: proximal hypospadias, two stages repair. ... Second procedure: a) formation of the neo-urethra, b) skin closure, c) dressing. Complete degloving of the penile shaft was performed till its base. Then artificial ...

  7. Fractures of the proximal humerus in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Raj Joshi, Dr


    Full Text Available Background: In most children proximal humeral fractures are treated non-operatively with generally good results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of closed/open reduction in children with severely displaced proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The charts of 15 patients (8 girls and 7 boys; mean age: 9.4 years with proximal humeral fractures who were managed at our institution were reviewed from October 2011 to December 2013. Results: There were 7 metaphyseal fractures and 8 physeal injuries which were angulated according to Neer-Horowitz score as grade II (n=2, grade III(n=4 and grade IV(n=9. Associated lesions comprised open fracture with head trauma in a 2 year old female child which was operated on primarily and the 14 others by secondary intention. All patients were treated surgically with either closed (n = 5 or open (n=10 reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wire or titanium elastic nails (TENs. They were assessed for clinical and radiological healing at a mean follow up of 1.25 years ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 years. Conclusion: Surgical option is indicated for severely displaced and unstable fractures in older children and adolescents. In addition to the periosteum , long head of the biceps, deltoid muscle, and bone fragments in combination can prevent fracture reduction. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture, Children, Open reduction, Operative.

  8. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  9. Proximate composition of traditional local sorghum beer “dolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dolo is a local beer manufactured from malted sorghum grains. It is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage in Burkina Faso (60% of population). Thirty (30) samples of dolo were collected from local markets in Ouagadougou and analyzed with respect to their proximate compositions and pH values using ...

  10. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect(s) of cooking fresh fish (Lake Malawi tilapia) by boiling, roasting, pan frying and, using a locally made fireless cooker) on its proximate (protein, fat, ash and moisture) and mineral (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus) composition. Highest and lowest values for crude protein were ...

  11. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of five agricultural wastes were determined and latter subjected to low temperature conversion process in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere.These agricultural wastes are Cocos nucifera husk,Theobroma cacao pod, Kola nitida pods and Plantago major peels(ripe and unripe peels). All the ...

  12. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu


    Jun 9, 2011 ... The major problems are limb length inequality and variable inadequacy of the proximal femoral musculature and hip joint. Treatment is indicated and ranges from amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation to limb salvage, lengthening, and hip re- construction. Until the early 1960s, treatment for PFFD at the St.

  13. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker


    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  14. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  15. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas


    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  16. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  17. Oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: a mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P


    This study presents a dynamic continuous time model of the regulation of the renal proximal intratubular pressure in the rat. The model integrates a functional model of the glomerulus, a tubular model, a feedback model, and an afferent arteriolar model. The model has one equilibrium solution for ...

  18. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and child health services in Ethiopia were one of the main aims of the health extension program. The impediment of ... Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A ... its link to the success of reproductive health programs and policies ...

  19. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  20. Seasonal variations in the proximate compositions of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania were determined using standard methods and procedures of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. Samples of Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea, Limnothrissa miodon ...

  1. Two stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 700 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Shukla


    Conclusion: Two stages procedure using the principles of Byar's technique is a versatile operation that can be used for 2 two-stage procedures the proximal hypospadias. It decreases the rate of fistula formation, disruption, and stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance.

  2. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  3. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin


    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  4. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  5. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tilahun


    Apr 2, 2013 ... Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products. Boiling and fermentation processing techniques are widely used in the country, especially ...

  7. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 8, 2014 ... Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day ...

  8. Proximal femoral nail: a minimally invasive treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: In our study patients who presented to department of orthopaedics, Katuri Medical College between January 2013 and December 2014, with intertrochanteric fractures were included and treated with Proximal Femoral Nail. Total of 82 patients were included in the study. Medically unfit patients and ...

  9. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  10. Do Proximate Micro-Swimmers Synchronize their Gait?

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M; Bau, Haim H


    In this fluid dynamics video, we show that low Reynolds number swimmers, such as Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans, synchronize their gait when swimming in close proximity to maximize utilization of space. Synchronization most likely results from steric hindrance and enhances the propulsive speed only marginally.

  11. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief. (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew


    Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  12. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  13. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  14. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  15. Proximate and elemental composition of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at investigating the proximate contents, concentrations of some micro/macroelements and anions of the stem bark and leaves of B. rufescens with the view of validating its used as forage and medicinally by man in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and in wound healing. The stem bark and leaves of ...

  16. Bridging Pedagogies: Drama, Multiliteracies, and the Zone of Proximal Development (United States)

    Macy, Leonora


    This article examines how one educator embraced Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) while using drama to scaffold learning about Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" for first-grade students. This learning event is interpreted with reference to the ZPD and the New London Group's pedagogy of multiliteracies. The author asserts…

  17. Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit) ... It was concluded that the pulp of Adansonia digitata is an important source of vitamin C, while the seed is a potential source of edible oil, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Keywords: Baobab, Adansonia ...

  18. Effect Of Processing On The Proximate, Mineral, And Pasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Processing On The Proximate, Mineral, And Pasting Properties Of Whole Flour Made From Some New Plantain And Banana Hybrids Pulp And Peel ... Whole plantain and banana flour may constitute an important feeding stuff for livestock, which may eventually provide protein in human diet from consumption of ...

  19. Proximate and mineral composition of six commercially important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016 on the proximate and mineral composition of six species of fish from Obueyinomo River in Edo State, Nigeria. The six (6) species are M. electricus, C. gariepinus, T. zilli, A. monkei, P. obscura, P. africana. Biochemical assay of moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, ...

  20. Rate of water absorption and proximate analysis of different varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water absorption and proximate composition of four varieties of maize; sweet corn, pop corn, white corn and yellow corn soaked at different temperatures and time duration were determined. Absorption increased with increase in temperatures and time but generally low at 45°C. The total average rate of hydration at different ...

  1. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya


    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  2. The Grammaticalization of the Proximative in Tok Pisin. (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne


    Discusses grammaticalization of "laik" in Tok Pisin, meaning "want/like/desire" (from English "like") and "klostu," meaning "near" (from English "close to") as markers of proximative. Shows although "klostu" was more generally a feature of Pacific Pidgin English and began to…

  3. Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral contents of Leaves and Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, proximate and mineral contents of Ficus capensis (leaves & bark) were analyzed, using Trease and Evans and Harboure procedure, the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Flame Photometry respectively. This study is aimed at ...

  4. Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Tona

    and well-being of the populace. There is regular supply of different kinds of animal protein sources. The keeping of sheep and goats in rural communities is an age long practice in Nigeria. The West ... the amount of methane produced as reported by Fievezet al. (2005). .... negatively to global warming. Table 2: Proximate ...

  5. Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants around the University of Agriculture Makurdi Wildlife Park were investigated. The selected plants were Anona senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tacca leontopetaloides and Vitex doniana. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique was employed to ...

  6. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines (United States)


    ..., feeders, loaders/muckers, track equipment, trucks, roof bolting machines, and mobile bridge conveyors... which you rely. Include experiences, data, models, calculations, studies and articles, and standard... outreach and/or training in the area of proximity detection (e.g., red zone warning materials). How often...

  7. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint, do not miss it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wulfften Palthe, A.F.Y.; Musters, L.; Sonnega, R.J.A.; van der Sluijs, J.A.


    We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with a right proximal tibiofibular dislocation she sustained after a fall during roller skating. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs confirmed the diagnosis; there were no other injuries. The dislocation was reduced by direct manipulation after

  8. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, trace metals and amino acids composition of Celosia argentea were determined. The crude fat, fibre and protein contents were moderate with 1.10, 3.53 and 5.17% respectively while high in the ash content (22.43%). Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with ...

  9. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The envelopes were put into an oven set at 60°C for 6 h. Seeds of each plant species were milled ... This research work recommends that little quantities of these seeds should be taken periodically to minimize the adverse effects arising from consuming large quantities of the seeds. Key words: Proximate, oil, Poga oleosa, ...

  10. Performance, proximate and mineral analyses of African giant land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, proximate and mineral analyses of African giant land snail ( Archachatina marginata ) fed different nitrogen sources. ... Analysis of the Hemolymph mineral composition revealed that snails fed Diet I had the highest value for Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ while the highest value in Na+ and Zn2+ was recorded in snails ...

  11. Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Constituents of Forage Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five non-conventional forage legumes used as alternative plant protein sources in livestock nutrition in Nigeria were assayed for proximate and anti-nutritional compositions. The forages, Cajanus cajan, Vigna radiata, Mucuna ghana, Mucuna conchinchinensis and Mucuna rajada were harvested at emergence, 4 and 8 ...

  12. Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water binding capacity was affected in the order boiled > roasted > steeped > control. No significant change was observed for oil absorption capacity of the processed samples when compared with increase observed in water binding capacity. Key Words: Plantain, proximate composition, functional properties and ...

  13. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu


    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  14. local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2. S.A. Shomkegh and. 3. Mbakwe, R. 1. Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State. ... Key words: Local Perception, Proximate Analysis, Edible Forest Plants, Focused Group. Discussions. INTRODUCTION ..... Deciduous Forests of India: An Explorative. Study Towards Non ...

  15. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Nigerian soups (Egusi soup and bitter leaf soup) were prepared and freeze - dried to produce instant soups. These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 ...

  16. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  17. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to know if and to which extent proximity to waste disposal sites or treatment plants depresses residential property values for many reasons. Whether as a measure of the impact of the sites on health and general welfare of the resident, or to ascertain the degree of monetary depression that would be suffered by ...

  18. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.


    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  19. Unilateral proximal focal femoral deficiency, fibular aplasia, tibial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky


    Apr 30, 2014 ... Unilateral proximal focal femoral deficiency, fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia and oligosyndactyly in an Egyptian child – Probable. FFU syndrome. Rabah M. ... Our patient is an Egyptian male child, fifteen months old, the third in order of .... 4th and 5th metatarsal bones are absent), absent middle phalanx.

  20. Proximate Compositions and physical properties of selected maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions and physical properties of five different maize grain varieties, Oba Supa, DMR, Popcorn, local Tiv and SWAM 1 were determined in accordance with established methods. Significant differences (P≤ 0.05) were found in the moisture, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and fat contents among the varieties.

  1. Effect of Processing Methods on the Proximate and Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four methods of processing were assessed to investigate the effect of processing methods on the digestibility, proximate and energy composition of Lablab purpureus (Rongai) beans. The processing methods were boiling (in water), fermentation, toasting and fermentation plus toasting. Some of The beans were boiled for 0, ...

  2. Irreducible Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation of the Fourth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dislocation of the interphalangeal joint of the toe is a very rare injury and there are only few published reports. Most of the cases reported are those of the hallucal interphalangeal joint. There are only very few reports of complex dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth toe in the world literature. Nigerian ...

  3. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia


    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  4. Outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper reports the aetiology, presentation and management of proximal humeral fractures (PHF) in our setup. Objective: To ... Five of thirty two operated cases (15%) developed significant shoulder joint stiffness. ... There is need for arthroplasty in those with severe injury, particularly those with osteoporosis.

  5. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials & Methods: During the period from June 2002 to December 2009, I performed 33 cases with proximal hypospadias, at Demerdash hospital; Ain Shams University; department of paediatric surgery. Data were collected retrospectively and included patient's age at operation, degree of the hypospadias, degree of ...

  6. Reflections on the Ecolab and the Zone of Proximal Development (United States)

    Luckin, Rosemary; du Boulay, Benedict


    In 1999 we reported a study that explored the way that Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development could be used to inform the design of an Interactive Learning Environment called the Ecolab. Two aspects of this work have subsequently been used for further research. Firstly, there is the interpretation of the ZPD and its associated theory that was…

  7. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy. (United States)

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David


    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  8. Unilateral proximal focal femoral deficiency, fibular aplasia, tibial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dominant mutation with possible gonadal mosaicism and with variable expression in the family, as limb anomaly in one child and cyanotic congenital heart disease in another child. Keywords: Short femur; Limb anomaly; FFU syndrome; Proximal focal femoral deficiency; Fibular aplasia; Tibial campomelia; Oligosyndactyly ...

  9. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Zeki Demir. Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Düzce University. Konuralp, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. E-mail: Tel: +90-380-5421136. Fax: +90-380-5421136. Accepted 18 August, 2010. The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress.

  10. Effect of Graded Bambara Nut Flour on Proximate Composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and some physico-chemical properties were determined using the parameters of protein, fat, fibre, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, swelling capacity, foam capacity, foam stability, loose and packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, pH and TTA. The protein content of the samples ranged between ...

  11. Proximity Effect at Graphene - High Tc Superconductor Junctions (United States)

    Wang, Da; Shih, En-Min; Arefe, Ghidewon; Kim, Youngduck; Edelberg, Drew; Andrade, Erick; Wang, Dennis; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Pasupathy, Abhay; Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA Collaboration

    The proximity effect is a well-known mesoscopic phenomenon where Cooper pairs from a superconductor (S) enter into a normal metal (N) that is well coupled to it. Since graphene was discovered a decade ago, the proximity effect at superconductor-graphene junctions has been extensively studied and interesting phenomena such as specular Andreev reflection and ballistic transport at graphene Josephson junctions have been observed. However, superconductors used in these experiments to date are of conventional low Tc, such as aluminum(Tc=1.2K), NbSe2(Tc=7K), and MoRe(Tc=8K). Understanding how the proximity effect works between high-Tc superconductors (pnictides and cuprates) and the Dirac Fermions of graphene remains largely unexplored. The chief technical challenge here is to create high-quality junctions between high-Tc superconductors and graphene. In this work, we will introduce a home-made setup that allows us to exfoliate, transfer and encapsulate superconductor-graphene junctions in a well controlled inert atmosphere. Transport measurements of the proximity effect at graphene-iron pnictide(FeSe, FeTeSe) and graphene-cuprate(BSCCO) junctions will be described.

  12. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE Keywords: locations, moringa, LGA, proximate composition, soil factors. Moringa leaves contain more vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more potassium than bananas, and more vitamin C than oranges. The leaves are considered to offer great.

  13. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2008 ... the exotic vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are cabbage, lettuce, cauli-flower and turnip leafy as well as stems such as Carrot (Aliyu, 2006). ... at 550°C for 48 h, proximate chemical composition of each vegetable sample was carried out to determine the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ...

  14. Comparison of proximate and fatty acid compositions of wild brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fatty acid and proximate composition of two commercially exploited trout species (wild brown trout (WBT) and farmed rainbow trout (FRT)). The mean crude lipid content in FRT (4.3%) was significantly higher than that in WBT (2.7%). Total saturated fatty acid concentration ...

  15. Proximate and chemical composition of three species of snails in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to determine the proximate and chemical composition of three common species of snails in Nigeria. The species were Archachatina marginata (T1), Achatina achatina (T2), and Achatina fulica (T3). The three species constituted the three treatments and thirty-six adult snails were used for this trial ...

  16. Proximate, Physical And Sensory Properties Of Soy-Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour mixtures consisting of full-fat soy flour and sweet potato flour at 25-75% levels were used in cookie production. Proximate, physical and sensory properties of the cookies were determined. Physical and sensory properties investigated included thickness, diameter, spread factor, spread ratio, fragility, appearance, ...

  17. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  18. Proximate composition and basic phytochemical assessment of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The nut of the yellow variety had terpenoids and steroids present in it while the nut of the red variety had alkaloids present. Statistical analyses carried out showed that there were no significant differences (p≤0.05) between the two varieties based on their proximate composition. INTRODUCTION. Terminalia catappa is ...

  19. Fertility decline in Malawi: An analysis of the proximate determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines trends in the proximate determinants of fertility (nuptiality or marriage, contraception and post-partum infecundability) in Malawi during the twelve-year period 1992-2004, with a view to explaining the factors responsible for fertility decline in the country. The study uses the Malawi Demographic and ...

  20. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impediment of early marriage was revised in the national family code which claims assessment of fertility situations. Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on resident women of ...