Sample records for proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary

  1. Proximal enterectomy stimulates distal hyperplasia more than bypass or pancreaticobiliary diversion. (United States)

    Williamson, R C; Bauer, F L; Ross, J S; Malt, R A


    To determine the contribution of intraluminal factors to postresectional intestinal hyperplasia, cell proliferation in the distal intestine of male rats was studied after 50% proximal enterectomy or 50% proximal bypass and also after transposition of the duodenal papilla to the mid small bowel. Within 48 hr all three operations increased RNA and DNA content s in the ileal mucosa 16 to 50% over control values. At 48 hr and 1 week the response distal to resection exceeded that of bypass or pancreaticobiliary diversion; nucleic acid contents, DNA specific activity, villous height, crypt depth, and luminal circumference were greatest 1 week after resection. By 1 month, however, chemical and histological values after resection were equalled or surpassed by those in the other two groups. In excluded jejunum itself, mucosal atrophy lowered RNA and DNA contents to 60% of control levels 1 month postoperatively. Neither pancreaticobiliary diversion nor proximal enteric bypass produces the same rate of distal hyperplasia as proximal resection. Modest colonic hyperplasia may contribute to intestinal adaptation after proximal enterectomy. Adaptive postrescetional cell proliferation appears not to be mediated simply by intraluminal nutrition or enteric secretions; hormonal factors may also be important.

  2. A new anastomosis technique for intestinal diseases with proximal dilated segments

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    Metin Gündüz


    Full Text Available A number of techniques have been described for intestinal anastomosis. We describe a different, simple, and safe technique that can be used in patients with intestinal diseases, such as jejunoileal atresia and perforation that has proximal dilated segments. In this technique, an atraumatic bowel clamp was applied on the proximal dilated bowel at a 90° angle. In the narrow distal segment, we resected the bowel at a 0° angle and continued at a 30° angle from the antimesenteric side. Finally, a two-layer interrupted anastomosis was performed. We applied this technique to a 31-day-old patient who had a divided jejunostomy due to malrotation and perforation with a proximal dilated bowel. Neither anastomotic complications nor feeding and passage problems were seen postoperatively.

  3. MRCP in the evaluation of pancreaticobiliary disease in children

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    Arcement, C.M.; Meza, M.P.; Arumanla, S.; Towbin, R.B. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Background. Radiologic assessment of pancreaticobiliary ductal disease (PBDD) in children currently consists of physiologic tests (radionuclide examinations) or invasive anatomic studies (ERCP and PTC). An accurate noninvasive and reproducible examination that can direct the subsequent need for more invasive studies would be helpful in this patient group. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of MRCP as a screening tool for PBBD in the pediatric population. Materials and methods. Over the last year, 33 patients ranging from 7 months to 20 years of age were prospectively evaluated with MRCP on a 1.5 T magnet. One patient was examined twice, several months apart. Thirteen patients had liver transplants. Coronal SPGR and heavily T-2W FSE cross-sectional images were obtained. Standard and oblique 2- to 6-cm-thick slab SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) acquisition and 3D MIP reconstruction of 2D FSE images were obtained in the planes of the CBD and pancreatic duct. Nine studies were performed with the patient under sedation with chloral hydrate or nembutal and fentanyl with quiet respiration, and the non-sedated patients were assessed with single breath hold or quiet respiration. Three patients received secretin. MRCP results were correlated with ERCP (9), PTC (7), liver biopsy (13), clinical information (6), surgery (3), and autopsy (2). Results. All 34 studies performed were considered diagnostic. Periportal fluid, proximal bowel fluid, and gallbladder distention did not significantly diminish the diagnostic information in any cases. Motion artifact did not cause serious degradation in image quality. MRCP depicted abnormalities including stones, stricture, intraductal tumor, and extrinsic compression, all of which were confirmed at ERCP, PTC (two unsuccessful in patients with non-dilated ducts by MRCP), surgery, liver biopsy, and autopsy. There were no false-negative examinations. Normal pancreatic studies performed to exclude pancreas divisum were followed

  4. A Systematic Review of Proximal Neck Dilatation After Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. (United States)

    Kouvelos, George N; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Antoniou, George A; Verhoeven, Eric L G; Katsargyris, Athanasios


    To provide an updated systematic literature review and summarize current evidence on proximal aortic neck dilatation (AND) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A review of the English-language medical literature from 1991 to 2015 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies reporting AND after EVAR. Studies considered for inclusion and full-text review fulfilled the following criteria: (1) reported AND after EVAR, (2) included at least 5 patients, and (3) provided data on AND quantification. The search identified 26 articles published between 1998 and 2015 that encompassed 9721 patients (median age 71.8 years; 9439 men). AND occurred in 24.6% of patients (95% CI 18.6% to 31.8%) over a period ranging from 15 months to 9 years after EVAR. No significant dilatation of the suprarenal part of the aorta was reported by most studies. The incidence of combined clinical events (endoleak type I, migration, reintervention during follow-up) was higher in the AND group (26%) when compared with 2% in the group without AND (OR 28.7, 95% CI 5.43 to 151.67, p<0.001). AND affects a considerable proportion of EVAR patients and was related to worse clinical outcome, as indicated by increased rates of type I endoleak, migration, and reinterventions. Future studies should focus on a better understanding of the pathophysiology, predictors, and risk factors of AND, which could identify patients who may warrant a different EVAR strategy and/or a closer post-EVAR surveillance strategy.

  5. Sonographic diagnosis of a common pancreaticobiliary channel in children

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    Chapuy, Severine; Gorincour, Guillaume; Aschero, Audrey; Paris, Marie; Lambot, Karine; Bourliere-Najean, Brigitte; Petit, Philippe [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Roquelaure, Bertrand [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Hepato-gastroenterology, Marseille (France); Delarue, Arnauld [La Timone Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Marseille (France)


    A common pancreaticobiliary channel is a very rare condition, but its diagnosis is of paramount importance since it can lead to complications that can be prevented. To illustrate the sonographic diagnosis of a common pancreaticobiliary channel in children referred for abdominal pain or jaundice. Four children were diagnosed by ultrasonography and the diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by MRI. Sonography demonstrated a pancreaticobiliary junction located in the pancreatic head above the sphincter of Oddi. This rare congenital anomaly was confirmed in all patients by MRI. A common pancreaticobiliary channel can be diagnosed by sonography. Nevertheless, our experience is limited, and although sonography can provide an alert and can assist management, it cannot yet replace MRI. (orig.)

  6. Proximal aortic stiffness is related to left ventricular function and exercise capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Patrianakos, Alexandros P; Parthenakis, Fragiskos I; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Nyktari, Eva; Vardas, Panos E


    Patients with heart failure (HF) show abnormal arterial stiffening. We examined 60 patients (52.1 +/- 12, 8 years) with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC), New York Heart Association II-III, in sinus rhythm, left ventricular ejection fraction 30.1 +/- 8.6%, and 44 normals. All subjects underwent an echocardiographic study and a cardiopulmonary exercise test. We evaluated the segmental proximal aorta (AO) pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the region of aortic arch with a new echo-method: from the suprasternal view, the distance between ascending and descending AO was measured with two-dimensional ultrasound, and the aortic flow wave transit time (TT) was measured with pulsed-wave Doppler. Pulse wave velocity was calculated as aortic distance/TT. Patients showed increased PWV (7.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.1 m/s, P age, sex, and body mass) VO(2) (both P exercise capacity. The echocardiographic assessment of the regional aorta PWV seems to be clinically important.

  7. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreaticobiliary diseases

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    Ken Kamata


    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  8. Pancreaticobiliary cancers with deficient methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes. (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Skinner, Halcyon G; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Abe, Tadayoshi; Sato, Norihiro; Riall, Taylor Sohn; Yeo, Charles J; Kern, Scott E; Goggins, Michael


    Methyl group deficiency might promote carcinogenesis by inducing DNA breaks and DNA hypomethylation. We hypothesized that deficient methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotypes could promote pancreatic cancer development. First, we performed a case-control study of germline MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C) in 303 patients with pancreatic cancer and 305 matched control subjects. Pancreatic neoplasms frequently lose an MTHFR allele during tumorigenesis; we hypothesized that such loss could promote carcinogenesis. We therefore evaluated the cancer MTHFR genotypes of 82 patients with pancreaticobiliary cancers and correlated them to genome-wide measures of chromosomal deletion by using 386 microsatellite markers. Finally, MTHFR genotypes were correlated with global DNA methylation in 68 cancer cell lines. Germline MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with an increased likelihood of having pancreatic cancer. Fractional allelic loss (a measure of chromosomal loss) trended higher in cancers with 677T genotypes than in cancers with other genotypes (P = .055). Among cancers with loss of an MTHFR allele, cancers with 677T MTHFR alleles had more deletions at folate-sensitive fragile sites (36.9%) and at tumor suppressor gene loci (68.5%) than 677C cancers (28.7% and 47.8%, P = .079 and .014, respectively). LINE1 methylation was lower in cancers with less functional 677T/TT genotypes (24.4%) than in those with 677CT (26.0%) and CC/C genotypes (32.5%) (P = .014). Cancers with defective MTHFR genotypes have more DNA hypomethylation and more chromosomal losses. Deficient MTHFR function due to loss of an MTHFR allele by an evolving neoplasm might, by promoting chromosomal losses, accelerate cancer development.

  9. Extreme dilatation of the interposed jejunal pouch after proximal gastrectomy associated with portal venous gas: A case report

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    Michinaga Takahashi


    Discussion and conclusion: Long-term operative outcome following pouch operation for gastric cancer still remains controversial. Surgical intervention should be considered when we encounter patients who have refractory pouch dilatation after surgery for gastric cancer.

  10. Prevalence of pancreaticobiliary reflux in symptomatic cholelithiasis and its significance

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    TP Bohara


    Full Text Available Aims: Pancreaticobiliary reflux (PBR is reflux of pancreatic enzymes into the biliary tree which occurs as a result of an anamoly of pancreaticobiliary junction (PBJ or functionally impaired sphincter. PBR is associated with changes in biliary epithelium and is known to cause benign and malignant biliary pathology. Various authors have reported prevalence of PBR in patients with normal PBJ ranging from 20 % to 83.5 %. With aim to detect the prevalence of PBR in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis in Nepalese population we conducted this study. Materials and methods: Thirty patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for symptomatic cholelithiasis were included in the study. History, physical findings and relevant investigations including liver function test, serum amylase and abdominal ultrasound were recorded. Bile sample for amylase was taken from gall bladder during LC percuatneously before manipulation of calot’s triangle and common bile duct. Bile amylase level above serum amylase level was considered positive for PBR. Results: Mean age of the patient was 37.27 (± 14.41 years. Out of 30, 6 (20 % patients were male and 24 (80 % were female. Mean BMI was 21.58 (± 3.2. PBR reflux was present in 66.7 % of patients out of which 2 were male and 18 were female that was not statistically significant (p = 1.41 when compared with patients without PBR. Conclusion: PBR occurs in patient with cholelithiasis and has role in pathogenesis of gallstones disease and gall bladder carcinoma. Long term surveillance would be required to ascertain the significance of detection of PBR after LC. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 1-6 DOI:

  11. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males. Part III: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation: standardization of a technique

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    Bagi, Per


    a characteristic course, which could be described by a double exponential function of the form: P(t) = P(equ) + P(alpha)e(-t/tau(alpha) + P(beta)e(-t/tau(beta) where P(t) is pressure at time t, P(equ) is equilibrium pressure after dilation, P(alpha) and P(beta) are pressure decay, and tau(alpha) and tau......(beta) are time constants. The size and velocity of dilation, as well as the degree of distension before dilation, proved of significance for the magnitude of the pressure response. The characteristics of the pressure response are given by the properties of the periluminal structures strained during dilation......The urethral response to a sudden forced dilation was studied in ten healthy male volunteers aged from 27 to 71 years. Measurements were performed from the bladder neck and beyond the region of high pressure using a specially designed probe. The pressure response after dilation showed...

  12. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males. Part III: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation: standardization of a technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per


    a characteristic course, which could be described by a double exponential function of the form: P(t) = P(equ) + P(alpha)e(-t/tau(alpha) + P(beta)e(-t/tau(beta) where P(t) is pressure at time t, P(equ) is equilibrium pressure after dilation, P(alpha) and P(beta) are pressure decay, and tau(alpha) and tau......(beta) are time constants. The size and velocity of dilation, as well as the degree of distension before dilation, proved of significance for the magnitude of the pressure response. The characteristics of the pressure response are given by the properties of the periluminal structures strained during dilation...

  13. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation. Part IV: results in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Bøtker-Rasmussen; Kristensen, Jørgen Kvist


    (beta)e(t/tau(beta) where P(t) is pressure at time t, P(equ) is equilibrium pressure after dilation, P(alpha) and P(beta) are pressure decay, and tau(alpha) and tau(beta) are time constants. The pressure response was highly affected by the location of the measurement, with the maximum values of the pressure components...

  14. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation. Part IV: results in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Bøtker-Rasmussen; Kristensen, Jørgen Kvist


    (beta)e(t/tau(beta) where P(t) is pressure at time t, P(equ) is equilibrium pressure after dilation, P(alpha) and P(beta) are pressure decay, and tau(alpha) and tau(beta) are time constants. The pressure response was highly affected by the location of the measurement, with the maximum values of the pressure components...... in the high pressure zone and significantly lower values in the prostatic part of the urethra. The variation in pressure thus concurs closely with the density of the striated rhabdosphincter. No significant correlation between age and the pressure components could be demonstrated, whereas the velocity...

  15. Paschke Dilations

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    Abraham Westerbaan


    Full Text Available In 1973 Paschke defined a factorization for completely positive maps between C*-algebras. In this paper we show that for normal maps between von Neumann algebras, this factorization has a universal property, and coincides with Stinespring's dilation for normal maps into B(H.

  16. Dilating Eye Drops (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  17. Novel biomarkers and endoscopic techniques for diagnosing pancreaticobiliary malignancy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Margaret G Keane


    Full Text Available The UK incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is 9 per 100,000 population, and biliary tract cancer occurs at a rate of 1–2 per 100,000. The incidence of both cancers is increasing annually and these tumours continue to be diagnosed late and at an advanced stage, limiting options for curative treatment. Population-based screening programmes do not exist for these cancers, and diagnosis currently is dependent on symptom recognition, but often symptoms are not present until the disease is advanced. Recently, a number of promising blood and urine biomarkers have been described for pancreaticobiliary malignancy and are summarised in this review. Novel endoscopic techniques such as single-operator cholangioscopy and confocal endomicroscopy have been used in some centres to enhance standard endoscopic diagnostic techniques and are also evaluated in this review.

  18. Complete absence of M2-pyruvate kinase expression in benign pancreatic ductal epithelium and pancreaticobiliary and duodenal neoplasia

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    Rowlands Brian J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum concentrations of M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK correlate with poor prognosis in patients with pancreaticobiliary and duodenal cancer, but the expression of M2-PK in formalin-fixed pancreatic tissue is unknown. We aimed to characterise the immunohistochemical expression of M2-PK in archived specimens of pancreaticobiliary and duodenal cancers, premalignant lesions, chronic pancreatitis, and normal pancreas. Methods Immunohistochemical staining was performed with mouse anti-M2-PK monoclonal antibody (clone DF-4 at an optimal dilution of 1:25 on tissue microarrays constructed from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue of 126 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic resections between June 2001 and June 2006. 104 underwent resection for cancer and 22 for chronic pancreatitis. 78 specimens of chronic pancreatitis tissue were obtained adjacent to areas of cancer. Normal pancreatic tissue was obtained from the resection specimens in a total of 30 patients. Metastatic tumours in 61 regional lymph nodes from 61 patients were also studied. A further 11 premalignant pancreaticobiliary and duodenal lesions were studied. M2-PK expression was quantified with the immunohistochemical score (IHS; Range 0-12. Results Benign non-ductal tissue in chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas showed variable expression of M2-PK (IHS = 1 in 25%, IHS = 2-3 in 40%, IHS>3 in 40%. Benign pancreatic ductal epithelium, all primary pancreaticobiliary and duodenal premalignant lesions and cancers (and lymph node metastasis showed complete lack of expression (IHS = 0. Conclusion Complete lack of M2-PK expression was observed in benign pancreatic ducts, premalignant lesions and cancer. M2-PK is present only in benign non-ductal epithelium in normal pancreas and peri-tumoural tissue.

  19. Nutritional factors (nutritional aspects) in biliary disorders: bile acid and lipid metabolism in gallstone diseases and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. (United States)

    Tazuma, Susumu; Kanno, Keishi; Sugiyama, Akiko; Kishikawa, Nobusuke


    Nutritional factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of biliary diseases such as gallstones and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Gallstones are primarily classified into cholesterol stone and pigment stone according to the major composition. Cholesterol gallstone formation is very likely based upon supersaturated bile formation, and pigment stones are formed in bile rich in bilirubin. Thus, defects of hepatic metabolism of lipids and organic anions lead to biliary stones. Here, the recent understanding of cholesterol gallstone pathogenesis is elaborated. On the other hand, there is another important link of biliary lipid degradation to serious biliary disease, namely pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a derivative of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase A2, is a highly abundant bioactive lipid mediator present in circulation as well as in bile. Increases in bile of lysoPC and phospholipase A2 have been reported in pancreaticobiliary maljunction and considered to be the major risk factor for biliary tract cancers. Further, oxidized fatty acids have been established as a potent ligand for G2A, a member of G protein-coupled receptor family that mediates a diverse array of biological processes including cell growth and apoptosis. Thus, both of lysoPC and free fatty acids are supposed to play an important role through G2A in biliary inflammation and carcinogenesis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Taken together, nutritional factors, especially lipid compounds, are seemingly crucial in the pathogenesis of biliary diseases, and such a causal relationship is reviewed by mainly authors' previous publications. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Molecular Profiling-Selected Therapy for Treatment of Advanced Pancreaticobiliary Cancer: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

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    Ron Epelbaum


    Full Text Available This multicenter cohort study assessed the impact of molecular profiling (MP on advanced pancreaticobiliary cancer (PBC. The study included 30 patients treated with MP-guided therapy after failing ≥1 therapy for advanced PBC. Treatment was considered as having benefit for the patient if the ratio between the longest progression-free survival (PFS on MP-guided therapy and the PFS on the last therapy before MP was ≥1.3. The null hypothesis was that ≤15% of patients gain such benefit. Overall, ≥1 actionable (i.e., predictive of response to specific therapies biomarker was identified/patient. Immunohistochemistry (the most commonly used method for guiding treatment decisions identified 1–6 (median: 4 actionable biomarkers per patient. After MP, patients received 1–4 (median: 1 regimens/patient (most commonly, FOLFIRI/XELIRI. In a decision-impact analysis, of the 27 patients for whom treatment decisions before MP were available, 74.1% experienced a treatment decision change in the first line after MP. Twenty-four patients were evaluable for clinical outcome analysis; in 37.5%, the PFS ratio was ≥1.3. In one-sided exact binomial test versus the null hypothesis, P = 0.0015; therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrated the feasibility, clinical decision impact, and potential clinical benefits of MP-guided therapy in advanced PBC.

  1. Familial dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Martins, Elisabete; Cardoso, José Silva; Abreu-Lima, Cassiano


    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder affecting heart muscle, characterized by ventricular dilation and reduced systolic function. It represents the most common cause of heart failure. Until recently, dilated cardiomyopathy was considered an exclusively sporadic and idiopathic disease. Now, as defined by the World Health Organization, cardiomyopathy includes not only the idiopathic form, but secondary ones such as ischemic or hypertensive. It is estimated that familial occurrence accounts for 30% of cases of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The most common mode of inheritance is the autosomal dominant type. The X-linked, autosomal recessive and mitochondrial forms are less common. Different genes or loci are responsible for the cardiac dilatation, and code for sarcomeric, cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina proteins. The molecular interactions of the mutated proteins with factors such as infectious agents or alcohol could explain the variety of presenting signs and symptoms of this type of cardiomyopathy. Recently the European Society of Cardiology published a definition and a protocol for the study of familial dilated cardiomyopathies. Genetic research in the field of dilated cardiomyopathy can increase our understanding of its pathogenesis and lead to new treatment modalities for the disease.

  2. Continuous controllable balloon dilation: a novel approach for cervix dilation

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    Arsenijevic Slobodan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical dilation using mechanical dilators is associated with various complications, such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration, infections and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. To achieve safe and painless cervical dilation, we constructed a new medical device to achieve confident mechanical cervical dilation: a continuous controllable balloon dilator (CCBD. Methods Controlled pumping of incompressible fluid into the CCBD increases the pressure and outer diameter of the CCBD, continuously dilating the cervical canal. The reliability of the CCBD was confirmed in vitro (testing for consistency and endurance, with no detected risk for breakage and in vivo. A multi-center clinical study was conducted,with 120 pregnant women randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I,control group, no dilation;Group II,mechanical dilation, Hegar dilator (HeD; and Group III,CCBD. The tissue material for histological evaluation was obtained from the endocervical mucosa before and after dilation using the HeD or CCBD. Results The CCBD dilations were successful and had no complications in all 40 patients of Group III. The cervical tissue was markedly less damaged after CCBD dilation compared with HeD dilation (epithelium damage: 95% (HeD vs. 45% (CCBD, P P P Conclusions The CCBD should be used as a replacement for mechanical dilators to prevent uterine and cervical injury during cervical dilation. Trial registration ISRCTN54007498

  3. The Role of Per Oral Cholangiopancreatoscopy (POCPS in Complicated Pancreaticobiliary Disease

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    Ari F Syam


    Full Text Available A fifty-five year old female patient presented with jaundice, subfebrile fever and dark yellow urine since one month before admission. She lost weight 10 kilograms during one month. One day before admission to Ciptomangunkusumo General Hospital, she complained of worsened abdominal pain at right upper quadrant urging her to come to the emergency room. An abdominal examination revealed Murphy sign, mild hepatomegaly and deeply icteric sclera. Serum bilirubin was 21.8 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels were significantly elevated (1090 IU/L and 560 IU/L consecutively while the transaminases were moderately high (ALT 80 U/L. The C-reactive protein was 555 mg/L. An abdominal ultrasound examination revealed dilatation of right and left intrahepatic bile duct and presence of common hepatic duct stone. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging/ magnetic cholangiopancreatography (MRI/ MRCP revealed intrahepatic bile duct dilatation, multiple CBD stone and benign stricture at common hepatic duct causing right and left intrahepatic bile duct obstruction.We assessed the patient as acute cholangitis and obstructive jaundice suspected to be caused by biliary duct stone then we performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, we revealing stenosis at distal CBD, multiple CBD stone, giant stone in CHD and dilatation of bilateral IHBD. We performed CBD stone extraction then inserted biliary stent for drainage. Then we planned to do second ERCP with SpyGlassTM for giant stone extraction. After the first ERCP, the clinical condition of the patient improved and the bilirubin decreased to 10 mg/dL. In the next two weeks we performed a second ERCP to extract the giant stone with SpyGlass TM. However, after we inserted SpyGlassTM into the biliary duct, what we found were not as we expected before. We revealed that there was a mass in biliary duct and there was no CBD stone. We did the biopsy and inserted a new plastic stent

  4. A colon-associated cystic mass occurring in conjunction with cecal dilatation in a Holstein cow. (United States)

    Garrett, Edgar F; Singh, Kuldeep


    A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon.

  5. Cushing’s Disease Presented by Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Berna İmge Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Dilated cardiomyopathy is rarely reported among CS patients especially without hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Materials and Methods. We hereby report a Cushing’s syndrome case presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy. Results. A 48-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with severe proximal myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy without ventricular hypertrophy. Cushing’s disease was diagnosed and magnetic-resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma. Under diuretic and ketoconazole treatments, she underwent a successful transnasal/transsphenoidal adenomectomy procedure. Full recovery of symptoms and echocardiographic features was achieved after six months of surgery. Conclusion. Cushing’s syndrome must be kept in mind as a reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Recovery of cardiomyopathy is achieved with successful surgery.

  6. Dilation and Curettage (D&C) (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and Curettage ( ... February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage (D& ...

  7. A prospective randomised study of dense Infinity cytological brush versus regularly used brush in pancreaticobiliary malignancy. (United States)

    Kylänpää, Leena; Boyd, Sonja; Ristimäki, Ari; Lindström, Outi; Udd, Marianne; Halttunen, Jorma


    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a cytological sample is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the aetiology of biliary stricture. Our aim was to evaluate whether a more dense Infinity® cytological brush is more sensitive in diagnosing malignancy than the regularly used brush. We recruited 60 patients with a biliary stricture suspicious for malignancy for a randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to an Infinity® brush group (n = 30) and a regularly used cytology brush group (n = 30). All the patients had verified cancer during follow-up. Crossing the brush over the stricture was possible in each case without dilatation of the biliary duct. Brush cytology yield was good or excellent in 86.7% of cases with the Infinity® brush and 96.7% with the regular brush (p = 0.161). The cytological sample showed clear malignancy in three patients (10.0%) in the Infinity® group and in 12 (40.0%) patients of the regular brush group (p = 0.007). The cytological diagnosis was highly suspicious for malignancy or malignant in 14 patients (46.7%) in the Infinity® group and in 23 patients (76.7%) in the regular brush group (p = 0.017). The result was benign in 10 patients (33.3%) in the Infinity® group and in four patients (13.6%) in the regular brush group (p = 0.067). With the standardised technique, the sensitivity of brush cytology is fairly good. The dense Infinity® brush does not show any advantage regarding sensitivity compared with the conventional cytology brush.

  8. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  9. Brain Abscess after Esophageal Dilatation

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    Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J


    Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted...... with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case...... illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation....

  10. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, R.


    Introduction Since the introduction and development of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT), this procedure is accepted and incorporated in ICUs worldwide. In spite of obvious benefits for the patients, who obtain more comfort and mobility and less use of sedatives, the procedure also...... implies the risk of several complications, some of which may be lethal. Severe complications include hemorrhage, displacement and pneumothorax. Different methods of PDT are described in the literature, each with disadvantages and benefits. The aim of this study was to analyze complications due to PDTs...... noted within 7 days. In addition we registered patients' age, sex, BMI, SOFA score, methods used in procedures and experience of operators. Results A total of 136 patients admitted to the UCI had undergone a PDT between 2007 and 2014. Of these, two were excluded due to the PDT being performed in another...

  11. Female urethral dilation. (United States)

    Bazi, Tony; Abou-Ghannam, Gael; Khauli, Raja


    The aim of this manuscript is to review the subject of urethral dilation (UD) in female patients and to conduct a critical appraisal of the available evidence for its use. We used an online search of electronic databases. UD has been cited as a treatment option for various conditions that do not share common etiologies and that affect the lower urinary tract in female patients. Outcome measurement was not consistent, even when performed for the same conditions. A total of six randomized controlled trials failed to prove any benefit for UD in repetitive urinary tract infections (UTI), urethral syndrome, and overactive bladder. Conflicting results and diverse opinions have characterized the use of UD until present time. Professional societies are urged to attend to this issue, and to identify possible areas where UD could be potentially investigated.

  12. Cardiomyopathy, familial dilated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestroni Luisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a heart muscle disease characterized by ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Patients with DCM suffer from heart failure, arrhythmia, and are at risk of premature death. DCM has a prevalence of one case out of 2500 individuals with an incidence of 7/100,000/year (but may be under diagnosed. In many cases the disease is inherited and is termed familial DCM (FDC. FDC may account for 20–48% of DCM. FDC is principally caused by genetic mutations in FDC genes that encode for cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins in the cardiac myocyte. Family history analysis is an important tool for identifying families affected by FDC. Standard criteria for evaluating FDC families have been published and the use of such criteria is increasing. Clinical genetic testing has been developed for some FDC genes and will be increasingly utilized for evaluating FDC families. Through the use of family screening by pedigree analysis and/or genetic testing, it is possible to identify patients at earlier, or even presymptomatic stages of their disease. This presents an opportunity to invoke lifestyle changes and to provide pharmacological therapy earlier in the course of disease. Genetic counseling is used to identify additional asymptomatic family members who are at risk of developing symptoms, allowing for regular screening of these individuals. The management of FDC focuses on limiting the progression of heart failure and controlling arrhythmia, and is based on currently accepted treatment guidelines for DCM. It includes general measures (salt and fluid restriction, treatment of hypertension, limitation of alcohol intake, control of body weight, moderate exercise and pharmacotherapy. Cardiac resynchronization, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices have progressively expanding usage. Patients with severe heart failure, severe reduction of the functional capacity and depressed

  13. Rigid bronchoscope dilatation of postintubation tracheal stenosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management modalities that have been employed for the management of. PITS include stenting, surgical resection and reconstruction, percutaneous dilatation, rigid bronchoscopic dilatation, fibreoptic assisted balloon dilatation and Nd: YAG. (neodyiniumrvttritiurn-aluniinuni garnet) laser therapy with or without stenting.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial dilated cardiomyopathy Familial dilated cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. It ...

  15. Inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMI). (United States)

    Maisch, Bernhard; Richter, Anette; Sandmöller, Andrea; Portig, Irene; Pankuweit, Sabine


    Cardiomyopathies are heart muscle diseases, which have been defined by their central hemodynamics and macropathology and divided in five major forms: dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM), restrictive (RCM), right ventricular (RVCM), and nonclassifiable cardiomyopathies (NCCM). Furthermore, the most recent WHO/WHF definition also comprises, among the specific cardiomyopathies, inflammatory cardiomyopathy as a distinct entity, defined as myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction. Idiopathic, autoimmune, and infectious forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy were recognized. Viral cardiomyopathy has been defined as viral persistence in a dilated heart. It may be accompanied by myocardial inflammation and then termed inflammatory viral cardiomyopathy (or viral myocarditis with cardiomegaly). If no inflammation is observed in the biopsy of a dilated heart (cardiomyopathy or viral persistence in DCM should be applied according to the WHF Task Force recommendations. Within the German heart failure net it is the authors' working hypothesis, that DCM shares genetic risk factors with other diseases of presumed autoimmune etiology and, therefore, the same multiple genes in combination with environmental factors lead to numerous different autoimmune diseases including DCM. Therefore, the authors' primary goal is to acquire epidemiologic data of patients with DCM regarding an infectious and inflammatory etiology of the disease. Circumstantial evidence points to a major role of viral myocarditis in the etiology of DCM. The common presence of viral genetic material in the myocardium of patients with DCM provides the most compelling evidence, but proof of causality is still lacking. In addition, autoimmune reactions have been described in many studies, indicating them as an important etiologic factor. Nevertheless, data on the proportion of patients, in whom both mechanisms play a role are still missing.A pivotal role for autoimmunity in a substantial proportion of patients

  16. A comparison of metal telescopic dilators and Amplatz dilators for nephrostomy tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. (United States)

    Ozok, Hakki Ugur; Sagnak, Levent; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Topaloglu, Hikmet; Ersoy, Hamit


    Nephrostomy tract dilation is one of the important steps in percutaneous renal surgery. We present our experiences with using Amplatz and metal telescopic dilators (Alken) to create a percutaneous tract and compare the advantages and risk factors of both procedures. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 173 patients who had undergone 188 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures between April 2007 and December 2010. The nephrostomy tracts had been created by using Amplatz (67 cases) or Alken dilators (121 cases). Total operative time, scope time, tract formation time, decrease in hemoglobin concentrations, blood transfusion rates, tract dilation failures, and the cost of both systems were compared between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences in total operative time (103.3 ± 46.5 vs 99.1 ± 44.4 min, P=0.583), scope time (5.23 ± 3.06 vs 5.28 ± 2.52 min, P=0.732), decrease in hemoglobin concentration (-1.5 ± 1.2 vs-1.3 ± 1.1 mg/dL, P=0.230), blood transfusion rates (13.4% vs 11.6%, P=0.709), and tract dilation failure rates (6.0% vs 1.7%, P=0.107) for Amplatz and Alken dilation groups, respectively. A shorter tract formation time (6.56 ± 3.04 vs 5.42 ± 3.07 min, Pdilation group. The approximate costs per each case were $220 and $7.25 for Amplatz and Alken dilation groups, respectively. The Alken dilation technique produces similar results to the Amplatz dilators in terms of efficiency, safety, and total operative time. Notwithstanding, it is more cost-effective in comparison.

  17. Multisensory signalling enhances pupil dilation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rigato, Silvia; Rieger, Gerulf; Romei, Vincenzo


    ... for studying multisensory integration processing in humans. We recorded reaction times and pupil dilation in response to a series of visual and auditory stimuli, which were presented either alone or in combination...

  18. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis with caecal and colonic dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings of caecal and colonic dilatation in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. A total number of forty buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20 and diseased group (n = 20. Diseased buffalo were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University-Egypt. Each of the diseased animals was subjected to clinical, rectal, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations. Clinically, buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed reduced appetite, distended right abdomen, abdominal pain and tensed abdomen. Rectal examination indicated empty rectum with the presence of mucus and dilated loop of caecum and/or colon. Buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed significant (P < 0.05 hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALK. Ultrasonographically, the dilated caecum and proximal loop of colon occupied the last right three intercostal space (ICSs particularly their ventral part, intertangled with the liver dorsally in these ICSs. Dilated colon did not hinder the visibility of the liver. The dilated caecum/colon also filled the whole right flank region, with hiding of right kidney, loops and peristaltic movement of the small intestines. The closest wall of the dilated caecum and proximal loop of the colon was imaged as thick semi-circular echogenic line. The furthest wall and contents of dilated caecum/colon were not imaged. In conclusion, buffalo with caecal and/or colonic dilatation have non-specific clinical and laboratory findings; however the affected animals show characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  19. The effects of morphine-neostigmine and secretin provocation on pancreaticobiliary morphology in healthy subjects: a randomized, double-blind crossover study using serial MRCP. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Humes, David J; Pritchard, Susan E; Marciani, Luca; Gowland, Penny A; Simpson, John; Lobo, Dileep N


    Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is used for the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), but it does not correlate well with sphincter of Oddi manometry. Serial MRCP following morphine-neostigmine provocation may be of value in the assessment of SOD, but the effects of these pharmacological agents on pancreaticobiliary morphology in healthy subjects have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to use serial MRCP to characterize the effects of morphine-neostigmine and secretin provocation on serum pancreatic enzyme responses and pancreaticobiliary ductal morphology in healthy subjects. Following a baseline scan and serum lipase and amylase assays, 10 healthy subjects were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive morphine (10 mg intramuscularly [IM]), neostigmine (1 mg IM) and saline (intravenously [IV]); OR saline (IM), saline (IM) and secretin (1 U/kg IV). A MRCP study was performed at 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min thereafter, with blood samples taken every 60 min for 4 h. Pancreatic duct (PD) diameter, visible PD length, common bile duct (CBD) diameter, and gallbladder volume were recorded. Crossover studies were performed 10 days later. Serum pancreatic enzyme concentrations were significantly greater (amylase, P = 0.003; lipase, P = 0.04) after morphine-neostigmine than after secretin. Following morphine-neostigmine and secretin provocation, the mean (SEM) percentage increase in PD diameter was 28.7 (7.2) versus 12.9 (3.3); P < 0.0001, and visible PD length was 49.4 (11.5) versus 28.1 (8.2); P < 0.0001, respectively. The effects of morphine-neostigmine were more pronounced than those of secretin in healthy subjects. The diagnostic utility of morphine-neostigmine stimulated serial MRCP for SOD merits further evaluation.

  20. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko


    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  1. Oversampling of wavelet frames for real dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob


    We generalize the Second Oversampling Theorem for wavelet frames and dual wavelet frames from the setting of integer dilations to real dilations. We also study the relationship between dilation matrix oversampling of semi-orthogonal Parseval wavelet frames and the additional shift invariance gain...

  2. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Stambader, Johann Daniel; Dorn, Livia; Mikuz, Gregor; Sergi, Consolato


    Dilated cardiomypathies (DCM) are characterized by dilatation and pump dysfunction of the heart. DCM has an incidence of 6/100.000 people a year contributing to a considerable number of cases of heart failure. Although etiology and pathogenesis are known to be multifactorial, they remain mostly unidentified. Recent research identified patients affected with DCM with altered gene products. These alterations can roughly be grouped into causative genes, mostly coding for cytoskeletal proteins. Other genes seem to be activated after the disease onset and are able to influence the clinical course. In this study we systematically analyzed the role of genetic polymorphisms, based on peer-reviewed articles, published in scientific journals. A total of 97 original studies and a selected number of 60 genes, that seem to be related to DCM, have been reviewed.

  4. A comparison of Amplatz dilators and metal dilators for tract dilatation in mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy. (United States)

    Arslan, Burak; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Onuk, Ozkan; Küçüktopçu, Onur; Çilesiz, Nusret Can; Ozkan, Arif; Yazıcı, Gökhan


    Our aim was to compare the different characteristics and outcomes of the Amplatz sheaths and single-step metallic dilators which were used for mini-PCNL procedure in a single institution. Retrospective medical records of 236 patients who underwent mini-PCNL were reviewed and divided into Amplatz (n = 151) and metal (n = 85) groups. Perioperative and postoperative data including operative time, fluoroscopy time, hemoglobin decrease, blood transfusion, hospital stay, stone-free rate and any postoperative complication were recorded. The groups were statistically similar in terms of operation time, nephrostomy stay, puncture location and hemoglobin decrease. Compared to the metal sheath group, the fluoroscopy time (3.7 vs 5.9 m, p dilatation technique were similar, metal sheaths are most cost-effective (6.1 vs 63 Euro per case; p < 0.001).

  5. The "visual dilator system": initial experimental evaluation of an optical tract dilation technique in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. (United States)

    Shah, Arvind K; Xu, Kewei; Liu, Hao; Lin, Tianxin; Xie, Kun; Huang, Hai; Han, Jinli; Fan, Xinxiang; Chen, Jia; Huang, Jian


    Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, or combination of both techniques, and it is still difficult to prevent overdilation causing perforation and vascular injury or underdilation causing difficulty in establishment of access. Thus, improvements in dilation technique bears clinical significance. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility in an animal model of using the "visual dilator system" for optimal percutaneous tract dilation under real-time visual guidance. The visual dilator system consisted of a transparent hollow dilator made of polyvinyl chloride and a rigid ureteroscope inserted within its lumen. The ureteroscope was connected to a standard endoscopic camera system. The dilator system backloaded with an access sheath was passed over a guidewire to dilate the tract and position the access sheath under visual guidance. Saline was used as irrigation to maintain clarity during dilation. The dilation technique was implemented to establish percutaneous access tract in six PCNL simulator models made from fresh porcine kidney placed inside an eviscerated chicken carcass and four female swine (eight kidneys) to experimentally evaluate its feasibility and efficacy. All tracts were successfully established with dilation through the intervening tissue layers, approach into the target calix, as well as access sheath placement being visually monitored through the dilator wall to confirm accuracy. All procedures were free of dilation-related complications such as collecting system perforation, excessive bleeding (in-vivo model), or loss of access. The limited number of animal models and lack of randomized comparative study with other dilator modalities were major drawbacks of the study. The study demonstrates feasibility of percutaneous access tract dilation using a Visual dilator system. This technique can provide

  6. Balloon Dilation of the Ureter: A Contemporary Review of Outcomes and Complications. (United States)

    Kuntz, Nicholas J; Neisius, Andreas; Tsivian, Matvey; Ghaffar, Momin; Patel, Nishant; Ferrandino, Michael N; Sur, Roger L; Preminger, Glenn M; Lipkin, Michael E


    During ureteroscopy ureteral balloon dilation may be necessary to allow for passage of endoscopic instruments or access sheaths. We assessed the efficacy and complications associated with ureteral balloon dilation. We retrospectively reviewed the records at 2 institutions from 2000 to 2012 to identify patients who underwent ureteral balloon dilation during ureteroscopic treatment of upper tract stones. An 18Fr balloon dilator was used in all cases. Patients with documented ureteral stricture, radiation therapy or urothelial cancer were excluded from analysis. Primary outcomes were the stone-free rate, operative complications, balloon dilation failure and the postoperative ureteral stricture rate. Complications were divided into intraoperative and postoperative groups according to the Satava and Clavien-Dindo classifications, respectively. A total of 151 patients fulfilled study criteria. Median followup was 12 months. The stone-free rate was 72% and median time to first postoperative imaging was 2.8 months. Balloon dilation failed in only 8 patients (5%). Eight intraoperative ureteral perforations (5%) were identified, which were managed by a ureteral stent in 7 patients and a percutaneous tube in 1. Endoscopic re-treatment was required in 4 patients with Satava 2b postoperative complications. The postoperative complication rate was 8% (11 cases). A single ureteral stricture was attributable to balloon dilation. In this contemporary review balloon dilation of the ureter before endoscopic treatment of stone disease was associated with a high success rate and few complications. Ureteral balloon dilation may decrease the need for a secondary procedure in patients undergoing ureteroscopy to manage proximal ureteral and intrarenal stones. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax


    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  8. The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center (United States)


    Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

  9. Dilated cardiomyopathy: diagnostic accuracy of endomyocardial biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonesaka, S.; Becker, A. E.


    A histopathological index of contractility failure, which was reported to be accurate for the diagnosis of idiopathic dilated or congestive cardiomyopathy in Japan, was used to assess endomyocardial biopsy specimens from 41 Dutch patients with suspected dilated cardiomyopathy. The calculated index

  10. Fluoroscopic guided benign oesophageal stricture dilatation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oesophageal fistula repair or gastro-oesopha- geal reflux disease[1] to poorer success rates in. BOSs secondary to caustic ingestion (33%).[5]. One study argued that balloon dilatation decreased hospital stay and postprocedural complications in comparison with bougienage dilatations.[5] In the available literature, bougie-.

  11. Percutaneous balloon dilatation for benign hepaticojejunostomy strictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P. M.; van Beek, E. J.; Smits, N. J.; Rauws, E. A.; Gouma, D. J.; Reeders, J. W.


    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous balloon dilatation of biliary tract strictures is generally accepted as a safe and inexpensive procedure. The effectiveness in selected groups of patients remains under discussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of percutaneous balloon dilatation in

  12. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  13. Dilatation of Sleeve Gastrectomy: Myth or Reality? (United States)

    Disse, Emmanuel; Pasquer, Arnaud; Pelascini, Elise; Valette, Pierre-Jean; Betry, Cecile; Laville, Martine; Gouillat, Christian; Robert, Maud


    The success of longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is perceived as being potentially limited by dilatation of the remaining gastric tube during the follow-up. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and the characteristics of sleeve dilatation during the first post-operative year. Gastric volumetry using 3D gastric computed tomography with gas expansion was performed in 54 successive subjects who underwent an LSG for morbid obesity at 3 and 12 months following surgery. Total gastric volume, volume of the gastric tube and the antrum, and diameter of the gastric tube were assessed after multiplanar reconstructions. An increase of at least 25 % of the total gastric volume was considered as sleeve dilatation. Percentage of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) and daily caloric intakes were recorded during the first 18 months. Sixty-one percent of the subjects experienced sleeve dilatation 1 year after surgery. The gastric tube was mainly involved in the sleeve dilatation process (+91 %). Sleeve dilatation occurred especially in subjects with smaller total gastric volume at baseline (189 vs 236 ml, p = 0.02). Daily caloric intake was similar between the groups at each point of the follow-up. No difference concerning %EBMIL was observed between the groups during the 18 months of follow-up. Sleeve dilatation occurred in more than 50 % of the patients. Dilatation was not necessarily linked to an increase of daily caloric intake and insufficient weight loss during the first 18 months following surgery. Small LSG at baseline is at higher risk of dilatation.

  14. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dilatation]. (United States)

    Iwami, G; Miyazaki, Y; Matsuyama, K; Shida, M; Ooga, M; Furuta, Y; Ikeda, H; Toshima, H; Chiba, M; Koga, Y


    There is increasing interest in the notion that some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) progress to morphological and functional manifestations similar to those of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). From 165 consecutive patients with HCM, 20 patients with left ventricular dilatation (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter greater than or equal to 50 mm) were selected and designated as dilated HCM. The diagnosis of HCM was established in these patients either by detection of the classical form of HCM in family members, with 2-dimensional echocardiographic evidence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH; septal thickness greater than or equal to 15 mm and a ratio of septal to posterior wall thickness greater than or equal to 1.3); or by demonstrating myocardial fiber disarray in autopsy or biopsy samples. The clinical manifestations of these patients with dilated HCM were then compared with those of other forms of HCM without left ventricular dilatation; 1) 40 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who had resting intraventricular pressure gradients of 20 mmHg or more, 2) 80 patients with non-obstructive HCM, each of whom had ASH of the entire ventricular septum (typical ASH), and 3) 25 non-obstructive patients whose hypertrophy was localized to the apical region of the ventricular septum (apical ASH). Patients having apical hypertrophy with a spade-like configuration on the left ventriculogram were excluded from the study. Compared with HOCM and typical ASH groups, the patients with dilated HCM had family histories of significantly more frequent HCM and less frequent hypertension. The patients with dilated HCM also had significantly less fractional shortening (FS), decreased interventricular septal thickness, greater left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and left ventricular dilatation. During the follow-up period (average: 3.5 years), seven patients (35%) with dilated HCM died; five from congestive heart failure (CHF), one

  15. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  16. Fluoroscopic guided benign oesophageal stricture dilatation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gilliard bougienage (SGB) with balloon dilatation and the combination of both methods for the treatment of BOSs in children at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Methods. A retrospective review of the patient notes on all children 12 ...

  17. Postoperative gastric dilatation causing abdominal compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krausz Michael M


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the effect of postoperative gastric dilatation on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP. Design and setting Single case report from a primary teaching hospital. Patients and methods A 72-year-old woman demonstrated a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse following resection of a retroperitoneal sarcoma. This collapse was caused by abdominal compartment syndrome due to gastric dilatation. Results The patient was re-explored, an enormously distended stomach was found with the nasogastric tube situated in a small sliding hernia which prevented drainage of the distended stomach. Re-positioning of the nasogastric tube, allowed the decompression of the stomach and the patient's condition immediately improved. Conclusion Acute abdominal distention following major abdominal surgery may result from acute gastric dilatation, leading to oliguria and increased airway pressures. Untreated gastric dilatation can cause abdominal compartment syndrome.

  18. Postoperative gastric dilatation causing abdominal compartment syndrome. (United States)

    Mahajna, Ahmad; Mitkal, Sharon; Krausz, Michael M


    To study the effect of postoperative gastric dilatation on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Single case report from a primary teaching hospital. A 72-year-old woman demonstrated a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse following resection of a retroperitoneal sarcoma. This collapse was caused by abdominal compartment syndrome due to gastric dilatation. The patient was re-explored, an enormously distended stomach was found with the nasogastric tube situated in a small sliding hernia which prevented drainage of the distended stomach. Re-positioning of the nasogastric tube, allowed the decompression of the stomach and the patient's condition immediately improved. Acute abdominal distention following major abdominal surgery may result from acute gastric dilatation, leading to oliguria and increased airway pressures. Untreated gastric dilatation can cause abdominal compartment syndrome.

  19. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma


    Full Text Available A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature.

  20. Dilatation or no dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section (Dondi Trial): a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Kirscht, Jade; Weiss, Christel; Nickol, Jana; Berlit, Sebastian; Tuschy, Benjamin; Hoch, Benjamin; Trebin, Amelie-Verena; Große-Steffen, Thomas; Sütterlin, Marc; Kehl, Sven


    To assess the effects of mechanical dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section on postoperative morbidity. A total of 447 women with elective cesarean section were included in the Dondi trial (Dilatation or no dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section). The primary outcome measure of this randomized controlled trial was postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) within 6 weeks. Infectious morbidity (puerperal fever, endometritis, wound infection, and urinary tract infection), blood loss (need for blood transfusion or change in hemoglobin levels), and operating time were also evaluated. The rate of PPH within 6 weeks was not different between the two groups [dilatation group: 5 (2.4 %), no dilatation group: 3 (1.2 %), p = 0.479]. Infectious morbidity, blood loss, and operating time were not diverse as well. The only significant difference between the two groups was the rate of retained products of conception with fewer cases after cervical dilatation (0 versus 6.2 %, p Dilatation of the cervix during cesarean section compared with no dilatation of the cervix did not influence the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. However, there were fewer cases with retained products of conception after dilatation.

  1. Balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Cheol Soo [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We analyzed the result of transurethral balloon dilatation in 11 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia with double lumen balloon catheter at 4 atmosphere for 10 minutes. After dilatation, the prostatism symptom scores improved in 10 out of 11 patients and the mean diameter of the prostatic urethra significantly increased form 4.3 mm to 10.2 mm ({rho} < 0.005). The procedures were successful not only in lateral lobe hypertrophy but also in median lobe hypertrophy of the prostate. Postdilatation MRI of 1 patient showed an intact prostatic capsule and no periprostatic hematoma. Complications did not develop except in 1 patient with mild hematuria and incontinence. These preliminary results suggest that transurethral balloon dilatation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for benign prostatic hypertrophy.

  2. Paleogeographical reconstructions compatible with Earth dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera


    Full Text Available The present research concerns the study of the possibility of an increase in the size of the Earthbecause of a still unknown process. After a previous recognition of the existence in the Pacific of shape conformities in a number of pairs of continental and oceanic boundaries (Scalera, 1991, 1993a, a search for compatibility of these results with independent data sets, paleomagnetic and geological and paleontological was undertaken. The conclusion is that the Earth's dilatation is compatible with the used data, while nothing can be affirmed with certainty about the dilatation process or its continuity or discontinuity through geological time. A tentative model of the evolution of the trench-arc-backarc systems has been provided, tuning it in agreement with a dilatational planet.

  3. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzok


    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10 or prescrotal (n= 2 swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4 and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6. Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2. Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves.

  4. [Pneumatic dilation in the treatment of achalasia]. (United States)

    Ruiz Cuesta, Patricia; Hervás Molina, Antonio José; Jurado García, Juan; Pleguezuelo Navarro, María; García Sánchez, Valle; Casáis Juanena, Luis L; Gálvez Calderón, Carmen; Naranjo Rodríguez, Antonio


    Pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy are currently the procedures of choice to treat achalasia. The selection of one or other treatment depends on the experience of each center and patient preferences. To review the experience of pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia in our center. We included all patients with a clinical, endoscopic and manometric diagnosis compatible with achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation in a 19-year period. All dilations were routinely performed with a Rigiflex(®) balloon, usually at pressures of 250, 250 and 300mm Hg in three inflations of one minute, each separated by one minute. The success of the dilation was assessed on the basis of the patient's symptoms, the number of sessions, the need for surgery, and the presence of complications. A total of 171 patients were included, 53.2% men and 46.8% women, with a mean age of 51.53±17.78 years (16-87 years), from June 1993 to October 2012. A 35-mm balloon was used in 157 patients, a 30-mm balloon in 9 patients and a 40-mm balloon in 7 patients. A single dilation session was required in 108 patients, two sessions were required in 56 patients, with a mean time between the first and second sessions of 25.23±43.25 months (1-215 months), and 3 sessions were required in 7 patients with a mean time between the second and third sessions of 6.86±5.33 months (1-15 months). Outcome after dilation was successful in 81% of the patients. Of the 140 responders, 121 had complete response (complete disappearance of symptoms without recurrence) and 19 partial response (initial disappearance of symptoms with subsequent reappearance). Surgery (Heller myotomy) was required in 15.8% of the patients. Perforation occurred in 4 of the 171 patients as a complication of the technique; these perforations were satisfactorily resolved, two by conservative treatment and two by surgery. There was no mortality associated with the technique or its complications. In our series, pneumatic dilation had a

  5. Predictors of early aortic neck dilatation after endovascular aneurysm repair with EndoAnchors. (United States)

    Tassiopoulos, Apostolos K; Monastiriotis, Spyridon; Jordan, William D; Muhs, Bart E; Ouriel, Kenneth; De Vries, Jean Paul


    Dilatation of the aorta within the proximal neck after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) can be associated with late endoleaks and migration. This study was designed to identify predictors of early neck dilation in patients undergoing EVAR with Heli-FX EndoAnchors (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif) measured perioperatively to 1 year at different longitudinal levels of neck length. The study group of Aneurysm Treatment Using the Heli-FX Aortic Securement System (ANCHOR) comprises 257 consecutive patients prospectively enrolled between April 2012 and September 2014 undergoing EVAR with Heli-FX EndoAnchor implantation at 38 investigational sites. Only patients undergoing EndoAnchor implantation at the time of the initial EVAR were included (primary treatment arm). Aortic diameter was measured at the suprarenal level and at three levels within the proximal neck. Neck dilatation was assessed in 209 patients with adequate computed tomography imaging at baseline and 1 month and in 62 patients at 1 month and 1 year (mean, 11.9 ± 4.0 months). Multivariable analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of perioperative (baseline to 1 month) and early postoperative (1 month to 1 year) aortic dilation at each level; analyses included 6 candidate variables, 6 clinical, and 14 anatomic run in eight models (one at each of the four aortic levels for both time frames). The mean aortic neck dilation at 1 month was 0.2 ± 1.7 mm, 0.7 ± 2.2 mm, and 0.9 ± 3.6 mm at 0 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm below the lowest renal artery, and 0.0 ± 1.5 mm at the suprarenal level. From 1 month to 1 year, neck dilatation was 0.5 ± 1.6 mm, 0.4 ± 1.5 mm, 0.2 ± 1.8 mm, and -0.3 ± 1.1 mm at the same four levels, respectively. Dilatation of ≥3 mm at level 5 mm distal to the lowest renal artery was observed in 26 patients (12.5%) from preoperative to 1 month and in 5 patients (8.1%) between 1 month and 1 year. Multivariable regression identified several

  6. Ventricular dilatation in aging and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Walter Miguel


    The general objective of this thesis was to study the causes and consequences of ventricular dilatation in aging and dementia. For this purpose, we used ventricular shape analysis to study potential new MRI markers of cognitive decline in aging, subjective memory complaints, mild cognitive

  7. Hydraulic urethral dilatation after optical internal urethrotomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the rate of early recurrence of urethral stricture in the first six months in patients who perform hydraulic urethral dilatation(HUD) after optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and compare the early recurrence Fate in patients who perform HUD after OIU with the recurrence rates in patients reported in the ...

  8. A Symmetry Approach to Time Dilation. (United States)

    Dunne, Peter


    Outlines an approach to introduce students to special relativity using a discussion of stopclocks and measurement of the transmission of light pulses to produce a natural derivation of the time dilation factor. Aims at providing a frame of reference from which they can be tempted to explore special relativity at a more sophisticated level. (JRH)

  9. Kissing balloon or sequential dilation of the side branch and main vessel for provisional stenting of bifurcations: lessons from micro-computed tomography and computational simulations. (United States)

    Foin, Nicolas; Torii, Ryo; Mortier, Peter; De Beule, Mathieu; Viceconte, Nicola; Chan, Pak Hei; Davies, Justin E; Xu, Xiao Yun; Krams, Rob; Di Mario, Carlo


    This study sought to evaluate post-dilation strategies in bifurcation stenting. In bifurcation stenting practice, it is still controversial how post-dilation should be performed and whether the kissing balloon (KB) technique is mandatory when only the main vessel (MV) receives a stent. A series of drug-eluting stents (DES) (n = 26) were deployed in a coronary bifurcation model following a provisional approach. After the deployment of the stent in the MV, post-dilation with the KB technique was compared with a 2-step, sequential post-dilation of the side branch (SB) and MV without kissing. The percentage of the SB lumen area free of stent struts was similar after KB (79.1 ± 8.7%) and after the 2-step sequence (74.4 ± 11.6%, p = 0.25), a considerable improvement compared with MV stenting only without dilation of the stent at the SB ostium (30.8 ± 7.8%, p stress concentration proximal to the SB. KB also led to a higher risk of incomplete stent apposition at the proximal stent edge (30.7 ± 26.4% vs. 2.8 ± 9.6% for 2-step, p = 0.0016). Sequential 2-step post-dilation of the SB and MV may offer a simpler and more efficient alternative to final KB technique for provisional stenting of bifurcations. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  11. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (United States)

    ... JP. Clinical utility gene card for: dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD). Eur J Hum Genet. 2013 Oct;21(10). ... JP. Clinical utility gene card for: dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD). Eur J Hum Genet. 2013 Oct;21(10). ...

  13. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  14. Dilation Time in Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation for Common Bile Duct Stones. (United States)

    Shen, Yong-Hua; Yang, Liu-Qing; Yao, Yu-Ling; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yi-Yang; Cao, Jun; He, Qi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Ping; Li, Yun-Hong


    To assess the short-term outcomes after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) versus EPBD alone and appropriate balloon dilation time in EPBD alone. A total of 413 patients with common bile duct stones (CBDSs) were included in the EST plus EPBD group and 84 were in the EPBD alone group. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy between EST plus EPBD and EPBD alone group. The patients in EPBD alone group were assigned to dilation time ≥5 minutes group (n=35) and time dilation time on the procedure-related complications. Compared with EST plus EPBD, the patients in EPBD alone group were younger [56.6 (range: 18 to 95) vs. 65.1 (24 to 92) y; P=0.006], had smaller diameter of the largest stone [10.4 (range: 3 to 20) vs. 12.3 (5 to 30) mm; Pdilation time dilation time ≥5 minutes group had less procedure-related hemorrhage than the EST plus EPBD group [0 vs. 36 (8.7%); P=0.047]. Long balloon dilation time in EPBD alone is safe and effective in treating CBDSs.

  15. Segmental dilatation of colon associated with anorectal malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan J


    Full Text Available Children with segmental dilatation of the colon suffer severe constipation and are clinically indistinguishable from Hirschsprung disease. Segmental dilatation of colon is rare in neonates. In this report, a neonate with unusual combination of segmental dilatation of the colon and high anorectal malformation is presented.

  16. Acute gastric dilatation secondary to septicemia in newborn: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute gastric dilatation in a newborn is a rarely encountered clinical entity. Such dilatation without any obstruction is furthermore rare. The authors hereby present a rare case of acute gastric dilatation that developed in a two-days old child who was born premature and was suffering from septicemia and respiratory distress.

  17. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  18. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  19. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  20. Safety of dilation in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis. (United States)

    Ally, M R; Dias, J; Veerappan, G R; Maydonovitch, C L; Wong, R K; Moawad, F J


    Esophageal dilation is an effective therapy for dysphagia in patients with stenosing eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Historically, there have been significant concerns of increased perforation rates when dilating EoE patients. More recent studies suggest that improved techniques and increased awareness have decreased complication rates. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of dilation in our population of EoE patients. A retrospective review of all adult EoE patients enrolled in a registry from 2006 to 2010 was performed. All patients who underwent esophageal dilation during this time period were identified and included in the analysis. Our hospital inpatient/outpatient medical records, radiology reports, and endoscopy reports were searched for evidence of any complication following dilation. Perforation, hemorrhage, and hospitalization were identified as a major complication, and chest pain was considered a minor complication. One hundred and ninety-six patients (41 years [12]; mean age [standard deviation], 80% white, 85% male) were identified. In this cohort, 54 patients (28%) underwent 66 total dilations (seven patients underwent two dilations, one patient underwent three dilations, and one patient underwent four dilations). Three dilation techniques were used (Maloney [24], Savary [29] and through-the-scope [13]). There were no major complications encountered. Chest pain was noted in two patients (4%). There were no endoscopic features (rings, furrows, plaques) associated with any complication. Type of dilator, size of dilator, number of prior dilations, and age of patient were also not associated with complications. Endoscopic dilation using a variety of dilators can be safely performed with minimal complications in patients with EoE. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels (United States)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.


    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting “noisiness” of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  2. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Filippo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Eisert, Jens [Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universitaet Berlin, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Holevo, Alexander S. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkina 8, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  3. Constitutive Equations of Rock with Shear Dilatancy (United States)


    AD-AOll 402 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS OF ROCK WITH SHEAR DILATANCY Alfred M. Freudenthal George Washington University Prepared for: Army Research...Freudenthal April 1975 U.S. Army Research Office - Durham Grant No. DA-ARO-D-31-124-73-G194 The George Washington University School of Engineering and...diagonalizes the matrix [A]. The Hamilton- Cayley theorem,which states that a symetric matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation, transforms Eq.(2.2

  4. CT in thrombosed dilated posterior epidural vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammatter, S.; Schnyder, P.; Preux, J. de


    The authors report a case of thrombosis of the distal end of an enlarged right posterior epidural vein. The patient had a markedly narrow lumbar canal due to L5 spondylolisthesis. The dilated vein and the thrombosis were displayed by computed tomography but remained unrecognized until surgery. Pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. A review of the English, French and German literature revealed no prior radiological reports of a similar condition.

  5. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  6. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  7. [A reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy: hypocalcemia]. (United States)

    Benzarouel, D; Hasni, K; Ashab, H; El Hattaoui, M


    Hypocalcemia is very rare reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) witch can concern one or both ventricules. We here presented two cases of DCMP that caused by hypocalcemia and recovered totally after oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. CASE PRESENTATION 1: A 29-year-old Caucasian female was admitted in our hospital due to congestive heart failure with dyspnea (NYHA class IV) and generalized edema for 2days. She had a history of total thyroidectomy one year a go. She had taken synthyroid as a daily medication associated to calcium supplementation and vitamin D because of hypoparathyroidism. Patient was not compliant to treatment. Trans thoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a dilated left ventricule (LV) with global hypokinesia with 28% of left ventricule ejection and moderate mitral regurgitation. Laboratory test showed a severe hypocalcemia. After correction of hypocalcemia, there was a clear clinical improvement and four months later a total recovery was found. CASE PRESENTATION 2: A 44-year-old Caucasian male was referred to the hospital for rebel congestive heart failure with dyspnea and edema of lower limbs despite optimal treatment. Patient had no medical past history. TEE showed dilated cardiomyopathy with severe alteration of left ventricule systolic function (25%). Biological tests showed a hypocalcemia and primary hypoparathyroidism. An improvement of symptoms after correction of metabolic disorder was found. LV gradually recovered its performance. Patients outcome in end stage heart failure is different from the classical outcomes in patients with hypocalcemia induced heart disease. DCMP induced by hypocalcemia should be considered in patients with heart failure associated with medical conditions leading to hypocalcemia. It requires a specific treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Superluminality in dilatationally invariant generalized Galileon theories (United States)

    Kolevatov, R. S.


    We consider small perturbations about homogeneous backgrounds in dilatationally invariant Galileon models. The issues we address are stability (absence of ghosts and gradient instabilities) and superluminality. We show that in the Minkowski background, it is possible to construct the Lagrangian in such a way that any homogeneous Galileon background solution is stable and small perturbations about it are subluminal. On the other hand, in the case of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) backgrounds, for any Lagrangian functions there exist homogeneous background solutions to the Galileon equation of motion and time dependence of the scale factor, such that the stability conditions are satisfied, but the Galileon perturbations propagate with superluminal speed.

  9. Flow-mediated dilation and cardiovascular event prediction: does nitric oxide matter? (United States)

    Green, Daniel J; Jones, Helen; Thijssen, Dick; Cable, N T; Atkinson, Greg


    Endothelial dysfunction is an early atherosclerotic event that precedes clinical symptoms and may also render established plaque vulnerable to rupture. Noninvasive assessment of endothelial function is commonly undertaken using the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique. Some studies indicate that FMD possesses independent prognostic value to predict future cardiovascular events that may exceed that associated with traditional risk factor assessment. It has been assumed that this association is related to the proposal that FMD provides an index of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) function. Interestingly, placement of the occlusion cuff during the FMD procedure alters the shear stress stimulus and NO dependency of the resulting dilation: cuff placement distal to the imaged artery leads to a largely NO-mediated response, whereas proximal cuff placement leads to dilation which is less NO dependent. We used this physiological observation and the knowledge that prognostic studies have used both approaches to examine whether the prognostic capacity of FMD is related to its role as a putative index of NO function. In a meta-analysis of 14 studies (>8300 subjects), we found that FMD derived using a proximal cuff was at least as predictive as that derived using distal cuff placement, despite the latter being more NO dependent. This suggests that, whilst FMD is strongly predictive of future cardiovascular events, this may not solely be related to its assumed NO dependency. Although this finding should be confirmed with more and larger studies, we suggest that any direct measure of vascular (endothelial) function may provide independent prognostic information in humans.

  10. Gastric Dilation and Volvulus Syndrome in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami S. Bhatia

    Full Text Available Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV in dogs is an abnormal accumulation of gastric gas (dilatation, which may be complicated by rotation of the stomach (volvulus about its mesentric axis. A number of factors, both environmental and host have been implicated in GDV. This syndrome has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, haemolymphatic-immune, renal and central nervous systems. Clinical signs include distended, painful, tympanic abdomen, retching, unproductive vomiting, hypersalivation, respiratory distress accompanied by varying degrees of shock. Treatment of GDV includes medical and fluid therapy at shock dosages to initially stabilize the patient followed by gastric decompression. Surgical procedure comprises of gastric derotation followed by partial gastrectomy or spleenectomy depending upon gastric or spleenic viability and lastly, permanent right sided gastropexy. Post surgical considerations include frequent small meals instead of one large meal, avoiding vigorous activity immediately after meals and not allowing animal to gorge on water after meals or activities. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 554-557

  11. Rigid bronchoscOpic dilatation of postintubation tracheal stenosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trice, dilatation percutanée, dilatation bronchospique rigide, dilatation de la technologie des fibres optiques de la bulle ct. Nd;YAG (neodymium yttritium - aluminium garnet) la théra- pie laser avec ou sans le stenting. Méthodes: Trois malade du sexe féminins avec une histoire des périodes diverscs d'intubation endotrachée ...

  12. One-stage surgical correction of proximal hypospadias. (United States)

    Joseph, V T


    Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.

  13. [Aortic root dilatation rate in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome treated with losartan]. (United States)

    Mariucci, Elisabetta; Guidarini, Marta; Donti, Andrea; Lovato, Luigi; Wischmeijer, Anita; Angeli, Emanuela; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Picchio, Fernando M; Bonvicini, Marco


    Medical therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or beta-blockers was reported to reduce aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome. No data are available in the literature on losartan effects after 3 years of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish whether losartan reduces aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. This is a retrospective analysis of 38 pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome followed at the Marfan Clinic of S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of the University of Bologna (Italy). Aortic diameters were measured at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta with transthoracic echocardiography. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.5 years (range 2-9 years), aortic root z score at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta remained stable. The average annual rate of change in aortic root z score was -0.1 ± 0.4 and 0 ± 0.3 at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta, respectively. The mean dose of losartan was 0.7 ± 0.3 mg/kg/day. Three patients were non-responders, probably because of late beginning or low dose of therapy. Eight patients underwent cardiac surgery (aortic root surgery in 5 and mitral valve repair in 3), all of them started losartan later in life. Despite the retrospective design of the study and the small sample size, a beneficial effect of losartan therapy was observed in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. Late beginning or low doses of losartan can turn off the effects of therapy.

  14. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  15. Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy (United States)

    Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick


    Background Many vaginal dilator therapy guidelines advocate routine vaginal dilation during and after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina). The UK Gynaecological Oncology Nurse Forum recommend dilation “three times weekly for an indefinite time period”. The UK patient charity Cancer Backup advises using vaginal dilators from two to eight weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment. Australian guidelines recommend dilation after brachytherapy “as soon as is comfortably possible” and “certainly within four weeks and to continue for three years or indefinitely if possible”. However, dilation is intrusive, uses health resources and can be psychologically distressing. It has also caused rare but very serious damage to the rectum. Objectives To review the benefits and harms of vaginal dilation therapy associated with pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Search methods Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008) and CINAHL (1982 to 2008). Selection criteria Any comparative randomised controlled trials (RCT) or data of any type which compared dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Data collection and analysis The review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed the mean difference in sexual function scores and the risk ratio for non-compliance at six weeks and three months in single trial analyses. No trials met the inclusion criteria. Main results Dilation during or immediately after radiotherapy can, in rare cases, cause damage and there is no persuasive evidence from any study to demonstrate that it prevents stenosis. Data from one RCT showed no improvement in sexual scores in women who were encouraged to practice dilation. Two case series and one comparative study using historical controls suggest that dilation might be


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  17. with Dilated Cardiomyopathy; Clinical and Prognostic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Akgun


    Full Text Available The QRS represents the simultaneous activation of the right and left ventricles, although mostof the QRS waveform is derived from the larger left ventricular musculature. Although normalQRS duration is <100 millisecond (ms, its duration and shape are quite variable from patient topatient in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM. Prolongation of QRS occurs in 14% to 47%of heart failure (HF patients. Left bundle branch block (LBBB is far more common than rightbundle branch block (RBBB. Dyssynchronous left ventricular activation due to LBBB and otherintraventricular conduction blocks provides the rationale for the use of cardiac resynchronizationtherapy with biventricular pacing in patients with IDCM. Fragmented QRS (fQRS is a markerof depolarization abnormality and present in significant number of the patients with IDCM andnarrow QRS complexes. It is associated with arrhythmic events and intraventricular dyssynchrony.The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview on some clinical, echocardiographic andprognostic implications of various QRS morphologies in patients with IDCM.

  18. A Case Report of Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singhai


    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is mostly an idiopathic disease with a progressive and irreversible course. It carries poor prognosis and outcome. Rarely, a reversible metabolic etiology that is amenable to specific therapy is identified. Alteration in thyroid status can lead to changes in systolic and diastolic function of left ventricle. Heart is sensitive to thyroid hormone changes, and cardiac disorders are commonly associated with both hyper and hypothyroidism. Diastolic dysfunction is the most common abnormality reported in hypothyroidism. In systolic function, prolonged systolic time interval or normal cardiac function has been reported by most workers. DCM is a rare presentation of hypothyroidism. Here, we report a case of 40-year-old female diagnosed with DCM due to hypothyroidism

  19. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Del Álamo, Juan C


    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1-74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m(2)/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound.

  20. Classification of pediatric urinary tract dilation: the new language. (United States)

    Chow, Jeanne S; Koning, Jeffrey L; Back, Susan J; Nguyen, Hiep T; Phelps, Andrew; Darge, Kassa


    The multidisciplinary consensus on the classification of prenatal and postnatal urinary tract dilation (UTD classification system) was created to unify the language used to describe urinary tract dilation on antenatal and postnatal ultrasound examinations and thereby facilitate communication among providers and improve outcomes research. The background and new classification system are described in this review, with imaging examples.

  1. Segmental dilatation of ureter: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemonta Kr. Dutta


    Full Text Available Segmental dilatation of ureter is a giant, focal segmental ureteral dilatation producing an elongated and distorted ureter. Two children presented with this condition, one had ipsilateral megacalycosis and contralateral vesicoureteric reflux. The other had duplication of the kidney. The non-functioning lower moiety showed structure of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

  2. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria...

  3. Dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with abdominal neuroblastoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Dilated cardiomyopathy as an initial presentation of neuroblastoma is rare. We report the case of a three-year-old child with giant abdominal neuroblastoma encasing the abdominal aorta who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy in heart failure ...

  4. Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Children: Natural History and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common type of heart muscle disease in children with idiopathic etiology in the majority of cases. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is a severe illness which carries a high mortality rate in the pediatric population. In order to characterize IDCM evolution and identify prognostic ...

  5. Molecular genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Dobermann dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabej, Polona


    Canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium associated with dilatation and impaired contraction of the ventricles. It primarily affects large and giant breed dogs with Dobermanns being one of the most frequently affected. The high prevalence of DCM in specific breeds suggests

  6. Cystic dilation of the ventriculus terminalis in adults. (United States)

    Ciappetta, Pasqualino; D'urso, Pietro Ivo; Luzzi, Sabino; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Antonia; Resta, Leonardo


    The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a small ependyma-lined cavity within the conus medullaris that is in direct continuity with the central canal of the anterior portion of the spinal cord. Normally, such a cavity is identifiable only histologically in children and adults and can be visualized using common neuroradiological techniques only after dilation. Currently, the mechanisms of isolated dilation are not documented. The present work describes 2 cases of VT in elderly patients. Data from a histological and ultrastructural study of a case of VT dilation are reported, and the results are compared with those obtained from the VT of 5 fetuses to explain the nosological aspects of nontumoral VT lesions. Our data suggest that the site, age, and histological characteristics of the lesion allow us to define VT dilation as a nosological entity distinct from other cystic dilations of the conus medullaris.

  7. Gravitational time dilation induced decoherence in spontaneous emission (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min


    We investigate decoherence of quantum superpositions induced by gravitational time dilation and spontaneous emission between two atomic levels. It has been shown that gravitational time dilation can be a universal decoherence source by Pikovski et al. Here, we consider the decoherence induced by the gravitational time dilation only in the situation of spontaneous emission. We obtain the analytical results of the coherence of particle’s position state. Then, we obtain that the coherence of particle’s position state depends on reference frame because the time dilation changes the distinguishability of emitted photons from two positions of particle in different reference frames. For observing the decoherence effect induced by the gravitational time dilation, time-delayed feedback can be utilized to increase the decoherence of particle’s superposition state.

  8. Changes in intraocular pressure after pharmacologic pupil dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Joon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraocular pressure (IOP may vary according to the change of ocular conditions. In this study, we want to assess the effect and mechanism of pupil dilation on IOP in normal subjects. Methods We prospectively evaluated 32 eyes of 32 patients (age; 61.7 ± 8.2 years with normal open angles under diurnal IOP. IOP was measured every two hours from 9 AM to 11 PM for one day to establish baseline values and was measured again for one day to assess the differences after dilation. To induce dilation, we administered 2.5% phenylephrine and 1% tropicamide every 5 minutes from 8:30 AM to 8:45 AM and for every two hours from 11 AM to 9 PM to keep the pupil dilated. Diurnal IOP, biometry, Visante OCT, and laser flare photometry were measured before and after dilation. Results We observed a significant increase in IOP after dilation, 1.85 ± 2.01 mmHg (p = 0.002. IOP elevation remained significant until about four hours after dilation. Thereafter, IOP decreased slowly and eventually reached pre-dilation level (p > 0.05. Flare values decreased, and the anterior chamber angle became wider after mydriasis. Conclusions Dilation of the pupil significantly and incidentally elevated IOP in normal subjects. Further related studies are warranted to characterize the mechanism of the increased IOP after dilation.

  9. Endoscopic Balloon Dilation of Esophageal Strictures in 9 Horses. (United States)

    Prutton, J S W; Marks, S L; Aleman, M


    Medical treatment of esophageal strictures in horses is limited and the use of balloon dilatation is described in few cases. Long-term follow up after balloon dilatation and the use of intralesional corticosteroids has not been evaluated. To describe the use of endoscopic guided, esophageal balloon dilatation in horses for cervical and thoracic esophageal strictures and administration of intralesional corticosteroids at the time of dilatation. Nine horses from the hospital population with benign esophageal strictures. Retrospective study: Medical records were reviewed from horses presented to the William R. Pritchard, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at UC Davis from 2002 to 2013. Records were searched using the key words: equine, horse, balloon dilatation, bougienage, and esophageal stricture. Nine horses with esophageal strictures were treated with esophageal balloon dilatation. Five horses survived (survival at writing ranged from 2 to 11 years after discharge) and all nonsurvivors were dilatation. Intralesional corticosteroids might reduce the incidence of recurrent strictures. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. The Mutations Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruti Parvari


    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure and a major indication for heart transplantation in children and adults. This paper describes the state of the genetic knowledge of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. The identification of the causing mutation is important since presymptomatic interventions of DCM have proven value in preventing morbidity and mortality. Additionally, as in general in genetic studies, the identification of the mutated genes has a direct clinical impact for the families and population involved. Identifying causative mutations immediately amplifies the possibilities for disease prevention through carrier screening and prenatal testing. This often lifts a burden of social isolation from affected families, since healthy family members can be assured of having healthy children. Identification of the mutated genes holds the potential to lead to the understanding of disease etiology, pathophysiology, and therefore potential therapy. This paper presents the genetic variations, or disease-causing mutations, contributing to the pathogenesis of hereditary DCM, and tries to relate these to the functions of the mutated genes.

  11. Dilated intercellular spaces in eosinophilic esophagitis. (United States)

    Ravelli, Alberto; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cadei, Moris; Fuoti, Maurizio; Gennati, Giada; Salemme, Marianna


    Dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) in the esophageal epithelium can be induced by acid and reduced by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), and are thus considered a marker of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Over the years, however, DIS have also been reported in esophagitis unrelated to GERD. Because DIS have never been formally measured in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), we aimed at detecting and measuring DIS in EoE before and after nutritional or pharmacological therapy. In 22 children with EoE, DIS were measured by morphometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), before and after treatment with topical steroids (n = 16) and/or exclusion diet (n = 13). A total of 30 children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy for nonesophageal disorders acted as controls. In controls, the mean (± standard deviation [SD]) number of esophageal eosinophils was 0.91 (± 0.47) and the mean DIS values were 0.62 (± 0.08) μm at morphometry and 0.33 (± 0.24) μm at TEM. In patients with EoE, the mean (± SD) number of esophageal eosinophils decreased from 31.8 (± 6.96) to 6.64 (± 5.01) (P treatment. DIS are a prominent morphological feature of EoE, in which they can be significantly reduced by an appropriate non-PPI therapy.

  12. Right heart dilatation: a rare vascular cause. (United States)

    Dima, Ioanna; Deshpande, Aparna


    A 17-year-old boy with primary cardiac diagnosis of cor triatriatum, atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was referred for a cardiac MRI. He was operated on at 3 months of age with correction of the above-mentioned defects. During follow-up, on echocardiogram, he gradually developed moderate right ventricular dilation with preserved systolic function and a trace of tricuspid regurgitation. The interatrial septum was intact and the left chambers looked normal in size (see online supplementary video 1). Clinically, he was active and asymptomatic with saturations of 99% on air. Consequently, he was referred for an MRI scan to look for possible causes. The images are seen in figure 1. What diagnosis would you suspect from figure 1?Arteriovenous malformationLeft superior vena cavaLevoatriocardinal veinMeandering pulmonary vein. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    This paper analyzes the first order behavior (that is, the right sided derivative) of the volume of the dilation A ⊕ tQ as t converges to zero. Here A and Q are subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space, A has bounded perimeter and Q is compact. If Q consists of two points only, x and x+u, say......, this derivative coincides up to sign with the directional derivative of the covariogram of A in direction u. By known results for the covariogram, this derivative can therefore be expressed by the cosine transform of the surface area measure of A. We extend this result to sets Q that are at most countable and use...... it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....

  14. Spatial Markov Semigroups Admit Hudson-Parthasarathy Dilations


    Skeide, Michael


    For many Markov semigroups dilations in the sense of Hudson and Parthasarathy, that is a dilation which is a cocycle perturbation of a noise, have been constructed with the help of quantum stochastic calculi. In these notes we show that every Markov semigroup on the algebra of all bounded operators on a separable Hilbert space that is spatial in the sense of Arveson, admits a Hudson-Parthasarathy dilation. In a sense, the opposite is also true. The proof is based on general results on the the...

  15. Acute gastric dilatation and volvulus in a free-living polar bear (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielsen, Carol A.


    A large, adult male polar bear (Ursus maritimus) was found dead on a barrier island north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (USA), in June 1987. There were no external signs of trauma. A twisted distended stomach, distinctive parenchymal and fascial congestion, and significant difficulty in repositioning the anterior abdominal organs, indicated that gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) was the proximate cause of death. Polar bears frequently consume large quantities of food at one time and have large stomachs that are well adapted to periodic gorging. The scarcity of food in winter and early spring, combined with voluntary fasting and protracted vigorous activity during the breeding season in late spring may have predisposed this bear to GDV. The relationship between GDV and postprandial exercise emphasizes the need for a better understanding of how the present human invasion of arctic habitats may influence polar bear activities.

  16. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  17. Biodynamics of the cervical dilatation in human labor. (United States)

    Hashimoto, T; Furuya, H; Fujita, M; Yokokawa, T; Kino, H; Kokuho, K; Tanaka, A


    We recorded the pressure between the fetus and birth canal (PFB) with small strain-gauge type pressure transducers in 37 cases of human labor and estimated expulsive activity for evaluation of the expulsive forces. Expulsive activity increased progressively in conjunction with cervical dilatation and markedly increased after rupture of the membranes. At less than 200 Hashimoto units of expulsive activity, the cervical canal could not be dilated and labor was prolonged in all periods of the first stage of labor. There were three types of modes of changes in the expulsive activities at three points on the cervical canal. These three types had different clinical characteristics of cervical dilatation during labor. New parameters such as the expulsive effort, efficiency index and resistance index of the uterine cervix, estimated together with the expulsive activity, were proposed in an attempt to evaluate the effect of expulsive forces on cervical dilatation.

  18. Refractory esophageal strictures: what to do when dilation fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckel, P.G. van; Siersema, P.D.


    OPINION STATEMENT: Benign esophageal strictures arise from a diversity of causes, for example esophagogastric reflux, esophageal resection, radiation therapy, ablative therapy, or the ingestion of a corrosive substance. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation using

  19. Genetics Home Reference: dilated cardiomyopathy with ataxia syndrome (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type V Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (4 links) Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago: Cardiomyopathy Baby's First Test MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Dilated Cardiomyopathy National ...

  20. Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants. (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine; Arslan, Melda; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Roeyers, Herbert; Gredebäck, Gustaf


    Being sensitive and responsive to others' internal states is critical for social life. One reliable cue to what others might be feeling is pupil dilation because it is linked to increases in arousal. When adults view an individual with dilated pupils, their pupils dilate in response, suggesting not only sensitivity to pupil size, but a corresponding response as well. However, little is known about the origins or mechanism underlying this phenomenon of pupillary contagion. Here we show that 4- to 6-month-old infants show pupillary contagion when viewing photographs of eyes with varying pupil sizes: their pupils dilate in response to others' large, but not small or medium pupils. The results suggest that pupillary contagion is likely driven by a transfer of arousal and that it is present very early in life in human infants, supporting the view that it could be an adaptation fundamental for social and emotional development.

  1. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  2. [Genetic diagnosis of familial dilated cardiomyopathy]. (United States)

    Pasotti, Michele; Repetto, Alessandra; Pisani, Angela; Arbustini, Eloisa


    The definition of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is clinically based on the presence, in the same family, of at least two members proven as affected. The prevalence of familial forms is about 25-30%. The approach to define the prevalence of familial diseases and to identify asymptomatic subjects is based on a clinical, non-invasive screening of family members of consecutive index patients. Familial DCM is commonly inherited as autosomal dominant trait; less frequently it is autosomal recessive, X-linked or matrilinear. The disease is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Genes causally linked to this phenotype include dystrophin, dystrophin-associated glycoproteins, actin, desmin, beta-miosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, and mitochondrial DNA genes, mostly transfer RNAs. A peculiar phenotype is DCM associated with atrioventricular block, an autosomal dominant disorder that is causally linked to lamin A/C gene defects in a high proportion of cases. Although the knowledge on molecular genetics of DCM is progressively increasing, at present, the number of molecular diagnoses that can be provided to patients is limited to a few X-linked, autosomal dominant and matrilinear DCMs (overall, about 10% of DCMs). The new clinical approach to familial DCM studies, based on the screening of family members, will bring to the cardiologist's attention both patients and relatives, with extension of the clinical evaluation to subjects who are still healthy. On the other hand, molecular genetists will face a complex molecular field, for both high heterogeneity and poor phenotypical specificity. Therefore, interdisciplinary clinical and research projects are especially needed, hopefully coordinated by scientific societies.

  3. Efficacy of pneumatic dilatation in Saudi achalasia patients. (United States)

    Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Samarkandi, Sara; Al-Harbi, Tahani; Al-Radhi, Haifa; Almadi, Majid A


    Pneumatic dilatation (PD) is one of the effective treatments of achalasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pneumatic dilation and patient satisfaction in Saudi achalasia patients. We have retrospectively recruited patients with confirmed achalasia, who underwent at least one dilatation session from January 1990 to January 2010 at a single tertiary center. Symptoms, including weight loss, dysphagia, retrosternal pain, and regurgitation, were assessed with the use of the Eckardt score (which ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more pronounced symptoms). All patients were called and asked about their Eckardt score in addition to their satisfaction score post the dilatation procedure. The primary outcome was therapeutic success (Eckardt score≤3) and patient satisfaction at the time of their calls. The secondary outcomes included the need for retreatment and the rate of complications. A total of 29 patients were included, with a mean age of 40.30 (95% CI: 36.1-44.6) and 55.2% of them were males. The mean of the pre-dilatation Eckardt score was 8.3 (95% CI: 7.2-9.4), which dropped to 2.59 (95% CI: 1.7-3.5) after PD (Pdilatation and a total failure in two patients (7%) after the third dilatation. The mean number of dilatations was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.5) where 50.7% required one dilatation, 19.2% required two dilatations, and 30.1% required three dilatations. The mean of the symptoms-free period was 53.4 months (SD 52.7, range 1-180) with symptoms recurring in 35% of patients within 2 years. The mean of post-PD patient satisfaction was 7.45 (95% CI: 6.2-8.7). Perforation, which was treated conservatively, occurred in one patient (3.5%), whereas bleeding occurred in two patients (7%). Age or gender was not found to be a predictor of Eckardt score improvement on multivariate linear regression analysis. PD is an efficacious procedure in Saudi achalasia patients with a very good overall patient satisfaction with 53.4 months of symptoms

  4. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)


    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  5. Bilateral Dilated Nonreactive Pupils in a Neonate After Surgery. (United States)

    Joyce, Christine; Greenwald, Bruce M; Han, Peggy


    Fixed and dilated pupils are disturbing when encountered during a physical examination in the pediatric intensive care unit, particularly when sedation or neuromuscular blockade confounds the neurologic examination. Rocuronium, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular drug, does not cross the blood-brain barrier and is not considered a causative agent for fixed mydriasis. We report a case of bilateral fixed and dilated pupils in a 1-week-old low-birth-weight neonate, which we contend was secondary to centrally mediated neuromuscular blockade.

  6. An unusual triad: Bilateral dilated odontoma, hypodontia and peg laterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphy Alphonsa Sebastian


    The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of bilateral dilated odontoma affecting a microdontic permanent lateral incisor in a 30 year old female patient with hypodontia and peglateral teeth with its clinical, radiological and histological features, which has yet been not reported. Bilateral presence of dilated odontoma is not a common occurrence, although a single tooth involvement in each case has been reported in the literature.

  7. Passive urethral resistance to dilation in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Nordsten, M


    , followed by a decay during the next seconds until a new equilibrium pressure was reached. The pressure decay could be described by a double exponential function in the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P beta e-t/tau beta, where Pt represents the pressure at the time t, Pequ represents the pressure...... will oppose any dilation, and increasingly with rising size or velocity of dilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  8. Acute Gastric Dilatation Resulting in Gastric Emphysema Following Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Aslam Khan


    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare entity, with varying aetiologies the majority of which are benign. Delay in diagnosis and treatment could result in sequelae such as gastric emphysema (pneumatosis, emphysematous gastritis, gangrene, and perforation. Gastric emphysema as a result of a benign nongangrenous condition such as gastroparesis, adynamic ileus can be successfully managed conservatively. Here, we present an interesting case of acute gastric dilatation resulting in gastric emphysema following massive postpartum hemorrhage.

  9. A survey on dilations of projective isometric representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania-Luminiţa Costache


    Full Text Available In this paper we present Laca-Raeburn's dilation theory of projective isometric representations of a semigroup to projective isometric representations of a group [M.Laca and I.Raeburn, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 1995] and Murphy's proof of a dilation theorem more general than that proved by Laca and Raeburn. Murphy applied the theory which involves positive definite kernels and their Kolmogorov decompositions to obtain the Laca-Raeburn dilation theorem [G.J. Murphy, Proc. Amer. Math.Soc., 1997]. We also present Heo's dilation theorems for projective representations, which generalize Stinespring dilation theorem for covariant completely positive maps and generalize to Hilbert C*-modules the Naimark-Sz-Nagy characterization of positive definite functions on groups [J.Heo, J.Math.Anal.Appl., 2007]. In the last part of the paper it is given the dilation theory obtained in [G.J. Murphy, Proc. Amer. Math.Soc., 1997] in the case of unitary operator-valued multipliers [Un Cig Ji, Young Yi Kim and Su Hyung Park, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 2007].

  10. Design optimization of stent and its dilatation balloon using kriging surrogate model. (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Liu, Tao; Wang, Minjie; Zhao, Danyang; Qiao, Aike; Wang, Xue; Gu, Junfeng; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Bao


    -shaped stent are designed and refined, respectively. (a) diamond-shaped stent: The shortest distance from the data points to the failure line in the Goodman diagram was increased by 22.39%, which indicated a safer service performance of the optimal stent. The dogboning effect was almost completely eliminated, which implies more uniform expansion of stent along its length. Simultaneously, radial elastic recoil (RR) at the proximal and distal ends was reduced by 40.98 and 35% respectively and foreshortening (FS) was also decreased by 1.75%. (b) sv-shaped stent: The shortest distance from the data point to the failure line in the Goodman diagram was increased by 15.91%. The dogboning effect was also completely eliminated, RR at the proximal and distal ends was reduced by 82.70 and 97.13%, respectively, and the FS was decreased by 16.81%. Numerical results showed that the fatigue life of both stents was refined and the comprehensive expansion performance of them was improved. This article presents an adaptive optimization method based on the Kriging surrogate model to optimize the structure of stents and the length of their dilatation balloon to prolong stents fatigue life and decreases the dogboning effect of stents during expansion process. Numerical results show that the adaptive optimization method based on Kriging surrogate model can effectively optimize the design of stents and the dilatation balloon. Further investigations containing more design goals and more effective multidisciplinary design optimization method are warranted.

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with aortic dilation: a novel observation. (United States)

    Yousefzai, Rayan; Agarwal, Anushree; Fuad Jan, M; Cho, Chi; Anigbogu, Michael; Shetabi, Kambiz; Singh, Maharaj; Bush, Michelle; Treiber, Shannon; Port, Steven; Ammar, Khawaja Afzal; Paterick, Timothy E; Jain, Renuka; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Jamil Tajik, A


    Our goal was to identify the prevalence of aortic dilation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most prevalent (0.2%) heritable, genetic cardiovascular disease. Aortic dilation also represents a spectrum of familial inheritance. However, data regarding the prevalence of aortic dilation in HCM patients is lacking. This is an observational retrospective study of all patients referred to our HCM centre. Aortic dilation was defined based on recent American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging published guidelines. Of the 201 HCM patients seen between Jan. 1, 2011 and March 31, 2014, 18 (9.0%) met the definition of aortic dilation. Mean age was 56.3 ± 9.3 years, 77.8% were male, mean ascending aorta diameter was 4.0 ± 0.4 cm in males and 3.8 ± 0.2 cm in females, mean sinuses of Valsalva diameter was 4.2 ± 0.2 cm in males and 3.8 ± 0.4 cm in females, and 13 (72.2%) had left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. HCM patients with dilated aorta were more likely males, less likely hypertensive and had larger left ventricle diameter and more aortic valve regurgitation; remaining characteristics were similar. We report a novel observation with 9.0% prevalance of dilated aorta in HCM patients. Further studies are needed to help define the genetic and pathophysiologic basis as well as the clinical implications of this association in a larger group of HCM patients.

  12. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  13. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin


    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  14. Radius of proximal isovelocity surface area in the assessment of rheumatic mitral stenosis: Connecting flow to anatomy and hemodynamics


    Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ahmed; Raslan, Hala; Rifaie, Osama


    Background: Echocardiographic assessment of left atrial pressure (LAP) in mitral stenosis (MS) is controversial. We sought to examine the role of the radius of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA-r) in the assessment of the hemodynamic status of MS after fixing the aliasing velocity (Val). Methods and results: We studied 42 candidates of balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV), for whom pre-BMV echocardiography was done and LAP invasively measured before dilatation. PISA-r was calculate...

  15. Comparison of ultrasound assessment of flow-mediated dilatation in the radial and brachial artery with upper and forearm cuff positions. (United States)

    Agewall, S; Doughty, R N; Bagg, W; Whalley, G A; Braatvedt, G; Sharpe, N


    In the published literature relating to flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), there are substantial differences between centres in terms of normal FMD amongst healthy subjects. This present study attempts to identify the effect of differing methodologies on FMD. High frequency ultrasound was used to measure blood flow and percentage brachial and radial artery dilatation after reactive hyperaemia induced by forearm or upper arm cuff occlusion in 24 healthy subjects, less than 40 years, without known cardiovascular risk factors. FMD of the brachial artery was significantly higher after upper arm occlusion, compared with forearm occlusion, 6.4 (3.3) and 3.9 (2.6)% (P<0.05), respectively. FMD of the radial artery was significantly higher after forearm occlusion, compared with upper arm occlusion, 10.0 (4.6) and 7.9 (3.5)% (P<0.05), respectively. The percentage blood flow increase in the brachial and radial arteries after forearm and upper arm occlusion were similar. After forearm and upper arm occlusion, the radial artery percentage dilatation was greater than the brachial artery. In conclusion dilatation of the brachial artery, after reactive hyperaemia induced by upper arm occlusion, was significantly more pronounced compared with dilatation of the brachial artery after forearm occlusion, despite a similar percentage blood flow increase. The local ischaemia of the brachial artery with a proximal occlusion may explain why the brachial artery dilated more after upper arm occlusion compared with after forearm occlusion. The study has also shown that FMD of the radial artery could be assessed by B-mode ultrasound technique. FMD was greater using the radial artery compared with the brachial artery, suggesting that the radial artery may be a useful way to assess FMD in future clinical studies.

  16. Change in dynamic visual acuity (DVA) by pupil dilation. (United States)

    Ueda, Tetsuo; Nawa, Yoshiaki; Yukawa, Eiichi; Taketani, Futoshi; Hara, Yoshiaki


    This study was conducted to assess dynamic visual acuity (DVA) under pupil dilation. Pupil dilation may negatively affect driving performance. Thirty healthy young adults (mean age 29.4 years) with pupil dilation participated in this study as the Mydrin P group. In addition to them, 15 healthy young adults (mean age 28.5 years) without pupil dilation were enrolled as the control group. DVA was measured binocularly with free-head viewing at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 360 min after mydriatic drop instillation in both eyes. Pupil size was measured at each time. In the Mydrin P group, DVA significantly improved at 30, 60, and 120 min (ANOVA; p DVA did not significantly change at all measured times (ANOVA; p > .9). DVA was significantly (p DVA was related to the enlargement of the pupil. This study suggests that the pupil size is one factor that may affect DVA. Potential applications of this study include useful information to assess the effect of pupil dilation on driving performance.

  17. Dilation of fusion pores by crowding of SNARE proteins (United States)

    Wu, Zhenyong; Bello, Oscar D; Thiyagarajan, Sathish; Auclair, Sarah Marie; Vennekate, Wensi; Krishnakumar, Shyam S; O'Shaughnessy, Ben; Karatekin, Erdem


    Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v-SNAREs and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed the dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23-nm-diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs. Pore nucleation required a minimum of two v-SNAREs per NLP face, and further increases in v-SNARE copy numbers did not affect nucleation rate. By contrast, the probability of pore dilation increased with increasing v-SNARE copies and was far from saturating at 15 v-SNARE copies per face, the NLP capacity. Our experimental and computational results suggest that SNARE availability may be pivotal in determining whether neurotransmitters or hormones are released through a transient ('kiss and run') or an irreversibly dilating pore (full fusion). DOI: PMID:28346138

  18. Endoscopic balloon dilation for stenotic lesions in Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Kanamori, Akira; Sugaya, Takeshi; Tominaga, Keiichi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Takenaka, Kazuhiro; Hoshino, Atushi; Koike, Takero; Nakano, Masakazu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki


    Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) can serve as an alternative to surgery for intestinal stenosis associated with Crohn's disease (CD). However, there has been controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of EBD. Here we sought to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of EBD for intestinal stenosis in CD. Of 43 patients with CD accompanied by intestinal stenosis, 30 underwent EBD. These 30 patients were examined retrospectively in terms of the scope passage rate, surgery-free rate, and whether or not the observation of the distal intestinal tract influenced the therapeutic strategy. The overall scope passage and surgery-free rates were 90.0% and 76.7%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the site of the dilated intestinal tract among groups. Patients who had inflammation in the distal intestinal tract alone after EBD accounted for 56.7%. The rate of re-dilation was 46.7%, and time until re-dilation was 6.6±3.6 months. EBD was associated with favorable short-term and long-term outcomes and good safety. Observation of the distal intestinal tract influenced the decision-making process for therapeutic strategies. The results of this study suggest that EBD may allow the postponement or even avoidance of surgery, enabling not only intestinal dilation but also the evaluation of mucosal healing to be performed. Thus, EBD is considered to be an effective alternative treatment for intestinal stenotic lesions in patients with CD.

  19. [Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in children. Old questions-- new answers]. (United States)

    Malcić, I; Buljević, A D


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the dilemmas in differential diagnosis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy of different etiologies. According to the definition of the WHO and the ISFC the dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease recognized by the severe enlargement of the left and/or the right ventricle causing the decrease in systolic function of the heart (decrease of contractility) with the development of congestive heart failure. In order to distinguish primary cardiomyopathies defined as a muscle heart disease sui generis on the one hand from cardiomyopathies as the outcome of chronic inflammatory myocarditis (chronic persistent myocarditis, chronic immune myocarditis, chronic viral heart disease) on the other hand, it is necessary to follow a complicated diagnostic flow diagram. Methods that are to become routine in diagnostic procedure are described. Etiologic diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathies is not possible without heart muscle biopsy. The bioptic specimens must be analyzed using light microscope (according to Dallas criteria), electron microscope, and afterwards immunohistologically and immunohistochemically (in situ hybridization). The total result of these investigations leads to the final conclusion about etiological diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The directions in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathies and acute myocarditis are stated, as well as the importance of immunosuppressive therapy in these conditions. In the treatment of acute myocarditis digoxin should be avoided and other inotropic substances used instead.

  20. Pupil dilatation does affect some aspects of daytime driving performance (United States)

    Wood, J M; Garth, D; Grounds, G; McKay, P; Mulvahil, A


    Aims: To examine the effects of pupil dilatation on driving performance and determine whether this was related to changes in standard measures of visual function. Methods: The driving and vision performance of 16 young, visually normal participants was measured with both normal and dilated pupils. Pupils were dilated with 1% tropicamide. Driving performance was measured under daytime conditions on a closed road circuit that was free of other vehicles and has been used in previous studies of driving performance. Measures included road sign detection and recognition, hazard detection and avoidance, gap perception and negotiation, driving reaction times and time to complete the circuit. Visual performance measures included high contrast visual acuity, Pelli-Robson letter contrast sensitivity, and glare sensitivity. Results: Pupil dilatation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the ability of participants to recognise low contrast hazards and avoid them, decreased their visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and increased glare sensitivity. The decreases in vision performance were not, however, significantly related to the decrement in driving performance. Conclusion: Pupil dilatation can impair selected aspects of driving and vision performance and patients should be cautioned about these possible effects. PMID:14609840


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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  2. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field{N}$. Arb......This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...... not satisfactorily approximates the original system, an iterative algorithm based on dilated LMIs is proposed to significantly improve the approximation bound. The effectiveness of the method is accessed by numerical experiments. The method is also applied to the $H_2$ order reduction of a flexible wind turbine...

  3. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy following total artificial heart implantation. (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Serrano, Maria Rosario; Guersoy, Dilek; Autschbach, Ruediger; Goetzenich, Andreas; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero


    Coagulation disorders and an immune-altered state are common among total artificial heart patients. In this context, we sought to evaluate the safety of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in cases of prolonged need for mechanical ventilatory support. We retrospectively analysed the charts of 11 total artificial heart patients who received percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. We focused on early and late complications. We observed no major complications and no procedure-related deaths. Early minor complications included venous oozing (45.4%) and one case of local infection. Late complications, including subglottic stenosis, stomal infection or infections of the lower respiratory tract, were not observed. In conclusion, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in total artificial heart patients is safe. Considering the well-known benefits of early tracheotomy over prolonged translaryngeal intubation, we advocate early timing of therapy in cases of prolonged mechanical ventilation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulmonary artery dilatation: an overlooked mechanism for angina pectoris. (United States)

    Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A; Enache, Roxana; Ungureanu, Catalina; Deleanu, Dan; Platon, Pavel


    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.

  5. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Induced by Chronic Starvation and Selenium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soham Dasgupta


    Full Text Available Protein energy malnutrition (PEM has been rarely documented as a cause of cardiovascular abnormalities, including dilated cardiomyopathy. Selenium is responsible for antioxidant defense mechanisms in cardiomyocytes, and its deficiency in the setting of PEM and disease related malnutrition (DRM may lead to exacerbation of the dilated cardiomyopathy. We report a rare case of a fourteen-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of congestive heart failure due to DRM and PEM (secondary to chronic starvation along with severe selenium deficiency. An initial echocardiogram showed severely depressed systolic function consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. Aggressive nutritional support and replacement of selenium and congestive heart failure medications that included diuretics and ACE inhibitors with the addition of carvedilol led to normalization of the cardiac function within four weeks. He continues to have significant weight gain and is currently completely asymptomatic from a cardiovascular standpoint.

  6. Pupil dilation to tropicamide is not specific for Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Growdon, J H; Graefe, K; Tennis, M; Hayden, D; Schoenfeld, D; Wray, S H


    The extent of pupil dilation after instillation of a dilute tropicamide solution was proposed as a noninvasive neurobiological diagnostic test for Alzheimer disease (AD). Pupils in patients with AD dilated 23% vs only 5% in control subjects. To determine whether pupil dilation in response to tropicamide distinguishes patients with AD from control subjects without dementia. There were 50 patients with AD and 51 control subjects; no participant had primarily ocular pathological conditions or took drugs that affected cholinergic tone. All participants received 1 drop of 0.01% tropicamide in 1 eye and 1 drop of 0.9% saline solution in the other eye in random order. Pupil measurements were obtained using a pupil and corneal reflection tracking system (RK-426 PC system, ISCAN Inc, Burlington, Mass) that illuminated the eye with a low-level infrared source and measured pupil diameters, fixation, and light level every 16.7 milliseconds during each 30-second-measurement. Pupil measurements were obtained from each eye at baseline and 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after drop instillation. The increase in pupil size after tropicamide instillation was equal between patients with AD and control subjects. The mean (+/- SD) pupil diameter increased from 4.5 +/- 1.1 to 5.5 +/- 1.1 mm after 30 minutes in patients with AD and from 4.7 +/- 0.9 to 5.8 +/- 0.9 mm in control subjects. Anisocoria and the mean rate of dilation did not differ between patients with AD and control subjects. Eye color and corneal moisture did not affect these results. The extent of pupil dilation in patients with AD was not related to clinical estimates of dementia severity. Pupil dilation in response to instillation of 0.01% tropicamide is not useful as an antemortem diagnostic test for AD.

  7. Does pupil dilation influence subfoveal choroidal laser Doppler flowmetry? (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Riva, Charles E; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto


    The aim of this study was to assess (i) whether pupil dilation with tropicamide influences subfoveal choroidal blood flow, as assessed by continuous laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and (ii) if this is the case, whether the effect is due to a haemodynamic response of the drug-induced dilation. Following the instillation of one drop of 1% tropicamide in one eye of 18 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (age 20-25 years), the subfoveal choroidal LDF parameters (Vel, Vol and ChBF) were recorded during 30 min, at 3-min intervals under two paradigms: through an artificial pupil (4 mm diameter) placed in front of the cornea (P1) and without this artificial pupil (P2). Tropicamide increased the pupil diameter from 3.3 ± 0.4 mm (mean ± SD) to 8.3 ± .4 mm. Full dilation was reached at ~24 min. During this period of time, linear regression analysis demonstrated that none of the LDF parameters varied significantly (p > 0.05), either under P1 or P2. Based on a group of 12 subjects, the smallest (%) change in the mean value of ChBF (ChBFm ) that would be detectable (sensitivity of the method, S) was found to be 2% for P1 and 6% for P2. The average coefficient of variation of ChBFm based on eight measurements during dilation was greater for P2 than for P1 by a factor of approximately 2. Tropicamide had no significant influence on the subfoveal choroidal LDF parameters measured by continuous LDF during pupil dilation. Furthermore, pupil dilation did not affect ChBFm by more than the calculated minimum percentage change of 6% detectable with our method. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dynamic Lateralization of Pupil Dilation Evoked by Locus Coeruleus Activation Results from Sympathetic, Not Parasympathetic, Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu


    Full Text Available Pupil size is collectively controlled by the sympathetic dilator and parasympathetic sphincter muscles. Locus coeruleus (LC activation has been shown to evoke pupil dilation, but how the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways contribute to this dilation remains unknown. We examined pupil dilation elicited by LC activation in lightly anesthetized rats. Unilateral LC activation evoked bilateral but lateralized pupil dilation; i.e., the ipsilateral dilation was significantly larger than the contralateral dilation. Surgically blocking the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, sympathetic pathway significantly reduced lateralization, suggesting that lateralization is mainly due to sympathetic contribution. Moreover, we found that sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, contribution is correlated with LC activation frequency. Together, our results unveil the frequency-dependent contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to LC activation-evoked pupil dilation and suggest that lateralization in task-evoked pupil dilations may be used as a biomarker for autonomic tone.

  9. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen


    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  10. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity. (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G


    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  11. Dilated uropathies in children; Dilatation des reins et voies urinaires chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouissou, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France)


    These uropathies are frequent in children and are often diagnosed by ante-natal ultrasound examination. The dilatation, hydronephrosis or uretero-hydro-nephrosis may be due to a large pattern of malformations, either anatomical dysplasia, vesico-ureteric reflux or obstruction of the pelvi-ureteric junction, of the vesical-ureteric junction or due to a chronic urethral obstruction. The investigations must determine the exact urinary tract abnormalities, the renal function and the uro-dynamic change. They are guided by the ultrasound findings and cystography. In obstructive malformation, the MAG3 renogram with furosemide test is the best way to precise the uro-dynamic status, but it requires a careful technique in children and its interpretation is sometimes equivocal. DMSA scan is very useful to give precise separate kidney function and to follow the maturational change with age. All the results must be carefully analysed ; the final therapeutic decision and specially surgery is dependent of the type of uropathy and its natural history. In many cases, surgical treatment is only indicated after a longer follow-up and repeated evaluations. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  14. Sustained endothelial dependent dilation in pial arterioles after crosslinked hemoglobin transfusion. (United States)

    Ulatowski, J A; Asano, Y; Koehler, R C; Traystman, R J; Bucci, E


    Hemoglobin is known to bind nitric oxide (NO) with high affinity. Plasma-based hemoglobin may provide a more effective sink for NO than red cell-based hemoglobin because of a closer and consistent proximity to the endothelium. Despite the known endothelial tight junctions that exist in cerebral vessels, plasma-based hemoglobin may inhibit NO-derived vasoreactive mechanisms in brain. If so, the response to endothelial and non-endothelial dependent vasodilator substances should be affected. In pentobarbital anesthetized cats, we tested this hypothesis by measuring the pial arteriole blood vessel diameter using aa cranial window before and after systemic transfusion of a human crosslinked hemoglobin compound. We than topically applied solutions of endothelial dependent or endothelial independent vasodilators and an NO synthase inhibitor to the surface of the brain within the window and remeasured the arteriole size. Topical acetylcholine (Ach) increased diameter in all arteriole sizes. The corresponding increases in diameter to Ach in time control eats (32% hematocrit) and in albumin transfused cats (18% hematocrit) were similar to those in hemoglobin transfused cats. Likewise, size-dependent dilation to SIN-1 in the hemoglobin group was similar to that in the control and albumin groups. The pial arteriole response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) also increased arteriole diameter in small, medium and large arterioles. Superfusion with L-nitroarginine to inhibit NO synthase markedly reduced the dilator response to Ach and ADP but not to SIN-1 or SNP. Thus, prior crosslinked hemoglobin transfusion does not interfere with vasodilator responses to either Ach, ADP, SIN-1 or SNP. When dilute solutions of crosslinked hemoglobin were superfused abluminally in the cranial window in anesthetized but non-transfused animals, the dilator response to Ach was unchanged at 10(-4)M hemoglobin, was attenuated at 10(-7) and 10(-6)M hemoglobin, and was

  15. Migraine pain associated with middle cerebral artery dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, H K


    returned to normal after treatment with sumatriptan and recovery. Since rCBF in the MCA supply territory was unaffected, the lower velocity can be explained only by dilatation of the MCA. The mean MCA diameter increase was estimated to be 20%. Thus, headache was associated with intracranial large arterial...

  16. Pupil Location under Mesopic, Photopic, and Pharmacologically Dilated Conditions (United States)

    Yang, Yabo; Thompson, Keith; Burns, Stephen A.


    PURPOSE To determine whether there are systematic changes in pupil location with changes in the state of pupil size and with other ocular variables. METHODS High-resolution images of the pupil of the eyes of 70 subjects were taken using an infrared-sensitive camera. Images were obtained under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions. From the images, the center and diameter of the corneal limbus and the pupil were computed. In addition, the location of the first Purkinje image was calculated. RESULTS The pupil center shifted consistently temporally as the pupil dilated. The total motion was relatively small, with a mean distance of 0.133 mm motion between the mesopic and photopic conditions, with the pupil diameter changing from 6.3 to 4.1 mm. Ninety percent of the subjects had a motion of less than 0.3 mm. One patient showed a motion of almost 0.6 mm. The change in location of the pupil center was not significantly related to refractive error, age, or the change of pupil diameter. CONCLUSIONS Changes in the location of the pupil center with changes in the dilation of the pupil are typically slight, but can be significant in a few subjects, especially in pharmacologically dilated pupils. PMID:12091457

  17. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. (United States)

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A


    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  18. Cervical ripening with prostaglandin gel and hygroscopic dilators. (United States)

    Hibbard, J U; Shashoua, A; Adamczyk, C; Ismail, M


    To study the effectiveness and morbidity of adding hygroscopic cervical dilators to prostaglandin gel for cervical ripening and labor induction. Patients of at least 34 weeks' gestation with a medical indication for induction of labor and with a modified Bishop score of 5 or less were randomized to receive either prostaglandin gel or prostaglandin gel with hygroscopic cervical dilators. Primary outcomes were time to delivery, change in cervical score, and infection. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and deliveries before 24 hours of induction. Continuous variables were analyzed by Wilcoxon sum rank test and categorical data by chi-square or Fisher exact test, with P < 0.05 being significant. Seventeen patients were randomized to intracervical prostaglandin alone and 23 patients received intracervical prostaglandin plus hygroscopic dilators. No demographic differences were noted between the groups. After six hours of ripening, the combined group achieved a greater change in Bishop score (3.6 vs. 2.1, P = 0.007) and tended to have a shorter induction time (21.7 vs. 26.4 hours, P = 0.085). The combined therapy group had a higher infection rate than the prostaglandin-only group (59% vs. 12%, P = 0.003). Combining cervical dilators with prostaglandin gel provides more effective cervical ripening and a more rapid induction to delivery interval than prostaglandin alone but with a significant and prohibitive rate of infection.

  19. Gravitational time dilation and length contraction in fields exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we use our new metric tensor exterior to a massiv3e oblate spheroid to study the gravitational phenomena of time dilation and length contraction. It turns out most profoundly that, the above phenomena hold good in the gravitational field exterior to an oblate spheroid. We then use the oblate spheroidal Earth to ...

  20. unilateral idiopathic dilated episcleral vein with secondary open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TO Otulana, OO Onabolu, VO Fafiolu. 22 flourescien angiography to exclude lesions of the vortex veins are all useful investigations to determine the aetiology of dilated episcleral vessels. Orbital ocular Doppler imaging is important in imaging orbital and ocular blood flow, especially in cases of fistula and varix.3, 13, 15, 17.

  1. Fetal Bowel Dilatation due to Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia: A Rarity. (United States)

    Akdag, Arzu; Anadut, Karar Orkun; Yalcin, Omer; Kaya, Mete


    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) type B is characterized by malformation of parasympathetic plexus and manifests at more than 6 month of age with progressive severe constipation. We report a case of IND type B presented with bowel dilatation on antenatal scan and neonatal intestinal obstruction which is unusual with this type of IND.

  2. Case Report Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy A bed side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tracheostomy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in critically ill patients. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT), according to ciaglias technique described in 1985, has become the most popular technique for percutaneous tracheostomy and is demonstrably as safe as surgical.

  3. unilateral idiopathic dilated episcleral vein with secondary open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    intraocular pressure (IOP) is a function of: production of aqueous humour, resistance to aqueous outflow at the anterior chamber angles, and episcleral venous pressure. When the episcleral veins are dilated, the pressure in these veins becomes elevated. Prolonged elevation of episcleral venous pressure often causes ...

  4. Novel borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease. (United States)

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Brent L; Quan, Phenix Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian


    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.

  5. The Universality of Time Dilation and Space Contraction. (United States)

    Daly, Lisa N.; Horton, George K.


    Describes the extended general physics course taught at Rutgers University. The course presents to students at the high school algebra level the topic of analyzing a particular thought experiment that yields the time dilation formula and subsequently space contraction, velocity addition, and other 20th-century physics concepts. (MVL)

  6. 28. Critical pulmonary valve stenosis: Medical management beyond balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Khan


    Conclusion: Phentolamine and/or Captopril have a therapeutic role in neonates with critical PVS who remain oxygen dependent after balloon dilation. Both medicationslead to vasodilatation of pulmonary and systemic vascularity. They facilitate inflowto the right ventricle. Right to left shunt across a PFO or/ ASD minimizesand saturation improves leading to a significantreduction in length of hospitalization.

  7. Cervical ripening with prostaglandin gel and hygroscopic dilators. (United States)

    Hibbard, J U; Shashoua, A; Adamczyk, C; Ismail, M


    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness and morbidity of adding hygroscopic cervical dilators to prostaglandin gel for cervical ripening and labor induction. STUDY DESIGN: Patients of at least 34 weeks' gestation with a medical indication for induction of labor and with a modified Bishop score of 5 or less were randomized to receive either prostaglandin gel or prostaglandin gel with hygroscopic cervical dilators. Primary outcomes were time to delivery, change in cervical score, and infection. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and deliveries before 24 hours of induction. Continuous variables were analyzed by Wilcoxon sum rank test and categorical data by chi-square or Fisher exact test, with P hygroscopic dilators. No demographic differences were noted between the groups. After six hours of ripening, the combined group achieved a greater change in Bishop score (3.6 vs. 2.1, P = 0.007) and tended to have a shorter induction time (21.7 vs. 26.4 hours, P = 0.085). The combined therapy group had a higher infection rate than the prostaglandin-only group (59% vs. 12%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Combining cervical dilators with prostaglandin gel provides more effective cervical ripening and a more rapid induction to delivery interval than prostaglandin alone but with a significant and prohibitive rate of infection. PMID:9678143

  8. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 5, 2008 ... Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated cardiomyopathy patients: A clinical trial. P. L. N Kaparthi1*, Gupta Namita2, Lakshmi K. Chelluri2, .... Severe Co-morbid medical condition. 2. Severe LV systolic dysfunction with EF ≤ 30%. 2. LVEF ≥ 31%. 3. Stroke with significant sequel. 4.

  9. Heritability of flow-mediated dilation : a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Cheema, F. A.; Reddy, U.; Bremner, J. D.; Su, S.; Goldberg, J.; Snieder, H.; Vaccarino, V.


    Background: Endothelial dysfunction assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a marker for early atherosclerotic vascular disease and future cardiovascular events.Objective: To estimate the heritability of brachial artery FMD using a twin design.Methods: We estimated the

  10. Pupil dilation using drops vs gel: a comparative study (United States)

    Moisseiev, E; Loberman, D; Zunz, E; Kesler, A; Loewenstein, A; Mandelblum, J


    Purpose To compare the efficacy in pupil dilation and degree of discomfort between topical instillation of mydriatic drops and gel. Methods The study included 60 patients with no previous ocular history of trauma and surgery. One eye was dilated with two drops (tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 10%), and the other with one drop of gel (tropicamide 0.5%+phenylephrine 5%). Pupil size was measured by a Colvard pupillometer at baseline and 5, 15, 30, and 45 min following instillation. Pain upon instillation was measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Results There was no difference in pupil size at baseline. Use of the gel achieved greater mydriasis than drops (P=0.01), and was also associated with lower pain scores (P=0.003). In diabetic patients, pupil size was smaller at baseline and following instillation of drops and gel. Use of the gel achieved an even greater degree of pupil dilation in this subset of patients than drops (P=0.019). Conclusions Gel formulation achieved significantly greater pupil dilation than drops, despite a lower concentration of phenylephrine, and was also associated with significantly lower patient discomfort. This study is the first report of improved mydriatic efficacy in diabetic patients. PMID:25857606

  11. Endoscopic dilatation for benign oesophageal strictures in infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present the safety and effectiveness of an expectant protocol employing Savary-Gilliard dilatation in benign oesophageal stricture in infants and toddlers along a decade of experience. Patients and Methods: Thirty eight infants and toddlers with benign oesophageal stricture with ...

  12. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy—a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson


    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction which often leads to congestive heart failure. Although multiple human loci have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, the identified variants are typically associated with rare monogenic forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The potential for multigenic interactions contributing to human dilated cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood. Consistent with this, several known human dilated cardiomyopathy loci have been excluded as common causes of canine dilated cardiomyopathy, although canine dilated cardiomyopathy resembles the human disease functionally. This suggests additional genetic factors contribute to the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype.This study represents a meta-analysis of available canine dilated cardiomyopathy genetic datasets with the goal of determining potential multigenic interactions relating the sex chromosome genotype (XX vs. XY with known dilated cardiomyopathy associated loci on chromosome 5 and the PDK4 gene in the incidence and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. The results show an interaction between known canine dilated cardiomyopathy loci and an unknown X-linked locus. Our study is the first to test a multigenic contribution to dilated cardiomyopathy and suggest a genetic basis for the known sex-disparity in dilated cardiomyopathy outcomes.

  13. Primary obstructive megaureter: the role of high pressure balloon dilation. (United States)

    Romero, Rosa M; Angulo, Jose Maria; Parente, Alberto; Rivas, Susana; Tardáguila, Ana Rosa


    There is a growing interest in minimally invasive treatment of primary obstructive megaureter (POM) in children. The absence of long-term follow-up data, however, makes it difficult to establish the indication for an endoscopic approach. The aim of our study is to determine the long-term efficacy of endourologic high-pressure balloon dilation of the vesicoureteral junction (VUJ) in children with POM that necessitates surgical treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records from children with POM who were treated with endourologic high-pressure balloon dilation of the VUJ from March 2003 to April 2010. To determine the long-term, a cohort study was conducted in November 2011. Endourologic dilation of the VUJ was performed with a semicompliant high-pressure balloon (2.7 FG) with a minimum balloon size of 3 mm, followed by placement of a Double-J stent. We have treated 29 (32 renal units, left [n=16], right [n=10] and bilateral [n=3]) children with a diagnosis of POM within this period. The median age at the time of the endourologic treatment was 4.04 months (range 1.6-39 months). In three cases, an open ureteral reimplantation was needed, in two cases because of intraoperative technical failure and postoperative Double-J stent migration in one patient. The 26 children (29 renal units) who had a successful endourologic dilation of the VUJ were followed with ultrasonography and MAG-3-Lasix (furosemide) studies that showed a progressive improvement of both the ureterohydronephrosis and drainage in the first 18 months in 20 patients (23 renal units) (69%). In two patients who were treated with a 3 mm balloon, a further dilation was needed, with an excellent outcome. The cohort study (at a median follow-up of 47 months) showed that in all patients who had a good outcome at the 18-month follow-up after endourologic balloon dilation remained asymptomatic with resolution of ureterohydronephrosis on the US and good drainage on the renogram, in the children

  14. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloradovic Vladimir


    Full Text Available A clear distinction between two of the most common forms of dilated cardiomyopathy is very important due to their different prediction and therapeutic approaches. Dobutamine stress echocardiography appears to be a noninvasive selection method due to its clear differentiation potential. Major factors influence test interpretation, resulting in a wide interval of diagnostic accuracy for this test. Fraction flow reserve (FFR is a novel invasive method for estimating coronary artery stenosis responsible for myocardium ischaemia. Decisions about lesion significance in coronary blood vessels have thus far been based on angiographic estimations, but this approach is being replaced by FFR measurements, which serve as a new gold standard and involve a noninvasive test. The goal of this study was to clearly differentiate two forms of dilated cardiomyopathies through analysis of the segmented mobility of the left ventricular wall. Fifty patients were analysed: 20 with ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy, which was confirmed not only through coronary angiography but also functionally through FFR measurement, and 30 patients with nonischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy, which was confirmed by coronary angiography. A standard dobutamine stress echocardiography protocol was implemented. A positive dobutamine stress echocardiography test was defined as the presence of emerging incidents in segment contractility or worsening of existing incidents in at least one segment. Statistically relevant diff erences in the movement dynamics of a number of differently characterised segments during the observed time intervals (ANOVA p=0.000 was noted in both groups of patients, as was variation in the index value of the summarized mobility of the left chamber wall. In patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathies, regional contractility worsened at the maximum dose of dobutamine; in contrast, this feature slightly improved in nonischaemic cardiomyopathy patients. The results indicate

  15. Cervical Preparation Before Dilation and Evacuation Using Adjunctive Misoprostol or Mifepristone Compared With Overnight Osmotic Dilators Alone: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Goldberg, Alisa B; Fortin, Jennifer A; Drey, Eleanor A; Dean, Gillian; Lichtenberg, E Steve; Bednarek, Paula H; Chen, Beatrice A; Dutton, Caryn; McKetta, Sarah; Maurer, Rie; Winikoff, Beverly; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M


    To evaluate operative time after adjunctive misoprostol or mifepristone compared with overnight osmotic dilators alone for cervical preparation before dilation and evacuation at 16-23 6/7 weeks of gestation. This double-blind, three-arm, multicenter, randomized trial compared overnight osmotic dilators alone, dilators plus 400 micrograms buccal misoprostol 3 hours preoperatively, and dilators plus 200 mg oral mifepristone during dilator placement for dilation and evacuation. Our primary outcome was dilation and evacuation operative time within two cohorts: 16-18 6/7 weeks of gestation (N=150) and 19-23 6/7 weeks of gestation (N=150). Three hundred women were required for 80% power to detect a 2-minute difference in operative time. Secondary outcomes included initial cervical dilation, side effects, physician satisfaction by Likert scale, and complications. Between February 2013 and February 2014 we randomized 300 women evenly across treatment arms. Group demographics were similar. We found no difference in operative time in either gestational cohort (early cohort [minutes]: 5.11±3.0 dilators alone, 4.99±3.3 misoprostol, 4.33±2.0 mifepristone, P=.34; late cohort [minutes]: 7.50±3.7 dilators alone, 7.62±5.4 misoprostol, 6.74±3.2 mifepristone, P=.53). In the early cohort, initial dilation was greater with misoprostol than dilators alone (2.4 compared with 2.0 cm, P=.007). Patients given misoprostol had significantly more pain, fever, and chills. In the late cohort, dilation and evacuation procedures were less difficult after mifepristone (4.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-9.6) than misoprostol (18.8%, 95% CI 7.7-29.8) or dilators alone (18.8%, 95% CI 7.7-29.8; P=.04). We had inadequate power to infer differences in complications: dilators alone (10%, 95% CI 4.2-16.0) compared with misoprostol (2%, 95% CI 0-4.7) compared with mifepristone (2%, 95% CI 0-4.8). Despite no difference in operative time, adjunctive mifepristone facilitates later dilation and

  16. Proposal for a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy, hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy, and its implications for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Yigal M; Elliott, Perry M; Arbustini, Eloisa


    In this paper the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Disease proposes a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in an attempt to bridge the gap between our recent understanding of the disease spectrum and its clinical presentation in relatives, which is key for early diagnosis...

  17. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy without fiber optic bronchoscopy-Evaluation of 80 intensive care units cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Calvache (Jose Andrés); R.A. Molina García (Rodrigo); A.L. Trochez (Adolfo); J. Benitez (Javier); L.A. Flga (Lucía Arroyo)


    textabstractBackground: The development of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy techniques (PDT) has facilitated the procedure in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Objective: To describe the early intra and post-operative complications in ICU patients requiring percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

  18. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during hydraulic dilation therapy in achalasia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, W.F.; Bogte, A.; Siersema, P.D.


    Increasing evidence suggests that esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility is predictive of long-term clinical success after achalasia treatment. A new commercially available hydraulic dilation balloon is capable of measuring EGJ opening diameters whilst simultaneously dilating the EGJ.

  19. Endoscopic balloon dilatation for Crohn's strictures of the gastrointestinal tract is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Hendel, Jakob; Vilmann, Peter


    Despite optimized medical treatment, Crohn´s disease can cause gastrointestinal (GI) strictures, which requires surgical intervention. Lately, endoscopic balloon dilatation has been established as an alternative to surgery. In the following, we report our experiences with endoscopic dilatation...

  20. Evaluation with Decision Trees of Efficacy and Safety of Semirigid Ureteroscopy in the Treatment of Proximal Ureteral Calculi. (United States)

    Sancak, Eyup Burak; Kılınç, Muhammet Fatih; Yücebaş, Sait Can


    The decision on the choice of proximal ureteral stone therapy depends on many factors, and sometimes urologists have difficulty in choosing the treatment option. This study is aimed at evaluating the factors affecting the success of semirigid ureterorenoscopy (URS) using the "decision tree" method. From January 2005 to November 2015, the data of consecutive patients treated for proximal ureteral stone were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 920 patients with proximal ureteral stone treated with semirigid URS were included in the study. All statistically significant attributes were tested using the decision tree method. The model created using decision tree had a sensitivity of 0.993 and an accuracy of 0.857. While URS treatment was successful in 752 patients (81.7%), it was unsuccessful in 168 patients (18.3%). According to the decision tree method, the most important factor affecting the success of URS is whether the stone is impacted to the ureteral wall. The second most important factor affecting treatment was intramural stricture requiring dilatation if the stone is impacted, and the size of the stone if not impacted. Our study suggests that the impacted stone, intramural stricture requiring dilatation and stone size may have a significant effect on the success rate of semirigid URS for proximal ureteral stone. Further studies with population-based and longitudinal design should be conducted to confirm this finding. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.



    Wang, Dong; Gladysheva, Inna P.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Sullivan, Ryan; Houng, Aiilyan K.; Reed, Guy L.


    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a biomarker of dilated cardiomyopathy, but there is controversy whether ANP modulates the development of heart failure. Therefore we examined whether ANP affects heart failure, cardiac remodeling, function and survival in a well-characterized, transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy with normal ANP levels survived longer than mice with partial ANP (p

  3. Lung Atelectasis Secondary to Massive Esophageal Dilation in a Patient With Scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles St-Arnaud


    Full Text Available Esophageal dilation is a rare complication of scleroderma and CREST syndrome. A case of atelectasis secondary to right inferior bronchus compression by a massively dilated esophagus is described. The authors are unaware of any previous cases of atelectasis secondary to esophageal dilation in scleroderma.

  4. Novel bronchoscopic balloon dilation for patients with bronchostenosis caused by bronchial tuberculosis: a case report. (United States)

    Fu, En-Qing; Jin, Fa-Guang


    Bronchoscopic balloon dilation is a common method in the treatment of bronchostenosis but it is not an effective treatment due to its short dilating time (3 minutes) and low pressure (dilating pressure was ≤6atm; however, this is not enough pressure to dilate a bronchostenosis because of the resistance of the bronchus. We hypothesized that higher dilating pressure (up to 14atm) with longer dilating time (40 minutes) may make bronchoscopic balloon dilation treatment more effective according to the blood vessel dilating method. Therefore, we designed this new bronchoscopic balloon dilation method for treating bronchostenosis, particularly in cases caused by bronchial tuberculosis. A 23-year-old Chinese woman presented with right middle segmental bronchostenosis caused by bronchial tuberculosis. She was informed of the surgical procedure and she provided informed consent. After taking anti-bronchial tuberculosis drugs for 2 months, she underwent our new bronchoscopic balloon dilation treatment (dilating time, 40 minutes; pressure, 14atm). After anti-bronchial tuberculosis treatment for 13 months, her intermediate bronchus was observed with videobronchoscopy again and no re-stenosis was seen. Furthermore, a computed tomography scan revealed that her right lower lobe and right middle lobe had reopened. No complications occurred in the patient. The novel high-handed videobronchoscopic balloon dilation method was safe and effective for treating this patient with bronchostenosis caused by bronchial tuberculosis.

  5. Percutaneous Dilational Tracheotomy in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients. (United States)

    Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Ersoy, Zeynep; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Gedik, Ender; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet


    Solid-organ transplant recipients may require percutaneous dilational tracheotomy because of prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway issues, but data regarding its safety and effectiveness in solid-organ transplant recipients are scarce. Here, we evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and benefits in terms of lung mechanics, complications, and patient comfort of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy in solid-organ transplant recipients. Medical records from 31 solid-organ transplant recipients (median age of 41.0 years [interquartile range, 18.0-53.0 y]) who underwent percutaneous dilational tracheotomy at our hospital between January 2010 and March 2015 were analyzed, including primary diagnosis, comorbidities, duration of orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, the time interval between transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, tracheotomy-related complications, and pulmonary compliance and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 24.0 (interquartile range, 18.0-29.0). The median interval from transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy was 105.5 days (interquartile range, 13.0-2165.0 d). The only major complication noted was left-sided pneumothorax in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen before and after procedure (170.0 [interquartile range, 102.2-302.0] vs 210.0 [interquartile range, 178.5-345.5]; P = .052). However, pulmonary compliance results preprocedure and postprocedure were significantly different (0.020 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.015-0.030 L/cm H2O] vs 0.030 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.020-0.041 L/cm H2O); P = .001]). Need for sedation significantly decreased after tracheotomy (from 17 patients [54.8%] to

  6. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  7. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  8. Perturbation of NCOA6 Leads to Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-il Roh


    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a progressive heart disease characterized by left ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction. Although many candidate genes have been identified with mouse models, few of them have been shown to be associated with DCM in humans. Germline depletion of Ncoa6, a nuclear hormone receptor coactivator, leads to embryonic lethality and heart defects. However, it is unclear whether Ncoa6 mutations cause heart diseases in adults. Here, we report that two independent mouse models of NCOA6 dysfunction develop severe DCM with impaired mitochondrial function and reduced activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ, an NCOA6 target critical for normal heart function. Sequencing of NCOA6-coding regions revealed three independent nonsynonymous mutations present in 5 of 50 (10% patients with idiopathic DCM (iDCM. These data suggest that malfunction of NCOA6 can cause DCM in humans.

  9. MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, C.G. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail:; Lohan, D.G.; Browne, A.M.; Alhajeri, A.N.; Roche, C.; Murphy, J.M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)


    Magnetic reasonance (MR) enterography enables high contrast resolution depiction of the location and cause of bowel obstruction through a combination of predictable luminal distension and multiplanar imaging capabilities. Furthermore, because the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, sequential 'dynamic' MR imaging can be performed repeatedly over time further facilitating depiction of the site and/or the cause of obstruction. With increasing availability of MR imaging and standardization of the oral contrast medium regimens, it is likely that this technique will assume an ever-increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel dilation in the coming years. We illustrate the utility of MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation, whether it be mechanical, functional (e.g., ileus), or related to infiltrative mural disease.

  10. Fiber-reinforced sand strength and dilation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Eldesouky


    Full Text Available Randomly distributed fiber reinforcement is used to provide an isotropic increase in the sand shear strength. The previous studies were not consistent regarding the fibers effect on the volumetric change behavior of fiber-reinforced sand. In this paper, direct shear tests are conducted on 108 specimens to investigate the effects of the fibers content, relative density, normal stress and moisture content on the shear strength and volumetric change behaviors of fiber-reinforced sand. The study investigates also the possibility of using dry fiber-reinforced sand as an alternative to heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand. The results indicate that the fibers inclusion increases the shear strength and dilation of sand. Moisture suppresses the fibers effect on the peak and post-peak shear strengths, and dilation. Dry loose fiber-reinforced sand achieves the same shear strength of heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand, yet at more than double the horizontal displacement.

  11. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens). (United States)

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A


    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Acute Dilatation, Ischemia, and Necrosis of Stomach without Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Ranjan Sahoo


    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation can have multiple etiologies which may lead to ischemia of the stomach. Without proper timely diagnosis and treatment, potentially fatal events such as gastric perforation, haemorrhage, and other serious complications can occur. Here we present a 36-year-old man who came to the casualty with pain abdomen and distension for 2 days. Clinically, abdomen was asymmetrically distended more in the left hypochondrium and epigastrium region. Straight X-ray abdomen showed opacified left hypochondrium with nonspecific gaseous distension of bowel. Exploratory laparotomy revealed dilated stomach with patchy gangrene over lesser curvature and fundic area. About 4 litres of brownish fluid along with semisolid undigested food particles was sucked out (mainly undigested pieces of meat. Limited resection of gangrenous areas and primary repair were done along with feeding jejunostomy. Necrosis of the stomach was confirmed on histopathology. The patient recovered well and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day.

  13. Passive urethral resistance to dilation in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Nordsten, M


    at equilibrium, P alpha and P beta express the decline in pressure, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants. The size of the pressure response proved highly dependent on velocity and size of dilation as well as urethral site of measurement, with the maximum values in the high pressure zone. The time......The dynamic urethral pressure response to a simulated urine ingression was studied at the bladder neck, in the high pressure zone, and in the distal urethra in 10 healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was characterised by a steep pressure increase simulataneous with the urethral dilation......, followed by a decay during the next seconds until a new equilibrium pressure was reached. The pressure decay could be described by a double exponential function in the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P beta e-t/tau beta, where Pt represents the pressure at the time t, Pequ represents the pressure...

  14. Data of methylome and transcriptome derived from human dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Seok Jo


    Full Text Available Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression have been implicated in the development of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Differentially methylated probes (DMPs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the left ventricle (LV, a pathological locus for DCM and the right ventricle (RV, a proxy for normal hearts. The data in this DiB are for supporting our report entitled “Methylome analysis reveals alterations in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of left ventricle development genes in human dilated cardiomyopathy” (Bong-Seok Jo, In-Uk Koh, Jae-Bum Bae, Ho-Yeong Yu, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Sun Shim Choi, 2016 [1].

  15. Segmental dilatation of the ileum in a healthy adolescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Akash D.; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Brill, Paula W. [New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Beneck, Debra [New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Spigland, Nitsana [New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States)


    Segmental intestinal dilatation is a rare entity presenting overwhelmingly in infants and young children with congenital malformations, anemia, or history of gastrointestinal pathology, characterized by a focally distended segment of bowel with abrupt transition points without an obstructing barrier. We present a 16-year-old girl with no significant medical history who presented with bowel obstruction clinically. Segmental dilatation of the ileum was evident on a CT scan and small bowel series. Following surgical resection, pathologic examination of the segment revealed the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa. The girl's symptoms resolved after surgery. Awareness of the imaging presentation of this entity can inform the evaluation of older children with nonspecific symptoms mimicking bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  16. Progressive Coronary Dilatation Predicts Worse Outcome in Kawasaki Disease. (United States)

    Chih, Wan-Ling; Wu, Pei-Yuan; Sun, Li-Chuang; Lin, Ming-Tai; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan


    To explore the implication of serial coronary changes on the late coronary outcomes in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) with coronary aneurysms ≧ 4 mm. We performed a retrospective review of 78 patients with KD with large coronary aneurysms (1980-2013, male: 76.9%; 792 patient-years). Progressive coronary dilatation was defined for those with progressive enlargement of coronary arteries in 3 consecutive echocardiograms. We studied 27 patients with KD with giant aneurysms (≧ 8 mm) and 51 patients with KD with medium aneurysms (4-8 mm). All the giant and 43.1% of medium aneurysms persisted during the study period. For the patients with giant aneurysms, their 10-year freedom from acute myocardial infarction/cardiovascular death and all ischemia was 66% and 52%, respectively. The median intervals for the aneurysm diameters reaching their peak were 3.3 months (giant) and 0.25 months (medium), respectively. In patients with giant aneurysms, the 10-year freedom from ischemia was much lower in those with progressive coronary dilatation (28% vs 59%, P = .021). In patients with medium aneurysms, the probability of 5-year persistence of aneurysm was much greater (67.2% vs 14.8%, P outcomes in the patients with KD who had aneurysms larger than 4 mm. In addition to coronary diameters 1 month after the onset of KD, progressive coronary dilatation at 2 or more months after diagnosis may be an indicator of duration, and the severity of vasculitis and adverse dilative remodeling were associated with worse late coronary outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Embolic stroke in a child with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S


    Full Text Available An eleven year old boy presented with sudden onset right-sided hemiplegia and ipsilateral lower facial weakness. Two-dimensional echo revealed the diagnosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple intracardiac clots. MRI scan of head showed infarctions in the area of caudate nuclei, putamen, brain stem and cerebellum. On anticoagulation therapy, all thrombi, except one, disappeared. The child died 2.5 months later due to resistant cardiac failure.

  18. [Percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy or tracheostomy? Two case reports]. (United States)

    Bast, F; Buchal, A; Schrom, T


    In terms of numbers, percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) is the most important tracheotomy technique since it is applied in surgical and nonsurgical disciplines. Where correctly indicated, PDT is a fast, economical and easily reversible procedure. Incorrect indication sometimes necessitates conversion of a PDT into a conventional surgical tracheostomy. In these cases scarring, wound infections and ambiguous anatomical structures can represent a surgical challenge. Where a long-term tracheotomy requirement is predicted, a surgical tracheostomy should be performed.

  19. Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)


    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A.


    A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetance, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours.

  20. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Haus, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)


    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  1. Is there cosmological time dilation in gamma-ray bursts? (United States)

    Band, David L.


    Norris et al. report that the temporal structure of faint gamma-ray bursts is longer than that of bright bursts, as expected for time dilation in the cosmological models of burst origin. I show that the observed trends can easily be produced by a burst luminosity function and thus may not result from cosmological effects. A cosmological signature may be present, but the tests Norris et al. present are not powerful enough to detect these signatures.

  2. [Hydropneumatic dilatation of the ureter: A technical option in ureteropyeloplasty]. (United States)

    Gallego-Grijalva, Jorge E; Jaimes-Jiménez, Ricardo; Alvarado-García, Rafael; Terriquez-Rodríguez, Sergio


    The pyeloureteric junction (UP) is the site of obstruction commonest in the upper tract urinary. Several surgical techniques exist and the main complication is the stricture by the disproportion between both ends. The hydropneumatic dilatation of the ureteric would increase of the 5:1 to 2:1 the light of the ureter, improving technically anastomosis and reducing complications. They studied 27 patients with diagnose of Estenosis UP in the Paediatric Urologist Service of CMN 20 of November of the ISSSTE, being made dismembered Pyeloplasty pyeloureteric in all, introducing Fogarty catheter in the Ureter carrying out the hydropneumatic dilatation of the same one, introduction of catheter double J in ureter and in the last patient without this, previous one to the anastomosis. All had a pursuit of 6 months. Of the 27 patients, 21 masculine ones (77.78%), 6 feminine ones (22.22%), of the right side 10 (37.04%), left 14 (51.85%) and bilateral 3 (11.11%). In the 27 studied patients postoperating complications did not appear. To all the patients I am made the dilatation to them hydropneumatics of the Ureter during UP plasty, did not present/display postoperating complications, the anastomosis is carried out with greater technical facility since the light of the Ureteric increase from 5:1 in 2:1, and in I complete case without ferulization of the Ureter, I do not present/display complications. DOSCUSSION: The hydropneumatics dilatation of the Ureter is a technical option in the Surgical handling of stricture UP, facilitating the anastomosis, diminishing the postoperating complications, making the ferulization do withoutible of the Ureter.

  3. Motor unit number in a small facial muscle, dilator naris. (United States)

    Patel-Khurana, Nilam; Fregosi, Ralph F


    A loss of functioning motor units underlies many neuromuscular disorders. The facial nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression, including nasal muscles, which also play an important role in the regulation of airflow resistance. It is difficult to accurately assess motor unit number in the facial muscles, because the muscles are difficult to activate in isolation. Here, we apply the manual McComas method to estimate the number of motor units in a nasal dilator muscle. EMG of the dilator naris was recorded during graded stimulation of the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve in 26 subjects (12 males and 14 females), aged 20-41 years. Each subject was studied twice, on separate days, to estimate method reproducibility. As a check on our use of the McComas method, we also estimated motor unit number in the first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI) of six subjects, as the muscle is also small and has been studied with the McComas method. Reproducibility was evaluated with a rigorous statistical approach, the Bland-Altman procedure. We estimate that dilator naris is composed of 75 ± 15.6 (SD) motor units, compared to 144 ± 35.5 in FDI. The coefficient of variation for test-retest reproducibility of dilator naris motor unit estimates was 29.6 %, similar to separate-day reproducibility reported for other muscles. Recording and stimulation were done with surface electrodes, and the recordings were of high quality and reproducible. This simple technique could be applied clinically to track motor neuron loss and to monitor facial nerve integrity.

  4. A Comparison of Two Drug Combinations for Dilating Dark Irides (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A.; Bertrand, Kimberly C.; Manny, Ruth E.; Hu, Ying-Sheng; Fern, Karen D.


    Purpose Two combinations of dilation drops (1% Tropicamide & 2.5% Phenylephrine [TP] versus 1% Tropicamide & 1% Cyclopentolate [TC]) were compared to determine time course and magnitude of dilation for patients with dark irides. Methods 45 subjects, 4–32 years of age, with dark irides were enrolled. Photographs were taken prior to dilation and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, & 60 minutes after instillation of drops. Subjects received TP in one eye and TC in the fellow eye with eyes randomized to the combination received. An examiner masked to drug combination and time used digital analysis to calculate pupil diameter for each photograph. TP and TC were compared to determine the time to reach both 6 and 7 mm pupil diameter, and the percentage of subjects reaching these diameters. Results 98% of pupils reached 6 mm with either combination; however, 80% reached 7 mm with TP and only 58% with TC (p = 0.0062 McNemars Exact Test). Time at which 50% of pupils reached 6 mm was not significantly different between drug combinations (TP 11 min vs. TC 12 min, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). However, time at which 50% reached 7 mm was statistically and clinically significant (TP 32 min vs. TC 52 min, p = 0.0325). For subjects ≤10 years versus >10 years, there was no significant difference in time at which 50% reached a 6 mm or 7 mm pupil with TP or TC; however, in every case the younger group took longer. Conclusions A 6 mm pupil dilation may be obtained with either TP or TC; however, more subjects achieved a 7 mm pupil with TP than TC and had a faster time course to attain that size. PMID:20035241

  5. Endoscopic Dilatation versus Oesophageal Stent in Benign Oesophageal Stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadyanto Caputra


    Full Text Available Aim: Oesophageal stricture is one of the causes of dysphagia. It is a condition in which the lumen of oesophagus is narrowed by fibrotic tissue in the oesophageal wall. It is usually caused by inflammation or any other cause that leads to necrotizing of tissue. It is mainly differentiated into benign or malignant. The aim of this article is to answer the clinical question on the effectiveness of oesophageal stenting compared to endoscopic dilatation in patient with benign oesophageal stricture due to ingestion of corrosive substances, who had undergone several endoscopic dilatations. Method: We conducted search of relevant articles using PubMed search engine to answer the clinical question. Keywords being used during the search process were: ("oesophageal stricture"[All Fields] OR "oesophageal stenosis"[All Fields] AND (("dilatation"[All Fields] AND ("stents"[MeSH Terms] OR "stents"[All Fields] OR "stent"[All Fields]. Results were further converged by adding specific filters, which were full text articles and clinical trial. Results: The chosen article was further appraised in order to identify its validity and eligibility to answer the clinical question. We chose to use CONSORT (statement to improve the quality of reporting of RCTs to facilitate the critical appraisal and interpretation of RCTs. Conclusion: Stenting was associated with greater dysphagia, co-medication and adverse events. No randomized controlled trials which compared biodegradable stents with other stents or with balloon dilatation was identified. Lack of adequately robust evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness formed the rationale of this trial.

  6. Dynamic chronic rectal obstruction causing a severe colonic dilatation in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia García-Pertierra


    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented to our referral centre with a 13 month history of chronic tenesmus due to malunion of the right caudal iliac body. Constipation and pelvic canal stenosis were initially addressed by the referring veterinarian with a right femoral head and neck excision and a right acetabulectomy without observable clinical improvement. At admission, abdominal radiographs revealed severe colonic distension and a narrowed pelvic canal caused by the right proximal femur. Rectal examination and colonography revealed a dynamic compression of the rectum, which worsened with femoral abduction and improved with femoral adduction. A right hindlimb amputation was performed to relieve the obstruction. The cat defaecated 2 days postoperatively and was discharged uneventfully. Neither faecal tenesmus nor dyschaezia were observed over the following 10 months. Relevance and novel information The dynamic nature of the rectal obstruction most likely prevented the development of an irreversible colonic dilatation leading to a megacolon. This is the first report describing a chronic dynamic rectal compression, which was successfully managed with a right hindlimb amputation without the need for subtotal colectomy.

  7. Incision of recurrent distal esophageal (Schatzki) ring after dilation. (United States)

    DiSario, James A; Pedersen, Peder J; Bichiş-Canoutas, Cristina; Alder, Stephen C; Fang, John C


    Distal esophageal (Schatzki) ring is a frequent cause of dysphagia. Bougienage is generally effective but relapse is common. Outcomes for patients treated by endoscopic incision of distal esophageal rings after symptomatic relapses after bougienage are described. Eleven patients (2 women, 9 men; median age 61 years; range 24 to 81 years) with recurrent dysphagia after bougienage with large caliber bougies underwent 17 sessions of endoscopic incision of the rings. Follow-up was by standardized interview at a median of 55 months (range, 7 to 84 months) after the initial incision procedure. A median of 3 dilation sessions (range, 1 to >25) were performed prior to incision. All patients noted complete resolution of dysphagia immediately thereafter. Seven required subsequent incision or dilation and 4 did not. The mean dysphagia score was significantly improved from that before incision to that during follow-up. There was a significant increase in the mean duration of improvement in dysphagia after the initial incision compared with that after preincision dilation (respectively, 17 months [range, 2 to 72 months] vs. 5 months [range, 0.5 to 28 months]; p = 0.034). Endoscopic incision of distal esophageal rings that cause recurrent dysphagia after bougienage improves dysphagia and provides a longer dysphagia-free interval compared with repeated bougienage.

  8. Massively dilated right atrium masquerading as a mediastinal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schroeter


    Full Text Available Severe tricuspid valve insufficiency causes right atrial dilatation, venous congestion, and reduced atrial contractility, and may eventually lead to right heart failure. We report a case of a patient with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency, right heart failure, and a massively dilated right atrium. The enormously dilated atrium compressed the right lung, resulting in a radiographic appearance of a mediastinal tumor. Tricuspid valve repair and reduction of the right atrium was performed. Follow up examination revealed improvement of liver function, reduced peripheral edema and improved New York Heart Association (NYHA class. The reduction of the atrial size and repair of the tricuspid valve resulted in a restoration of the conduit and reservoir function of the right atrium. Given the chronicity of the disease process and the long-standing atrial fibrillation, there is no impact of this operation on right atrial contraction. In combination with the reconstruction of the tricuspid valve, the reduction atrioplasty will reduce the risk of thrombembolic events and preserve the right ventricular function.

  9. Left atrium dilatation and multiple vascular territory strokes. (United States)

    Gagne Brosseau, Marie-Sarah; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Leblanc, Nancy; Berger, Leo; Benzazon, Micheal


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cause of ischemic stroke and is associated with recurrence and with acute multi-vessel territory non lacunar stroke. Many cryptogenic strokes could be secondary to undiagnosed paroxystic AF. As left atrium (LA) dilatation is a risk factor of AF, we sought to determine if moderate or severe LA dilatation was associated with multiple vascular territory infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute ischemic stroke without known AF. Normal LA diameter values are ≤4.0 cm for men and ≤3.8 for women. Patients who presented at our center between 2006 and 2011 with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemick attack (TIA) who had a transthoracic echocardiography and a brain MRI were included. Patients with known or de novo AF diagnosed within 3 months of the event were excluded. The main outcome was the presence of acute multi-vessel territory infarct(s) on MRI. 356 patients were included. The mean LA diameter was 37 mm in the control group (normal or mildly dilated LA) and 49 mm in those with moderately to severely enlarged LA (pterritory infarcts on MRI in patients with AIS or TIA without known AF or a confirmed diagnosis of AF. Further studies are necessary to determine if this population might benefit from anticoagulation therapy.

  10. Time dilation in a perceptually jittering dot pattern. (United States)

    Aoki, Shunsuke; Kawano, Akitoshi; Terao, Masahiko; Murakami, Ikuya


    Although it is known that a moving stimulus appears to dilate in duration compared to a stationary stimulus, whether subjective motion devoid of stimulus motion is sufficient remains unknown. To elucidate this, we used a motion illusion in which an actually static stimulus clearly appears to move, a useful dissociation between actual and subjective motions. We used the jitter aftereffect resulting from adaptation to dynamic noise as such a tool and measured subjective durations of a static random-dot pattern in which illusory jitter was seen, an actually oscillating pattern mimicking the illusory jitter, and a static pattern without illusory jitter. Pattern oscillation as tiny as fixational eye movements robustly evoked time dilation, and time dilation to a similar extent was also induced by an actually static but subjectively jittering pattern. Taken together with the previous knowledge that this subjective jitter is related to a visually based compensation of spurious retinal image motions due to fixational eye movements, these findings demonstrate that visual duration computation is influenced by a representation at a high-level motion processing stage at which a stable visual world despite jittery retinal inputs has been established.

  11. [Conservative management of esophageal perforation after pneumatic dilatation for achalasia]. (United States)

    Scatton, Olivier; Gaudric, Marianne; Massault, Pierre-Philippe; Chaussade, Stanislas; Houssin, Didier; Dousset, Bertrand


    To assess the results and indications of conservative management of esophageal perforation following pneumatic dilatation for achalasia. Thirteen esophageal perforations complicating 524 dilatations in 412 patients (3%) were diagnosed by esophagogram. Medical treatment consisted of nasogastric succion, antibiotics and pleural drainage, if necessary. Conservative surgical treatment included left thoracophrenotomy, perforation closure, controlateral myotomy and anterior fundoplication. Surgical decision was based upon clinical and radiological parameters. Functional outcome was assessed by the means of the Eckardt's grading score. Six patients were successfully managed by medical treatment. Seven patients underwent conservative surgery, three of whom after failure of medical treatment. The presence of a pneumomediastinum at initial presentation led to immediate (n=2) or delayed (n=2) surgery in all instances. No patients died. In the surgical group, morbidity consisted of one wound infection, one pleural effusion and one venous thrombosis. One severe chest infection occurred in the medical group. Oral feeding was reintroduced after a median of 10 and 11 days in the surgical and medical groups, respectively. Functional results were satisfactory and similar in both groups. Conservative medical or surgical management of oesophageal perforation following pneumatic dilatation is safe, if the diagnosis is done early. Pneumomediastinum at initial presentation seems to predict failure of conservative medical treatment.

  12. [Serious adverse side effects after pupillary dilation in preterm infants]. (United States)

    Lux, A-L; Mouriaux, F; Guillois, B; Fedrizzi, S; Peyro-Saint-Paul, L; Denion, E


    This study aimed at investigating serious side effects of the pupillary dilation protocol used in Caen University Hospital for the screening of retinopathy of prematurity. This protocol includes one drop of phenylephrine 5% and two drops of tropicamide 0.5% instilled at a 5-minute interval. This retrospective study included all premature infants with a birth weight less than or equal to 1500 g and/or a gestational age less than or equal to 30 gestational weeks, hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of Caen University Medical Center, having ocular fundus examinations for retinopathy of prematurity screening between 2009 and 2014. The medical records of patients who died or developed necrotizing enterocolitis were reviewed to analyze the imputability of the two eye drops used for pupil dilation. Five-hundred and twelve infants were included, corresponding to 1033 ocular fundus examinations. No case of death could be ascribed to the use of eye drops. Two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis could be ascribed to the use of tropicamide with a doubtful and plausible intrinsic imputability according to French imputability criteria. The pupillary dilation protocol used in Caen University Hospital for screening of retinopathy of prematurity might be implicated in two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis with an uncertain imputability of tropicamide 0.5% eye drops. No serious side effect could be ascribed to the use of phenylephrine 5% eye drops in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ileoanal anastomosis with proximal ileal reservoir: an experimental study. (United States)

    Schraut, W H; Block, G E


    Endorectal ileoanal anastomosis with proximal interposition of an ileal reservoir was evaluated experimentally in dogs as an approach to retain sphincteric control of defecation after proctocolectomy. Two months after the operative procedure, eight animals with a reservoir had four to eight semisolid stools per day and were continent. In contrast, six animals with straight ileoanal anastomosis were incontinent with 10 to 14 evacuations per day. Motility studies demonstrated a reduction of propulsive peristalsis within the undistended reservoir, which is considered the responsible factor for increased intestinal transit time and reduced stool frequency. Filling of the reservoir to capacity elicited strong peristaltic contractions, which may assure a more complete evacuation of the reservoir during defecation. Reservoir capacity increased substantially (150% to 200%) within 2 months but only to a minor degree thereafter, indicating that the reservoir does not dilate progressively into an atonic viscus. Motility patterns remained unaltered as the reservoir became more complaint with time. Mucosal alterations (flattening of villi, submucosal inflammation) were detected in the reservoir but did not result in nutritional defects within an observation period of 1 year.

  15. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  16. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of dilated cardiomyopathy; MRT bei dilatativen Kardiomyopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Anastasi, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Greif, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M.F.; Theisen, D. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Herzkreislaufforschung (DZHK), Muenchen (Germany)


    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common type of cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of 1 out of 2,500 in adults. Due to mild clinical symptoms in the early phase of the disease, the true prevalence is probably even much higher. Patients present with variable clinical symptoms ranging from mild systolic impairment of left ventricular function to congestive heart failure. Even sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical symptom of DCM. The severity of the disease is defined by the degree of impairment of global left ventricular function. Arrhythmias, such as ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block, ventricular extrasystole and atrial fibrillation are common cardiac manifestations of DCM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the exact quantification of functional impairment of both ventricles and in the evaluation of regional wall motion abnormalities. With its excellent ability for the assessment of myocardial structure, it is becoming increasingly more important for risk stratification and therapy guidance. (orig.) [German] Die dilatative Kardiomyopathie (DCM) ist die haeufigste Form der Kardiomyopathie mit einer Praevalenz von 1/2500 Erwachsenen. Aufgrund der zunaechst milden klinischen Symptomatik ist jedoch von einer relativ hohen Dunkelziffer auszugehen. Die klinische Praesentation ist variabel, die Schwere der Erkrankung wird vom Ausmass der systolischen Funktionseinschraenkung bestimmt. Herzrhythmusstoerungen, wie ventrikulaere oder supraventrikulaere Tachykardien, AV-Blockierungen, ventrikulaere Extrasystolen und Vorhofflimmern sind moegliche klinische Manifestationen. Bei manchen Patienten ist der ploetzliche Herztod die erste klinische Manifestation der Erkrankung. Die kardiale MRT spielt eine bedeutende Rolle fuer die Beurteilung des Ausmasses der ventrikulaeren Dilatation, Dysfunktion und fuer die Beurteilung regionaler Wandbewegungsstoerungen. Darueber hinaus kann sie zur Anwendung kommen

  18. Dilatation and curettage effect on the endometrial thickness. (United States)

    Davar, Robab; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Chaman Ara, Kefayat


    Endometrial receptivity is required for successful implantation and pregnancy. Despite the remaining controversy, many studies have shown that ultrasonographic endometrial thickness can be considered as an indicator of endometrial receptivity. The study objective was to investigate the effect of dilatation and curettage on the endometrial thickness. Enrolled in the study were 444 patients visited in Obstetrics & Gynecology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi hospital between Jan. 2011 to Sep. 2012. Only patients whose menstrual cycle was regular were included in study. Patients with myoma, adenomyosis, endometrial polyps or other uterine anomaly, those who smoked, whose BMI was greater than 30 and who were taking medications that could affect endometrial thickness were excluded. Endometrial thickness was measured one day before evolution (n = 444) and 5-7 days after it (n = 444) using transvaginal ultrasonography. The endometrial thicknesses were correlated to the patients' history of dilatation and curettage. Data analysis was done through SPSS software version 16 and using descriptive statistics, independent T-test and Anova. Endometrial thickness in patients who had 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 D&C were 10.00 ± 0.58, 9.83 ± 0.47, 8.90 ± 0.92, 7.42 ± 0.18 and 7.40 ± 0.07, respectively one day before ovulation (spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.33) and 10.62 ± 0.68, 9.64 ± 0.49, 8.48 ± 0.96, 6.32 ± 0.15 and 6.90 ± 0.04, respectively, 5-7 days after ovulation (spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.66) estradiol and progesterone levels, measured in the day of 2nd ultrasonography had not statistic relation with endometrial thickness (P = 0.27 and 0.31). The relation of endometrial thickness and age was not significant (P = 0.54 and 0.06). Dilatation and curettage has a significant effect on the endometrial thinning.

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy as part of familial dystrophia myotonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadgaard, Tenna; Eiskjær, Hans; Jensen, Peter Kjestrup Axel


    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition characterized by non-ischaemic heart failure and is often hereditary. We present a family in which the proband had DCM in isolation while several relatives presented with myotonia, hypotonia, poly-hydramnion during pregnancy or a mental handicap....... The disease presentation and subsequent genetic investigations were consistent with a diagnosis of dystrophia myotonica. This case presentation illustrate that DCM may be part of a systemic condition and that familial investigations may have important implications for correct diagnosis, treatment...

  20. Migraine pain associated with middle cerebral artery dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    an attack and when they had been free of attacks for 5 days (non-attack). On both occasions they were given as intravenous infusion of sumatriptan (2 mg), a 5-HT1-like receptor agonist, which relieved the symptoms within 30 min without affecting rCBF. The MCA velocity was normal on both sides on the non...... dilatation on the headache side. Sumatriptan predominantly had effects on the distended artery, which suggests that the 5-HT receptor system has a role in the pathogenesis of migraine....

  1. Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Behcet's Disease in a Young Male Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khederlou


    Full Text Available Behcet’s disease is a multisystemic, inflammatory and chronic disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers and genital ulcers, uveitis and other manifestations, including systemic organ involvement. Cardiac involvement in Behcet’s disease is rarely however, it plays an important role in prognosis and increases mortality. We hereby have reported a case of Behcet's disease with dilated cardiomyopathy. He was presented with constitutional symptoms and also oral and genital aphthous ulcers, pseudofolliculitis, tachycardia, arthritis, splenomegaly, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP (C-reactive protein elevation and LV systolic dysfunction with LVEF=45% were found in evaluation. He was started on Azathioprine and Prednisolone.

  2. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)


    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  3. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  4. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  5. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  6. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  7. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  8. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  9. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  10. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  11. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  12. Deep Foundation Modeling with Morh-Coulomb Model in Dense Sands with Dilatancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Macijauskas


    Full Text Available The analysis of load distribution in deep foundations found in dense and indiscrete sand between base and shaft is considered in this paper. The availability of designing deep foundations in sand with dilatancy was studied with changing dilatancy angle. For design, Plaxis 3D Foundation v2 Morh-Coulomb model was used. Various load distributions between shaft and base were obtained when dilatancy angle varied from 0° to 5°. Skin friction increases significantly increasing dilatancy angle. However, in Mohr-Coulomb model, (drained conditions soil will continue to dilate as long as shear deformations occurs. This error decreases in case relative foundation length L/D and dilatancy angle ψ decrease. Article in Lithuanian

  13. Ventricular dilation as an instability of intracranial dynamics (United States)

    Bouzerar, R.; Ambarki, K.; Balédent, O.; Kongolo, G.; Picot, J. C.; Meyer, M. E.


    We address the question of the ventricles’ dilation as a possible instability of the intracranial dynamics. The ventricular system is shown to be governed by a dynamical equation derived from first principles. This general nonlinear scheme is linearized around a well-defined steady state which is mapped onto a pressure-volume model with an algebraic effective compliance depending on the ventricles’ geometry, the ependyma’s elasticity, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface tension. Instabilities of different natures are then evidenced. A first type of structural instability results from the compelling effects of the CSF surface tension and the elastic properties of the ependyma. A second type of dynamical instability occurs for low enough values of the aqueduct’s conductance. This last case is then shown to be accompanied by a spontaneous ventricle’s dilation. A strong correlation with some active hydrocephalus is evidenced and discussed. The transfer function of the ventricles, compared to a low-pass filter, are calculated in both the stable and unstable regimes and appear to be very different.

  14. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata (United States)

    Sundberg, John P.; Pratt, C. Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A.; Kennedy, Victoria E.; Stearns, Timothy; Sundberg, Beth A.; King, Lloyd E.; HogenEsch, Harm


    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10 weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26960166

  15. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy for ICU patients with severe brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dongyuan


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To sum up our experience in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT in ICU patient with severe brain injury. Methods: Between November 2011 and April 2014, PDTs were performed on 32 severe brain injury patients in ICU by a team of physicians and intensivists. The success rate, effi cacy, safety, and complications including stomal infection and bleeding, paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, as well as clinically significant tracheal stenosis were carefully monitored and recorded respectively. Results: The operations took 4-15 minutes (mean 9.1 minutes±4.2 minutes. Totally 4 cases suffered from complications in the operations: 3 cases of stomal bleeding, and 1 case of intratracheal bloody secretion, but none required intervention. Paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, or clinically signifi cant tracheal stenosis were not found in PDT patients. There was no procedure-related death occurring during or after PDT. Conclusion: Our study demonstrats that PDT is a safe, highly effective, and minimally invasive procedure. The appropriate sedation and airway management perioperatively help to reduce complication rates. PDT should be performed or supervised by a team of physicians with extensive experience in this procedure, and also an intensivist with experience in diffi cult airway management. Key words: Brain injuries; Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy; ICU

  16. Portuguese study of familial dilated cardiomyopathy: the FATIMA study. (United States)

    Martins, Elisabete; Silva-Cardoso, José; Bicho, Manuel; Bourbon, Mafalda; Ceia, Fátima; Rebocho, M José; Moura, Brenda; Fonseca, Cândida; Correia, Maria José; Brito, Dulce; Perdigão, Carlos; Madeira, Hugo; Abreu-Lima, Cassiano


    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a myocardial disease, characterized by ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function, that in more than 30% of cases has a familial or genetic origin. Given its age-dependent penetrance, DCM frequently manifests in adults by signs or symptoms of heart failure, arrhythmias or sudden death. The predominant mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant, and in these cases mutations are identified in genes coding for cytoskeletal, sarcomeric or nuclear envelope proteins. To date, most studies aimed at molecular diagnosis of DCM have been in selected families, or in larger groups of patients, but screening for mutations in a limited number of genes. Consequently, the epidemiology of mutations in familial DCM remains unknown. There is thus a need for multicenter studies, involving screening for a wide range of mutations in several families and in cases of idiopathic DCM. The present article describes the methodology of a multicenter study, aimed at clinical and molecular characterization of familial DCM patients in the Portuguese population.

  17. Transmediastinal Trachea Closure after Dilational Tracheotomy Positioned Too Low Down (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Andreas; Maier, Tanja; Teymoortash, Afsin


    Dilational tracheotomy is a minimally invasive method that can be performed at the bedside on patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation. In our 70-year-old male patient, percutaneous dilational tracheotomy (Ciaglia Blue Rhino, Cook Medical Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, United States) was performed because of bilateral pneumonia with sepsis. There were no initial problems. Nine days later, while the patient was being repositioned, the tracheal cannula became dislocated. Despite extending the cervical incision it was not possible to recannulate. The tracheal hole could not be felt with certainty by palpating through the incision. After several unsuccessful attempts, the patient was intubated orally. The only way to achieve sufficient ventilation was to hold the tracheostoma closed. Bronchoscopy showed that the entry point of the tracheal cannula was ventral and ∼1.5 cm above the main carina. The tube was then advanced into the right main bronchus and the patient was thus ventilated unilaterally. On exposure of the trachea, a grade 3 goiter was revealed. Total neck length was short. Only after the video mediastinoscope had been inserted was it possible to show the tracheal defect below the brachiocephalic trunk. After blunt mobilization of both main bronchi, it was possible to close the tracheal defect with simple interrupted sutures. Conventional tracheotomy was then performed at the level of the second tracheal ring. As a result, mechanical ventilation was once again possible without difficulty and thoracotomy was not necessary. PMID:28018810

  18. Laryngotracheal Stenosis: Risk Factors for Tracheostomy Dependence and Dilation Interval (United States)

    Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Pandian, Vinciya; Best, Simon; Motz, Kevin M; Allen, Clint; Kim, Young; Akst, Lee; Hillel, Alexander T


    Objective Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a fibrotic process that narrows the upper airway and has a significant impact on breathing and phonation. Iatrogenic injury from endotracheal and/or tracheostomy tubes is the most common etiology. This study investigates differences in LTS etiologies as they relate to tracheostomy dependence and dilation interval. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Single-center tertiary care facility. Subjects and Methods Review of adult patients with LTS was performed between 2004 and 2015. The association of patient demographics, comorbidities, disease etiology, and treatment modalities with patient outcomes was assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to determine factors associated with tracheostomy dependence and time to second procedure, respectively. Results A total of 262 patients met inclusion criteria. Iatrogenic patients presented with greater stenosis ( P = .023), greater length of stenosis ( P = .004), and stenosis farther from the vocal folds ( P time to second dilation procedure. Conclusion Iatrogenic LTS presents with a greater disease burden and higher risk of tracheostomy dependence when compared with other etiologies of LTS. Comorbid conditions promoting microvascular injury-including smoking, COPD, and diabetes-were prevalent in the iatrogenic cohort. Changes in hospital practice patterns to promote earlier tracheostomy in high-risk patients could reduce the incidence of LTS.

  19. Quantum to classical transition induced by gravitational time dilation (United States)

    Sokolov, Boris; Vilja, Iiro; Maniscalco, Sabrina


    We study the loss of quantumness caused by time dilation [I. Pikovski, M. Zych, F. Costa, and Č. Brukner, Nat. Phys. 11, 668 (2015), 10.1038/nphys3366] for a Schrödinger cat state. We give a holistic view of the quantum to classical transition by comparing the dynamics of several nonclassicality indicators, such as the Wigner function interference fringe, the negativity of the Wigner function, the nonclassical depth, the Vogel criterion, and the Klyshko criterion. Our results show that only two of these indicators depend critically on the size of the cat, namely, on how macroscopic the superposition is. Finally we compare the gravitation-induced decoherence times to the typical decoherence times due to classical noise originating from the unavoidable statistical fluctuations in the characteristic parameters of the system [J. Trapani, M. Bina, S. Maniscalco, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 91, 022113 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.022113]. We show that the experimental observation of decoherence due to time dilation imposes severe limitations on the allowed levels of classical noise in the experiments.

  20. Two Novel Special Relativistic Effects Space Dilatation and Time Contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Field, J H


    The conventional discussion of the observed distortions of space and time in Special Relativity (the Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction and Time Dilatation) is extended by considering observations, from a stationary frame, of : (i) objects moving with constant velocity and uniformly illuminated during a short time $\\tau_L$ (their `Luminous Proper Time') in their rest frame; these may be called `Transient Luminous Objects' and (ii) a moving, extended, array of synchronised `equivalent clocks' in a common inertial frame. Application of the Lorentz Transformation to (i) shows that such objects, observed from the stationary frame with coarse time resolution in a direction perpendicular to their direction of motion are seen to be at rest but {\\it longer} in the direction of the relative velocity $\\vec{v}$ by a factor $1/\\sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$ (Space Dilatation) and to (ii) that the moving equivalent clock at any fixed position in the rest frame of the stationary observer is seen to be running {\\it faster} than a similar cl...

  1. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, K.A. [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital and Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Foresterhill, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is {>=} 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of {>=} 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate.

  2. Pupil dilation patterns spontaneously synchronize across individuals during shared attention. (United States)

    Kang, Olivia; Wheatley, Thalia


    Human social behavior relies on the coupling of minds. Here we show that patterns of pupil dilations reveal mental coupling between speakers and listeners. Speakers were videotaped and eye-tracked as they discussed positive and negative autobiographical memories. An independent group of listeners were then eye-tracked while they watched these videos. As pupillary dilations reflect the dynamics of conscious attention, we computed the morphological similarity of speaker-listener pupillary time-series data as a metric of shared attention. The emotional salience of each narrative was also assessed, dynamically, by independent raters. Collective pupillary synchrony between speakers and listeners was greatest during the emotional peaks of a narrative, and decreased as narratives became less engaging. Individual differences in speaker expressivity and listener empathy revealed greatest synchrony in high expressive-high empathic dyads. Together, these findings suggest that pupillary synchrony is an implicit corollary of shared attention that can be used to track mental coupling in real time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Endoscopic Dilation of Pharyngoesophageal Strictures: There Are More Dimensions than a Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martins


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dysphagia due to benign pharyngoesophageal strictures (PES often requires repeated dilations; however, a uniform definition for the therapeutic efficacy of this technique has not been yet established. We aimed to assess the overall efficacy of endoscopic dilation of pharyngoesophageal anastomotic or post-radiotherapy (post-RT strictures. Methods: The data of 48 patients with post-RT (n = 29 or anastomotic PES (n = 19 submitted to endoscopic dilation during a 3-year period were retrospectively assessed. The Kochman criteria were used to determine refractoriness and recurrence. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire determining prospectively the dilation program efficacy as (a dysphagia improvement, (b dysphagia resolution, (c need for further dilations, or (d percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG during the previous 6 months. Need for additional therapy was considered an inefficacy criterion. Results: The median number of dilations per patient was 4 (total of 296 dilations with a median follow-up of 29 months. The mean predilation dysphagia Mellow-Pinkas score was 3 and the initial stenosis diameter was 7 mm. Fifteen and 29% of patients presented with the Kochman criteria for refractory and recurrent strictures, respectively. Moreover, 96 and 60% showed dysphagia improvement and resolution, respectively. Seventy-five-percent did not require dilations during 6 months, and 89% did not require PEG. From the patients’ perspective, overall efficacy was achieved in 58% of cases. Nine additional therapies were required. Number of dilations (OR 0.7, stricture diameter (OR 2.2, and nonrecurrence criteria (OR 14.2 appeared as significant predictors of overall efficacy, whereas refractory stenosis criteria did not. Conclusions: Endoscopic dilation seems to be effective for patients with dysphagia after RT or surgery, especially when assessed as patient perception of improvement. Narrow strictures, recurrent ones, and strictures

  4. Sinus Balloon Dilation as Treatment for Acute Sphenoid Sinusitis with Impaired Vision for a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper is about sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of acute left sphenoid sinusitis with left impaired vision in a child. Balloon catheter dilatation (BCD of the sinus ostia is a new technique. It has been shown to be a minimally invasive technique to manage chronic sinusitis. However, this method is rarely used in the treatment of acute sinusitis. So far, we know of no reported cases of sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of this case, especially for children.

  5. The Enright phenomenon. Stereoscopic distortion of perceived driving speed induced by monocular pupil dilation. (United States)

    Carkeet, Andrew; Wood, Joanne M; McNeill, Kylie M; McNeill, Hamish J; James, Joanna A; Holder, Leigh S

    The Enright phenomenon describes the distortion in speed perception experienced by an observer looking sideways from a moving vehicle when viewing with interocular differences in retinal image brightness, usually induced by neutral density filters. We investigated whether the Enright phenomenon could be induced with monocular pupil dilation using tropicamide. We tested 17 visually normal young adults on a closed road driving circuit. Participants were asked to travel at Goal Speeds of 40km/h and 60km/h while looking sideways from the vehicle with: (i) both eyes with undilated pupils; (ii) both eyes with dilated pupils; (iii) with the leading eye only dilated; and (iv) the trailing eye only dilated. For each condition we recorded actual driving speed. With the pupil of the leading eye dilated participants drove significantly faster (by an average of 3.8km/h) than with both eyes dilated (p=0.02); with the trailing eye dilated participants drove significantly slower (by an average of 3.2km/h) than with both eyes dilated (p<0.001). The speed, with the leading eye dilated, was faster by an average of 7km/h than with the trailing eye dilated (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between driving speeds when viewing with both eyes either dilated or undilated (p=0.322). Our results are the first to show a measurable change in driving behaviour following monocular pupil dilation and support predictions based on the Enright phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Qualitative accounts of patients' determinants of vaginal dilator use after pelvic radiotherapy. (United States)

    Bakker, Rinske M; Vermeer, Willemijn M; Creutzberg, Carien L; Mens, Jan Willem M; Nout, Remi A; Ter Kuile, Moniek M


    Treatment with pelvic external beam radiotherapy with brachytherapy (EBRT/BT) for gynecological cancers may cause sexual dysfunction because of vaginal shortening and tightening. Regular vaginal dilator use is thought to reduce vaginal shortening and/or tightening, but compliance is poor. This study identified determinants of patients' adherence with dilator use after EBRT/BT. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 women, aged 32-67 years, treated with EBRT/BT for gynecological cancers at two university medical centers in the past 36 months. Transcriptions were coded and analyzed with N-Vivo software. Determinants of dilator use were clustered based on the Health Action Process Approach, which describes (i) motivation processes that lead to a behavioral intention and (ii) volition processes that lead to the initiation or maintenance of actual behavior. Almost all women attempted to perform long-term regular vaginal dilator use. Intended dilator use was determined by the expectation that it would prevent the development of vaginal adhesions and stenosis. Planning dilator use and making it part of a routine, using it under the shower, using lubricants, a smaller dilator size, or vibrators helped women. Others reported a lack of time or privacy, forgetting, or feeling tired. Women self-regulated dilator use by rotating the dilator and timing dilator use. Influencing factors were negative emotions regarding dilator use or its hard plastic design, (being anxious for) pain or blood loss, and an association with EBRT/BT. Some women mentioned a lack of instrumental support, for example, lubricants. Others received reassurance through informational support or were supported socially. Motivation and volition processes that determined dilator use were identified and used in the development of a sexual rehabilitation intervention. It is important to provide sufficient patient information and support, and enlarge patients' perceived self-efficacy. © 2014


    Wang, Dong; Gladysheva, Inna P.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Sullivan, Ryan; Houng, Aiilyan K.; Reed, Guy L.


    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a biomarker of dilated cardiomyopathy, but there is controversy whether ANP modulates the development of heart failure. Therefore we examined whether ANP affects heart failure, cardiac remodeling, function and survival in a well-characterized, transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy with normal ANP levels survived longer than mice with partial ANP (pANP deficiency (pANP protected against the development of heart failure as indicated by reduced lung water, alveolar congestion, pleural effusions etc. ANP improved systolic function and reduced cardiomegaly. Pathologic cardiac remodeling was diminished in mice with normal ANP as indicated by decreased ventricular interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. Mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal ANP levels had better systolic function (pANP-deficiency. Dilated cardiomyopathy was associated with diminished cardiac transcripts for natriuretic peptide receptors A and B in mice with normal ANP and ANP-deficiency but transcripts for natriuretic peptide receptor C and CNP were selectively altered in mice with dilated cardiomyopathy and ANP-deficiency. Taken together, these data indicate that ANP has potent effects in experimental dilated cardiomyopathy that reduce the development of heart failure, prevent pathologic remodeling, preserve systolic function and reduce mortality. Despite the apparent overlap in physiologic function between the natriuretic peptides, these data suggest that the role of ANP in dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure is not compensated physiologically by other natriuretic peptides. PMID:24379183

  8. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of calcific aortic valve stenosis: anatomical and haemodynamic evaluation. (United States)

    Commeau, P; Grollier, G; Lamy, E; Foucault, J P; Durand, C; Maffei, G; Maiza, D; Khayat, A; Potier, J C


    Two groups of elderly patients with calcified aortic stenosis were treated by balloon dilatation. In group 1, the valve was dilated just before surgical replacement of the valve. The valvar and annular changes occurring during dilatation were examined visually. In 20 of the 26 patients in this group there was no change. In the six remaining patients mobilisation of friable calcific deposits (1 case), slight tearing of the commissure (4 cases), or tearing of the aortic ring (1 case) were seen. Dilatation did not appear to alter valvar rigidity. In 14 patients (group 2) the haemodynamic gradient across the aortic valve was measured before and immediately after dilatation and one week after the procedure. Dilatation produced an immediate significant decrease of the aortic mean gradient and a significant increase of the aortic valve area. Eight days later the mean gradient had increased and the aortic valve area had decreased. Nevertheless there was a significant difference between the initial gradient and the gradient eight days after dilatation. The initial aortic valve area was also significantly larger than the area eight days after dilatation. The aortic valve gradient rose significantly in the eight days after dilatation and at follow up the gradients were those of severe aortic stenosis. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:3342163

  9. Results of balloon dilatation of stenotic homografts in pulmonary position in children and young adults. (United States)

    Bertels, Robin A; Dalinghaus, Michiel; Witsenburg, Maarten; Nijveld, Aagje; Bogers, Ad J J C; Meijboom, Folkert; van Oort, Anton; Tanke, Ronald


    To evaluate the results of balloon dilatation of stenotic homografts in children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify factors that might influence or predict the effect of the dilatation. Homografts are widely used in congenital cardiac surgery; however, the longevity remains a problem mostly because of stenosis in the homograft. The effect of treatment by balloon dilatation is unclear. In a retrospective study, the effect of balloon dilatation was determined by the percentage of reduction of the peak systolic pressure gradient over the homograft during catheterisation and the postponement of re-intervention or replacement of the homograft in months. Successful dilatations - defined in this study as a reduction of more than 33% and postponement of more than 18 months - were compared with unsuccessful dilatations in search of factors influencing or predicting the results. The mean reduction of the peak systolic pressure gradient was 30% in 40 procedures. Re-intervention or replacement of the homograft was postponed by a mean of 19 months. In all, 14 balloon dilatations (35%) were successful; the mean reduction was 49% and the mean postponement was 34 months. The time since homograft implantation, the presence of calcification, the homograft/balloon ratio, and the pressure applied during dilatation all tended to correlate with outcome, but were not statistically significant. Balloon dilatation is able to reduce the peak systolic pressure gradient over homografts in a subgroup of patients and can be of clinical significance to postpone re-intervention or pulmonary valve replacement.

  10. Use of balloon dilatation for management of postoperative intestinal strictures in children with short bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Belza, Christina; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Amaral, Joao; Steinberg, Karen; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W


    Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) often require numerous operations to optimize intestinal function. Postoperative intestinal strictures are a complication that inhibits enteral feeding advancement and prolongs parenteral nutrition dependency, often requiring reoperation. Our objective was to review our experience with fluoroscopic balloon dilatation to treat intestinal strictures. A retrospective cohort study of intestinal failure patients with SBS was completed. Patients who had radiologically diagnosed intestinal strictures and treated with fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation were included [n=6]. Data related to demographics, anatomy, surgical procedures, and dilatation procedures were collected. Descriptive summary statistics were employed. 98 intestinal failure patients were recruited between 2011 and 2015. Five of 98 patients (5.1%) [2 males; median age 4.4months] underwent fluoroscopy guided balloon dilatation of 6 strictures. Balloon dilatation was successful in 4/6 (67%). The median number of dilatations was 2 per patient (range=1-3). Median time to feed initiation postdilatation was 3days. One patient developed an anastomotic leak after dilatation that required antibiotics, but no reoperation. Four of six (67%) postoperative bowel strictures in 5 patients with SBS were successfully treated with fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation. Balloon dilatation is less invasive than reoperation, preserves bowel length and reduces time to reinitiation of enteral feeding. 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia secondary to idiopathic cricopharyngeal bar: Surgical cricopharyngeal muscle myotomy versus dilation. (United States)

    Marston, Alexander P; Maldonado, Francisco J; Ravi, Karthik; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Ekbom, Dale C

    To compare swallowing outcomes following cricopharyngeal (CP) dilation versus surgical myotomy in patients with dysphagia secondary to idiopathic CP bar. All patients had an idiopathic CP bar without a history of Zenker's diverticulum, head and neck cancer, or systemic neurologic disease treated between 2000 and 2013. The Functional Outcome Swallowing Scale (FOSS) was utilized to assess dysphagia symptoms. Twenty-three patients underwent 46 dilations and 20 patients had a myotomy. Nineteen of 23 (83%) patients in the dilation group and all patients in the myotomy group reported improved swallow function. The median difference in pre- versus post-intervention FOSS scores was not statistically significant (p=0.07) between the dilation and myotomy groups with mean reductions of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively. Seventeen of 23 (74%) dilation patients had persistent or recurrent dysphagia with 13 (57%) requiring repeat dilation and 4 (17%) undergoing CP myotomy. The median time to first reintervention in the dilation group was 13.6months. Nineteen of 20 (95%) surgical myotomy patients did not experience recurrent dysphagia. Both endoscopic CP dilation and myotomy led to similar initial improvement in swallow function for patients with primary idiopathic CP bar; however, dilation is more likely to provide temporary benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Should progressive perineal dilation be considered first line therapy for vaginal agenesis? (United States)

    Gargollo, Patricio C; Cannon, Glenn M; Diamond, David A; Thomas, Phaedra; Burke, Vicki; Laufer, Marc R


    In women with vaginal agenesis progressive perineal dilation provides a minimally invasive method to create a functional vagina without the attendant risks or complications of traditional surgical options. We report our 12-year experience with this technique. Patients with vaginal agenesis treated at our institution were analyzed retrospectively and followed prospectively using case report forms and semistructured interviews. Patients diagnosed with vaginal agenesis were counseled on vaginal reconstruction options. Those electing progressive perineal dilation were instructed on the proper use of vaginal dilators by one of us (MRL) and advised to dilate 2 or 3 times daily for 20 minutes. All patients received physician, nursing and social work education and counseling. Parameters reviewed included primary diagnosis, start and end of vaginal dilation, dilation frequency, dilator size, sexual activity and whether the patient experienced pain or bleeding with dilation or sexual activity. Functional success was defined as the ability to achieve sexual intercourse, vaginal acceptance of the largest dilator without discomfort or a vaginal length of 7 cm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with successful neovaginal creation. From 1996 to 2008 we enrolled 69 females with vaginal agenesis in a progressive perineal dilation program. The primary diagnosis was Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in 64 patients. Mean age at the start of vaginal dilation was 17.5 years (range 14 to 35) Mean followup was 19 months (range 0 to 100). Four patients (5.7%) were lost to followup. In 7 of the remaining 65 patients (12%) treatment failed due to noncompliance and 50 (88%) achieved functional success at a median of 18.7 months. Patients who dilated frequently (once daily or greater) achieved a functional neovagina at a mean +/- SD of 4.3 +/- 2.4 months. Functional success correlated positively with frequent (once daily or greater

  13. Self-dilation for therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures: towards a systematic approach. (United States)

    van Halsema, Emo E; 't Hoen, Chantal A; de Koning, Patricia S; Rosmolen, Wilda D; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Bergman, Jacques J


    Patients with therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures (TRBES) suffer from chronic dysphagia and generally require repeated endoscopic dilations. For selected patients, esophageal self-dilation may improve patient's autonomy and reduce the number of endoscopic dilations. We evaluated the clinical course and outcomes of patients who started esophageal self-dilation at our institution. This study was a retrospective case series of patients with TRBES who started esophageal self-dilation between 2012 and 2016 at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam. To learn self-dilation using Savary-Gilliard bougie dilators, patients visited the outpatient clinic on a weekly basis where they were trained by a dedicated nurse. Endoscopic dilation was continued until patients were able to perform self-bougienage adequately. The primary outcome was the number of endoscopic dilation procedures before and after initiation of self-dilation. Secondary outcomes were technical success, final bougie size, dysphagia scores, and adverse events. Seventeen patients started with esophageal self-dilation mainly because of therapy-resistant post-surgical (41%) and caustic (35%) strictures. The technical success rate of learning self-bougienage was 94% (16/17). The median number of endoscopic dilation procedures dropped from 17 [interquartile range (IQR) 11-27] procedures during a median period of 9 (IQR 6-36) months to 1.5 (IQR 0-3) procedures after the start of self-dilation (p < 0.001). The median follow-up after initiation of self-dilation was 17.6 (IQR 11.5-33.3) months. The final bougie size achieved with self-bougienage had a median diameter of 14 (IQR 13-15) mm. All patients could tolerate solid foods (Ogilvie dysphagia score ≤ 1), making the clinical success rate 94% (16/17). One patient (6%) developed a single episode of hematemesis related to self-bougienage. In this small case series, esophageal self-dilation was found to be successful 94% of patients when conducted

  14. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  15. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  16. Terapia celular na cardiomiopatia dilatada Cell therapy in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furtado Martino


    Full Text Available Homem de 41 anos em insuficiência cardíaca sistólica, CF III NYHA, estágio clínico C, por cardiomiopatia dilatada, foi submetido ao transplante autólogo da fração mononuclear da medula óssea, via sistema arterial coronariano, através de cateterismo cardíaco. Dois meses após o procedimento, houve diminuição do BNP plasmático, diminuição da área cardíaca ao estudo radiológico do tórax e à ressonância nuclear magnética. O ecocardiograma demonstrou diminuição do fluxo regurgitante secundário a dilatação do anel mitral. Na ergoespirometria houve melhor desempenho, com aumento do consumo máximo de oxigênio, sendo possível redução da terapêutica medicamentosa. A ausência de eventos adversos caracterizados por: instabilidade clínica/hemodinâmica, alteração enzimática ou eletrocardiográfica apontam para segurança e exeqüibilidade deste procedimento realizado e descrito com pioneirismo na cardiomiopatia dilatada.A forty-one-year-old male with systolic heart failure, FC-III NYHA, clinical stage C due to dilated cardiomyopathy was submitted to an autologous transplant of the mononuclear fraction of bone marrow via coronary artery system through heart catheterism. Two months after the procedure, there was a decrease in plasma BNP and cardiac area reduction at the thorax X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance. The echocardiogram showed decrease of the secondary regurgitation and mitral ring dilatation. There was a better performance at the ergospirometry, with increase of the maximum oxygen consumption and consequent reduction in drug therapy. The absence of adverse events characterized by clinical/hemodynamic instability, enzymatic alteration or electrocardiogram demonstrate the safety and feasibility of this procedure carried out and described with pioneering spirit in dilated cardiomyopathy.

  17. Balloon dilatation and outcome among patients undergoing trans-femoral aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Fink, Noam; Segev, Amit; Kornowski, Ran; Finkelstein, Ariel; Assali, Abid; Rozenbaum, Zach; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Halkin, Amir; Fefer, Paul; Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Regev, Ehud; Konigstein, Maayan; Orvin, Katia; Guetta, Victor; Barbash, Israel M


    Balloon pre-dilatation before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is performed at the discretion of the treating physician. Clinical data assessing the implications of this step on procedural outcomes are limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1164 consecutive TAVR patients in the Israeli multicenter TAVR registry (Sheba, Rabin, and Tel Aviv Medical Centers) between the years 2008 and 2014. Patients were divided to those who underwent balloon pre-dilation (n=1026) versus those who did not (n=138). Rates of balloon pre-dilation decreased from 95% in 2008-2011 to 59% in 2014 (p for trend=0.002). Baseline characteristics between groups were similar except for more smoking (22% vs. 8%, p=0.008), less past CABG (18% vs. 26%, p=0.016), less diabetes mellitus (35% vs. 45%, p=0.01), and lower STS mortality scores (5.2±3.7 vs. 6.1±3.5, p=0.006) in the pre-dilatation group. The pre-dilation group included less patients with moderate to severely depressed LVEF (7% vs. 16%, p<0.001) and higher aortic peak gradients (76.9±22.7mmHg vs. 71.4±24.3mmHg, p=0.01). Stroke rates were comparable in both groups (2.5% vs. 3%, p=0.8), but pre-dilation was associated with lower rates of balloon post-dilatation (9% vs. 26%, p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, balloon pre-dilatation was not a predictor of device success or any post-procedural complications (p=0.07). Balloon pre-dilatation was not associated with procedural adverse events and may decrease the need for balloon post-dilatation. The results of the present study support the current practice to perform liberally balloon pre-dilatation prior to valve implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu


    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  19. Myocardial metabolic and receptor imaging in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neglia, Danilo; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Iozzo, Patricia; L' Abbate, Antonio [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Strauss, William H. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)


    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) is a distinct disease of the myocardium, of unknown etiology. The disease can occur acutely, or evolve in a subacute fashion. IDC is often associated with a substantial impairment of ventricular function, which may recover over time. Although spontaneous recovery of LV function occurs in 20%-45% of newly diagnosed patients, the majority of patients do not do well. IDC has an average 5-year mortality of 20%. Abnormalities of energetics, perfusion, and adrenergic control of the myocardium are markers of the status of LV dysfunction. As the heart fails, changes occur in the production and catabolism of high-energy substrates, the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative processes, the distribution of resting perfusion and coronary vasodilating capacity and the adrenergic receptor density and function. This article reviews the information provided by metabolic and receptor imaging in patients with IDC, and the role the data may play in patient management. (orig.)

  20. Pathomorphological Changes of the Myocardium in Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Izabela


    Full Text Available The study was conducted on ventricular and atrial wall preparations from 11 dogs with clinically diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy. After fixation, the specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson-Goldner trichrome technique. Parenchymal changes (fibrosis and fatty infiltration, vascular changes (congestion and coronary vessel wall hypertrophy, degenerative changes (loss of striation, changes in cardiomycyte and nuclei structure, and presence of inflammatory infiltrates (mononuclear and polynuclear were estimated. Complex histological changes in both ventricular and atrial muscles were shown. It was not determined whether the processes occurring in the myocardium have a primary character, or are a consequence of developing heart failure. Such issues will be put under further and more detailed examination.

  1. Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Standard Schnauzers: Retrospective Study of 15 Cases. (United States)

    Harmon, Mark W; Leach, Stacey B; Lamb, Kenneth E

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common myocardial disorder of dogs, typically affecting large and giant breeds. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of DCM in standard schnauzers. Medical records for 15 standard schnauzers diagnosed with DCM were reviewed. The median age at diagnosis of DCM was 1.6 yr, with all dogs developing left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF). The median age of onset of CHF was 1.6 yr, and was significantly shorter in males (1.5 yr) than for females (2.35 yr). The median survival time after diagnosis of CHF was 22 days, and was shorter in males (13 days) than females (62 days). The occurrence of early onset DCM in multiple closely related standard schnauzers suggests a familial predisposition in this breed. Pedigree analysis confirmed common ancestry for all DCM affected dogs with a most likely autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.

  2. Atlas of the clinical genetics of human dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Jan; Frese, Karen S; Peil, Barbara


    disease variants, we find titin, plakophilin-2, myosin-binding protein-C 3, desmoplakin, ryanodine receptor 2, desmocollin-2, desmoglein-2, and SCN5A variants among the most commonly mutated genes. The overlap between DCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and channelopathy causing mutations......AIM: Numerous genes are known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, until now technological limitations have hindered elucidation of the contribution of all clinically relevant disease genes to DCM phenotypes in larger cohorts. We now utilized next-generation sequencing to overcome......, leading to 99.1% coverage of the target region with at least 50-fold and a mean read depth of 2415. In this well characterized cohort, we find the highest number of known cardiomyopathy mutations in plakophilin-2, myosin-binding protein C-3, and desmoplakin. When we include yet unknown but predicted...

  3. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation. (United States)

    Chino, Osamu; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Kondo, Yasumasa; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Daiki; Kajiwara, Hiroshi


    We here report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with dysphagia. A 65-year-old man was suffering from intermittent dysphagia for 10 years, which had been worsening in recent months. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple, small, saccular diverticula and mild annular stricture with numerous white plaques from the cervical esophagus to the middle thoracic esophagus. Barium esophagography revealed stricture of the upper thoracic esophagus with multiple tiny flask-shaped outpouchings. Based on this characteristic appearance, we diagnosed esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis and inflammation of a narrow segment of the esophagus. Biopsy specimen showed acute and chronic esophagitis with Candida infection. Dysphagia persisted despite resolution of candidiasis, for which we successfully performed endoscopic balloon dilatation of the stricture. After the treatment, the patient has been well and has not been suffering from dysphagia.

  4. Measurement of gravitational time dilation: An undergraduate research project (United States)

    Burns, M. Shane; Leveille, Michael D.; Dominguez, Armand R.; Gebhard, Brian B.; Huestis, Samuel E.; Steele, Jeffrey; Patterson, Brian; Sell, Jerry F.; Serna, Mario; Gearba, M. Alina; Olesen, Robert; O'Shea, Patrick; Schiller, Jonathan


    General relativity predicts that clocks run more slowly near massive objects. The effect is small—a clock at sea level lags behind one 1000 m above sea level by only 9.4 ns/day. Here, we demonstrate that a measurement of this effect can be done by undergraduate students. Our paper describes an experiment conducted by undergraduate researchers at Colorado College and the United States Air Force Academy to measure gravitational time dilation. The measurement was done by comparing the signals generated by a GPS frequency standard (sea-level time) to a Cs-beam frequency standard at seven different altitudes above sea level. We found that our measurements are consistent with the predictions of general relativity.

  5. The role of ultrasound in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. (United States)

    Rudas, Máté


    Background: The use of ultrasound to evaluate cervical anatomy and to guide tracheal puncture in real-time has been advocated to improve safety and efficacy of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in intensive care. Objective: To review the potential role, attributed theoretical benefits and supporting literature for ultrasound during PDT. Results: A significant number of mostly observational studies and case series support this modality. Real-time guidance enables clear visualisation of anatomical landmarks and results in a consistently high success and low complication rate, with appropriate positioning of the tracheal puncture. Recognition of unconventional vascular anatomy enables selection of an appropriate alternative puncture site or an elective open surgical approach. Conclusion: Current literature supports that using ultrasound for percutaneous tracheostomy is quick, safe, reliable and offers a plausible advantage over the traditional landmark guided procedure, especially in select patient groups, such as those who are morbidly obese or have difficult to palpate cervical anatomy.

  6. The inverse problem of estimating the gravitational time dilation (United States)

    Gusev, A. V.; Litvinov, D. A.; Rudenko, V. N.


    Precise testing of the gravitational time dilation effect suggests comparing the clocks at points with different gravitational potentials. Such a configuration arises when radio frequency standards are installed at orbital and ground stations. The ground-based standard is accessible directly, while the spaceborne one is accessible only via the electromagnetic signal exchange. Reconstructing the current frequency of the spaceborne standard is an ill-posed inverse problem whose solution depends significantly on the characteristics of the stochastic electromagnetic background. The solution for Gaussian noise is known, but the nature of the standards themselves is associated with nonstationary fluctuations of a wide class of distributions. A solution is proposed for a background of flicker fluctuations with a spectrum (1/ f)γ, where 1 < γ < 3, and stationary increments. The results include formulas for the error in reconstructing the frequency of the spaceborne standard and numerical estimates for the accuracy of measuring the relativistic redshift effect.

  7. The inverse problem of estimating the gravitational time dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A. V., E-mail:; Litvinov, D. A.; Rudenko, V. N. [Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Russian Federation)


    Precise testing of the gravitational time dilation effect suggests comparing the clocks at points with different gravitational potentials. Such a configuration arises when radio frequency standards are installed at orbital and ground stations. The ground-based standard is accessible directly, while the spaceborne one is accessible only via the electromagnetic signal exchange. Reconstructing the current frequency of the spaceborne standard is an ill-posed inverse problem whose solution depends significantly on the characteristics of the stochastic electromagnetic background. The solution for Gaussian noise is known, but the nature of the standards themselves is associated with nonstationary fluctuations of a wide class of distributions. A solution is proposed for a background of flicker fluctuations with a spectrum (1/f){sup γ}, where 1 < γ < 3, and stationary increments. The results include formulas for the error in reconstructing the frequency of the spaceborne standard and numerical estimates for the accuracy of measuring the relativistic redshift effect.

  8. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  9. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  10. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  11. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  13. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  14. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  15. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  16. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; Hartog, A.W. den; Franken, R.; Radonic, T.; Waard, V. de; Timmermans, J.; Scholte, A.J.; Berg, M.P van den; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Marquering, H.A.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.


    AIM: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. Treatment with losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor-1 blocker, may reduce aortic dilatation rate in Marfan patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicentre,

  17. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, Maarten; den Hartog, Alexander W.; Franken, Romy; Radonic, Teodora; de Waard, Vivian; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Marquering, Henk A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.


    Aim Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. Treatment with losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor-1 blocker, may reduce aortic dilatation rate in Marfan patients. Methods and results In this multicentre,

  18. Long-term psychosexual and anatomical outcome after vaginal dilation or vaginoplasty: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, N.; Cuypere, G. De; Wolffenbuttel, K.P.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Zwan, Y.G. van der; Berg, M. van den; Monstrey, S.; Kuyk, M.E. Van; Sutter, P. de; Dessens, A.B.; Cools, M.


    INTRODUCTION: In patients with disorders of sex development requiring creation of a neovagina, a number of techniques are available, including surgical vaginoplasty and self-dilation therapy. Vaginal dilation therapy has been recommended as a first-line treatment because of its less invasive

  19. In regard to the question of macroscopic differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova


    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy according to the macroscopic data is represented in the article. The identity of macroscopic changes of heart, related to alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cannot diagnose these diseases based on the macroscopic characteristics; especially if there are no other visceral manifestations typical for chronic alcoholism.

  20. UVB-activated psoralen reduces luminal narrowing after balloon dilation because of inhibition of constrictive remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrée, Jop; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Velema, Evelyn; Smeets, Mirjam; de Kleijn, Dominique; Borst, Cornelius


    In this study we have explored the potential of PUVB (8-MOP + UVB) therapy for the reduction of luminal narrowing after arterial injury. In 15 rabbits, balloon dilation of iliac arteries was performed. In 20 arteries, dilation was combined with the delivery of pulsed ultraviolet light B (UVB)

  1. Cervical dilation at time of caesarean delivery in nulliparous women: a population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Riddell, C A; Kaufman, J S; Strumpf, E C; Abenhaim, H A; Hutcheon, J A


    Our objective was to describe contemporary practice patterns in the timing of caesarean delivery in relation to cervical dilation, overall and by indication for caesarean. Our secondary objective was to examine how commonly caesarean delivery was performed for labour dystocia at dilations below 4 cm or without the use of oxytocin, overall and between hospitals. Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2012. Nulliparous women in labour who delivered term singletons in cephalic position. Histograms were used to examine the distribution of cervical dilation at time of caesarean delivery, overall and by indication for caesarean. Funnel plots were used to illustrate variation in hospital-level rates of caesarean deliveries for labour dystocia that were performed early (dilation) or without the use of oxytocin. Cervical dilation (in centimetres) at time of caesarean delivery. The population-based cohort comprised 392 025 women, of whom 18.8% had a caesarean delivery. Of first-stage caesareans for labour dystocia in women who entered labour spontaneously, 13.6% (95% CI 12.9, 14.2) had dilations dilation or without oxytocin varies substantially across hospitals and suggests the need for institutions to review their practices and ensure that management of labour practice guidelines are followed. Many caesareans for labour dystocia are performed early during labour (dilation) or without oxytocin. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Relationship between cervical dilation and time to delivery in women with preterm labor. (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Seravalli, Viola; Vellucci, Francesca; Cozzolino, Mauro; Spitaleri, Marina; Susini, Tommaso


    Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of preterm labor (PTL) is important in order to establish treatment. Our aim was to determine the relation between cervical dilatation and time interval from admission to delivery in women with preterm labor. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 83 singleton gestations admitted for preterm labor between 24 weeks and 34 weeks, who subsequently delivered preterm. Women were categorized into three groups of cervical dilatation (0-2 cm, 3-6 cm, >6 cm) and the time interval from admission to delivery was compared. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between cervical dilatation and time interval from admission to delivery. The other variables examined were gestational age (GA) at admission and length of the cervix, when performed. The time interval from admission to delivery was significantly shorter in women with higher dilatation of the cervix (p dilatation 0-2 cm delivered in the first 48 h compared to 85% of the women with a dilatation of 3-6 cm. No significant association was found between the length of the cervix and the time interval to delivery. Dilatation of the cervix and gestational age at admission are associated with the time interval to delivery in women with preterm labor. The assessment of the length of the cervix is unlikely to add clinical information in women with an already dilated cervix.

  3. High pressure balloon dilation for vesicourethral anastomotic strictures after radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Ishii, Gen; Naruoka, Takehito; Kasai, Kanako; Hata, Kenichi; Omono, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin


    Vesicourethral anastomotic stricture (VAS) is a rare but serious complication following radical prostatectomy (RP), and various types of managements for VAS have been proposed. We investigated the efficacy of transurethral balloon dilation in the management of VAS after RP. A total of 128 consecutive patients underwent open RP at our hospital between 2008 and 2013; of these, 10 patients (7.8%) developed VAS. Transurethral balloon dilation was performed in all 10 patients, using a high pressure balloon catheter under fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance. Follow-up endoscopy was performed, and patients in whom the stricture had recurred underwent repeat dilation. We retrospectively evaluated the management of VAS and short-term efficacy of high pressure balloon dilation. The mean time from RP to diagnosis of VAS was 9 months (2-40 months); eight patients (80%) were diagnosed within 6 months of RP. Balloon dilation of VAS was technically successful in all patients, and no perioperative complications were recorded. The median follow-up after balloon dilation was 24 months (7-67 months). There was no recurrence of VAS in eight patients (80%) after the first balloon dilation, and all patients were controlled within the twice. High pressure balloon dilation is a highly effective and minimally invasive procedure for treating VAS.

  4. Association of acetazolamide infusion with headache and cranial artery dilation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail


    The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide causes extracellular acidosis and dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acetazolamide also may induce headache and dilatation of cranial arteries. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 12 young...

  5. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  6. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  7. Double-balloon enteroscopy-assisted dilatation avoids surgery for small bowel strictures: A systematic review (United States)

    Baars, Judith E; Theyventhiran, Ruben; Aepli, Patrick; Saxena, Payal; Kaffes, Arthur J


    AIM To evaluate the therapeutic role of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in small bowel strictures and to propose a standard approach to small bowel strictures. METHODS Systematic review of studies involving DBE in patients with small bowel strictures. Only studies limited to small bowel strictures were included and those with ileo-colonic strictures were excluded. RESULTS In total 13 studies were included, in which 310 patients were dilated. The average follow-up time was 31.8 mo per patient. The complication rate was 4.8% per patient and 2.6% per dilatation. Surgery was avoided in 80% of patients. After the first dilatation, 46% were treated with re-dilatation and only 17% required surgery. CONCLUSION DBE-assisted dilatation avoids surgery in 80% of patients with small bowel strictures and is safe and effective. We propose a standardized approach to small bowel strictures. PMID:29259383

  8. Postoperative follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct using hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirobe, Seiichi; Ishida, Haruo; Hayashi, Akira; Kamagata, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Yasufumi; Mizuno, Dai; Yano, Tsunehiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children`s Hospital (Japan); Ishii, Katsumi


    Follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct were done in 20 cases ranging 3 to 20 years after operation. Operative cholangiography had shown dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts in 15 patients (75%), of these, 7 patients had cystic dilatation. Five cases of these 7 patients showed prolonged stasis of the nuclide in the cystic dilated intrahepatic bile ducts by {sup 99m}Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the follow-up studies even at 10 years after operation. But none of 20 cases had complication such as intrahepatic lithiasis, cholangitis, and liver dysfunction. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy could provide moderate anatomic and excellent functional information which were useful for these follow-up studies and careful follow-up should be done in the case of cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. (author).

  9. The eyes have it: sex and sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerulf Rieger

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research.

  10. A prospective randomized study comparing the four tract dilation methods of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. (United States)

    Srivastava, Alok; Singh, Sanjeet; Dhayal, Ishwar Ram; Rai, Priyanka


    To compare the one-shot dilation (OSD) technique with three other dilation techniques namely telescopic Alken, fascial Amplatz and balloon dilation (BD) in terms of safety efficacy and cost effectiveness. During a 3½ year enrollment period, 480 patients who required PCNL surgery were equally randomized into four groups. All the cases were assessed preoperatively, intraoperatively as well as postoperatively till a period of 3 months. Access time, X-ray exposure time, hemoglobin drop, complications, success rate, etc., were all assessed and recorded. Similar preoperative characteristics were observed in all the four study arms. X-ray exposure time during dilation was significantly reduced for both OSD and BD when compared to sequential Amplatz and telescopic Alken dilation (Group ALD = 62.1 + 13, Group AMD = 67.0 + 10, Group OSD = 36.8 + 7, Group BD = 38.1 + 6, p value = 0.01, post hoc: G4 = G3 time, hemoglobin drop, complication and success rates among the groups. BD was the most expensive dilation method when compared to the other three dilation techniques. All the four methods of dilation are equally safe and effective but both OSD and BD are advantageous in terms of lesser fluoroscopy time during dilation. OSD is much cheaper option when compared to BD, and therefore with more experience, it can become the preferable dilation method, especially in the developing countries.

  11. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  12. On the contraction and dilation of the plastic support membranes under electron-beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriu, Corneliu (Philadelphia Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, PA (United States). Physiology/Pharmacology Dept.)


    Time relation curves are given for Formvar membrane contraction or collodion membrane dilation under electron-beam irradiation. Also, numerical values are given for the concentration or dilation measured in different zones of the Formvar or collodion support membranes. (author).

  13. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  14. Balloon Dilatation of Pediatric Subglottic Laryngeal Stenosis during the Artificial Apneic Pause: Experience in 5 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisý


    Full Text Available Introduction. Balloon dilatation is a method of choice for treatment of laryngeal stenosis in children. The aim of procedure in apneic pause is to avoid new insertion of tracheostomy cannula. Patients and Methods. The authors performed balloon dilatation of subglottic laryngeal strictures (SGS in 5 children (3 girls and 2 boys without tracheotomy. Two of them with traumatic and inflammatory SGS had a tracheal cannula removed in the past. The other 3 children with postintubation SGS had never had a tracheostomy before. The need for tracheostomy due to worsening stridor was imminent for all of them. Results. The total of seven laryngeal dilatations by balloon esophagoplasty catheter in apneic pause was performed in the 5 children. The procedure averted the need for tracheostomy placement in 4 of them (80%. Failure of dilatation in girl with traumatic stenosis and concomitant severe obstructive lung disease led to repeated tracheostomy. Conclusion. Balloon dilatation of laryngeal stricture could be done in the absence of tracheostomy in apneic pause. Dilatation averted threatening tracheostomy in all except one case. Early complication after the procedure seems to be a negative prognostic factor for the outcome of balloon dilatation.

  15. Neither internal nor external nasal dilation improves cycling 20-km time trial performance. (United States)

    Adams, Catriona M; Peiffer, Jeremiah J


    Research is equivocal regarding endurance performance benefits of external nasal dilators, and currently research focusing on internal nasal dilators is non-existent. Both devices are used within competitive cycling. This study examined the influence of external and internal nasal dilation on cycling economy of motion and 20-km time trial performance. The study utilized a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design. Fifteen trained cyclists completed three exercise sessions consisting of a 15min standardized warm up and 20-km cycling time trial while wearing either a Breathe Right® external nasal dilator, Turbine® internal nasal dilator or no device (control). During the warm up, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and dyspnea and expired gases were collected. During the time trial, heart rate, perceived exertion, and dyspnea were collected at 4-km intervals and mean 20-km power output was recorded. No differences were observed for mean 20-km power output between the internal (270±45W) or external dilator (271±44W) and control (272±44W). No differences in the economy of motion were observed throughout the 15-min warm up between conditions. The Turbine® and Breathe Right® nasal dilators are ineffective at enhancing 20-km cycling time trial performance. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in primary and ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Calore, Chiara; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Boffa, Giovanni Maria; Silva, Caterina; Tiso, Enrico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo; Bacchiega, Enrico; Corbetti, Francesco; Iliceto, Sabino


    Differentiation between primary dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy has an important clinical significance. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can play a role in this task, identifying myocardial scarring or fibrosis as presence of delayed enhancement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in differentiating dilated cardiomyopathy from ischemic cardiomyopathy. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed in 100 patients with left ventricular dilatation and reduced systolic function: 24 had normal coronary arteries (dilated cardiomyopathy group) and 76 had significant coronary artery disease (ischemic cardiomyopathy group), with or without previous myocardial infarction. In the dilated cardiomyopathy group, only seven (29%) patients showed delayed enhancement and its pattern was characterized by mid-wall, patchy or diffuse location. All patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and prior myocardial infarction (54 subjects) showed delayed enhancement with subendocardial (n = 4) or transmural (n = 50) extension. Among the 22 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy but without previous myocardial infarction, 13 (59%) showed either subendocardial (n = 4) or transmural (n = 9) delayed enhancement. Patterns of delayed enhancement are different in dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy, reflecting the presence of scarring or various degrees of fibrosis in left ventricular myocardium. The presence of subendocardial or transmural delayed enhancement at contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance allowed distinction between dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy with high sensitivity (88%) and specificity (100%). Integration of cardiovascular magnetic resonance results with angiographic information can be useful in the identification of pathogenic mechanisms underlying left ventricular dysfunction.

  17. Expansion Characteristics of Stents Used in Congenital Heart Disease: Serial Dilation Offers Improved Expansion Potential Compared to Direct Dilation: Results from a Pediatric Interventional Cardiology Early Career Society (PICES) Investigation. (United States)

    Danon, Saar; Gray, Robert G; Crystal, Matthew A; Morgan, Gareth; Gruenstein, Daniel H; Goldstein, Bryan H; Gordon, Brent M


    Intravascular stents are now routinely used to treat young patients with vascular stenoses. Future stent redilations are often necessary to account for somatic growth. The purpose of this study was to compile a database of characteristics for stents commonly used in the treatment of congenital heart disease patients, and compare serial dilation to direct dilation to the maximal diameter. A standardized bench testing protocol was established and utilized in the assessment of all stents. Ultra high pressure balloons were used to serially dilate each stent by set increments until the stent reached at least 24 mm in diameter, developed a napkin-ring configuration, or fractured. Length and diameter of each stent were measured at baseline and following each stage of dilation. Maximal stent diameters, foreshortening properties, and ability to fracture were reported. Stents were then tested for direct dilation from the primary diameter to the maximal diameter, and the same data was obtained. A total of 127 stents were bench-tested, 80 of which were serially dilated and 47 directly dilated. Most premounted stents could be serially dilated to approximately twice their stated nominal diameter. All tested unmounted stents could be serially dilated to ≥20 mm. Foreshortening occurred at larger diameters, but varied significantly among different stent types. Serial dilation offered more consistent results with significantly less foreshortening and more symmetric expansion when compared with direct dilation. Most premounted stents could be fractured when serially dilated. All tested vascular stents can be dilated beyond their nominal implantation diameter. Serial dilation offers a much more reliable response with uniform expansion, less foreshortening, greater maximal diameter, and improved intentional fracture potential, as compared to direct dilation from the nominal to maximal diameter. In vivo studies are necessary to corroborate these findings in the congenital heart

  18. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  19. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  20. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  1. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  2. Sexual rehabilitation after pelvic radiotherapy and vaginal dilator use: consensus using the Delphi method. (United States)

    Bakker, Rinske Maria; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Vermeer, Willemijn M; Nout, Remi A; Mens, Jan Willem M; van Doorn, Lena C; de Kroon, Cor D; Hompus, Willemien C P; Braat, Cora; Creutzberg, Carien L


    This study aimed to reach consensus among professional experts on patient information provision and support regarding sexual rehabilitation and vaginal dilator use after radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancers. A 3-round online Delphi study was conducted among 10 radiation oncologists, 10 gynecologic oncologists, and 10 oncology nurses from 12 gynecological cancer centers providing RT for gynecological tumors. We assessed the desired content and provider of instructions and patient support regarding sexuality and vaginal dilator use. Responses were measured on a 7-point scale varying from "totally disagree" to "totally agree." Consensus was reached when 70% of participants' answers fell within 2 scale categories with an interquartile range less than or equal to 1. The panel agreed that information about sexual rehabilitation using vaginal dilators should be provided by radiation oncologists before treatment. Information should always be provided to sexually active cervical and vaginal cancer patients younger than 70 years. Tailored information was recommended for vulvar and endometrial cancer patients, patients older than 70 years, and sexually inactive patients. Preferably, specifically trained oncology nurses should give psychological and practical support. Participants recommended vaginal dilation to prevent vaginal adhesions, tightening, and shortening. The panel advised to start dilation around 4 weeks after treatment to perform dilation 2 to 3 times a week for 1 to 3 minutes and to continue dilation for 9 to 12 months. Plastic dilator sets were considered the most suitable type of dilator. Consensus was reached on patient information provision and support during sexual rehabilitation after RT for gynecological cancers. Results were used to develop a sexual rehabilitation intervention.

  3. Synthetic Pulse Dilation - PMT Model for high bandwidth gamma measurements (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, H.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Meaney, K. D.; Lopez, F. E.; Khater, H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, T.; Milnes, J.


    The Cherenkov mechanism used in Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) is exceptionally fast. However, the temporal resolution of GCDs, such as the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH), is limited by the current state-of-the-art photomultiplier tube (PMT) to 100 ps. The new pulse dilation - PMT (PD-PMT) for NIF allows for a temporal resolution comparable to that of the gas cell, or of 10ps. Enhanced resolution will contribute to the quest for ignition in a crucial way through precision measurement of reaction history and areal density (ρ R) history, leading to better constrained models. Features such as onset of alpha heating, shock reverberations and burn truncation due to dynamically evolving failure modes will become visible for the first time. PD-PMT will be deployed on GCD-3 at NIF in 2018. Our synthetic PD-PMT model evaluates the capabilities of these future measurements, as well as minimum yield requirements for measurements performed in a well at 3.9 m from target chamber center (TCC), and within a diagnostic inserter at 0.2m from TCC.

  4. A young man with acute dilated cardiomyopathy associated with methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor-Bjarne Nymark


    Full Text Available Tor-Bjarne Nymark1, A Hovland2, H Bjørnstad2, E W Nielsen1,31Section for Emergency Medicine; 2Department of Cardiology, Nordland Hospital, Bodø, Norway; 3University of Tromsø, Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: An 18-year-old obese man with a body mass index of 40, diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and treated with methylphenidate (Concerta® was acutely admitted to hospital with hypoxia and dyspnoea. On investigation signs of liver-, renal-, and heart-failure were found. Noradrenalin infusion was started. Echocardiography showed dilated left ventricle and an ejection fraction (EF of 25%. Liver function improved, noradrenalin and dobutamine were tapered, but three days after admission a new echocardiography showed an EF of 10%. The patient was transferred to the National Hospital (Rikshospitalet, Oslo, where intensified treatment including intra aortic balloon pump (IABP was instituted. Cardiac function improved, and 3 weeks later the IABP was disconnected. EF at this point was 15%. The patient was denied heart transplantation due to various cofactors. The investigation concluded with a probable relationship between his cardiomyopathy and the use of methylphenidate (Concerta.Keywords: cardiomyopathy, heart failure, ADHD, methylphenidate

  5. On the theory of time dilation in chemical kinetics (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Wasif


    The rates of chemical reactions are not absolute but their magnitude depends upon the relative speeds of the moving observers. This has been proved by unifying basic theories of chemical kinetics, which are transition state theory, collision theory, RRKM and Marcus theory, with the special theory of relativity. Boltzmann constant and energy spacing between permitted quantum levels of molecules are quantum mechanically proved to be Lorentz variant. The relativistic statistical thermodynamics has been developed to explain quasi-equilibrium existing between reactants and activated complex. The newly formulated Lorentz transformation of the rate constant from Arrhenius equation, of the collision frequency and of the Eyring and Marcus equations renders the rate of reaction to be Lorentz variant. For a moving observer moving at fractions of the speed of light along the reaction coordinate, the transition state possess less kinetic energy to sweep translation over it. This results in the slower transformation of reactants into products and in a stretched time frame for the chemical reaction to complete. Lorentz transformation of the half-life equation explains time dilation of the half-life period of chemical reactions and proves special theory of relativity and presents theory in accord with each other. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present theory, the enzymatic reaction of methylamine dehydrogenase and radioactive disintegration of Astatine into Bismuth are considered as numerical examples.

  6. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in trauma patients: a safe procedure. (United States)

    Decker, S; Gottlieb, J; Cruz, D L; Müller, C W; Wilhelmi, M; Krettek, C; Wilhelmi, M


    Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is a standard procedure routinely performed on intensive care units. While complication rates and long-term outcomes have been studied in different patient populations, there are few studies known to these authors involving PDT in trauma patients and the complications which may result. Between March 2007 and August 2013, all instances and peri-procedural complications during PDT occurring on the trauma intensive care unit, a unit specialized in the care of injured patients and especially polytrauma patients, were documented. PDTs were performed by a surgeon with the assistance and supervision of another, using bronchoscopic guidance performed by the respiratory medicine department. 289 patients were included in the study, 225 men and 64 women with a mean age of 49 ± 21 years. Complications occurred in 37.4 % of cases. The most common complication, bleeding, occurred in 26.3 % of patients ranging from little to severe bleeding. Fracture of tracheal cartilage occurred in 6 % of PDT cases. Additional complications such as dislocation of the guidewire, hypotension, and oxygen desaturation were observed. Most complications did not require treatment. The second tracheal intercartilaginous space was successfully intubated in 82 % of cases. PDT is a safe procedure in trauma patients. When considering the severity of complications such as major blood loss, pneumothorax, or death, this evidence suggests that PDT is safer in trauma patients compared to other patient cohorts.

  7. Distribution of strain patterns in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    den Boer, Susanna L; du Marchie Sarvaas, Gideon J; Klitsie, Liselotte M; van Iperen, Gabriëlle G; Tanke, Ronald B; Helbing, Willem A; Backx, Ad P C M; Rammeloo, Lukas A J; Dalinghaus, Michiel; Ten Harkel, Arend D J


    This study aimed to evaluate the predicting value of quantitative and qualitative dyssynchrony parameters as assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) on outcome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Furthermore, the reproducibility of these parameters was investigated. In previous studies in adults with heart failure, several dyssynchrony parameters have been shown to be a valuable predictor of clinical outcome. This multicenter, prospective study included 75 children with DCM and 75 healthy age-matched controls. Using STE, quantitative (time to global peak strain and parameters describing intraventricular time differences) and qualitative dyssynchrony parameters (pattern analysis) of the apical four-chamber, three-chamber, two-chamber views, and the short axis of the left ventricle were assessed. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoints of death or heart transplantation. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability were described. During a median of 21 months follow-up, 10 patients (13%) reached an endpoint. Although quantitative dyssynchrony measures were higher in patients as compared to controls, the inter-observer and intra-observer variability were high. Pattern analysis showed mainly reduced strain, instead of dyssynchronous patterns. In this study, quantitative dyssynchrony parameters were not reproducible, precluding their use in children. Qualitative pattern analysis showed predominantly reduced strain, suggesting that in children with DCM dyssynchrony may be a minor problem. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Epidemiology and genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Indian context. (United States)

    Ushasree, B; Shivani, V; Venkateshwari, A; Jain, R K; Narsimhan, C; Nallari, Pratibha


    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) still remains to be a poorly understood and less analyzed group of cardiac-muscle disorders when compared to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Also, the vast clinical heterogeneity among the patients has rendered the small and isolated kindred studies less informative on the genetics and epidemiology of DCM. The study aimed at understanding the epidemiology and genetics of DCMs in the Indian context. MATERIALS AND METHODS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One hundred seven DCM patients and 105 healthy individuals were included in the study for epidemiological and genetic risk factor identification and to fit the possible mode of inheritance. Single's ascertainment methodology for segregation analysis and Penrose frequency estimates were followed to evaluate for the role of specific epidemiological factors in the disease etiology. Chi-square analysis was carried out to interpret the results statistically. Our study suggests that epidemiological factors like gender, age at onset and vegetarian diet in conjunction with sarcomere gene mutations may play a role in the disease expression. Similarly, segregation analysis for the possible mode of inheritance showed a deviation from the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, strengthening the underlying genetic heterogeneity of DCM.

  9. Predictors of disease progression in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Molina, Kimberly M; Shrader, Peter; Colan, Steven D; Mital, Seema; Margossian, Renee; Sleeper, Lynn A; Shirali, Girish; Barker, Piers; Canter, Charles E; Altmann, Karen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet; Rychik, Jack; Tani, Lloyd Y


    Despite medical advances, children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remain at high risk of death or need for cardiac transplantation. We sought to identify predictors of disease progression in pediatric DCM. The Pediatric Heart Network evaluated chronic DCM patients with prospective echocardiographic and clinical data collection during an 18-month follow-up. Inclusion criteria were age DCM disease duration >2 months. Patients requiring intravenous inotropic/mechanical support or listed status 1A/1B for transplant were excluded. Disease progression was defined as an increase in transplant listing status, hospitalization for heart failure, intravenous inotropes, mechanical support, or death. Predictors of disease progression were identified using Cox proportional hazards modeling and classification and regression tree analysis. Of the 127 patients, 28 (22%) had disease progression during the 18-month follow-up. Multivariable analysis identified older age at diagnosis (hazard ratio=1.14 per year; Pmode dimension z-score (hazard ratio=1.49; Pmode dimension z-score ≥7.7, LV ejection fraction mode) z-score DCM, a combination of diagnosis after late infancy and echocardiographic parameters of larger LV size and systolic and diastolic function predicted disease progression. URL: Unique identifier: NCT00123071.

  10. The role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Borggrefe, M; Chen, X; Martinez-Rubio, A; Hindricks, G; Haverkamp, W; Block, M; Breithardt, G


    Depending on the severity of the disease, patients with dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM) have a poor prognosis. No definite data are available to show that complex ventricular ectopy, the presence of ventricular late potentials, or programmed electrical stimulation in patients without symptoms with DCM identify patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Although poor left ventricular function seems to be the most potent predictor of total cardiac death, the prediction of sudden death in patients without symptoms with DCM is poor. Studies with either class I antiarrhythmic drugs or amiodarone have not yet demonstrated a reduction in total mortality rates or sudden death. The usefulness of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in patients without symptoms with DCM is currently under investigation. The usefulness of serial electropharmacologic testing for patients with documented sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and DCM is still controversial. Because most patients with DCM and VT or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have either no inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmia at baseline or the reproducibility of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation induction is poor, implantation of an ICD should be considered in most of these patients. The indication for implantation of an ICD should be made on clinical judgment of the patient's functional status and other prognosis-limiting factors, such as rapid progression of heart failure, end-stage heart failure, and age.

  11. Oxidative Stress in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by MYBPC3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lynch


    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies can result from mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins including MYBPC3, which encodes cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C. However, whether oxidative stress is augmented due to contractile dysfunction and cardiomyocyte damage in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies has not been elucidated. To determine whether oxidative stress markers were elevated in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies, a previously characterized 3-month-old mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM expressing a homozygous MYBPC3 mutation (cMyBP-C(t/t was used, compared to wild-type (WT mice. Echocardiography confirmed decreased percentage of fractional shortening in DCM versus WT hearts. Histopathological analysis indicated a significant increase in myocardial disarray and fibrosis while the second harmonic generation imaging revealed disorganized sarcomeric structure and myocyte damage in DCM hearts when compared to WT hearts. Intriguingly, DCM mouse heart homogenates had decreased glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio and increased protein carbonyl and lipid malondialdehyde content compared to WT heart homogenates, consistent with elevated oxidative stress. Importantly, a similar result was observed in human cardiomyopathy heart homogenate samples. These results were further supported by reduced signals for mitochondrial semiquinone radicals and Fe-S clusters in DCM mouse hearts measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, we demonstrate elevated oxidative stress in MYPBC3-mutated DCM mice, which may exacerbate the development of heart failure.

  12. Hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilation in a pregnant mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro R. Palomar


    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum is known as the abnormal accumulation of blood within the abdominal cavity, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal abscesses, liver tumors, migration of parasitic larvae (Strongylus vulgaris, direct trauma and blood clotting disorders. Lethargy, anorexia, weakness, muscle twitching, sweating, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and the accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen were the most commonly recorded signs. In this report, a pregnant mare was diagnosed with hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilatation, due to corn ingestion. The protocol for clinical treatment and tests varies in similar reported cases. Due to this, the present report discusses the outcome of a clinical case and suggests a medical protocol -based on evidence – for treatment in a pregnant mare. The treatment was aimed to stop the bleeding, while normalize or maintain a stable blood pressure and provide supportive therapy. The mare presented colic pains due to fermentation of the corn, which were solved in few hours. The final abdominal ultrasonogram showed intra-abdominal hypoechoic fluid and living fetus.

  13. On the nature of gamma-ray burst time dilations (United States)

    Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Paczynski, Bohdan


    The recent discovery that faint gamma-ray bursts are stretched in time relative to bright ones has been interpreted as support for cosmological distances: faint bursts have their durations redshifted relative to bright ones. It was pointed out, however, that the relative time stretching can also be produced by an intrinsic correlation bewteen duration and luminosity of gamma-ray bursts in a nearby, bounded distribution. While both models can explain the average amount of time stretching, we find a difference between them in the way the duration distribution of faint bursts deviates from that of bright ones, assuming the luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts is independent of distance. This allows us to distinguish between these two broad classes of model on the basis of the duration distributions of gamma-ray bursts, leading perhaps to an unambiguous determination of the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts. We apply our proposed test to the second Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) catalog and conclude, with some caution, that the data favor a cosmological interpretation of the time dilation.

  14. [Diagnosis and management of urinary tract dilatations detected in utero]. (United States)

    Martini, Stephan; Guignard, Jean-Pierre


    About 1% of the newborns show abnormalities of the urinary tract, representing 25% of the antenatally detected malformations. Most of these urinary abnormalities are detected by prenatal ultrasound between the 14th and the 22nd week of gestation. Their outcome is determined during the first weeks of pregnancy and depends on the degree of renal impairment and the presence of associated extrarenal malformations. Establishing the outcome is often difficult, however it can be predicted by ultrasound and biochemistry of fetal urine. Prenatal management should consist in follow-up and careful organisation of the postnatal management of congenital uropathies. Every antenatally dilated urinary tract requires postnatal investigation. Postnatal ultrasound on the 3rd to 4th day of life is recommended for confirming or excluding urinary abnormalities. In case of persistence, ultrasound has to be completed by other radiologic methods. Voiding cystourethrography and/or nuclear renography allow to identify the origin of the observed abnormalities. Apart from a few situations needing immediate correction, surgical treatment is rarely indicated. The principal of postnatal management is prevention of urinary tract infections by antibiotic prophylaxis and a close follow-up until adulthood.

  15. What happens when we switch tasks: pupil dilation in multitasking. (United States)

    Katidioti, Ioanna; Borst, Jelmer P; Taatgen, Niels A


    Interruption studies typically focus on external interruptions, even though self-interruptions occur at least as often in real work environments. In this article, we therefore contrast external interruptions with self-interruptions. Three multitasking experiments were conducted, in which we examined changes in pupil size when participants switched from a primary to a secondary task. Results showed an increase in pupil dilation several seconds before a self-interruption, which we could attribute to the decision to switch. This indicates that the decision takes a relatively large amount of time. This was supported by the fact that in Experiment 2, participants were significantly slower on the self-interruption blocks than on the external interruption blocks. These findings suggest that the decision to switch is costly, but may also be open for modification through appropriate training. In addition, we propose that if one must switch tasks, it can be more efficient to implement a forced switch after the completion of a subtask instead of leaving the decision to the user. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. BRCA1 Reflects Myocardial Adverse Remodeling in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Nozynski, J K; Konecka-Mrowka, D; Zakliczynski, M; Zembala-Nozynska, E; Lange, D; Zembala, M


    The role of BRCA1 in chronic ischemic episodes seems to be pivotal for adverse remodeling and development of ischemic cardiomyopathy, because of its role in DNA repair and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BRCA-1 in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). The study group (IDCM) comprised myocardial samples from hearts explanted before transplantation owing to IDCM in 10 males (age 44 ± 5.3 years) without clinical symptoms of ischemic heart disease. The control group consisted myocardial fragments taken from 10 male heart valve and pulmonary artery donors with diagnosed cerebral death (age 40 ± 2.3 years). BRCA1 was detected immunohistochemically with rabbit anti-BRCA1 polyclonal antibody. The intensity of BRCA1 expression was semiquantitatively assessed for cardiocytes, small vessels including capillaries, and interstitial cells. The significances between groups were estimated using the Mann-Whitney U test. All IDCM cases were positive and presented nonuniform BRCA1 expression: hypertrophied cardiocytes showed very intense staining and typical cardiomyopathic cardiocytes were stained weakly forming mosaic. Control cases showed weak-to-moderate uniform staining. Intensity of staining was significantly higher in IDCM cardiocytes, whereas small vessels and interstitial were stained similarly in both groups. IDCM adverse remodeling results in more intense but nonuniform BRCA1 expression. This phenomenon seems to reflect IDCM biology: lower BRCA1 expression in myocytes with lower anti-apoptotic and DNA damage repair activity, with the opposite in hypertrophied myofibers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical predictors of outcome in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Karatolios

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to identify predictors of outcome in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi.From 2004 to 2008, 55 patients with biopsy-proven DCMi were identified and followed up for 58.2±19.8 months. Predictors of outcome were identified in a multivariable analysis with a Cox proportional hazards analysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, heart transplantation and hospitalization for heart failure or ventricular arrhythmias.For the primary endpoint, a QTc interval >440msec (HR 2.84; 95% CI 1.03-7.87; p = 0.044, a glomerular filtration rate (GFR 440msec, a GFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 and worsening of NYHA classification during follow-up were univariate predictors of adverse prognosis. In contrast, NYHA classification at baseline, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, treatment with digitalis or viral genome detection were not related to outcome. After multivariable analysis, a GFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 remained independently associated with adverse outcome.

  18. Extension of borderzone myocardium in postinfarction dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Moainie, Sina L; Guy, T Sloane; Narula, Navneet; Narula, Jagat; John-Sutton, Martin G; Edmunds, L Henry; Gorman, Robert C


    This study tests the hypothesis that hypocontractile, borderzone myocardium adjacent to an expanding infarct becomes progressively larger and more hypocontractile as remodeling continues. Early infarct expansion following anteroapical myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with progressive ventricular dilation and heart failure. The contribution of perfused, hypocontractile, borderzone myocardium to this process is unknown. Using a sheep model of anteroapical infarction, sonomicrometry array localization and serial microsphere injections were used to track changes in regional myocardial contractility, geometry, and perfusion. Eight sheep were studied before and after infarction and two, five, and eight weeks later. Thirty intertransducer chord lengths were analyzed to measure regional contractility and serial changes in regional geometry at end systole. Beginning as a narrow band of fully perfused hypocontractile myocardium adjacent to the infarction, borderzone myocardium extends to involve additional contiguous myocardium that progressively loses contractile function as the heart remodels. Three distinct myocardial zones develop as a result of transmural MI: infarct, borderzone (perfused but hypocontractile), and remote (perfused and normally functioning).This study demonstrates that hypocontractile, fully perfused borderzone myocardium extends to involve contiguous normal myocardium during postinfarction remodeling. This borderzone myocardium is a unique type of perfused, hypocontractile myocardium, which is distinct from hibernating or stunned myocardium. Preventing extension of borderzone myocardium by medical or surgical means offers the prospect of preventing late-onset heart failure following transmural expanding MIs.

  19. Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Children and Adults: What is New?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal E. Nagib Elkilany


    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is the most common form of cardiomyopathy and cause of cardiac transplantation in children and young adults; mortality is high among this patient population. However, mortality, clinical course, and illustrative echocardiographic data of DCM in children and adults are not well established. Our objective was to provide a research article of detailed descriptions of the incidence, causes, outcomes, related risk factors, and new echocardiographic criteria of risk of death from DCM. Our results showed that independent risk factors at DCM diagnosis for subsequent death or transplantation in children cohorts were older age, congestive heart failure, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (EF ≤ 25%, low global strain, significant mitral valve incompetence, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, right ventricular involvement, and cause of DCM (p < 0.001 for all. In adults, low ejection fraction (<30–35%, global peak systolic strain <-7.6%, increased EDV, ESV, LBBB, diastolic dysfunction, and left ventricle dyssynchrony were the main independent risk factors for major cardiac events and need for CRT or transplantation (p < 0.001 for all. Our conclusions were that in children and adults, DCM is a diverse disorder with outcomes that depend largely on cause, age, heart failure status at presentation, and echocardiographic parameters of the heart (systolic and diastolic function of left ventricle, pulmonary artery pressure, global strain, and valvular function of the mitral valve. This study will present new findings in the diagnostic area.

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular strain in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Yu, Yaohan; Yu, Sisi; Tang, Xuepei; Ren, Haibo; Li, Shuhao; Zou, Qian; Xiong, Fakui; Zheng, Tian; Gong, Lianggeng


    Objective Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can cause structural and functional changes in the left ventricle (LV). In this study, we evaluated whether cardiac magnetic resonance tissue-tracking (MR-TT) can be applied to the detection of LV abnormalities in patients with DCM. Methods We used MR-TT to analyze the global peak radial strain (GPRS), global peak circumferential strain (GPCS), and global peak longitudinal strain (GPLS) in every segment of the LV in 23 patients with DCM and 25 controls. The LV ejection fraction was also measured as a function indicator. Results Compared with the controls, the GPRS, GPCS, and GPLS were significantly reduced in patients with DCM, indicating global LV function impairment in all directions. We also identified a significant linear correlation between the GPRS, GPCS, and GPLS and the LV ejection fraction, indicating that LV function relies on coordinated wall motion from all directions. Moreover, we found that patients with DCM had a significantly reduced magnitude of the PRS, PCS, and PLS in most segments at different levels, indicating impaired myocardial function in most LV regions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that LV myocardial strain in patients with DCM can be sensitively detected by MR-TT (not only the global LV function changes but also the segmental strain), which can help to identify the injured segment at an early stage and guide clinical treatment.

  1. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities in congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease). (United States)

    Parada, L A; Hallén, M; Hägerstrand, I; Tranberg, K G; Johansson, B


    Caroli's disease is a rare congenital disorder characterised by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts and an increased risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma. The cause is unknown, but occasional familial clustering suggests that some cases are inherited, in particular when occurring in association with polycystic kidney disease and germline PKD1 gene mutations. To date, no gene responsible for familial isolated Caroli's disease has been identified, and no genetic investigations of liver tissue from patients with Caroli's disease have been reported. A liver biopsy specimen from a patient with isolated Caroli's disease, without any signs of cholangiocellular carcinoma, was short term cultured and cytogenetically investigated after G banding with Wright's stain. Cytogenetic analysis disclosed the karyotype 45-47,XX,der(3)t(3;8)(p23;q13), +2mar[cp6]/46,XX[18]. The finding of an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 3 and 8 suggests that loss of distal 3p and/or gain of 8q is of pathogenetic importance in Caroli's disease. Alternatively, structural rearrangements of genes located in 3p23 and 8q13 may be of the essence. These chromosomal breakpoints may also pinpoint the location of genes involved in inherited forms of Caroli's disease not associated with polycystic kidney disease.

  2. Impact of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in brain injured patients. (United States)

    Kuechler, Jan Nils; Abusamha, Abdulkareem; Ziemann, Sandra; Tronnier, Volker Martin; Gliemroth, Jan


    Tracheostomy is an established method in the airway management of critically ill patients with traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries. High priority in the treatment of those patients is to protect vulnerable brain tissue. While bedside percutaneously dilatative tracheostomy (PDT) technique is increasingly used, there is disagreement about the harms of this intervention for the damaged brain. Therefore, discussions about the safety of tracheostomy in those patients must consider direct and indirect cerebral parameters. We examined a series of 289 tracheostomies regarding vital signs, respiratory and intracranial parameters in a retrospective study. Complications were recorded and risk factors for a complicated scenario statistically determined. Severe complications were rare (1/289). Arterial hypotension occurred in 3 of 289 cases with a systolic blood pressure below 90mmHg. We had two patients (0.5%) with transient hypoxia, but 43 cases (15%) of severe hypercapnia during PDT. Invasive measurement of brain tissue oxygen tension (PBrO2) ruled out any cerebral hypoxia during the procedure in 39 available cases. Intracranial pressure (ICP) rose temporarily in 24% of the cases. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) however remained unaffected. Surgery time and hypercapnia are capable risk factors for intraoperative ICP elevation. There is no significant difference in intraoperative ICP rises between disease entities. PDT is a safe procedure for the most common neurosurgical diseases, even for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Shortening surgical time seems to be the most important factor to avoid ICP increase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  4. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  5. Efficacy of pneumatic dilatation for pyloric stenosis: an 18-month survey. (United States)

    Catalano, F; Branciforte, G; Liberti, A; Catanzaro, R; Brogna, A


    The efficacy of pneumatic dilatation with Rigiflex balloons as a treatment for pyloric peptic stenosis was tested in 18 patients. The patients underwent endoscopic dilatation in one sitting, the size of the balloons being gradually increased for a total of 3 minutes. Patients were also treated with omeprazole in the follow-up period. Pneumatic dilatation of upper digestive tract strictures has proved to be an effective and safe technique, showing remarkable advantages over the traditional surgical treatment. It could represent the first step in a therapeutic approach.

  6. Variability in rate of cervical dilation in nulliparous women at term. (United States)

    Incerti, Maddalena; Locatelli, Anna; Ghidini, Alessandro; Ciriello, Elena; Consonni, Sara; Pezzullo, John C


    Cervical dilatation is commonly documented on a partogram indicating the expected rate of progress of labor. Although deviations from such a line can be used to indicate abnormal progress, what constitutes the "normal" rate of cervical dilation is still largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the variability of the rate of cervical dilation in nulliparous women and to determine whether the rate of labor was independent of dilation on admission. We analyzed a cohort of consecutive nulliparous women with spontaneous labor at term and singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation. Exclusion criteria were gestational age less than 37 weeks, induction of labor, or the presence of a uterine scar. Management of labor was standardized using set protocols of care. Active labor was diagnosed as regular contractions every 10 minutes or less, lasting more than 40 seconds, with cervical effacement more than 80 percent and dilation of 2 cm. Vaginal examinations were performed by a dedicated midwife every 2 hours. Amniotomy was performed for slow progress or arrest of dilation over 2 hours. Oxytocin was administered for arrest of cervical dilation for 2 hours with membranes ruptured. Data pertaining to cases ending in cesarean delivery were included up to the time of cesarean section. The study sample comprised 1,119 women at 39.7 ± 1.1 weeks with an average duration of labor of 4.1 ± 2.4 hours. The rate of oxytocin use was 27 percent and of epidural analgesia 5 percent. The rate of oxytocin use was inversely related to cervical dilation on admission. Cesarean delivery was performed in 6 percent of women. Duration of labor at each centimeter of cervical dilation on admission showed a broad distribution (e.g., at 4 cm: median = 5.5, range: 0.8-12.5 hr). The rate of labor progression (expressed as the slope of the dilation-vs-time curve) was approximately 1.5 cm/hr, and it was essentially independent of cervical dilation on admission (r = 0.034, p = 0.267). A

  7. Dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant. (United States)

    Wetterich, C


    A wide class of dilatation symmetric effective actions in higher dimensions leads to a vanishing four-dimensional cosmological constant. This requires no tuning of parameters and results from the absence of an allowed potential for the scalar dilaton field. The field equations admit many solutions with flat four-dimensional space and nonvanishing gauge couplings. In a more general setting, these are candidates for asymptotic states of cosmological runaway solutions, where dilatation symmetry is realized dynamically if a fixed point is approached as time goes to infinity. Dilatation anomalies during the runaway can lift the degeneracy of solutions and lead to an observable dynamical dark energy.

  8. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  9. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  10. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  11. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  13. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  15. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  16. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  17. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  18. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.


    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  19. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  20. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  1. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  2. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  3. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  4. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  5. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  6. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  7. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  9. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays. (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M


    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  10. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  11. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  12. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.


    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  13. Subtle abnormalities in contractile function are an early manifestation of sarcomere mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens J; Colan, Steven D


    Sarcomere mutations cause both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the steps leading from mutation to disease are not well described. By studying mutation carriers before a clinical diagnosis develops, we characterize the early manifestations of sarcomere...

  14. Percutaneous tracheostomy with the guide wire dilating forceps technique: presentation of 171 consecutive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, B.G.; Heerbeek, N. van; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Marres, H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den


    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) with the guide wire dilating forceps (GWDF) technique. METHODS: Prospective study of perioperative complications, retrospective analysis of early and late complications in an ICU in a teaching university hospital. RESULTS: The success rate of

  15. Percutaneous tracheostomy with the guide wire dilating forceps technique : presentation of 171 consecutive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, Bernard G; van Heerbeek, Niels; Krabbe, Paul F M; Marres, Henri A M; van den Hoogen, Frank J A

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) with the guide wire dilating forceps (GWDF) technique. METHODS: Prospective study of perioperative complications, retrospective analysis of early and late complications in an ICU in a teaching university hospital. RESULTS: The success rate of

  16. A multicentre observational study of the outcomes of screening detected sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, J B; Stather, P W; Biancari, F


    OBJECTIVES: Currently most abdominal aortic aneurysm screening programmes discharge patients with aortic diameter of less than 30 mm. However, sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation (25 mm-29 mm) does not represent a normal aortic diameter. This observational study aimed to determine the outcomes...... of patients with screening detected sub aneurysmal aortic dilatation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Individual patient data was obtained from 8 screening programmes that had performed long term follow up of patients with sub aneurysmal aortic dilatation. Outcome measures recorded were the progression to true aneurysmal...... dilatation (aortic diameter 30 mm or greater), progression to size threshold for surgical intervention (55 mm) and aneurysm rupture. RESULTS: Aortic measurements for 1696 men and women (median age 66 years at initial scan) with sub-aneurysmal aortae were obtained, median period of follow up was 4.0 years...

  17. Transcatheter pulmonary valve perforation and balloon dilatation in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerestein, C.G.; Berger, R.M.F.; Dalinghaus, M.; Bogers, A.J.J.C.; Witsenburg, M.


    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum is characterised by a great morphological variety. Treatment is not uniform. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with transcatheter valvotomy and balloon dilatation in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. DESIGN:

  18. Danish Guidelines 2015 for percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy in the Intensive Care Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Rørbæk; Guldager, Henrik; Rewers, Mikael


    Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is a common procedure in intensive care. This updated Danish national guideline describes indications, contraindications and complications, and gives recommendations for timing, anaesthesia, and technique, use of fibre bronchoscopy and ultrasound guidance...

  19. OBSCN Mutations Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Haploinsufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Marston

    Full Text Available Studies of the functional consequences of DCM-causing mutations have been limited to a few cases where patients with known mutations had heart transplants. To increase the number of potential tissue samples for direct investigation we performed whole exon sequencing of explanted heart muscle samples from 30 patients that had a diagnosis of familial dilated cardiomyopathy and screened for potentially disease-causing mutations in 58 HCM or DCM-related genes.We identified 5 potentially disease-causing OBSCN mutations in 4 samples; one sample had two OBSCN mutations and one mutation was judged to be not disease-related. Also identified were 6 truncating mutations in TTN, 3 mutations in MYH7, 2 in DSP and one each in TNNC1, TNNI3, MYOM1, VCL, GLA, PLB, TCAP, PKP2 and LAMA4. The mean level of obscurin mRNA was significantly greater and more variable in healthy donor samples than the DCM samples but did not correlate with OBSCN mutations. A single obscurin protein band was observed in human heart myofibrils with apparent mass 960 ± 60 kDa. The three samples with OBSCN mutations had significantly lower levels of obscurin immunoreactive material than DCM samples without OBSCN mutations (45±7, 48±3, and 72±6% of control level.Obscurin levels in DCM controls, donor heart and myectomy samples were the same.OBSCN mutations may result in the development of a DCM phenotype via haploinsufficiency. Mutations in the obscurin gene should be considered as a significant causal factor of DCM, alone or in concert with other mutations.

  20. Prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Sinagra, Gianfranco; Iorio, Annamaria; Merlo, Marco; Cannatà, Antonio; Stolfo, Davide; Zambon, Elena; Di Nora, Concetta; Paolillo, Stefania; Barbati, Giulia; Berton, Emanuela; Carriere, Cosimo; Magrì, Damiano; Cattadori, Gaia; Confalonieri, Marco; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe


    Although cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is considered as an important tool in risk stratification of patients with heart failure (HF), prognostic data in the specific setting of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy (iDCM) are still undetermined. The aim of the study was to test the prognostic value of CPET in a large cohort of iDCM patients. We analyzed 381 iDCM patients who consecutively performed CPET. The study end-point was a composite of cardiovascular death/urgent heart transplantation (CVD/HTx). In the overall population the average values of peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2/kg) and percent-predicted peak VO2 (peak VO2%) were 17.1±5.1ml/kg/min and 59±15%, respectively. Mean VE/VCO2 slope was 29.8±6.1. During a median follow-up of 47months (interquartile range 23-84), 83 patients experienced CVD/HTx. Peak VO2% (Area Under the Curve [AUC] 0.74; 95% CI 0.71-0.85, p29 for VE/VCO2 slope. At multivariable analysis peak VO2% and VE/VCO2 slope were the strongest predictors of CVD/HTx, either as continuous and categorical variables, whereas peak VO2/kg was not independently related with prognosis. In a large population of iDCM patients peak VO2% and VE/VCO2 slope emerged as the strongest prognostic CPET variables. Prospective studies will be necessary to confirm these data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Esophageal dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) and nonerosive reflux disease. (United States)

    van Malenstein, Hannah; Farré, Ricard; Sifrim, Daniel


    Esophageal mucosal dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) are frequently observed in patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and patients with esophagitis. The specificity of DIS is questionable, as it is present in up to 30% of asymptomatic healthy subjects and in patients with other esophageal disorders. DIS occurs in parallel with a drop in potential difference, diminished transepithelial resistance, and increased esophageal mucosal permeability. These alterations arise with exposure to acid and pepsin during gastroesophageal reflux, but the exact pathway of damage to the intercellular junctions remains unclear and seems to be multifactorial. Other noxious contents of the refluxate, such as bile acids, are harmful and DIS can also be induced by acute psychological stress. DIS can be assessed quantitatively with electron microscopy (EM), but it is also recognizable with light microscopy (LM). DIS can disappear after treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI); however, this is not the case in all NERD patients. A recent study showed that patients with NERD who are refractory to PPI might still have DIS; and animal experiments showed that persistence of DIS might be due to esophageal mucosal exposure to bile acids and/or psychological stress. In conclusion, DIS is a frequent but nonspecific histological feature of NERD. It can be caused by acid reflux, but bile acids in the refluxate and/or psychological stress can modulate the development or persistence of DIS. Although a causal relationship between DIS and heartburn has been proposed, it still needs to be proven and the underlying mechanisms investigated before considering DIS as a target for treatment of NERD.

  2. [A novel HAND1 mutation associated with sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy]. (United States)

    Xu, Y J; Qiu, X B; Li, R R; Liu, H; Qu, X K; Yang, Y Q


    Objective: To investigate a novel mutation in the HAND1 gene associated with sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: From February 2013 to February 2017, the clinical data and peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 120 patients with sporadic DCM and 200 healthy controls, who were both from the Fifth People's Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University and Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University.The genomic DNA was extracted from the study participants.The coding exons of HAND1 were amplified from the study subjects by polymerase chain reaction, and were sequenced for a potential HAND1 mutation.The online computer programs MUSCLE and Mutation Taster were used to analyze the conversation of an altered amino acid and to predict the disease-causing potential of an identified mutation, respectively.The wild-type HAND1 was cloned and the mutant was generated by site-directed mutagenesis.The Dual-luciferase reporter assay kits were used to explore the functional characteristics of the mutant HAND1. Results: A novel heterozygous mutation, a substitution of thymine for guanine at nucleotide 346 (c.346G>T), predicting the conversion of a glutamic acid-encoding codon into a stop codon at codon 116 (p.E116X), was detected in a patient with sporadic DCM.The nonsense mutation was absent in the 200 control individuals.The altered glutamic acid at amino acid position 116 was highly conserved evolutionarily, and the mutation was predicted to be pathogenic.Biological analyses revealed that the mutant HAND1 lost the ability to transcriptionally activate a target gene. Conclusion: Loss-of-function mutation in HAND1 is likely to be an uncommon cause responsible for sporadic DCM.

  3. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders before percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (United States)

    Veelo, Denise P.; Vlaar, Alexander P.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Levi, Marcel; Paulus, Frederique; Berends, Fenny; Schultz, Marcus J.


    Background There is evidence that percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) can be safely performed in patients with severe coagulation disorders if these are carefully corrected immediately before the procedure. However, it is currently unclear whether PDT can be performed safely in patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with uncorrected mild coagulation disorders. Materials and methods In a randomised controlled trial we determined the effect of correction of mild coagulation disorders on bleeding during and after PDT. ICU patients planned for bedside PDT with: (i) a prothrombin time (PT) between 14.7–20.0 seconds, (ii) a platelet count between 40–100×109/L and/or (iii) active treatment with acetylsalicylic acid were randomised to receive infusion with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (“correction”) versus no transfusion (“no correction”) before PDT. Results We randomised 35 patients to the “correction” group and 37 patients to the “no correction” group. In patients who received FFP, the decrease in PT was marginal (mean decrease 0.40±0.56 seconds); the median increase in platelet counts after transfusion of platelets was 35 [11–47]x109/L. The median blood loss was 3 [IQR: 1–6] grams in the “correction” group and 3 [IQR: 2–6] grams in the “no correction” group (P=0.96). Discussion Bleeding during and after bedside PDT in ICU patients with mild coagulation disorders is rare in our setting. Correction of subclinical coagulation disorders by transfusion of FFP and/or platelets does not affect bleeding. PMID:22337277

  4. Genetic Modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barp

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4 also modify DCM onset.A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior; DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up.Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027.We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts.

  5. Radial dilation of nephrostomy balloons: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hendlin


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The dynamics of percutaneous balloon expansion may differ with increasing extrinsic compressive forces and increasing inflation pressures. This study compares the ability of percutaneous balloons to expand under different radial constrictive forces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three 30F nephrostomy balloons were tested: Bard X-Force™, Boston Scientific Microvasive Amplatz Tractmaster™, and Cook Ultraxx™. With a super stiff guidewire in place, the balloon tip was secured by elevated vice grips on either side of the balloon. A string was wrapped around the balloon center once, and incremental increases in load were added (2g, 42g, 82g, and 122g to represent increasing extrinsic compression. The balloon was inflated with a contrast agent and circumference changes were measured at increments of 4 ATM, 10 ATM, and burst pressure. Balloons were tested in triplicate for each load. RESULTS: All balloons were unable to reach 90% of their expected diameter with larger constrictive loads (122g at low (4 ATM and nominal (10 ATM inflation pressures. Only the Bard and Cook balloons reached at least 90% of the expected diameter with a coefficient of variance (CV less than 10% at burst pressure under the larger constrictive load (122g, 94.3% ± 6.7%, CV 7.1% and 96.3% ± 2.9%, CV 3.0% respectively. All balloons performed well under low constriction forces and reached at least 80% of the expected diameter by 10 ATM under all constrictive loads. CONCLUSIONS: The Bard X-Force and Cook Ultraxx percutaneous nephrostomy balloons achieved the most reliable radial dilation against large constrictive forces simulating fascial or retroperitoneal scar tissue.

  6. Radial dilation of nephrostomy balloons: a comparative analysis. (United States)

    Hendlin, Kari; Monga, Manoj


    The dynamics of percutaneous balloon expansion may differ with increasing extrinsic compressive forces and increasing inflation pressures. This study compares the ability of percutaneous balloons to expand under different radial constrictive forces. Three 30F nephrostomy balloons were tested: Bard X-Force, Boston Scientific Microvasive Amplatz Tractmaster, and Cook Ultraxx. With a super stiff guidewire in place, the balloon tip was secured by elevated vice grips on either side of the balloon. A string was wrapped around the balloon center once, and incremental increases in load were added (2g, 42g, 82g, and 122g) to represent increasing extrinsic compression. The balloon was inflated with a contrast agent and circumference changes were measured at increments of 4 ATM, 10 ATM, and burst pressure. Balloons were tested in triplicate for each load. All balloons were unable to reach 90% of their expected diameter with larger constrictive loads (122g) at low (4 ATM) and nominal (10 ATM) inflation pressures. Only the Bard and Cook balloons reached at least 90% of the expected diameter with a coefficient of variance (CV) less than 10% at burst pressure under the larger constrictive load (122g), 94.3% +/- 6.7%, CV 7.1% and 96.3% +/- 2.9%, CV 3.0% respectively. All balloons performed well under low constriction forces and reached at least 80% of the expected diameter by 10 ATM under all constrictive loads. The Bard X-Force and Cook Ultraxx percutaneous nephrostomy balloons achieved the most reliable radial dilation against large constrictive forces simulating fascial or retroperitoneal scar tissue.

  7. ACE I/D polymorphism in Indian patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Dhandapany, Perundurai Subramaniam; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh


    The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).......The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)....

  8. Critical Role for Telomerase in the Mechanism of Flow-Mediated Dilation in the Human Microcirculation


    Beyer, Andreas M.; Freed, Julie K.; Durand, Matthew J.; Riedel, Michael; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Green, Paula; Hockenberry, Joseph C.; Morgan, R. Garret; Donato, Anthony J.; Peleg, Refael; Gasparri, Mario; Rokkas, Chris K.; Santos, Janine H.; Priel, Esther; Gutterman, David D.


    Rationale: Telomerase is a nuclear regulator of telomere elongation with recent reports suggesting a role in regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Flow-mediated dilation in patients with cardiovascular disease is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that telomerase activity modulates microvascular flow-mediated dilation, and loss of telomerase activity contributes to the change of mediator from nitric oxide to mitochondria...

  9. Long-term psychosexual and anatomical outcome after vaginal dilation or vaginoplasty: a comparative study. (United States)

    Callens, Nina; De Cuypere, Griet; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Beerendonk, Catharina C M; van der Zwan, Yvonne G; van den Berg, Marjan; Monstrey, Stan; Van Kuyk, Maaike E; De Sutter, Petra; Dessens, Arianne B; Cools, Martine


    In patients with disorders of sex development requiring creation of a neovagina, a number of techniques are available, including surgical vaginoplasty and self-dilation therapy. Vaginal dilation therapy has been recommended as a first-line treatment because of its less invasive character and high success rate. However, no data exist on long-term psychosexual functioning after vaginal dilation as compared with that after vaginal surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the psychosexual and anatomical outcome of women with congenital vaginal hypoplasia followed in the same clinical setting after vaginoplasty with that after vaginal dilation. The sexual quality of life of 35 women at least 2 years after vaginoplasty (N = 15), vaginal dilation therapy (N = 8), or coital dilation/no treatment (N = 12) was investigated and compared with the Dutch test validation population (as control). Psychosexual functioning was assessed with the female sexual Function index, the female sexual distress scale-revised, and a semi-structured interview. A gynecological examination was performed to determine the anatomical outcome after both vaginal treatment regimens. After either treatment, 26% of these women had a shortened vaginal length of less than 6.6 cm, i.e., more than two standard deviations below the published mean value (9.6 ± 1.5 cm). Irrespective of the treatment, 47% of the patients had (a) sexual dysfunction(s) and experienced sexual distress. However, after vaginoplasty, patients reported significantly more problems with lubrication (P = 0.025) than after self-dilation therapy. Both psychological and physical factors are predisposing for sexual difficulties. To optimize psychosexual comfort, the clinical management of women with vaginal hypoplasia needs to be multidisciplinary and individually tailored. With high success rates reported, vaginal dilation should remain the cornerstone of treatment. © 2012 International Society for Sexual

  10. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans. (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G


    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Prognostic Value of Ultrasound Grading Systems in Prenatally Diagnosed Unilateral Urinary Tract Dilatation. (United States)

    Scalabre, Aurélien; Demède, Delphine; Gaillard, Ségolène; Pracros, Jean-Pierre; Mouriquand, Pierre; Mure, Pierre-Yves


    We compared the prognostic value of anteroposterior intrasinus diameter of the renal pelvis, urinary tract dilatation and the Society for Fetal Urology grading system in children with prenatally diagnosed unilateral urinary tract dilatation. All newborns with prenatally diagnosed unilateral urinary tract dilatation, normal bladder and anteroposterior intrasinus diameter 10 mm or greater on the first postnatal ultrasonography were prospectively enrolled from January 2011 to February 2015. Indications for surgery were recurrent febrile urinary tract infections and/or decrease of relative renal function more than 10% on serial isotope studies and/or increasing anteroposterior intrasinus diameter greater than 20% on serial ultrasounds. Sensitivity, specificity and ROC curves were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of anteroposterior intrasinus diameter, urinary tract dilatation and Society for Fetal Urology grading system in determining which children would need surgery within 24 months. A total of 57 males and 13 females were included. Of the patients 33 required surgery at a median age of 5 months (IQR 3.8 to 6.4). Urinary tract dilatation remained stable in 14 cases and decreased in 23 with a median followup of 42 months (IQR 25 to 67). Anteroposterior intrasinus diameter, urinary tract dilatation and Society for Fetal Urology scores were all correlated with the need for surgery. Anteroposterior intrasinus diameter with a threshold of 20 mm had the best prognostic value, with a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 91.7%. Our study confirms that the prognostic value was comparable between anteroposterior intrasinus diameter of the renal pelvis, urinary tract dilatation and Society for Fetal Urology grading system in newborns with prenatally diagnosed unilateral urinary tract dilatation. Anteroposterior intrasinus diameter and abnormal parenchymal thickness are the most important ultrasound criteria to identify children at risk for requiring surgery



    McCue, Meghan C.; Marlatt, Kara L.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Steinberger, Julia; Dengel, Donald R.


    A change in peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) in response to reactive hyperemia is often used to provide a non-invasive measure of endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). Reactive hyperemia does not allow one to quantify endothelium-independent dilation (EID), which is part of overall vascular function. Although most research examining vascular function and cardiovascular disease has focused on EDD, there is evidence that cardiovascular risk factors may impair EID.

  13. Meaning of ureter dilatation during ultrasonography in infants for evaluating vesicoureteral reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yae-won, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 120-752 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 120-752 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Won, E-mail: [Department of Pediatric Urology, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 120-752 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook, E-mail: [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 120-752 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 120-752 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose: To investigate the meaning of ureter dilatation during ultrasonography (US) in infants for evaluating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed abdominal US images of infants who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI group) or only hydronephrosis without UTI (control group). Hydronephrosis (graded 0–4) and ureter dilatation (present or absent) were evaluated on each side with US. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) within 3 months time interval with US was also reviewed and VUR was graded (0–5) on each side. Hydronephrosis, ureter dilatation, and VUR were then compared between the two groups. Results: Four hundred and three infants (142 in the UTI group and 261 in the control group) were included and VCUG was performed in 129 infants (68 in UTI and 61 in control groups). VUR grades were not different between the two groups (p = 0.252). Hydronephrosis grade was not related to VUR in either group (p > 0.05). However, ureter dilatation had a significant relationship with VUR in the UTI group (p = 0.015), even among patients with a high-grade VUR (p = 0.005). Whereas, ureter dilatation was not associated with VUR in the control group (p = 0.744). The relationship between ureter dilatation and VUR was different between the two groups for both all grades (p = 0.014) and high-grade (p = 0.004) VUR. Ureter dilatation had 66.7% sensitivity, 80.3% specificity, and 79.4% accuracy for evaluating high-grade VUR in the UTI group. Conclusion: Ureter dilatation on US can be a helpful finding for detecting VUR in infants with UTI, but not infants without UTI.

  14. Meaning of ureter dilatation during ultrasonography in infants for evaluating vesicoureteral reflux. (United States)

    Park, Yae-won; Kim, Myung-Joon; Han, Sang Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Mi-Jung


    To investigate the meaning of ureter dilatation during ultrasonography (US) in infants for evaluating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We retrospectively reviewed abdominal US images of infants who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI group) or only hydronephrosis without UTI (control group). Hydronephrosis (graded 0-4) and ureter dilatation (present or absent) were evaluated on each side with US. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) within 3 months time interval with US was also reviewed and VUR was graded (0-5) on each side. Hydronephrosis, ureter dilatation, and VUR were then compared between the two groups. Four hundred and three infants (142 in the UTI group and 261 in the control group) were included and VCUG was performed in 129 infants (68 in UTI and 61 in control groups). VUR grades were not different between the two groups (p=0.252). Hydronephrosis grade was not related to VUR in either group (p>0.05). However, ureter dilatation had a significant relationship with VUR in the UTI group (p=0.015), even among patients with a high-grade VUR (p=0.005). Whereas, ureter dilatation was not associated with VUR in the control group (p=0.744). The relationship between ureter dilatation and VUR was different between the two groups for both all grades (p=0.014) and high-grade (p=0.004) VUR. Ureter dilatation had 66.7% sensitivity, 80.3% specificity, and 79.4% accuracy for evaluating high-grade VUR in the UTI group. Ureter dilatation on US can be a helpful finding for detecting VUR in infants with UTI, but not infants without UTI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Cerebrovascular effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition involve large artery dilatation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postiglione, A; Bobkiewicz, T; Vinholdt-Pedersen, E


    The aim of the study was to selectively examine the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on the large brain arteries by using concomitant inhibition of carbonic anhydrase to cause severe dilatation of mainly parenchymal resistance vessels.......The aim of the study was to selectively examine the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on the large brain arteries by using concomitant inhibition of carbonic anhydrase to cause severe dilatation of mainly parenchymal resistance vessels....

  16. Dilatation of the Great Arteries in an Infant with Marfan Syndrome and Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rozendaal


    Full Text Available We describe an infant presenting with contractures of the fingers, a large ventricular septal defect (VSD, and severe pulmonary artery dilatation. He had clinical and echocardiographic features of both neonatal or infantile Marfan syndrome (MFS and congenital contractural arachnodactyly. After surgical VSD closure, the aortic root developed progressive dilatation while the size of pulmonary artery returned to normal limits. Eventually the diagnosis of MFS was confirmed by DNA analysis.

  17. Congenital segmental dilatation of jejunoileal region in a newborn: Unusual clinical and radiologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjai M


    Full Text Available Segmental dilatation of the ileum is one of the uncommon causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We present a case of slow transit of bowel contents leading to suspicion of functional bowel obstruction in a new born, which on exploration turned out to be a case of segmental dilatation of the jejuno-ileal region. The clinical and radiological evaluation was suggestive of hypomotility disorder of gut, resulting in diagnostic dilemma and delayed surgical intervention.

  18. Ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of segmental dilatations of the common bile duct in four cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Spain


    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series documents ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of four cats with marked segmental dilatations of the common bile duct (CBD. All cats had additional ultrasonographic changes to the hepatobiliary system, including hepatomegaly, tubular to saccular intra/extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation and biliary debris accumulation. Based on all available data the presence of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction (EHBDO was ruled out in 3/4 cases and was equivocal in one case. One cat underwent re-routing surgery to address the CBD dilatation after multiple recurrent infections, one cat was euthanized and had a post-mortem examination and two cats were medically managed with antibiotics, liver protectants, gastroprotectants and cholerectics. Relevance and novel information The ultrasonographic features of the CBD in this population of cats were supportive of choledochal cysts (CCs. The maximal diameter of the CBD dilatations exceeded 5 mm in all cases, a sign that has been previously reported to be consistent with EHBDO. In our study, dilatations were segmental rather than diffuse. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with hepatobiliary surgery in cats, segmental dilatation of the CBD should not prompt emergency surgery. Some cats may respond to medical management. Careful planning for cyst resection was beneficial in one cat. Evaluation of CC morphology (eg, size, location, concurrent intrahepatic anomalies may assist in selecting cats that could benefit from surgical intervention.

  19. Ureteral Dilatation with No Apparent Cause on Intravenous Urography: Normal or Abnormal? A Pilot Study

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    Vinita Rathi


    Full Text Available A pilot study was done in 18 adults to assess the significance of ureteral dilatation having no apparent cause seen on Intravenous Urography (IVU. A clinicoradiological evaluation was undertaken to evaluate the cause of ureteral dilatation, including laboratory investigations and sonography of the genitourinary tract. This was followed, if required, by CT Urography (using a modified technique. In 9 out of 18 cases, the cause of ureteral dilatation on laboratory investigations was urinary tract infection (6 and tuberculosis (3. In the remaining 9 cases, CTU identified the cause as extrinsic compression by a vessel (3, extrinsic vascular compression of the ureter along with ureteritis (2, extrinsic vascular impression on the right ureter and ureteritis in the left ureter (1, ureteral stricture (2, and ureteral calculus (1. Extrinsic vascular compression and strictures did not appear to be clinically significant in our study. Hence, ureteral dilatation without any apparent cause on intravenous urogram was found to be clinically significant in 12 out of 18 (66.6% cases. We conclude that ureteral dilatation with no apparent cause on IVU may indicate urinary tract tuberculosis, urinary tract infection (E. coli, or a missed calculus. Thus, cases with a dilated ureter on IVU, having no obvious cause, should undergo a detailed clinicoradiological evaluation and CTU should be used judiciously.

  20. Ureteral Dilatation with No Apparent Cause on Intravenous Urography: Normal or Abnormal? A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Rathi, Vinita; Agrawal, Sachin; Bhatt, Shuchi; Sharma, Naveen


    A pilot study was done in 18 adults to assess the significance of ureteral dilatation having no apparent cause seen on Intravenous Urography (IVU). A clinicoradiological evaluation was undertaken to evaluate the cause of ureteral dilatation, including laboratory investigations and sonography of the genitourinary tract. This was followed, if required, by CT Urography (using a modified technique). In 9 out of 18 cases, the cause of ureteral dilatation on laboratory investigations was urinary tract infection (6) and tuberculosis (3). In the remaining 9 cases, CTU identified the cause as extrinsic compression by a vessel (3), extrinsic vascular compression of the ureter along with ureteritis (2), extrinsic vascular impression on the right ureter and ureteritis in the left ureter (1), ureteral stricture (2), and ureteral calculus (1). Extrinsic vascular compression and strictures did not appear to be clinically significant in our study. Hence, ureteral dilatation without any apparent cause on intravenous urogram was found to be clinically significant in 12 out of 18 (66.6%) cases. We conclude that ureteral dilatation with no apparent cause on IVU may indicate urinary tract tuberculosis, urinary tract infection (E. coli), or a missed calculus. Thus, cases with a dilated ureter on IVU, having no obvious cause, should undergo a detailed clinicoradiological evaluation and CTU should be used judiciously.

  1. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men. (United States)

    Thijssen, D H J; Tinken, T M; Hopkins, N; Dawson, E A; Cable, N T; Green, D J


    Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is to examine post-cuff deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5 min forearm ischaemia every 2 weeks across 8-weeks of a handgrip exercise training regimen. Post-deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5-min of ischaemia were examined before, after and every 2-weeks across an 8-week handgrip training programme in healthy young men (n = 11) using echo-Doppler. The magnitude of dilation increased at week 2-4-6, but returned towards baseline values at week 8 (anova: P = 8.001). The time-to-peak diameter (42 ± 15s) demonstrated a significant prolongation at week 4 (77 ± 32s), but returned towards baseline values at weeks 6 and 8 (anova: P < 0.001). The rate of diameter increase did not differ across the intervention. Exercise training in healthy subjects is initially characterized by a larger dilation. Since the rate of dilation did not change, a longer time-to-peak dilation was necessary to achieve the increase in magnitude of dilation. As exercise training continues, the timing and magnitude of the peak diameter response returns to near baseline levels.

  2. One shot tract dilation for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is it safe and effective in preschool children? (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Mohseni, Mohammad Ghasem; Alizadeh, Farshid


    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous tract dilation by the one-stage method in preschool children. Between April 2009 and February 2013, all preschool (dilation by serial metallic dilators (group I, 31 patients) or dilation by one-stage Amplatz according to Frattini et al. [J Endourol 2001;15:919-923] (group II, 31 patients). The primary endpoint of interest was fluoroscopy time. Secondary endpoints included tract creation and dilation time, success rate and complications. Stone-free status was defined as residuals ≤3 mm. Age, stone size, operation success and operation time were not significantly different between the studied groups. The most common stone composition was calcium oxalate in both groups. The mean ± standard deviation of access and fluoroscopy times in groups I and II were 7.3 ± 1.2 min vs. 5.9 ± 1.5 min (p > 0.05) and 70.0 ± 8.9 s vs. 22.0 ± 5.6 s (p dilation by the one-stage method is safe and effective. Also, it is associated with considerably less radiation exposure in preschool children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Balloon dilation in the management of severe airway stenosis in children and adolescents. (United States)

    Guarisco, J Lindhe; Yang, Christina J


    Children and adolescents with airway stenosis pose a clinical challenge. Recently, balloon dilation has been described, primarily for the treatment of early, immature, less severe airway stenosis. We describe our experience with 8 children and adolescents managed with balloon dilation, including severe, mature subglottic and tracheal stenosis. This is a case series of 8 children and adolescents with acquired subglottic and tracheal stenosis treated by the primary author with balloon dilation between August 2006 and April 2010 at an academic tertiary care center. In the four patients who were tracheotomy-dependent at the time of presentation, suprastomal stents or Montgomery T-tubes were used. In 1 patient with 99% subglottic stenosis (SGS), balloon dilation and stenting were used to create a lumen prior to laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR). All 4 patients with tracheotomy were decannulated. The remaining 4 patients were successfully managed without tracheotomy. Mature, severe laryngeal and tracheal stenosis in pediatric patients can be successfully managed with balloon dilation. In the most severe cases with prior tracheotomy, stenting is necessary. Balloon dilation with stenting can also facilitate LTR. In patients without prior tracheotomy, tracheotomy and stenting can often be safely avoided with appropriate postoperative management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dilation-assisted stone extraction: an alternative method for removal of common bile duct stones. (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Pang, Qiuping; Zhang, Xiujuan; Dong, Haiyan; Guo, Rong; Zhai, Hailan; Dong, Yanchun; Jia, Xinyong


    Dilation-assisted stone extraction, also termed small endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) plus endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, is more efficient than EST alone for removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, whether this technique can be used for all stones is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and complications of dilation-assisted stone extraction for CBD stones. A total of 462 patients with CBD stones were randomized to undergo either dilation-assisted stone extraction (group A) or EST (group B). The efficacy and complications of the two techniques were compared. Groups A and B showed similar outcomes in terms of stone removal. The short-term and 1-year complication rates were also similar between the two groups. However, the first-session stone removal rate in group A was significantly higher than that in group B. Mechanical lithotripsy was required significantly more often in group B than in group A. The total procedure time and total fluoroscopy time in group A were significantly shorter than those in group B. Dilation-assisted stone extraction and EST are safe and effective techniques for the treatment of CBD stones. Dilation-assisted stone extraction has high efficiency. This technique is an alternative method for removal of CBD stones.

  5. [Dilatation of Virchow-Robin perivascular spaces (types III cerebral lacunae): radio-clinical correlations]. (United States)

    Marnet, D; Noudel, R; Peruzzi, P; Bazin, A; Bernard, M H; Scherpereel, B; Pluot, M; Rousseaux, P


    Virchow-Robin spaces are pia-lined extensions of the subarachnoid space surrounding the path of brain vessels. When enlarged, such dilated perivascular spaces are often seen as foci of cerebrospinal fluid signal on MRI or CT scan. These foci are found in patients with miscellaneous clinical status. It is necessary to determine the radiological significance and clinical associations, if any, in such patients in order to give them the appropriate treatment. We describe the clinical and radiological findings of five patients and review the literature on perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces. The mechanisms of dilated Virchow-Robin spaces are still not well understood. Such dilated perivascular spaces are found in two locations: typically in the high-convexity white matter of healthy elderly subjects, or surrounding the lenticulostriate vessels as they enter the basal ganglia. On MR images, they may be confused with lacunar infarcts. Most of the patients present with no symptoms: small dilatations located in the high convexity actually represent an anatomic variant, also called "état criblé". Sometimes, giant dilatations, or Poirier's type IIIb "expanding lacunae", found in the basal ganglia and midbrain may result in symptomatic hydrocephalus needing appropriate treatment. For other miscellaneous symptoms as headache, generalized epilepsy, dysmorphy, macrocephaly, there is no reliable correlation with enlarged perivascular spaces seen on MR images. The real symptomatic dilated perivascular spaces need appropriate and quick treatment. Most of the other patients present with no symptoms and will remain asymptomatic.

  6. Idiopathic myocarditis characterized by marked right ventricular dilatation. Report of two autopsy cases. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Y; Sennari, E; Hayakawa, K


    We encountered two children with chronic idiopathic myocarditis accompanied by marked right ventricular dilatation, who died of progressive right heart failure. A definitive diagnosis was made by histological examination of the myocardium at autopsy. The patients were both boys, aged 7 years and 1 year and 4 months, and a number of identical features were evident upon physical and laboratory examinations. No heart murmur was heard, and gallop rhythm was noted in distant heart sounds. Electrocardiogram revealed intraventricular block, low voltage QRS complex, and ST-T abnormality. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiogram and right ventriculogram showed marked dilatation and decreased contractility of the right ventricle as well as tricuspid regurgitation. Thinning of the wall and marked dilatation of the right ventricle were confirmed at autopsy. Our observations showed that chronic myocarditis associated with tricuspid regurgitation may readily lead to marked right ventricular dilatation even exceeding the degree of left ventricular dilatation. Idiopathic myocarditis associated with such unusual features is relatively rare, and may present problems in differentiation from other congenital heart diseases causing dilatation and dysfunction of the right ventricle.

  7. Endoscopic minor papilla balloon dilation for the treatment of symptomatic pancreas divisum. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Sasahira, Naoki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Nakai, Yousuke; Miyabayashi, Koji; Mizuno, Suguru; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko


    A subpopulation of patients with pancreas divisum experience symptomatic events such as recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Minor papilla sphincterotomy has been reported as being an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation for the minor papilla. Between 2000 and 2012, 16 patients were retrospectively included in this study. After endoscopic balloon dilation for the minor papilla was received, a pancreatic stent or a nasal pancreatic drainage catheter was placed for 1 week. If a stricture or obstruction was evident, it was treated with balloon dilation followed by long-term stent placement (1 year). When an outflow of pancreatic juice was disturbed by a pancreatic stone, endoscopic stone extraction was performed. Balloon dilation and stent placement were achieved and were successful in all the cases (16/16; 100%). Clinical improvement was achieved in 7 (84.7%) of the 9 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis and in 6 (85.7%) of the 7 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Early complications were observed in 1 (6.3%) patient. Pancreatitis or bleeding related to balloon dilation was not observed. Endoscopic balloon dilation for the minor papilla is feasible for the management of symptomatic pancreas divisum.

  8. Feasibility and accuracy of bedside transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of acute proximal aortic dissection. (United States)

    Sobczyk, Dorota; Nycz, Krzysztof


    The purpose of the present study was to establish the accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in diagnosis of acute type A aortic dissection in comparison to computed tomography (CT), with reference to the intraoperative image. The retrospective analysis included 178 patients referred to the cardiac surgery unit in our center due to acute type A dissection between 01-01-2008 and 31-12-2013, who underwent both TTE and CT. Intraoperative image was considered as a reference. Statistical analysis did not show any significant differences between computed tomography and echocardiography in the detection of the proximal aortic dissection. In patients with aortic valve abnormalities, procedure of choice was replacement by a composite graft (77,59%), whereas patients with a normal image of aortic valve were more likely to have the valve sparing procedure (50,88%). The R-Spearman statistics shows a strong positive correlation between maximum diameter of ascending aorta measured by TTE and CT (cc 0.869) and TTE and intraoperative measurement (cc 0.844). Our data confirm that transthoracic echocardiography is a reliable method for diagnosis of proximal aortic dissection. TTE provides a reliable value of maximum diameter of the ascending aorta in comparison to both CT and direct intraoperative measurement. Moreover, transthoracic echocardiography gives the additional information that influences the operative technique of choice and identifies the high-risk patients (cardiac tamponade, severe aortic dilatation, severe aortic regurgitation). Our retrospective analysis confirms the pivotal role of TTE in the evaluation of the patients with suspected proximal aortic dissection in emergency room setting.

  9. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi


    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  10. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

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    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  11. Giant hemangioma of the liver complicated with a biliary duct dilatation; Hemangiome hepatique geant responsable d`une dilatation des voies biliaires intrahepatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issahar-Zadeh, A.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Tubiana, J.M.; Tiret, E. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) - Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Le Treut, Y.P. [Hopital de la Conception, 13 - Marseille (France); Garcia, S. [Hopital Nord, 13 -Marseille (France)


    Giant hepatic hemangiomas are entities. They can be symptomatic with pain and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Cholestasis has already been reported. We describe a case of biliary dilatation secondary to a hemorrhagic giant hepatic hemangioma documented on CT and MRI. (authors). 9 refs.

  12. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures]. (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C


    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  13. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.


    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  14. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor


    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  15. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  16. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  17. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures. (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A


    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  18. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers


    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.


    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  19. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery


    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe


    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  20. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  1. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu


    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  2. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  4. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital]. (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire


    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  6. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Long-term recurrence rates following dilation of symptomatic Schatzki rings. (United States)

    Müller, Michaela; Gockel, Ines; König, Jochem; Kuhr, Kathrin; Eckardt, Volker F


    This study investigated the long-term clinical course of patients with Schatzki rings, who were treated by single bougie dilation. Furthermore, it analyzed possible predictors for the time of recurrence. A total of 133 patients (100 males, 33 females) with a mean age of 57 ± 14.6 years who were treated by single dilation with the use of Maloney bougies without the aid of fluoroscopy were prospectively registered and followed-up for a mean duration of 58.3 months (range 12-240 months). Duration of remission was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier estimates with regard to recurrence. Log-rank test was performed to analyze possible predictors for the time to second dilation (recurrence). No complications occurred and all patients were symptom-free at the first follow-up examination 4 weeks after dilation. However, later on, 73 patients required a second dilation. The estimate remission rates were 63.8% (95% CI: 55.6-72.0%) after 2 years, 44.3% (95% CI: 35.4-53.4%) after 5 years, and 39.9% (95% CI: 30.5-49.3%) after 10 years. Neither the initial morphological findings, nor age or gender determined the need for repeated dilation. Only patients treated with a large bougie diameter (≥52 F) seemed to have a tendency for a longer time until symptomatic recurrence. Single dilation of symptomatic Schatzki rings is a safe and effective therapy. However, more than half of the patients will need a second treatment. Recurrences are unrelated to initial morphological findings, age, or gender. Only the treatment with a large bougie diameter (≥52 F) showed a tendency for a longer time of remission.

  8. Time Course of Flow-Mediated Dilation and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor following Acute Stroke. (United States)

    Billinger, Sandra A; Sisante, Jason-Flor V; Whitaker, Alicen A; Abraham, Michael G


    People after stroke demonstrate alterations in vascular endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation. Limited information is available in the literature on possible protective factors following stroke. The aims of the secondary analysis were (1) to characterize the time course of vascular endothelial function using flow-mediated dilation at 72 hours after stroke and 1 week later during inpatient stroke rehabilitation and (2) to determine whether flow-mediated dilation was related to vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or estimated prestroke peak oxygen uptake. Flow-mediated dilation using Doppler ultrasound was assessed in bilateral brachial arteries at the defined time points. Flow-mediated dilation and blood draws occurred on the same day between 7:30 am and 9:00 am following an overnight fast. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor values. A nonexercise estimate was used to calculate prestroke peak oxygen uptake. We have shown that between-limb differences are evident within 72 hours after stroke and remain 1 week later during inpatient rehabilitation. Higher values for vascular endothelial growth factor were associated with increased flow-mediated dilation at both time points. Higher estimated prestroke peak oxygen uptake was related to flow-mediated dilation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was not related to any outcome measures. Unique vascular adaptations start early after stroke in the stroke-affected limb and remain through inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Vascular endothelial growth factor and prestroke physical activity may have a protective role in vascular function following stroke. Future work should focus on mechanistic pathways for preservation of vascular health. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation in adults with coarctation of the aorta. (United States)

    Clair, Mathieu; Fernandes, Susan M; Khairy, Paul; Graham, Dionne A; Krieger, Eric V; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Singh, Michael N; Colan, Steven D; Meijboom, Erik J; Landzberg, Michael J


    To determine the prevalence of aortic valve dysfunction, aortic dilation, and aortic valve and ascending aortic intervention in adults with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation are rare among children and adolescents with CoA. With longer follow-up, adults may be more likely to have progressive disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adults with CoA, repaired or unrepaired, seen at our center between 2004 and 2010. Two hundred sixteen adults (56.0% male) with CoA were identified. Median age at last evaluation was 28.3 (range 18.0 to 75.3) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was present in 65.7%. At last follow-up, 3.2% had moderate or severe aortic stenosis, and 3.7% had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Dilation of the aortic root or ascending aorta was present in 28.0% and 41.6% of patients, respectively. Moderate or severe aortic root or ascending aortic dilation (z-score > 4) was present in 8.2% and 13.7%, respectively. Patients with BAV were more likely to have moderate or severe ascending aortic dilation compared with those without BAV (19.5% vs. 0%; P aortic dilation (P = 0.04). At most recent follow-up, 5.6% had undergone aortic valve intervention, and 3.2% had aortic root or ascending aortic replacement. In adults with CoA, significant aortic valve dysfunction and interventions during early adulthood were uncommon. However, aortic dilation was prevalent, especially of the ascending aorta, in patients with BAV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intracameral mydriatics versus topical mydriatics in pupil dilation for phacoemulsification cataract surgery. (United States)

    Lay Suan, Amelia Lim; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Ken, Tan Soo; Mansurali, Vanessa Naseem


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intracameral mydriatics (lidocaine 1.0% and phenylephrine 1.5%) versus topical mydriatics (phenylephrine 2.5% and tropicamide 1.0%) in pupil dilation for phacoemulsification surgery in Malaysians. Department of Ophthalmology, Penang General Hospital, Georgetown Penang, Malaysia. Prospective comparative case series. Patients with immature cataract were randomized to the topical mydriatic group (topical group) or intracameral mydriatic group (intracameral group). Patients with small pupils and complicated cataracts were excluded. Pupil diameter changes were measured throughout the surgery. Additional pupil dilation maneuvers and complications were recorded. The study comprised 112 patients. There was no difference in mean pupil dilation between the intracameral group (4.86 mm ± 0.74 [SD]) and the topical group (4.88 ± 0.91 mm) (P = .86). However, the mean pupil size before capsulorhexis in the topical group (7.23 ± 1.08 mm) was significantly larger than in the intracameral group (6.40 ± 0.80 mm) (P = .01). The pupils in the intracameral group continued to dilate during surgery (0.44 ± 0.62 mm), while those in the topical group constricted (-0.41 ± 1.04 mm) (P < .001). Three patients in the intracameral group and 6 in the topical group required additional maneuvers for pupil dilation (P = .49). Each group had 1 complication (P = 1.00). Intracameral mydriatic agents dilated heavily pigmented pupils for phacoemulsification cataract surgery. However, in the early stages of surgery, pupil dilation was slower than with topical agents. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Gas-Containing Coal during Loading Dilation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Yin


    Full Text Available Raw coal was used as the study object in this paper to identify the evolution characteristics of acoustic emission (AE during the dilation process of gas-containing coal. The coal specimens were stored in gas seal devices filled with gas at different pressures (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MPa for 24 h prior to testing. Then, the specimens were tested in a rock-testing machine, and the deformation and crack fracture patterns were recorded by using strain gauges and an AE system. The axial and volumetric strains–stress curves were analyzed in relation to the AE and the failure mode. Results show that as gas pressure increases, the uniaxial compression strength and elasticity modulus of gas-containing coal decreases, whereas the Poisson’s ratio increases. In all the coal specimens, the dilation initiation stress decreases, and the dilation degree increases. During the dilation process, before the loaded coal specimens reach peak stress, and as the load increases, the changes in the specimens and in the AE energy parameter of specimens can be divided into four phases: crack closure deformation, elastic deformation, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation (dilation process. Across the four phases, the AE energy increases evidently during crack closure and elastic deformation but decreases during stable crack propagation. As the gas pressure increases, the AE signal frequency increases from 4.5 KHz to 8.1 KHz during the dilation process. Thus, the gas presence in coal specimens exerts a significant influence on the closure of sample cracks and dilation damage.

  12. Randomized controlled trial: hybrid technique using balloon dilation of the frontal sinus drainage pathway. (United States)

    Hathorn, Iain F; Pace-Asciak, Pia; Habib, Al-Rahim R; Sunkaraneni, Vishnu; Javer, Amin R


    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to evaluate frontal sinus ostial patency following balloon dilation with the Ventera Sinus Dilation System, compared with frontal sinusotomy (Draf 2a); and (2) to compare mean blood loss and mean surgical time for frontal sinusotomy using balloon dilation compared with traditional surgical methods. A single blinded, randomized, controlled, prospective study was performed at St. Paul's Sinus Center, Vancouver, a tertiary referral rhinology center. Thirty patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were randomized to a hybrid approach with exposure of the frontal recess using standard instrumentation and then balloon dilation of 1 frontal sinus drainage pathway and traditional frontal sinusotomy for the opposite side. Blood loss and surgical time for opening the frontal sinus drainage pathway was recorded for each side. Patients acted as their own controls. Ostial patency and size were assessed 5 weeks and 3 months postoperatively using endoscopy. Ostial patency was also recorded at 1 year following surgery. All frontal sinus ostia in both groups (n = 30) were successfully opened and were patent with both techniques 3 months postoperatively. All frontal sinus ostia assessed at 1 year (73%) remained patent and none required revision frontal surgery. Balloon dilation showed a mean surgical time of 655 seconds compared to 898 seconds for traditional FESS (p = 0.03). Mean blood loss was less with balloon dilation (58 mL vs 91 mL; p = 0.008). A hybrid balloon technique successfully dilates the frontal sinus drainage pathway with reduced blood loss. Also, short-term patency appears to be comparable to traditional frontal sinusotomy. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. Short- and long-term efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation in Crohn's disease strictures. (United States)

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Borrelli, Osvaldo; Bizzarri, Barbara; Vincenzi, Francesca; Fornaroli, Fabiola; De Caro, Giuseppina; de'Angelis, Gian Luigi


    To evaluate short- and long-term efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation in a cohort of consecutive patients with symptomatic Crohn's disease (CD)-related strictures. Twenty-six CD patients (11 men; median age 36.8 year, range 11-65 years) with 27 symptomatic strictures underwent endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). Both naive and post-operative strictures, of any length and diameter, with or without associated fistula were included. After a clinical and radiological assessment, EBD was performed with a Microvasive Rigiflex through the scope balloon system. The procedure was considered successful if no symptom reoccurred in the following 6 mo. The long-term clinical outcome was to avoid surgery. The mean follow-up time was 40.7 ± 5.7 mo (range 10-94 mo). In this period, forty-six EBD were performed with a technical success of 100%. No procedure-related complication was reported. Surgery was avoided in 92.6% of the patients during the entire follow-up. Two patients, both presenting ileocecal strictures associated with fistula, failed to respond to the treatment and underwent surgical strictures resection. Of the 24 patients who did not undergo surgery, 11 patients received 1 EBD, and 13 required further dilations over time for the treatment of relapsing strictures (7 patients underwent 2 dilations, 5 patients 3 dilations, and 1 patient 4 dilations). Overall, the EBD success rate after the first dilation was 81.5%. No difference was observed between the EBD success rate for naive (n = 12) and post-operative (n = 15) CD related strictures (P > 0.05). EBD appears to be a safe and effective procedure in the therapeutic management of CD-related strictures of any origin and dimension in order to prevent surgery.

  14. Short- and long-term efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation in Crohn’s disease strictures (United States)

    de’Angelis, Nicola; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Borrelli, Osvaldo; Bizzarri, Barbara; Vincenzi, Francesca; Fornaroli, Fabiola; De Caro, Giuseppina; de’Angelis, Gian Luigi


    AIM: To evaluate short- and long-term efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation in a cohort of consecutive patients with symptomatic Crohn’s disease (CD)-related strictures. METHODS: Twenty-six CD patients (11 men; median age 36.8 year, range 11-65 years) with 27 symptomatic strictures underwent endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). Both naive and post-operative strictures, of any length and diameter, with or without associated fistula were included. After a clinical and radiological assessment, EBD was performed with a Microvasive Rigiflex through the scope balloon system. The procedure was considered successful if no symptom reoccurred in the following 6 mo. The long-term clinical outcome was to avoid surgery. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 40.7 ± 5.7 mo (range 10-94 mo). In this period, forty-six EBD were performed with a technical success of 100%. No procedure-related complication was reported. Surgery was avoided in 92.6% of the patients during the entire follow-up. Two patients, both presenting ileocecal strictures associated with fistula, failed to respond to the treatment and underwent surgical strictures resection. Of the 24 patients who did not undergo surgery, 11 patients received 1 EBD, and 13 required further dilations over time for the treatment of relapsing strictures (7 patients underwent 2 dilations, 5 patients 3 dilations, and 1 patient 4 dilations). Overall, the EBD success rate after the first dilation was 81.5%. No difference was observed between the EBD success rate for naive (n = 12) and post-operative (n = 15) CD related strictures (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: EBD appears to be a safe and effective procedure in the therapeutic management of CD-related strictures of any origin and dimension in order to prevent surgery. PMID:23674873

  15. Oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents: effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doo, E.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Kim, J.H.; Song, H.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)


    Aim: To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of balloon dilatation in children for oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents. Materials and methods: The study comprised 11 children (median age 6 years; range 1-14 years) with oesophageal strictures caused by corrosive agents, who underwent a total of 36 balloon dilatation sessions. The technical and clinical success, recurrence of dysphagia, complications, and primary and secondary patency rates were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Technical success was achieved in 91% of patients and in 97% of balloon dilatation sessions. Clinical success (defined as improved food intake and reduced dysphagia within 1 month of the first balloon dilatation session) was achieved in 64% of patients (7/11). During the mean 35-month follow-up period (range 1-89 months), 10 (91%) patients experienced recurrence. Oesophageal rupture (types 1 or 2) occurred in 45% of patients and in 31% of balloon dilatation sessions. Primary patency rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 36, 27, 14, 14, 14, and 14%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 82, 82, 82, 56, 42, and 42%, respectively. The secondary patency rate was higher than the primary patency rate (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study examined oesophageal balloon dilatation for paediatric oesophageal strictures caused by the ingestion of corrosive agents. Although the technical success rate was high and there were no deaths, the clinical success rate was low owing to a high recurrence rate. However, repeated balloon dilatations resulted in an acceptable secondary patency rate.

  16. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers. (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard


    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  17. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  18. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  19. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  20. External urethral sphincter dilation for the management of high risk myelomeningocele: 15-year experience. (United States)

    Park, J M; McGuire, E J; Koo, H P; Schwartz, A C; Garwood, C K; Bloom, D A


    We investigate the long-term outcome using external urethral sphincter dilation for high risk myelomeningocele. Since 1984 external urethral sphincter dilation was performed in 25 patients with myelomeningocele who demonstrated passive leak point pressure greater than 40 cm. H2O and/or poor bladder compliance. Mean followup from the first dilation was 8.4 years. Overall 2.4 dilations were performed per patient (range 1 to 8). Cystometrography, imaging study and continence status were evaluated retrospectively. Overall external urethral sphincter dilation produced durable improvements in mean leak point pressure (60.9 versus 34.4 cm. H2O), capacity (119.8 versus 233.3 ml.), initial compliance (11.5 versus 28.4 ml./cm. H2O) and terminal compliance (1.1 versus 7.7 ml./cm. H2O). Categorical analysis revealed 3 groups in terms of outcome. Group 1 consisted of 11 patients (44%) who demonstrated durable improvements in urodynamic parameters as well as preservation of the upper tracts. These patients demonstrated a 2-step compliance pattern on pre-dilation cystometrography, in which elevated leak point pressure was associated with excellent initial compliance. Group 2 consisted of 5 patients (20%) who failed to maintain safe leak point pressure and whose upper tracts deteriorated, including 4 who eventually underwent augmentation cystoplasty. This group demonstrated a 1-step hypertonicity in which elevated leak point pressure was associated with a steep pressure increase during early filling. Group 3 consisted of 9 patients (36%) who responded minimally in terms of leak point pressure reduction but whose upper tracts remained well preserved. They demonstrated a high pressure instability pattern associated with excellent baseline compliance. External urethral sphincter dilation provides an effective long-term solution for select high risk myelomeningocele cases. Those who demonstrate elevated leak point pressure and poor bladder compliance at the time of external urethral

  1. Adjunct mifepristone for cervical preparation prior to dilation and evacuation: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Shaw, Kate A; Shaw, Jonathan G; Hugin, Michele; Velasquez, Griselda; Hopkins, Frederick W; Blumenthal, Paul D


    The objective was to investigate mifepristone as a potential adjunct to cervical preparation for surgical abortion after 19 weeks of gestation, with the aim of improving procedure access, convenience and comfort. This is a site-stratified, block-randomized, noninferiority trial of 50 women undergoing surgical abortion between 19 and 23 6/7 weeks of gestation randomized to receive either one set of osmotic dilators plus mifepristone the day prior to procedure (mifepristone group) or two sets of osmotic dilators (placed 18-24 h apart) in the 2 days prior to procedure (control group). All subjects received preprocedure misoprostol. Primary outcome was procedure time. Secondary outcomes included preoperative cervical dilation, ease of procedure, and side effects and pain experienced by subjects. Mean gestational age was similar between groups (20 weeks); more nulliparous subjects were randomized to the mifepristone group (46% vs. 12%, p=.009). Mean procedure times were similar: mifepristone group 11:52 (SD 5:29) vs. control group 10:56 (SD 5:08); difference in means -56s, with confidence interval (95% CI -4:09 to +2:16) not exceeding the 5-min difference we a priori defined as clinically significant. Preprocedure cervical dilation did not differ and was >3cm for the majority of subjects in both groups. There was no difference (p=.6) in ease of procedure reported by providers. Preoperative (postmisoprostol) pain and postoperative pain levels were greater with mifepristone (p = 0.02 and p= 0.04 respectively). Overall subject experience was not different (p=0.80), with most reporting a "better than expected" experience. Mifepristone with one set of osmotic dilators and misoprostol did not result in longer procedure times or less cervical dilation than serial (two sets) of osmotic dilators and misoprostol, and has the potential to improve access to second trimester abortion without compromising safety. Use of mifepristone for cervical preparation before surgical abortion

  2. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  3. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  4. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  5. Gastric Dilatation and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Child with Prader-Willi Syndrome. (United States)

    Blat, Clara; Busquets, Elisenda; Gili, Teresa; Caixàs, Assumpta; Gabau, Elisabeth; Corripio, Raquel


    BACKGROUND Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by initial muscular hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and later an insatiable appetite, hyperphagia and obesity along with mild to moderate intellectual impairment. Affected individuals' food-seeking behavior and suspected delayed gastric emptying can lead to gastric dilatation with subsequent necrosis and perforation. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome at neonatal age due to muscular hypotonia, who started growth hormone therapy at 20 months. He presented with two episodes of a rapidly progressing gastric dilatation that led to abdominal hypertension and secondary shock at the age of 2 and 5. No large amount of food was eaten before any of the episodes, and he had abdominal pain and vomiting on both occasions. On arrival at the emergency room, a nasogastric tube was placed and aspiration of food material was performed. Abdominal X-ray and CT scan revealed massive gastric dilatation. He was admitted at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and after a variable period of fasting, tolerated oral intake and could be discharged. CONCLUSIONS Gastric dilatation due to gastroparesis in PWS is a rare complication. However, it is a life-threatening situation and physicians should therefore maintain a high level of suspicion for gastric dilatation when patients present with warning symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort and vomiting.

  6. Canine candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy: annotation of and polymorphic markers for 14 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oost Bernard A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease occurring in humans and domestic animals and is characterized by dilatation of the left ventricle, reduced systolic function and increased sphericity of the left ventricle. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in several, mostly large and giant, dog breeds, such as the Dobermann and the Great Dane. A number of genes have been identified, which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in the human, mouse and hamster. These genes mainly encode structural proteins of the cardiac myocyte. Results We present the annotation of, and marker development for, 14 of these genes of the dog genome, i.e. α-cardiac actin, caveolin 1, cysteine-rich protein 3, desmin, lamin A/C, LIM-domain binding factor 3, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, phospholamban, sarcoglycan δ, titin cap, α-tropomyosin, troponin I, troponin T and vinculin. A total of 33 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms were identified for these canine genes and 11 polymorphic microsatellite repeats were developed. Conclusion The presented polymorphisms provide a tool to investigate the role of the corresponding genes in canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy by linkage analysis or association studies.

  7. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with achalasia and massive dilated megaesophagus. (United States)

    Menezes, M A; Andolfi, C; Herbella, F A M; Patti, M G


    Achalasia may present in a non-advanced or an advanced (end stage) stage based on the degree of esophageal dilatation. Manometric parameters and esophageal caliber may be prognostic for the outcome of treatment. The correlation between manometry and disease stage has not been yet fully studied. This study aims to describe high-resolution manometry findings in patients with achalasia and massive dilated megaesophagus. Eighteen patients (mean age 61 years, 55% females) with achalasia and massive dilated megaesophagus, as defined by a maximum esophageal dilatation >10 cm at the barium esophagram, were studied. Achalasia was considered secondary to Chagas' disease in 14 (78%) of the patients and idiopathic in the remaining. All patients underwent high-resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was hypotonic and had impaired relaxation in the majority of patients. Aperistalsis was seen in all patients with an equal distribution of Chicago type I and type II. No type III was noticed. Lower esophageal sphincter did not have a characteristic manometric pattern. In 50% of the cases, the manometry catheter was not able to reach the stomach. Our results did not show a manometric pattern in patients with achalasia and massive dilated esophagus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. [Esophageal perforation caused by balloon dilatations in a patient with achalasia]. (United States)

    de la Fuente-Lira, M; Blanco-Benavides, R


    To present a case of esophagic perforation due to a pneumatic dilatations of the cardias in a patient with achalasia. Achalasia of the esophagus is a primary motor alteration with an unknown cause. The principal characteristics are the lower or absent peristaltic waves in the esophagic body and the impared lower esophagic sphincter relaxation during deglution. The management is palliative with pneumatic dilatations, pharmacologic therapy or with surgery. When a esophagic perforation occurs, it must be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible because a delay in diagnosis and management affect directly the patient prognosis. To present a case of esophagic perforation due to pneumatic dilatations of the cardias in a patient with achalasia. An useful palliative management for achalasia is the pneumatic forceful dilatation, however it carries some risk of perforation; in every patient who was treated with dilatations is mandatory to think in perforation when the clinical condition is different after the procedure. The success of surgical management of the perforated esophagus and the control of sepsis and mediastinitis depends directly of the clinical condition of the patient and the time within perforation and surgical therapy.

  9. A pseudo-sound constitutive relationship for the dilatational covariances in compressible turbulence: An analytical theory (United States)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.


    The mathematical consequences of a few simple scaling assumptions about the effects of compressibility are explored using a simple singular perturbation idea and the methods of statistical fluid mechanics. Representations for the pressure-dilation and dilatational dissipation covariances appearing in single-point moment closures for compressible turbulence are obtained. While the results are expressed in the context of a second-order statistical closure they provide some interesting and very clear physical metaphors for the effects of compressibility that have not been seen using more traditional linear stability methods. In the limit of homogeneous turbulence with quasi-normal large-scales the expressions derived are - in the low turbulent Mach number limit - asymptotically exact. The expressions obtained are functions of the rate of change of the turbulence energy, its correlation length scale, and the relative time scale of the cascade rate. The expressions for the dilatational covariances contain constants which have a precise and definite physical significance; they are related to various integrals of the longitudinal velocity correlation. The pressure-dilation covariance is found to be a nonequilibrium phenomena related to the time rate of change of the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the turbulence. Also of interest is the fact that the representation for the dilatational dissipation in turbulence, with or without shear, features a dependence on the Reynolds number. This article is a documentation of an analytical investigation of the implications of a pseudo-sound theory for the effects of compressibility.

  10. Pre- and postsynaptic effects of brimonidine on isolated rabbit iris dilator muscles

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    Tatsui S


    Full Text Available Sonoko Tatsui,1 Hitoshi Ishikawa,2 Kimiya Shimizu,1 Kimiyo Mashimo1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 2Department of Orthoptics and Visual Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan Purpose: Brimonidine is an imidazoline compound used for the treatment of glaucoma, but having very little effect on pupil diameter. Like para-aminoclonidine, most imidazoline compounds interact with postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors and cause pupil dilatation. Therefore, as part of an investigation of the mechanism of action of brimonidine on pupil diameter, the present study was initiated to measure, in vitro, the relative potency of brimonidine on the pre- and postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors of rabbit iris dilator muscle. Methods: The contractile activity of brimonidine and its effect on twitch contraction evoked by electrical field stimulation were studied in isolated rabbit iris dilator muscles by isometric tension recording. Results: Brimonidine significantly inhibited the twitch contraction of the dilator muscle caused by field stimulation, without affecting the response to exogenously applied phenylephrine. Compared to phenylephrine, brimonidine caused only a small contractile response with % maximum contraction values of<10%. Conclusion: These results suggest that brimonidine may act on nerve endings to inhibit adrenergic neurotransmission with very little effect on postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors. This may indicate that brimonidine reduced the pupil diameter just a little, thus improving night vision. Keywords: brimonidine, rabbit iris dilator, electrical field stimulation, presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor, postsynaptic α1-adrenoceptor, imidazolin

  11. Postoperative lower esophageal dilation in children following the performance of Nissen fundoplication. (United States)

    Schneider, Anne; Gottrand, Frédéric; Sfeir, Rony; Duhamel, Alain; Bonnevalle, Michel; Guimber, Dominique; Michaud, Laurent


    The purpose of this study is to study the frequency and factors associated with lower esophageal dilation (LED) after Nissen fundoplication. This retrospective monocentric study included 288 patients who had undergone Nissen fundoplication from 1998 to 2009. The frequency of children requiring LED was assessed. The clinical characteristics of the patients at the time of fundoplication, their symptoms, and outcomes were recorded. The population with LED (group 1) was compared with the population without LED (group 2) to identify factors associated with postfundoplication LED using multivariate analysis. LED was required by 70 patients (24%) because of postoperative dysphagia, and 45/70 were dilated within the first 6 months. The mean age at dilation was 72 months (standard deviation [SD] 65), with an average post-Nissen delay of 9 months (SD 13). Surgical revision was required by 11 patients because of LED failure (n = 10) or postdilation perforation (n = 1). Patients who required post-Nissen dilation were significantly more frequently fed orally than those in group 2 and had more postoperative complications (dumping syndrome, surgical revision). A significant frequency of postfundoplication LED was observed in this pediatric population. Dilation was associated in children with preoperative feeding or postoperative complications (dumping syndrome, surgical revision). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Dilation of Malignant Strictures in Endoscopic Ultrasound Staging of Esophageal Cancer and Metastatic Spread of Disease

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    Shawn M. Hancock


    Full Text Available Background. Dilation of malignant strictures in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS staging of esophageal cancer is safe, but no data exists regarding the subsequent development of metastases. Aim. Compare the rates of metastases in esophageal cancer patients undergoing EUS staging who require esophageal dilation in order to pass the echoendoscope versus those who do not. Methods. We reviewed consecutive patients referred for EUS staging of esophageal cancer. We evaluated whether dilation was necessary in order to pass the echoendoscope, and for the subsequent development of metastases after EUS at various time intervals. Results. Among all patients with similar stage (locally advanced disease, defined as T3, N0, M0 or T1-3, N1, M0, there was no difference between the dilated and nondilated groups in the rates of metastases at 3 months (14% versus 10%, =1.0, 6 months (28% versus 20%, =0.69, 12 months (43% versus 40%, =1.0, or ever during a mean followup of 15 months (71% versus 55%, =0.48. Conclusions. Dilation of malignant strictures for EUS staging of esophageal cancer does not appear to lead to higher rates of distant metastases.

  13. Reappraisal of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the management of common bile duct stones (United States)

    Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Hsu, Ping-I


    Although endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is still considered as a gold standard treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in western guideline, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is commonly used by the endoscopists in Asia as the first-line treatment for CBD stones. Besides the advantages of a technical easy procedure, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) can facilitate the removal of large CBD stones. The indication of EPBD is now extended from removal of the small stones by using traditional balloon, to removal of large stones and avoidance of lithotripsy by using large balloon alone or after EST. According to the reports of antegrade papillary balloon dilatation, balloon dilation itself is not the cause of pancreatitis. On the contrary, adequate dilation of papillary orifice can reduce the trauma to the papilla and pancreas by the basket or lithotripter during the procedure of stone extraction. EPLBD alone is as effective as EPLBD with limited EST. Longer ballooning time may be beneficial in EPLBD alone to achieve adequate loosening of papillary orifice. The longer ballooning time does not increase the risk of pancreatitis but may reduce the bleeding episodes in patients with coagulopathy. Slowly inflation of the balloon, but not exceed the diameter of bile duct and tolerance of the patients are important to prevent the complication of perforation. EPBLD alone or with EST are not the sphincter preserved procedures, regular follow up is necessary for early detection and management of CBD stones recurrence. PMID:25685263

  14. Is daily dilatation by parents necessary after surgery for Hirschsprung disease and anorectal malformations? (United States)

    Temple, Sara J; Shawyer, Anna; Langer, Jacob C


    Most surgeons recommend daily dilatation after surgery for Hirschsprung disease and anorectal malformations. Our goal was to critically evaluate the potential risks and benefits of this practice. A retrospective chart review was carried out of all children undergoing repair of Hirschsprung disease or anorectal malformation over 5 years. Patients with long segment Hirschsprung disease or anal stenosis were excluded. There were 95 patients, of which 34 had Hirschsprung disease and 61 had an anorectal malformation. Postoperatively, 65 underwent routine dilatation by parents; and 30 underwent weekly calibration by the surgeon, with daily dilatation by the parents only if the anastomosis was felt to be narrow. Of the 30 children undergoing weekly calibration, only 5 (17%) developed late narrowing that required conversion to the daily parental dilatation approach. There were no significant differences between the 2 approaches with respect to stricture development, anastomotic disruption, perineal excoriation, or enterocolitis. Weekly calibration by the surgeon is associated with similar outcomes to daily dilatation by the parents. Because this approach is kinder to the parents and the child, it should be seriously considered for the postoperative management of children with Hirschsprung disease or anorectal malformations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

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    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai


    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  16. Can the measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation be applied to the acute exercise model?

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    Harris Ryan A


    Full Text Available Abstract The measurement of flow-mediated dilation using high-resolution ultrasound has been utilized extensively in interventional trials evaluating the salutary effect of drugs and lifestyle modifications (i.e. diet or exercise training on endothelial function; however, until recently researchers have not used flow-mediated dilation to examine the role of a single bout of exercise on vascular function. Utilizing the acute exercise model can be advantageous as it allows for an efficient manipulation of exercise variables (i.e. mode, intensity, duration, etc. and permits greater experimental control of confounding variables. Given that the application of flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise paradigm is expanding, the purpose of this review is to discuss methodological and physiological factors pertinent to flow-mediated dilation in the context of acute exercise. Although the scientific rationale for evaluating endothelial function in response to acute exercise is sound, few concerns warrant attention when interpreting flow-mediated dilation data following acute exercise. The following questions will be addressed in the present review: Does the measurement of flow-mediated dilation influence subsequent serial measures of flow-mediated dilation? Do we need to account for diurnal variation? Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation? Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible? How is flow-mediated dilation interpreted considering the hemodynamic and sympathetic changes associated with acute exercise? Can the measurement of endothelial-independent dilation affect the exercise? Evidence exists to support the methodological appropriateness for employing flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise model; however, further research is warranted to clarify its interpretation following acute exercise.

  17. Successful Use of Biliary Duct Balloon Dilator in Repairing Post-Surgical Esophageal Stricture in premature infant

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    Imad Absah


    Full Text Available Congenital esophageal atresia needs to be surgically corrected as soon as possible. Some will present with post surgical stricture that needs to be dilated by a balloon dilator. This procedure is difficult in premature born due to infant esophageal size and availability of equipments. We herby report the first case in a premature infant with post surgical esophageal stricture of esophageal atresia by the use of biliary duct balloon dilator.

  18. A comparison among four tract dilation methods of percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Dehong, Cao; Liangren, Liu; Huawei, Liu; Qiang, Wei


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Amplatz dilation (AD), metal telescopic dilation (MTD), balloon dilation (BD), and one-shot dilation (OSD) methods for tract dilation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Relevant eligible studies were identified using three electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL). Database acquisition and quality evaluation were independently performed by two reviewers. Efficacy (stone-free rate, surgical duration, and tract dilatation fluoroscopy time) and safety (transfusion rate and hemoglobin decrease) were evaluated using Review Manager 5.2. Four randomized controlled trials and eight clinical controlled trials involving 6,820 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled result from a meta-analysis showed statistically significant differences in tract dilatation fluoroscopy time and hemoglobin decrease between the OSD and MTD groups, which showed comparable stone-free and transfusion rates. Significant differences in transfusion rate were found between the BD and MTD groups. Among patients without previous open renal surgery, those who underwent BD exhibited a lower blood transfusion rate and a shorter surgical duration compared with those who underwent AD. The OSD technique is safer and more efficient than the MTD technique for tract dilation during PCNL, particularly in patients with previous open renal surgery, resulting in a shorter tract dilatation fluoroscopy time and a lesser decrease in hemoglobin. The efficacy and safety of BD are better than AD in patients without previous open renal surgery. The OSD technique should be considered for most patients who undergo PCNL therapy.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of inadequate cervical dilation following laminaria insertion in second-trimester abortion--case control study. (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ido; Stern, Sharon; Vaknin, Zvi; Smorgick, Noam; Schneider, David; Halperin, Reuvit


    The objective was to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for inadequate cervical dilation following insertion of a single set of laminaria in women scheduled for dilation & evacuation (D&E) at 14-24 weeks' gestation. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of women who underwent pregnancy termination by D&E at 14-24 weeks' gestation between January 2003 and December 2013. All cases in which the surgical procedure was cancelled due to failure to achieve adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria inadequate cervical dilation were included. The control group was women who underwent D&E following adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria, and were matched according to gestational week in a ratio of 1:3. The overall dilation failure rate was 3.2%, with 4.0% among the induced-abortion patients and 1.5% among the patients with fetal demise (p=.002). Patients who had inadequate cervical dilation had lower rates of gravidity (p=.002) and previous spontaneous vaginal delivery (pagainst inadequate cervical dilation (p=.002). Previous cesarean section/s, cervical procedures and primigravidity were found to be risk factors for failure to achieve adequate cervical dilation after a single set of laminaria. Women who are scheduled for D&E, and in whom one of these risk factors exists, might benefit from additional interventions to achieve better cervical preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause. (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R


    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  1. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  2. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon. (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L


    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  3. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events. (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R


    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  4. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)]. (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria


    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  5. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

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    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  6. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture. (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad


    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

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    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  8. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability (United States)



    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  9. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A


    Equine atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plasma concentrations are correlated with left atrial size. However, species-specific assays are lacking and the results from human assays are poorly reproducible. A new methodology called processing independent analysis (PIA) that measures the total proANP...... product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample...... stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration...

  10. Topological Origin of the Network Dilation Anomaly in Ion-Exchanged Glasses (United States)

    Wang, Mengyi; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu


    Ion exchange is commonly used to strengthen oxide glasses. However, the resulting stuffed glasses usually do not reach the molar volume of as-melted glasses of similar composition—a phenomenon known as the network dilation anomaly. This behavior seriously limits the potential for the chemical strengthening of glasses and its origin remains one of the mysteries of glass science. Here, based on molecular dynamics simulations of sodium silicate glasses coupled with topological constraint theory, we show that the topology of the atomic network controls the extent of ion-exchange-induced dilation. We demonstrate that isostatic glasses do not show any network dilation anomaly. This is found to arise from the combined absence of floppy modes of deformation and internal eigenstress in isostatic atomic networks.

  11. Dilation and Hypertrophy: A Cell-Based Continuum Mechanics Approach Towards Ventricular Growth and Remodeling (United States)

    Ulerich, J.; Göktepe, S.; Kuhl, E.

    This manuscript presents a continuum approach towards cardiac growth and remodeling that is capable to predict chronic maladaptation of the heart in response to changes in mechanical loading. It is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into and elastic and a growth part. Motivated by morphological changes in cardiomyocyte geometry, we introduce an anisotropic growth tensor that can capture both hypertrophic wall thickening and ventricular dilation within one generic concept. In agreement with clinical observations, we propose wall thickening to be a stress-driven phenomenon whereas dilation is introduced as a strain-driven process. The features of the proposed approach are illustrated in terms of the adaptation of thin heart slices and in terms overload-induced dilation in a generic bi-ventricular heart model.

  12. Pupil dilation with intracameral lidocaine during phacoemulsification: Benefits for the patient and surgeon

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    Nikeghbali Aminollah


    Full Text Available Topical and/or intracameral administration of anticholinergic and/or sympathomimetic mydriatic agents which are usually used for pupillary dilation during cataract surgery, have some disadvantages such as slow onset of dilation and adverse ocular and systemic effects. We evaluated intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% lidocaine without using any preoperative or intraoperative mydriatics to induce pupil dilation in 31 consecutive eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Pupil diameter was measured before and 90 sec after intracameral lidocaine injection. After intracameral lidocaine injection, the mean pupil diameter was significantly greater than the baseline measurement (P< 0.001. No additional mydriatics were needed up to the end of the operations. Intracameral preservative-free lidocaine 1% has a rapid and effective mydriasis that could be a safe alternative to topical and intracameral mydriatics in phacoemulsification.

  13. Dilation by CGRP of middle meningeal artery and reversal by sumatriptan in normal volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, M S; Hansen, A E; Kapijimpanga, T


    of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using magnetic resonance angiography before and after infusion (20 minutes) of 1.5 µg/min human aCGRP or placebo (isotonic saline) as well as after a 6-mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injection. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, CGRP caused...... significant dilation of MMA (p = 0.006) and no dilation of MCA (p = 0.69). Sumatriptan caused a marked contraction of MMA (15%-25.2%) and marginal contraction of MCA (3.9% to 5.3%). Explorative analysis revealed that sumatriptan had a more selective action on MMA compared with MCA on the CGRP day (p ....0001) and on the placebo day (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that exogenous CGRP dilates extracranial vessels and not intracranial, and that sumatriptan exerts part of its antinociceptive action by constricting MMA and not MCA. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that IV GCRP...

  14. Dilation by CGRP of middle meningeal artery and reversal by sumatriptan in normal volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, M S; Hansen, A E; Kapijimpanga, T


    of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using magnetic resonance angiography before and after infusion (20 minutes) of 1.5 μg/min human αCGRP or placebo (isotonic saline) as well as after a 6-mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injection. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, CGRP caused...... significant dilation of MMA (p = 0.006) and no dilation of MCA (p = 0.69). Sumatriptan caused a marked contraction of MMA (15%-25.2%) and marginal contraction of MCA (3.9% to 5.3%). Explorative analysis revealed that sumatriptan had a more selective action on MMA compared with MCA on the CGRP day (p ....0001) and on the placebo day (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that exogenous CGRP dilates extracranial vessels and not intracranial, and that sumatriptan exerts part of its antinociceptive action by constricting MMA and not MCA. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that IV GCRP...

  15. Analysis of a microcrack model and constitutive equations for time-dependent dilatancy of rocks (United States)

    Chen, Zuan


    Based on experimental observations and theoretical analyses, the author introduces an ideal microcrack model in which an array of cracks with the same shape and initial size is distributed evenly in rocks. The mechanism of creep dilatancy for rocks is analysed theoretically. Initiation, propagation and linkage of pre-existing microcracks during creep are well described. Also, the relationship between the velocity of microcrack growth and the duration of the creep process is derived numerically. The relationship agrees well with the character of typical experimental creep curves, and includes three stages of creep. Then the damage constitutive equations and damage evolution equations, which describe the dilatant behaviour of rocks, are presented. Because the dilatant estimated value is taken as the damage variable, the relationship between the microscopic model and the macroscopic constitutive equations is established. In this way the mechanical behaviour of rocks can be predicted.

  16. Comparison between Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori


    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is revealed with the left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. This study was performed to determine the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP in children with dilated cardiomyopathy and controls and comparison of these two biomarkers in patients. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed from April 2014 to March 2015 on patients with DCM. The levels of BNP and CGRP were measured by ELISA and final amounts of biomarkers were compared with echocardiographic finding.37 DCM patients compared with 30 healthy children selected randomly from those who referred to the hospital for routine checkup. Results: In this study the mean age was 10.567± 5.50 and 12.135 ± 4.626 years for controls and cases, respectively (P=0.321. The majority of echocardiography indices in the left and right heart had different means in case and controls (P

  17. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H


    beta e-t/tau beta, where Pequ, P alpha and P beta are constants, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants; this equation has previously been demonstrated to describe the pressure decay following dilatation. On the basis of a theoretical model the elastic and viscous constants for the urethral......The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  18. Mimicking within Euclidean space a cosmological time dilation of gamma-ray burst durations (United States)

    Brainerd, J. J.


    If gamma-ray burst sources are cosmological in origin, then the time dilation at large z can correlate a burst's duration with its peak flux. Detection of this effect is thought by many to be strong evidence for a cosmological burst origin. In this Letter I show that an apparent time distortion--either a dilation or contraction--is generally expected for an ensemble of bursts that is spatially limited within Euclidean space. The appearance of this effect is correlated with the falling away of the log N-log P curve from a -3/2 slope line. An example of this effect is provided by the relativistic bulk motion model, which produces a strong time dilation when spatially limited in Euclidean space. As a consequence, envidence that weak bursts have longer durations than strong bursts is not evidence of a cosmological burst origin.

  19. Consistency of time dilation in temporal profiles and spectra of gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Noriss, J. P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Bonnell, J. T.; Scargle, J. D.; Davis, S. P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pendleton, G.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.


    If gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances-a possibility suggested by their isotropic distribution and spatial inhomogeneity-then the temporal profiles and spectra of more distant sources will be time dilated compared to those of relatively nearby sources. Analyses of bright and dim Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) gamma-ray bursts yield a relative time-dilation factor of 2.3 on timescales of pulses and event durations. We redshift the spectra of time intervals near the intensity peaks of the bright sample on a trial grid and compare with spectra of the dim sample. A redshift factor of order two-with wide latitude permitted-brings the spectra of the two brightness groups into alignment. Thus there is coarse agreement with the time-dilation factor found in the temporal domain.

  20. Understanding ductile-to-brittle transition of metallic glasses from shear transformation zone dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Q. Jiang


    Full Text Available A theoretical model that takes into account the free-volume aided cooperative shearing of shear transformation zones (STZs is developed to quantitatively understand the ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT of metallic glasses. The STZ dilatational strain is defined as the ratio of STZ-activated free volume to STZ volume itself. The model demonstrates that the STZ dilatational strain will increase drastically and exceed the characteristic shear strain of STZ as temperature decreases below a critical value. This critical temperature is in good agreement with the experimentally measured DBT temperature. Our results suggest that the DBT of metallic glasses is underpinned by the transition of atomic-cluster motions from STZ-type rearrangements to dilatational processes (termed tension transformation zones (TTZs.

  1. Cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section for dystocia - effect on subsequent trial of labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Helle; Diness, Marie; Nickelsen, Carsten


    Objective. To investigate the effect of cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section due to dystocia and success in a subsequent pregnancy of attempted vaginal delivery. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital in Copenhagen capital area. Population. All women with a prior...... anesthesia and mode of birth was collected. Results. A total of 889 women were included; 373 had had a trial of labor. The success rate for vaginal birth among women with prior cesarean section for dystocia at 4-8 cm dilation was 39%, but 59% for women in whom prior cesarean section had been done at a fully...... or almost fully dilated cervix (9-10 cm) (p women with a previous vaginal delivery prior to their cesarean section, the success rate for vaginal birth was 76.2%, in contrast to 48.9% in the group without a previous vaginal delivery (p Women who had a trial of labor...

  2. Measurement-induced-nonlocality for Dirac particles in Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger dilation space–time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Juan [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601 (China); School of Physics & Electronics Science, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang, 236037 (China); Xu, Shuai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Ye, Liu, E-mail: [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601 (China)


    We investigate the quantum correlation via measurement-induced-nonlocality (MIN) for Dirac particles in Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger (GHS) dilation space–time. It is shown that the physical accessible quantum correlation decreases as the dilation parameter increases monotonically. Unlike the case of scalar fields, the physical accessible correlation is not zero when the Hawking temperature is infinite owing to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics. Meanwhile, the boundary of MIN related to Bell-violation is derived, which indicates that MIN is more general than quantum nonlocality captured by the violation of Bell-inequality. As a by-product, a tenable quantitative relation about MIN redistribution is obtained whatever the dilation parameter is. In addition, it is worth emphasizing that the underlying reason why the physical accessible correlation and mutual information decrease is that they are redistributed to the physical inaccessible regions.

  3. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and ureteral strictures treated by simple high-pressure balloon dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Geertsen, U; Nielsen, H V


    The long-term results of simple high-pressure balloon dilation in the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and ureteral strictures were evaluated. A total of 77 consecutive patients were treated: 40 had UPJO and 37 ureteral strictures. The etiology of the obstruction included......%, and in strictures secondary to reconstructive and ureteroscopic surgery, with a success rate of 91%. In congenital UPJO, the results were less encouraging: in patients with a symptom debut after the age of 18 years, balloon dilation was successful in 57% of cases; in patients with symptom debut before the age of 18...... years, success was achieved in only 25% of cases. There were no major complications. It was concluded that simple high-pressure balloon dilation is a safe and reasonably effective technique for the management of most ureteral strictures and congenital UPJO with symptom debut in adult life. Balloon...

  4. Radiographic features of congenital segmental dilation of the intestine in a german shepherd dog. (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Simone, Kristina; Cullen, John; Talley, Ashley; Cohen, Eli B


    A 10-week-old spayed female German Shepherd Dog was presented for acute vomiting and diarrhea. There was no reported foreign body or toxin ingestion. Radiographs showed a severely (∼11 × 7 cm), focally distended right abdominal intestinal segment containing gas and soft tissue material. Other small intestinal segments were segmentally gas distended. Celiotomy identified a ∼9 cm focally dilated segment at the jejunoileal junction with no aborad luminal obstruction. Resection and anastomosis of the dilation was performed. Histopathology showed mild mucosal inflammation, but otherwise normal wall layering and autonomic ganglia. Radiographic and histopathologic findings were consistent with congenital segmental dilation of the intestine. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Prognostic significance of ankle-brachial index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, flow-mediated dilation, and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation in end-stage renal disease. (United States)

    Morimoto, Satoshi; Yurugi, Takatomi; Aota, Yasuko; Sakuma, Takao; Jo, Fusakazu; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Maki, Kei


    Identifying patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease is important in managing patients undergoing hemodialysis. We evaluated a series of prognostic values: flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrogen-mediated dilation (NMD), an index of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function, respectively, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. A cohort of 199 patients was studied. At entry, these values were examined and the prognostic significances were investigated. In estimating the significance of baPWV, patients with ABI hemodialysis patients by means of ABI and baPWV but not FMD or NMD provides complementary information in identifying a high-risk population in these patients.

  6. Critical Role for Telomerase in the Mechanism of Flow-Mediated Dilation in the Human Microcirculation. (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas M; Freed, Julie K; Durand, Matthew J; Riedel, Michael; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Green, Paula; Hockenberry, Joseph C; Morgan, R Garret; Donato, Anthony J; Peleg, Refael; Gasparri, Mario; Rokkas, Chris K; Santos, Janine H; Priel, Esther; Gutterman, David D


    Telomerase is a nuclear regulator of telomere elongation with recent reports suggesting a role in regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Flow-mediated dilation in patients with cardiovascular disease is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species. We examined the hypothesis that telomerase activity modulates microvascular flow-mediated dilation, and loss of telomerase activity contributes to the change of mediator from nitric oxide to mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Human coronary and adipose arterioles were isolated for videomicroscopy. Flow-mediated dilation was measured in vessels pretreated with the telomerase inhibitor BIBR-1532 or vehicle. Statistical differences between groups were determined using a 2-way analysis of variance repeated measure (n≥4; PBIBR-1532, arterioles from non-CAD subjects maintained the magnitude of dilation but changed the mediator from nitric oxide to mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (% max diameter at 100 cm H2O: vehicle 74.6±4.1, L-NAME 37.0±2.0*, PEG-catalase 82.1±2.8; BIBR-1532 69.9±4.0, L-NAME 84.7±2.2, PEG-catalase 36.5±6.9*). Conversely, treatment of microvessels from CAD patients with the telomerase activator AGS 499 converted the PEG-catalase-inhibitable dilation to one mediated by nitric oxide (% max diameter at 100 cm H2O: adipose, AGS 499 78.5±3.9; L-NAME 10.9±17.5*; PEG-catalase 79.2±4.9). Endothelial-independent dilation was not altered with either treatment. We have identified a novel role for telomerase in re-establishing a physiological mechanism of vasodilation in arterioles from subjects with CAD. These findings suggest a new target for reducing the oxidative milieu in the microvasculature of patients with CAD. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.


    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  8. Erode/dilate analysis of micro-CT images of porcine myocardial microvasculature (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L.; Dong, Yue; Zamir, Mair; Ritman, Erik L.


    Analysis of 3D images of vascular trees presents a major logistic and multi-scale imaging challenge. One approach that greatly reduces the image analysis difficulty is to apply an 'erode/dilate' approach to a binarized, segmented, image so as to progressively eliminate branches of increasing diameter. Although this provides useful data for detecting some changes in branching geometry, it eliminates information about the hierarchical structure of the vascular tree. To quantify the impact of this loss of branching hierarchy information we analyzed 3D micro-CT images (4μm and 20μm isotropic voxels) of porcine myocardial "biopsies" obtained in control animals and in animals after 100μm diameter microspheres were injected into the coronary artery perfusing the site of subsequent biopsy. After the in vivo embolization, the vascular tree was injected with radiopaque Microfil and "biopsies" of the myocardium harvested. The analysis of the micro-CT images of the biopsies involved erode/dilate analysis of the opacified vessels in the entire biopsy and also of isolated vascular trees (isolated via a 'connect' function) within the biopsy. The isolated trees were also analyzed by dimensional measurement of the individual interbranch segment lengths and volumes, results that were then put into the same form as those produced by the erode/dilate method. In the embolized specimens the volume-loss of vessels below 60μm diameter closely matched for (i) erode/dilate of entire biopsy, (ii) erode/dilate of isolated tree, and (iii) direct measurement of isolated tree. The erode/dilate method quantifies the effects of a microsphere embolization, indicating what diameter interbranch segments trap a microsphere of a given size.

  9. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System for Grading Postnatal Hydronephrosis. (United States)

    Hodhod, Amr; Capolicchio, John-Paul; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherif, Eid; El-Doray, Abd El-Alim; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed


    We assessed the reliability and validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system as a new grading system for postnatal hydronephrosis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who presented with hydronephrosis from 2008 to 2013. We included patients diagnosed prenatally and those with hydronephrosis discovered incidentally during the first year of life. We excluded cases involving urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder and chromosomal anomalies, those associated with extraurinary congenital malformations and those with followup of less than 24 months without resolution. Hydronephrosis was graded postnatally using the Society for Fetal Urology system, and then the management protocol was chosen. All units were regraded using the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system and compared to the Society for Fetal Urology system to assess reliability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system in predicting hydronephrosis resolution and surgical intervention. A total of 490 patients (730 renal units) were eligible to participate. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system was reliable in the assessment of hydronephrosis (parallel forms 0.92). Hydronephrosis resolved in 357 units (49%), and 86 units (12%) were managed by surgical intervention. The remainder of renal units demonstrated stable or improved hydronephrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of surgical intervention was predicted independently by Urinary Tract Dilation classification system risk group, while Society for Fetal Urology grades were predictive of likelihood of resolution. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system is reliable for evaluation of postnatal hydronephrosis and is valid in predicting surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tafazzin gene mutations are uncommon causes of dilated cardiomyopathy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor


    Full Text Available Barth syndrome is an X-linked genetic condition featuring neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy in boys due to tafazzin (TAZ mutations. Pure dilated cardiomyopathy without other features of Barth syndrome may also result from TAZ mutations and survival into adulthood has been described. Although TAZ testing is routinely included in dilated cardiomyopathy panels in adults, the prevalence of TAZ mutations in the adult population, including women who may be at risk to develop later onset disease due to TAZ mutations, has not been measured. We screened 292 families with dilated cardiomyopathy (209 male and 83 female probands for TAZ mutations using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequence analysis. Putative mutations were evaluated based on standard criteria including screening available relatives and healthy controls and for effects on splicing efficiency in the case of one intronic variant. Two variants suspicious for being pathogenic were found in two unrelated families (c.387T>C, Phe128Ser and c.507C>T, Leu169Leu. The Phe128Ser variant had been previously reported as a pathogenic mutation; however we determined that this variant is instead a rare polymorphism restricted to African Americans. The Leu169Leu variant was detected in a male patient and altered RNA processing in our minigene assay supporting a pathogenic role. No mutations in female subjects were detected. Tafazzin mutations were rare in our population of adults with dilated cardiomyopathy and none were found in females. Our findings indicate that genetic testing for tafazzin should not be routinely performed in dilated cardiomyopathy as suggested by current guidelines. Furthermore, the Phe128Ser variant is not pathogenic, but likely represents a benign polymorphism in persons of African American ancestry.

  11. Analysis of Reported Balloon Malfunctions and Proposed Rescue Strategy for Malfunction during Airway Dilation. (United States)

    Strong, E Brandon; Randall, Derrick R; Cates, Daniel J; Belafsky, Peter C


    Objective The rate of balloon dilator failure is unknown, and a rescue strategy for device malfunction has not been established. The purposes of this investigation were to determine the approximate number of balloon failures in the gastrointestinal tract and airway, evaluate the parameters required to rupture balloon dilators, and develop a rescue strategy to efficiently reestablish airway patency. Study Design Retrospective cohort and basic medical research. Setting Academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database was queried for adverse events associated with tracheal and esophageal dilators between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2017. A bench-top model of airway stenosis was developed, and optimal conditions for the safe removal of a malfunctioning dilator were assessed (2, 4, 6 atm). Results There were 420 reported balloon malfunctions, including 104 cases with deflation/removal issues. The bench-top model determined that device rupture allowing for immediate removal occurs with needle puncture at balloon pressures ≥8 atm. Balloons inflated to 6 atm required a median of 17.5 seconds (range, 0-55.3) for removal, in comparison with 30.2 seconds (range, 7.1-87.5) at 2 atm ( P > .05). Conclusion Balloon dilator malfunction is a significant problem that practitioners must be prepared for. Pressure ≥8 atm (~33% overinflation) is required to consistently cause complete balloon dilator rupture via needle puncture. While counterintuitive, increasing the inflation pressure of a malfunctioning balloon (8-10 atm) may expedite rupture and safe removal. A rescue strategy for balloon malfunction is proposed.

  12. Efficacy of an eye drop mixture for pupillary dilatation: A randomized comparative study. (United States)

    Bhurayanontachai, Patama; Saengkaew, Suwapat; Apiromruck, Penjamaporn

    Pupillary dilatation with three types of eye drops is used regularly in the clinic; however, a mixture of these drops in a single bottle may be more beneficial in reducing workloads and resources. This study compared the efficacy in pupillary dilatation between two protocols of dilating drop instillation. This prospective, randomized, comparative study included 30 eligible Thai patients. The patients randomly received preoperative pupillary dilatations by either the conventional protocol (1% tropicamide (T), 10% phenylephrine (P) and 0.1% diclofenac (D) in three separate bottles) or the fixed combination (TPD) protocol which had the three types of eye drops mixed in a single bottle in a ratio of 4:3:3. The chi-square test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. The conventional protocol group and TPD protocol group each had 15 patients. Sixty minutes after the initial instillation, all patients in the TPD protocol and 13 patients (86.7%) in conventional protocol achieved at least 6mm in the shortest diameter. The mydriatic rate between protocols showed no difference. In patients who received the TPD protocol, the systemic effects on the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate decreased over time. The mixture of tropicamide, phenylephrine and diclofenac had a comparable efficacy for a pupillary dilatation to the conventional dilating drops in separate bottles. The systemic complications on blood pressure and arterial pulse of the TPD mixture were less than the conventional protocol. TCTR20130325001. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy: the synergistic role of vitamin D deficiency. (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Trigo, Conceição; Pinto, Fátima F


    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the commonest form of cardiomyopathy in pediatric patients. Various causal factors have been identified, including ionic imbalance. Calcium ions play an essential role in regulating myocardial contractile function, and the harmful role of hypocalcemia as a coadjuvant or even precipitating factor of worsening heart failure has been described in rare case reports. Multiple causative factors may occasionally be present. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of dilated cardiomyopathy in an infant with severe hypocalcemia and viral myocarditis. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a balloon dilator before second-trimester abortion by vacuum curettage. (United States)

    Stubblefield, P G; Frederiksen, M C; Berek, J S; Gatter, M A; Kayman, D J; Borten, M


    We evaluated the cervical dilator device (CDD), an expanding balloon, as a substitute for laminaria tents before abortion at 13 to 16 1/2 weeks by extraction and vacuum curettage. The CDD was found to be an effective dilator, although it did not appear to have any advantage over laminaria tents when placed overnight and was associated with significant pain upon insertion and an apparent increased risk of endometritis. The present CDD or a subsequent modification may offer advantages over laminaria tents for short-term placement.

  15. Bundle branch reentry: A rare mechanism of ventricular tachycardia in endomyocardial fibrosis, without ventricular dilation. (United States)

    Prabhu, Mukund A; Prasad, B V Srinivas; Thajudeen, Anees; Namboodiri, Narayanan


    Bundle branch reentry as a mechanism of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is not described. A 52-year-old woman with left ventricular (LV) EMF had VT needing cardioversion. She had mitral regurgitation and left bundle branch block, but no LV dilation or heart failure. During electrophysiological study, clinical VT could be easily induced, and it was confirmed to be bundle branch reentrant VT (BBRVT). She was treated with ablation of the right bundle branch. BBRVT can occur in EMF even without cardiac dilatation. Its recognition is important, as radiofrequency ablation can be curative. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trimetazidine, a metabolic modulator, has cardiac and extracardiac benefits in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuunanen, H.; Engblom, E.; Naum, A.


    ejection fraction from 30.9+/-8.5% to 34.8+/-12% (P=0.027 versus placebo). Myocardial FFA uptake was unchanged, and beta-oxidation rate constant decreased only 10%. Myocardial perfusion, oxidative metabolism, and work efficiency remained unchanged. Trimetazidine decreased insulin resistance (glucose: 5...... increased 11% (Pmetabolic effects. Cardiac FFA oxidation modestly decreased and myocardial oxidative rate was unchanged, implying increased oxidation...... perfusion, efficiency of work, and FFA oxidation in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen nondiabetic patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy on standard medication were randomized to single-blind trimetazidine (n=12) or placebo (n=7) for 3 months. Myocardial perfusion...

  17. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient. (United States)

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil


    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis


    haematoma (1000 ml) in the pericardial sac. Cardiac hypertrophy (556 g) was observed in the patient, though no other cardiovascular abnormalities were found. Histological analysis showed cystic medial necrosis of the ascending aortic wall. A ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta......Aortic coarctation (AC) is a congenital aortic narrowing. We describe for the first time the findings obtained by unenhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in a case where the death was caused by cardiac tamponade from a ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic...

  19. Promising results after balloon dilatation of the Eustachian tube for obstructive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jens H; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo


    INTRODUCTION: As the first ear, nose and throat department in Denmark, we introduced balloon dilatation of the Eustachian tube as a treatment of obstructive dysfunction in the summer of 2012. We present our preliminary experiences with this new treatment in adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preoperat......INTRODUCTION: As the first ear, nose and throat department in Denmark, we introduced balloon dilatation of the Eustachian tube as a treatment of obstructive dysfunction in the summer of 2012. We present our preliminary experiences with this new treatment in adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  20. Computing the Dilation of Edge-Augmented Graphs Embedded in Metric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian


    Let G = (V,E) be an undirected graph with n vertices embedded in a metric space. We consider the problem of adding a shortcut edge in G that minimizes the dilation of the resulting graph. The fastest algorithm to date for this problem has O(n^4) running time and uses O(n^2) space. We show how...... to improve running time to O(n^3*log n) while maintaining quadratic space requirement. In fact, our algorithm not only determines the best shortcut but computes the dilation of G U {(u,v)} for every pair of distinct vertices u and v....

  1. Computing the dilation of edge-augmented graphs in metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian


    Let G=(V,E) be an undirected graph with n vertices embedded in a metric space. We consider the problem of adding a shortcut edge in G that minimizes the dilation of the resulting graph. The fastest algorithm to date for this problem has O(n4) running time and uses O(n2) space. We show how...... to improve the running time to O(n3logn) while maintaining quadratic space requirement. In fact, our algorithm not only determines the best shortcut but computes the dilation of G{(u,v)} for every pair of distinct vertices u and v....

  2. Dilated cardiomyopathy and successful cardiac transplantation in Becker's muscular distrophy. Follow-up after two years. (United States)

    Casazza, F; Brambilla, G; Salvato, A; Morandi, L; Gronda, E; Bonacina, E


    A 23 year-old man with x-linked Becker type muscular distrophy underwent cardiac transplantation because of dilated cardiomyopathy complicated by terminal heart failure. The muscular functional impairment was mild and slowly progressive, whereas the cardiac disease was severe and rapidly progressive. The ventricular cavities of the explanted heart were hugely dilated and the left ventricular wall thickness was moderately increased. Microscopically, a diffuse hypertrophy of the myocardial fibers and a widespread interstitial collagenous fibrosis were present. At a follow-up, two years after treatment, the patient is alive and fairly well; the degree of his muscular disability is substantially unchanged.

  3. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  4. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  5. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V


    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M


    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  7. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  8. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V


    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  9. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.


    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  10. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement. (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A


    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  11. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection. (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  12. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J


    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  13. Dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with an increase in the type I/type III collagen ratio: a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijianowski, M. M.; Teeling, P.; Mann, J.; Becker, A. E.


    The aim of this study was to quantify total collagen and the type I/type III collagen ratio and their localization in hearts with dilated cardiomyopathy. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy have an increase in intramyocardial fibrillar collagen. Types I and III are the main constituents and have

  14. The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study: tract dilation comparisons in 5537 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Tomé; Sangam, Kandasami; Alken, Peter; Barroilhet, Benjamin Silva; Saussine, Christian; Shi, Lei; de la Rosette, Jean


    The study focused on the use of balloon or telescopic/serial dilation methods in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Global PCNL Study. Centers worldwide provided data from consecutive patients who were treated with PCNL during a 1-year period. Tract dilation was performed using a balloon or

  15. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy. (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  16. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems. (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles


    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  17. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John


    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  18. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures. (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing


    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  19. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke


    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  20. Generalized surface momentum balances for the analysis of surface dilatational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.


    Dilatational rheological properties of interfaces are often determined using drop tensiometers, in which the interface of the droplet is subjected to oscillatory area changes. A dynamic surface tension is determined either by image analysis of the droplet profile or by measuring the capillary