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Sample records for proximal development zpd

  1. Working in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in the English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in the English classroom: A Case Study on the Teaching of Literature. ... level of learner competence in working with South African fiction. Keywords: Vygotsky, Hedegaard, Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Fiction, Mediation, Zone of Proximal Development, Group Work ...

  2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  3. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) as an ability to play in psychotherapy: a theory-building case study of very brief therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonzi, Anna; Barkham, Michael; Hardy, Gillian E; Llewelyn, Susan P; Stiles, William B; Leiman, Mikael

    2014-12-01

    This theory-building case study examined the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in psychotherapy within the assimilation model. Theoretically, the ZPD is the segment of the continuum of therapeutic development within which assimilation of problematic experiences can take place. Work within a problem's current ZPD may be manifested as a Winnicottian ability to play, that is, an ability to adopt a flexible reflexive stance to the presenting problem and be involved in joint examination of possible alternatives. Play may be recognized in the client's receptivity to and creative use of the therapist's formulations of the presenting problems. A case was selected from a comparative clinical trial of two very brief psychotherapies for mild to moderate depression, the Two-Plus-One Project (Barkham, Shapiro, Hardy, & Rees, 1999, J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 67, 201). Martha, a woman in her late forties, received two sessions of psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy 1 week apart and a follow-up ('plus one') session approximately 3 months later. Dialogical sequence analysis was used to analyse the transcripts of the three sessions. The analysis revealed Martha's problematic action pattern, which remained unchanged throughout the three sessions. Her ability to use and elaborate the therapist's formulations depended on the referential object that the therapist addressed; in particular, she seemed unable to play with the therapist's formulations of her more problematic experiences. The case helped elucidate how the ZPD is content dependent. Winnicott's conception of playing emphasizes the quality of client response as an indicator of this content sensitivity. Differing breadths of major problems' ZPD, manifested as differing abilities to play with therapists' formulations may explain why some clients improve in psychotherapy while some do not. Accessing very problematic content may be very difficult even though the client's ability to mentalize other material appears ordinary

  4. A Derridaean Reading of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): The Monster in the Play of "Differance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    The institutional machine of contemporary activity theory currently appears to be constrained by centring on the structure of mediated activity first voiced by Vygotsky. As a centring, such a principle, it is argued, continually restores the equilibrium of the institutional machine in alignment with its possible development in the polysemy of…

  5. Vigostsky's formulations on ZDP - Zone of Proximal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moysés Alves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The zone of proximal development (ZPD is, probably, the most known concept from Vygotsky's theory. And has been much discussed recently. Hoping to contribute for the understanding of this contemporary debate, we focus on recurrent themes in Vygotsky's writings. We read ten texts of his where he constructed the concept of ZPD. We have through the reading summarized his formulations about the following topics: criticism to the traditional diagnostic; explicit definitions of ZPD's concept; redefinition of imitation's concept; ZPD and pretend play; ZPD and the interaction between development and learning; ZPD and the interaction among daily and scientific concepts; practical value and theoretical value of ZPD's concept

  6. White Historical Activity Theory: Toward a Critical Understanding of White Zones of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus; Manning, Logan

    2017-01-01

    Best known for arguing that individual development is part of social and historical development Vygotsky's entry into education may be captured by his concept of the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD). ZPD has not yet been synthesized with a critical study of whiteness. When ZPD is used to explain racial disparities in the service of…

  7. ZPC and ZPD: Zones of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine students' mathematical development that occurs as a teacher works within each of 2 zones of learning: students' zones of proximal development (ZPD) and students' zones of potential construction (ZPC). ZPD, proposed by Vygotsky, is grounded in a social constructivist perspective on learning, whereas ZPC,…

  8. Bridging Pedagogies: Drama, Multiliteracies, and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how one educator embraced Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) while using drama to scaffold learning about Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" for first-grade students. This learning event is interpreted with reference to the ZPD and the New London Group's pedagogy of multiliteracies. The author asserts…

  9. Sharpening a Tool for Teaching: The Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Rob; Golding, Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides an important understanding of learning, but its implications for teachers are often unclear or limited and could be further explored. We use conceptual analysis to sharpen the ZPD as a teaching tool, illustrated with examples from teaching critical thinking in zoology. Our conclusions are…

  10. ZBR and ZPD: Is there a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veresov N.N.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some problems of understanding the content of the theoretical notion of zone of proximal development in the English-language literature, related to unavailability of sources and some inaccuracies in translations. It is shown that, as a result of such inaccuracies, the notion of zone of proximal development (ZPD turns out to be different in terms of its theoretical content from the notion of zona blizhayshego razvitiya (ZBR (зона ближайшего развития, ЗБР, so that we can say that ZPD is not the same as ZBR. Simplification and fragmentation of basic theoretical ideas lead to some serious consequences, which cause difficulties both in the search for a common understanding and further development of cultural-historical theory, as well as in the practical application of ZBR in educational practices.

  11. Observing Complex Systems Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden

    2017-01-01

    Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…

  12. Scaffolding Critical Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…

  13. Reflections on the Ecolab and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckin, Rosemary; du Boulay, Benedict

    2016-01-01

    In 1999 we reported a study that explored the way that Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development could be used to inform the design of an Interactive Learning Environment called the Ecolab. Two aspects of this work have subsequently been used for further research. Firstly, there is the interpretation of the ZPD and its associated theory that was…

  14. The Mediation of Learning in the Zone of Proximal Development through a Co-Constructed Writing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical understanding of the processes involved in the co-construction of a written text by a teacher and student from a Vygotskian perspective. Drawing on cultural-historical and sociocultural theories of writing and Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), this case study of a student and teacher…

  15. Dynamic Assessment for Better Placement: Implications of Vygotsky’s ZAD and ZPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessam Agheshteh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As argued by Poehner (2008, Dynamic Assessment (DA can substantially improve our understanding of students’ abilities and promote their development at the same time by providing information on both the individuals’ Zone of Actual Development (ZAD and their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD, and this way helps us avoid overestimates and underestimates of these individuals’ abilities. The present study, as a result, was an attempt to investigate the role DA can play in students’ placement into appropriate levels and courses of education. For this end, the researchers observed and recorded the placement interviews of four placement teachers in the Iran Language Institute (ILI and Nashr-e-Zaban. The researchers analyzed the gathered data and found out that the placement teachers dealt more with the students’ ZAD than their ZPD. Adopting the Interactionist Model of DA, and believing that “understanding individuals’ abilities necessitates intervention” (Poehner, 2008, p. 113, the researchers discussed DA and its key concepts including ZPD, mediation, scaffolding, intervention, the assessment-instruction integration and the role these could play in a better prediction of the students’ future performance and emergent abilities. Having discussed DA and its key concepts using some examples from previous placement interviews in a six-hour course, the researchers observed and recorded the placement interviews of the four teachers in the following term. The gathered data were transcribed and interpreted to see if the intervention had an effect on placement teachers’ performance of placement interviews. The results showed that placement teachers then relied more on DA and its key concepts as better indicators of students’ future performance. The implications are for those teachers who hold placement interviews to adopt a more development-oriented approach and assess the students’ both ZAD and ZPD so that they can avoid misplacements

  16. The Effect of Peer-Assisted Mediation vs. Tutor-Intervention within Dynamic Assessment Framework on Writing Development of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Shiva Seyed; Nikbin, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic assessment originates in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Practicing dynamic assessment necessarily requires the development of ZPD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of peer-assisted mediation vs. tutor-intervention within dynamic assessment framework on writing development and the attitude of Iranian intermediate EFL…

  17. Vygotskian-based grouping: Utilizing the zone of proximal development in a chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggle, Justin David

    A large portion of any science major's curriculum utilizes laboratories. Many of these laboratories now incorporate cooperative learning as a result of studies attesting to its beneficial effects. However, little attention has been given to the composition of those groups, specifically at post-secondary education institutes. We have therefore investigated the effectiveness of a grouping technique based on the theories of L. S. Vygotsky and his construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in the context of an undergraduate general chemistry laboratory course at The University of Texas at Austin. All students were responsible for the completion of a short, 11 question, pre-quiz. Depending on their respective classes, students were grouped either according to the ZPD-scheme, based on pre-quiz scores, or randomly, regardless of pre-quiz score. Achievement of the students in each of the two groups was compared in order to determine grouping effectiveness. This study was carried out for 3 semesters (spring 2003, spring 2004, and fall 2004) under two different instructors. Overall, results indicate that grouping according to the ZPD-scheme revealed higher student achievement versus random grouping. Moreover, students scoring low and average on pre-quizzes benefited far more from this grouping method than higher scoring students. The protocol for implementing this grouping scheme is straightforward and is discussed in detail.

  18. Teacher's Professional Development from Vygotskian Optique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Shabani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vygotsky's concept of ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development has been recently applied to the context of language teacher education by a number of researchers (e.g. Ohta, 2005; Singh & Richards, 2006; Nassaji & Cumming, 2000. Besides Vygotsky's notion of ZPD, this paper relies on two associated theories from outside the TESOL discipline namely; Valsiner's (1997 Zone theory and Blanton, Westbrook and Carter’s (2008illusionary zone (IZto  provide a broad picture of the most influential variables facilitating or constraining teacher's professional development or, as specifically defined here, his ZPD progression. Several excerpts in the form of teacher comments taken from different qualitative studies in the related literature are given to lay evidence for the effect, if any, of the raised variables. Finally, the paper concludes with some practical tips for the pre/in-service language teachers as to how to keep their evolving ZPD dynamic in their long-life language teaching profession.

  19. Professional Development in Environmental and Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on constructs from the Zone of Feasible Innovation (ZFI), which is related to Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), practising Science teachers' engagement in curriculum innovation in environmental and sustainability education is analysed. Data were generated using reflective journals, lesson plans, ...

  20. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  1. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J

    2016-01-01

    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  2. Gal'perian instruction in the ZPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Arievitch and Stetsenko’s article (this issue) – on Piotr Gal’perin’s approach to cultural tools and cognitive development – illustrates the theoretical transformation currently taking place within educational psychology. The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) has certainly become one of

  3. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  4. Scaffolding, the zone of proximal development, and novice programmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kastro Awbi

    Full Text Available The work reported here is part of a larger research program that aims to explore the learning strategies that novice computer programmers adopt, the ways in which they integrate knowledge, and the processes they employ when applying their knowledge and skills in different contexts. Our findings, based on a narrative analysis of think-aloud retrospective interviews, indicate that scaffolding can influence progression in learning and can extend a student\\'s zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978.

  5. 'Philosophy for children' as creating the zone of proximal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the conception, objectives and methodology of the 'Philosophy for Children', a programme aimed at fostering critical thinking in children aged five to eighteen. The analysis is based on the key concepts and principles of Vygotsky's developmental theory. We believe that discussing the manner in which these concepts and principles are embodied in one successful and influential thinking skills programme could enhance the concept of the zone of proximal development, as well as our understanding of the processes through which cognitive competencies are co-constructed. The practical relevance of the analysis refers to a controversial issue of whether higher-order cognitive skills can be fostered at a young age. The analysis reveals that Lipman has creatively applied Vygotsky's idea of the formative role of spontaneous and scientific concepts interaction, thus focusing on the metacognitive development. Consequently, the methodological procedures are language-based, using the narrative, dialogical and rational forms of discourse as mediation tools for developing the skills of logical reasoning and critical thinking. Philosophical novels, as an innovative educational genre, exemplify Lipman's contribution to enriching the concept of direct cultural interaction, which has generally been less studied within the socio-cultural approach. The analysis of gradual transformation of group discussion, from monological and mostly anegdotical, through genuine dialogical exchanges, to mastering the procedures and skills of critical dialogue, is one of the most plausible accounts of Vygotsky's genetic law. The specific role of the teacher, who indirectly guides the discussion through the use of Socratic questioning, expands the concept of finely tuned support and the strategies for creating the zone of proximal development in educational context.

  6. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchi, W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min. The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins followed by globulin (33% and glutelin fractions (11%. Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.Fotoionización a presión atmosférica-Espectrometría de masas (APPI-MS y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC son dos métodos de análisis que se utilizaron para caracterizar triglicéridos (TAGs durante el desarrollo de semillas de linaza. El método HPLC mostró la presencia de 15 especies de TAG, en contraste, los cromatogramas de APPI-MS mostraron 17 picos de TAG siendo el método APPI-MS más rápido que el de HPLC (11 min. El índice de yodo de los aceites mostró un aumento gradual, mientras que la estabilidad disminuyó continuamente. El estudio de la composición proximal de la linaza durante su desarrollo, mostró que esta semilla es una fuente potencialmente buena de energía y de proteína para la dieta. Al final de la maduración, la linaza contenía 37 % de aceite y 24 % de proteína sobre peso seco; albúmina fue la principal proteína de almacenamiento (53% sobre el total de las proteínas de almacenamiento seguido de la globulina (33 % y glutelina

  7. Adult and Child Development in the Zone of Proximal Development: Socratic Dialogue in a Playworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for…

  8. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-06-09

    Jun 9, 2011 ... The major problems are limb length inequality and variable inadequacy of the proximal femoral musculature and hip joint. Treatment is indicated and ranges from amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation to limb salvage, lengthening, and hip re- construction. Until the early 1960s, treatment for PFFD at the St.

  9. Conservation and Unscripted Development: Proximity to Park Associated with Development and Financial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Baird

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research on the social dynamics of biodiversity conservation has shown that parks and protected areas have added hardship to rural communities throughout much of the developing world. Nonetheless, some recent studies have found evidence of poverty alleviation near protected areas. To build on these conflicting accounts, I use a comparative, mixed-methods design to examine opportunistic, unplanned, i.e., unscripted, development in indigenous communities near Tarangire National Park (TNP in northern Tanzania. I ask the questions: (1 How is proximity to TNP related to community-level infrastructural development? (2 How has the process of development changed over time? and (3 How is proximity to TNP related to infrastructure-related social outcomes at the household-level? Results from semistructured interviews show that, compared with distant communities, communities near TNP have developed more extensive education and water infrastructure in the past decade by procuring financial support from a greater diversity of external organizations, including wildlife-related organizations. Correspondingly, household survey results show that education measures are positively associated with proximity to TNP, controlling for other factors. These findings support the notion that development can accrue near protected areas in ways that are diverse, uncoordinated, and opportunistic, and correspondingly distinct from heralded community-based conservation, community-based natural resource management, and integrated conservation and development project initiatives.

  10. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, H. J.; Gorelick, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M. J.; Norarat, R.

    2013-07-01

    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  11. The zone of proximal development in the learning of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibawu Siyepu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a huge shortage of skilled workers in various fields such as engineering, applied sciences, accountancy, architecture, medicine and law. Mathematics is a requirement for entry in these careers to enable learners to grasp the content of various subjects in these disciplines. Despite that, in South Africa, learners' performance in mathematics is shocking. This article highlights the high failure rate of mathematics in a South African context. It suggests possible causes of learners' poor performance based on the literature. The article brings a socio-cultural theory of learning focusing on the zone ofproximal development as a possible solution in the development of instructional practices. It makes recommendations on what should be done to tackle anticipated problems as suggested in the discussion.

  12. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  13. Rejecting Dialogue for Perspective: Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and John Calvin's Divine Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jeffrey Michael

    2017-01-01

    James Estep's integration of Vygotsky's work on the Zone of Proximal Development into Christian education and pedagogy falls short of a distinctly evangelical form of integration. Using Ken Badley's schemata of Integration of Faith and Learning, this article distinguishes Estep's "paradigmatic" integration from a more thoroughgoing…

  14. 'Re-zoning' proximal development in a parallel e-learning course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Re-zoning' proximal development in a parallel e-learning course. ... version and its exact twin in online format, the former being complemented by the latter. ... Additionally, we wanted to engage students by exposing them to a constructivist ...

  15. Design and development of a Space Station proximity operations research and development mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity operations (Prox-Ops) on-orbit refers to all activities taking place within one km of the Space Station. Designing a Prox-Ops control station calls for a comprehensive systems approach which takes into account structural constraints, orbital dynamics including approach/departure flight paths, myriad human factors and other topics. This paper describes a reconfigurable full-scale mock-up of a Prox-Ops station constructed at Ames incorporating an array of windows (with dynamic star field, target vehicle(s), and head-up symbology), head-down perspective display of manned and unmanned vehicles, voice- actuated 'electronic checklist', computer-generated voice system, expert system (to help diagnose subsystem malfunctions), and other displays and controls. The facility is used for demonstrations of selected Prox-Ops approach scenarios, human factors research (work-load assessment, determining external vision envelope requirements, head-down and head-up symbology design, voice synthesis and recognition research, etc.) and development of engineering design guidelines for future module interiors.

  16. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    important as a resource and where collaboration partners are important. Hypotheses are tested by means of a quantitative analysis of a data set containing information about 4842 domestic and international inter-firm linkages of Danish firms in manufacturing industries. The findings in this analysis exhibit......This paper takes an economic approach to investigate the role of geographical proximity for organizing new product development (NPD) activities within inter-firm linkages. Product development theory and the resource-based view is discussed from an inter-firm perspective and contrasted to arguments...... in the literature on geographical economics. The approach in this paper assumes that geographical proximity is crucial for inter-firm learning, knowledge transfer and creation of capabilities to a higher extent in inter-firm linkages with a high level of interaction, in industries where knowledge is relatively more...

  17. Cervical Alignment Changes in Patients Developing Proximal Junctional Kyphosis Following Surgical Correction of Adult Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Horn, Samantha R; Jalai, Cyrus M; Ramchandran, Subaraman; Poorman, Gregory W; Kim, Han Jo; Smith, Justin S; Sciubba, Daniel; Soroceanu, Alexandra; Ames, Christopher P; Hamilton, D Kojo; Eastlack, Robert; Burton, Douglas; Gupta, Munish; Bess, Shay; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank

    2017-10-12

    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is a well-documented complication, but associations between radiographic PJK and cervical malalignment onset remain unexplored. To study cervical malalignment in ASD surgical patients that develop PJK. Retrospective review of prospective multicenter database. Inclusion: primary ASD patients (≥5 levels fused, upper instrumented vertebra [UIV] at T2 or above, and 1-yr minimum follow-up) without baseline cervical deformity (CD), defined as ≥2 of the following criteria: T1 slope minus cervical lordosis .05). Increased PJK magnitude was associated with increasing T1 slope and C2-T3 SVA (P deformity.

  18. Birth Outcomes and Maternal Residential Proximity to Natural Gas Development in Rural Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruixin; Witter, Roxana Z.; Savitz, David A.; Newman, Lee S.; Adgate, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Birth defects are a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Natural gas development (NGD) emits several potential teratogens, and U.S. production of natural gas is expanding. Objectives: We examined associations between maternal residential proximity to NGD and birth outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 124,842 births between 1996 and 2009 in rural Colorado. Methods: We calculated inverse distance weighted natural gas well counts within a 10-mile radius of maternal residence to estimate maternal exposure to NGD. Logistic regression, adjusted for maternal and infant covariates, was used to estimate associations with exposure tertiles for congenital heart defects (CHDs), neural tube defects (NTDs), oral clefts, preterm birth, and term low birth weight. The association with term birth weight was investigated using multiple linear regression. Results: Prevalence of CHDs increased with exposure tertile, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.3 for the highest tertile (95% CI: 1.2, 1.5); NTD prevalence was associated with the highest tertile of exposure (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, based on 59 cases), compared with the absence of any gas wells within a 10-mile radius. Exposure was negatively associated with preterm birth and positively associated with fetal growth, although the magnitude of association was small. No association was found between exposure and oral clefts. Conclusions: In this large cohort, we observed an association between density and proximity of natural gas wells within a 10-mile radius of maternal residence and prevalence of CHDs and possibly NTDs. Greater specificity in exposure estimates is needed to further explore these associations. Citation: McKenzie LM, Guo R, Witter RZ, Savitz DA, Newman LS, Adgate JL. 2014. Birth outcomes and maternal residential proximity to natural gas development in rural Colorado. Environ Health Perspect 122:412–417; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306722 PMID:24474681

  19. Creative Careers and Territorial Development: The Role of Networks and Relational Proximity in Fashion Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geater Montreal is the third largest city in North America for the garment industry in terms of labour force, after Los Angeles and New York. The industry has however changed partly into a service industry, centered on fashion design, with a focus on international competitiveness but also the role of fashion in Montreal's economic and territorial development. Our article analyzes careers in the fashion design sector, sheds light on the evolution of creative sectors, and shows how these sectors could be better supported to favor local development, as neighborhoods and space design appear important in these creative sectors. We situate our analysis in the theoretical context of career theories, and analyze key moments in careers and the role of intermediate organizations and government programs in supporting these careers. Our paper makes a contribution to our knowledge of career paths in the fashion industry, but also to the role of relational proximity in supporting these careers, and thus local development. It highlights the importance of personal connections, the milieu in which the individual works and functions, the creativity of the individual, as well as the role of the local support organizations and professional associations, including agencies of the provincial government.

  20. Implementing the Zone of Proximal Development: From the Pedagogical Experiment to the Developmental Education System of Leonid Zankov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Liudmila G.; Solomonovich, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article overviews the theoretical and applied works of the psychologist and pedagogue Leonid Zankov. Zankov's model of teaching is based on Vygotsky's theory that appropriate teaching methods stimulate cognitive development, whose core notion is the Zone of Proximal Development. This educational psychology research was verified by large scale…

  1. Life in the Hive: Supporting Inquiry into Complexity Within the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua A.; Peppler, Kylie; Phelps, David; Washington, Dianna

    2011-10-01

    Research into students' understanding of complex systems typically ignores young children because of misinterpretations of young children's competencies. Furthermore, studies that do recognize young children's competencies tend to focus on what children can do in isolation. As an alternative, we propose an approach to designing for young children that is grounded in the notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky 1978) and leverages Activity Theory to design learning environments. In order to highlight the benefits of this approach, we describe our process for using Activity Theory to inform the design of new software and curricula in a way that is productive for young children to learn concepts that we might have previously considered to be "developmentally inappropriate". As an illuminative example, we then present a discussion of the design of the BeeSign simulation software and accompanying curriculum which specifically designed from an Activity Theory perspective to engage young children in learning about complex systems (Danish 2009a, b). Furthermore, to illustrate the benefits of this approach, we will present findings from a new study where 40 first- and second-grade students participated in the BeeSign curriculum to learn about how honeybees collect nectar from a complex systems perspective. We conclude with some practical suggestions for how such an approach to using Activity Theory for research and design might be adopted by other science educators and designers.

  2. Proximate effects of temperature versus evolved intrinsic constraints for embryonic development times among temperate and tropical songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E

    2017-04-18

    The relative importance of intrinsic constraints imposed by evolved physiological trade-offs versus the proximate effects of temperature for interspecific variation in embryonic development time remains unclear. Understanding this distinction is important because slow development due to evolved trade-offs can yield phenotypic benefits, whereas slow development from low temperature can yield costs. We experimentally increased embryonic temperature in free-living tropical and north temperate songbird species to test these alternatives. Warmer temperatures consistently shortened development time without costs to embryo mass or metabolism. However, proximate effects of temperature played an increasingly stronger role than intrinsic constraints for development time among species with colder natural incubation temperatures. Long development times of tropical birds have been thought to primarily reflect evolved physiological trade-offs that facilitate their greater longevity. In contrast, our results indicate a much stronger role of temperature in embryonic development time than currently thought.

  3. Proximate effects of temperature versus evolved intrinsic constraints for embryonic development times among temperate and tropical songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    The relative importance of intrinsic constraints imposed by evolved physiological trade-offs versus the proximate effects of temperature for interspecific variation in embryonic development time remains unclear. Understanding this distinction is important because slow development due to evolved trade-offs can yield phenotypic benefits, whereas slow development from low temperature can yield costs. We experimentally increased embryonic temperature in free-living tropical and north temperate songbird species to test these alternatives. Warmer temperatures consistently shortened development time without costs to embryo mass or metabolism. However, proximate effects of temperature played an increasingly stronger role than intrinsic constraints for development time among species with colder natural incubation temperatures. Long development times of tropical birds have been thought to primarily reflect evolved physiological trade-offs that facilitate their greater longevity. In contrast, our results indicate a much stronger role of temperature in embryonic development time than currently thought.

  4. Promoting Metapragmatic Development through Assessment in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Kinginger, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of second language (L2) pragmatic competence typically involves questionnaires, such as discourse completion tasks. This article describes a novel approach to using questionnaires to assess L2 metapragmatic capacities while simultaneously promoting their development: engaging learners in cooperative interaction as they complete the…

  5. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  6. Toward Consistent Methodology to Quantify Populations in Proximity to Oil and Gas Development: A National Spatial Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czolowski, Eliza D; Santoro, Renee L; Srebotnjak, Tanja; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2017-08-23

    Higher risk of exposure to environmental health hazards near oil and gas wells has spurred interest in quantifying populations that live in proximity to oil and gas development. The available studies on this topic lack consistent methodology and ignore aspects of oil and gas development of value to public health-relevant assessment and decision-making. We aim to present a methodological framework for oil and gas development proximity studies grounded in an understanding of hydrocarbon geology and development techniques. We geospatially overlay locations of active oil and gas wells in the conterminous United States and Census data to estimate the population living in proximity to hydrocarbon development at the national and state levels. We compare our methods and findings with existing proximity studies. Nationally, we estimate that 17.6 million people live within 1,600m (∼1 mi) of at least one active oil and/or gas well. Three of the eight studies overestimate populations at risk from actively producing oil and gas wells by including wells without evidence of production or drilling completion and/or using inappropriate population allocation methods. The remaining five studies, by omitting conventional wells in regions dominated by historical conventional development, significantly underestimate populations at risk. The well inventory guidelines we present provide an improved methodology for hydrocarbon proximity studies by acknowledging the importance of both conventional and unconventional well counts as well as the relative exposure risks associated with different primary production categories (e.g., oil, wet gas, dry gas) and developmental stages of wells. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1535.

  7. Childhood hematologic cancer and residential proximity to oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lisa M.; Allshouse, William B.; Byers, Tim E.; Bedrick, Edward J.; Serdar, Berrin; Adgate, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Oil and gas development emits known hematological carcinogens, such as benzene, and increasingly occurs in residential areas. We explored whether residential proximity to oil and gas development was associated with risk for hematologic cancers using a registry-based case-control study design. Methods Participants were 0–24 years old, living in rural Colorado, and diagnosed with cancer between 2001–2013. For each child in our study, we calculated inverse distance weighted (IDW) oil and gas well counts within a 16.1-kilometer radius of residence at cancer diagnosis for each year in a 10 year latency period to estimate density of oil and gas development. Logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, gender, income, and elevation was used to estimate associations across IDW well count tertiles for 87 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cases and 50 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases, compared to 528 controls with non-hematologic cancers. Findings Overall, ALL cases 0–24 years old were more likely to live in the highest IDW well count tertiles compared to controls, but findings differed substantially by age. For ages 5–24, ALL cases were 4.3 times as likely to live in the highest tertile, compared to controls (95% CI: 1.1 to 16), with a monotonic increase in risk across tertiles (trend p-value = 0.035). Further adjustment for year of diagnosis increased the association. No association was found between ALL for children aged 0–4 years or NHL and IDW well counts. While our study benefited from the ability to select cases and controls from the same population, use of cancer-controls, the limited number of ALL and NHL cases, and aggregation of ages into five year ranges, may have biased our associations toward the null. In addition, absence of information on O&G well activities, meteorology, and topography likely reduced temporal and spatial specificity in IDW well counts. Conclusion Because oil and gas development has potential to expose a large population

  8. Comparative Analysis of Classroom Speech in Upper Level Spanish College Courses: A Social Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    This study reflects a social constructivist theoretical framework in which the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is a central element, as two teaching approaches, communicative language teaching (CLT) and explicit focus on form (FonF) are examined. Research questions include: Are CLT and explicit FonF conducive to reaching the ZPD? Is there a…

  9. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  10. Factors Associated With the Development of and Revision for Proximal Junctional Kyphosis in 440 Consecutive Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Fred H; Bae, Junseok; Theologis, Alexander A; Eksi, Murat S; Ames, Christopher P; Berven, Sigurd H; Burch, Shane; Tay, Bobby K; Deviren, Vedat

    2017-11-15

    MINI: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common, yet incompletely understood, complication of surgery for adult spinal deformity. We analyzed 440 consecutive adult spinal deformity patients for trends in development of PJK and need for revision surgery. pelvic tilt and thoracic kyphosis were predictive for developing PJK, while radiographic evidence of proximal junctional failure was predictive for proceeding to revision. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to examine which radiographic parameters and surgical strategies are most closely associated with proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, the need for revision surgery for PJK, and whether these differ based on the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV). Multiple parameters are considered when planning correction of ASD. Determining which of these factors contribute to the development of and need for revision surgery for PJK presents a challenging problem. Consecutive patients undergoing long fusion to the pelvis with age >18 years, minimum 6-month follow-up, and adequate radiographs for analysis in a single institution between 2003 and 2011 were included. Along with chart review, measurement of proximal junctional angle (PJA), sagittal balance, and pelvic parameters was performed on preoperative, postoperative, and latest follow-up radiographs. Postoperative radiographs were also examined for signs of PJF. A total of 440 patients with a mean follow-up of 34 months met inclusion criteria, 159 of whom developed PJK (36%), with 65 requiring revision surgery (41%). Higher preoperative pelvic tilt (PT) (P = 0.018) and postoperative thoracic kyphosis (TK) (P ≤ 0.001) were predictive for development of PJK, whereas hooks at UIV were protective (odds ratio [OR] 0.049). In patients who developed PJK, revision was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.005) with greater postoperative sagittal vertical axis and PJA (P

  11. Implementing the Zone of Proximal Development: From the Pedagogical Experiment to the Developmental Education System of Leonid Zankov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila G. GUSEVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article overviews the theoretical and applied works of the psychologist and pedagogue Leonid Zankov. Zankov’s model of teaching is based on Vygotsky’s theory that appropriate teaching methods stimulate cognitive development, whose core notion is the Zone of Proximal Development. This educational psychology research was verified by large scale pedagogical experiments conducted in 1970s at public schools in Russia. Over several decades L.V. Zankov with co-workers and followers created the comprehensive system of developmental education for elementary school. The Zankov education system is used now at public schools in Russia. Its main principles and properties are described.

  12. Development of Intelligent Robot Hand Using Proximity, Contact and Slip Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Yoshitomo; Tadakuma, Kenjiro; Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Ming, Aiguo; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Shimojo, Makoto

    To achieve the skilful task like the human, many researchers have been working on robot hand. An interaction with vision and tactile information are indispensable for realization of skillful tasks. In the existing research, the method using a camera to get the vision information is often found. But, near the object surface, vision has a weak point of the occlusion. In this research, we seamlessly detect from near to contact and achieve a reliable grasp through the integration of proximity, tactile and slip sensor in a three-fingered hand, and propose an appropriate grasp strength control derived from slippage information during grasping. As a practical task, Pick & Place was adopted, and was successful in implementation under the conditions of 1) weight/shape/friction conditions are unknown and 2) placement error exists. Although the sensor group did not necessarily provide a high accurate information, it showed sufficient effectiveness through its appropriate usage.

  13. Development of a balanced experimental-computational approach to understanding the mechanics of proximal femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, B; Gilchrist, S; Ariza, O; Chak, J D; Zheng, G; Widmer, R P; Ferguson, S J; Guy, P; Cripton, P A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of people who sustain hip fractures after a fall to the side would not have been identified using current screening techniques such as areal bone mineral density. Identifying them, however, is essential so that appropriate pharmacological or lifestyle interventions can be implemented. A protocol, demonstrated on a single specimen, is introduced, comprising the following components; in vitro biofidelic drop tower testing of a proximal femur; high-speed image analysis through digital image correlation; detailed accounting of the energy present during the drop tower test; organ level finite element simulations of the drop tower test; micro level finite element simulations of critical volumes of interest in the trabecular bone. Fracture in the femoral specimen initiated in the superior part of the neck. Measured fracture load was 3760N, compared to 4871N predicted based on the finite element analysis. Digital image correlation showed compressive surface strains as high as 7.1% prior to fracture. Voxel level results were consistent with high-speed video data and helped identify hidden local structural weaknesses. We found using a drop tower test protocol that a femoral neck fracture can be created with a fall velocity and energy representative of a sideways fall from standing. Additionally, we found that the nested explicit finite element method used allowed us to identify local structural weaknesses associated with femur fracture initiation. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activating the Zone of Proximal Development of Japanese Language Learners: Language-Exchange Partnerships (LEPs at an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Nishioka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how social interactions in language-exchange partnership sessions can create opportunities for Japanese language learners to use and learn Japanese. The participants in this study were two pairs, consisting of a Japanese native speaker and an Australian studying Japanese at an Australian university. This study, employing Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development and assistance to novices by experts, examined what factors enable participants in language-exchange partnerships to provide or receive language assistance within Japanese language learners’ zones of proximal development. As a result of the analysis, this study identified two important factors that had this effect: using shared learning experience in language-exchange partnerships, and actively negotiating the level of assistance. Language-exchange partnerships are a new type of learning experience for many participants. It can be anticipated that some participants may struggle to interact and learn from the interaction in the sessions. Therefore, this paper will provide pedagogical suggestions to improve interactions and learning outcomes from language-exchange partnerships. Moreover, suggestions for future research directions are presented in the conclusion of this paper.

  15. Lhx1 in the proximal region of the optic vesicle permits neural retina development in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Kawaue

    2012-08-01

    How the eye forms has been one of the fundamental issues in developmental biology. The retinal anlage first appears as the optic vesicle (OV evaginating from the forebrain. Subsequently, its distal portion invaginates to form the two-walled optic cup, which develops into the outer pigmented and inner neurosensory layers of the retina. Recent work has shown that this optic-cup morphogenesis proceeds as a self-organizing activity without any extrinsic molecules. However, intrinsic factors that regulate this process have not been elucidated. Here we show that a LIM-homeobox gene, Lhx1, normally expressed in the proximal region of the nascent OV, induces a second neurosensory retina formation from the outer pigmented retina when overexpressed in the chicken OV. Lhx2, another LIM-homeobox gene supposed to be involved in early OV formation, could not substitute this function of Lhx1, while Lhx5, closely related to Lhx1, could replace it. Conversely, knockdown of Lhx1 expression by RNA interference resulted in the formation of a small or pigmented vesicle. These results suggest that the proximal region demarcated by Lhx1 expression permits OV development, eventually dividing the two retinal domains.

  16. Study of second-generation Proximity Gap Suction Development System (PGSD-II) for mask fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideaki; Terayama, Masatoshi; Sakai, Mari; Itoh, Masamitsu; Ikenaga, Osamu; Funakoshi, Hideo; Sato, Norifumi; Nakamizo, Kenji; Nomura, Masato; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Junji; Hayashi, Naoya

    2008-10-01

    Development process for 3x nm node devices and beyond is becoming a great issue in mask fabrication. The following items, such as uniformity, repeatability, loading effect and defect must be improved. To evolve the development process, TEL, DNP Omron and Toshiba have been jointly developed next generation equipment which is called "Second-generation PGSD (Gen.2)". In this paper, PGSD Gen.2 concept is introduced and its performance is reported.

  17. The relation between athletes' proximity to talent clubs and talent development in Danish handball and football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    with well-established talent development. The samples included 579 football and 311 handball elite youth league players, 85 football and 80 handball national youth players, and a comparison sample of 147,221 football players and 26,290 handball youth players. The data analysis was carried out in five steps...

  18. 'Re-zoning' proximal development in a parallel e-learning course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    In another article, we will discuss the research on the development and the presentation of the students' .... change their learning (working) habits and their utilisation of the lan- guage tool from what is generally .... and if they had to read the texts in the library or get them in a reading pack. Another student commented that ...

  19. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chirico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN, 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT, 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethylpropyl] nitrate (PETN and urea nitrate (UN in the range of 100–1000 μg/cm2 at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm2. The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm2. AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100–400 μg/cm2 and fingerprints followed by TNT and PETN (17%–70% for surface densities of 400–1000 μg/cm2 and fingerprints.

  20. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Mactaggart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG development beyond direct environmental impacts. Methods Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Results Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Conclusions Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The

  1. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  2. Maternal residential proximity to unconventional gas development and perinatal outcomes among a diverse urban population in Texas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina W Whitworth

    Full Text Available To assess associations between unconventional natural gas development (UGD and perinatal outcomes.We conducted a retrospective birth cohort study among 158,894 women with a birth or fetal death from November 30, 2010-November 29, 2012 in the Barnett Shale, in North Texas. We constructed three UGD-activity metrics by calculating the inverse distance-weighted sum of active wells within three separate geographic buffers surrounding the maternal residence: ≤½, 2, or 10-miles. We excluded women if the nearest well to her residence was >20 miles. Metrics were categorized by tertiles among women with ≥1 well within the respective buffer; women with zero wells ≤10 miles (the largest buffer served as a common referent group. We used logistic or linear regression with generalized estimating equations to assess associations between UGD-activity and preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, fetal death, or birthweight. Adjusted models of fetal death and birthweight included: maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, smoking, adequacy of prenatal care, previous poor pregnancy outcome, and infant sex. Preterm birth models included all of the above except parity; SGA models included all of the above except previous poor pregnancy outcome.We found increased adjusted odds of preterm birth associated with UGD-activity in the highest tertiles of the ½- (odds ratio (OR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.25, 2- (1.14; 1.07, 1.22, and 10-mile (1.15; 1.08, 1.22 metrics. Increased adjusted odds of fetal death were found in the second tertile of the 2-mile metric (1.56; 1.16, 2.11 and the highest tertile of the 10-mile metric (1.34; 1.04-1.72. We found little indication of an association with SGA or term birthweight.Our results are suggestive of an association between maternal residential proximity to UGD-activity and preterm birth and fetal death. Quantifying chemical and non-chemical stressors among residents

  3. Organic anion and cation SLC22 "drug" transporter (Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 regulation during development and maturation of the kidney proximal tubule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Gallegos

    Full Text Available Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways. Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney.

  4. Organic anion and cation SLC22 "drug" transporter (Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1) regulation during development and maturation of the kidney proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Thomas F; Martovetsky, Gleb; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Bush, Kevin T; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2012-01-01

    Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT) and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron) Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons) allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways). Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney.

  5. Organic Anion and Cation SLC22 “Drug” Transporter (Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1) Regulation during Development and Maturation of the Kidney Proximal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Thomas F.; Martovetsky, Gleb; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Bush, Kevin T.; Nigam, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT) and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron) Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons) allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways). Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney. PMID:22808265

  6. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Collaborative Interaction on the Development of EFL Learners’ Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Maftoon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous peer interaction on the development of Iranian EFL learners’ writing skill. Sixty female students of TEFL participated in the study. The participants were divided into two groups based on their English proficiency test scores. The homogeneous group consisted of 14 participants paired with partners with similar English proficiency test scores, while the heterogeneous group consisted of 16 participants who were paired with partners who had higher test scores. The pairs had interaction and peer collaboration before carrying out three types of writing tasks. The Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to compare the student writers’ pretest writing scores with their three post-test scores. The results showed that both groups, very similarly, had significantly higher post-test scores in all three writing tasks. The findings are explained based on the sociocultural theory and Vygotsky’s notion of the zone of proximal development (ZPD. The study offers several important pedagogical implications and suggestions for further research.

  7. Interdisciplinaridade na escola: subsídios para uma Zona de Desenvolvimento Proximal como espaço simbólico An interdisciplinary approach in schools: elements for creating a Zone of Development in Proximity, as a symbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Frade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a contribuir com subsídios teórico-empíricos sobre a concepção de Zona de Desenvolvimento Proximal (ZDP como um espaço simbólico, de mediação semiótica, apresentada por Meira e Lerman (2010. Tais subsídios são extraídos da análise de uma pesquisa realizada por duas professoras-pesquisadoras, uma de Matemática, a outra de Ciências, de uma mesma turma de alunos do nono ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública de Belo Horizonte. Nesta pesquisa, executou-se um trabalho interdisciplinar entre as duas professoras, em que se investigou como e sob quais circunstâncias tal trabalho poderia encorajar os alunos a "cruzar as fronteiras" das duas disciplinas. A partir da ilustração de dois episódios de aprendizagem, a noção de ZDP como espaço simbólico é reforçada e a questão da fragilidade e da instabilidade de uma ZDP é discutida.Ments to the conceptualization: the Zone of Development in Proximity (ZDP, as a symbolic space that has a semiotic aspect (that mediates meaning of language and symbols, as proposed by Meira and Lerman (2010. Such elements are derived from the analysis of an interdisciplinary piece of research carried out by two teacher-researchers one a mathematician, the other a scientist, both teaching the same year nine secondary class, at a public school in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This analysis shows how, and under which circumstances, such interdisciplinary work challenges or encourages the students to "cross the boundaries" between the two disciplines. Based on two learning episodes, the notion of ZDP as a symbolic space is reinforced, and the fragility and instability of ZDPs are discussed.

  8. A reconceptualisation of Vygotsky’s ZPD into ZCD in teaching moral education in secondary schools using real-life dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishalache Balakrishnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to contribute to contemporary debates about alternative ways of teaching moral education, this qualitative study explored moral dilemmas identified by young adolescents and how they made moral choices to resolve the dilemmas. Data were gathered for textual analysis through a modified framework of participatory action research using participant observation, focus group transcripts, interviews and student journals. The data were interpreted using a revision of Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, extended to suit the multicultural Malaysian setting, and here called the Zone of Collaborative Development. Participants were 22 16–17-year-old non-Muslim adolescents from different cultural backgrounds attending three different types of secondary schools. Moral Education (ME in Malaysia (MEM is designed to cater to this group while Muslim students study Islamic Studies. Findings show that students were concerned about moral issues and values not covered in the current ME curriculum. The moral dilemmas identified were relational and context dependent. Students named autonomy, self and mutual respect, trust, freedom and tolerance as main conflicting themes in their real-life moral dilemmas. The study suggests that including students’ voices in MEM in this way might better engage students’ interest and connecting the subject with students’ everyday lives.

  9. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  10. Proximity and the evolution of collaboration networks: evidence from research and development projects within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, P.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of proximity on the evolution of collaboration networks. It determines empirically how organizations choose their partners according to their geographical, cognitive, organizational, institutional and social proximity. Relational databases are constructed from

  11. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  12. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  13. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  14. Preliminary Prioritization of California Oil and Gas Fields for Regional Groundwater Monitoring Based on Intensity of Petroleum Resource Development and Proximity to Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Landon, M. K.; Bennett, G.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to implement a Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) to assess where and to what degree groundwater resources may be at risk of contamination from oil and gas development activities including stimulation, well integrity issues, produced water ponds, and underground injection. A key issue in the implementation of the RMP is that the state has 487 onshore oil fields covering 8,785 square kilometers but detailed characterization work can only be done in a few oil fields annually. The first step in the RMP is to prioritize fields using available data that indicate potential risk to groundwater from oil and gas development, including vertical proximity of groundwater and oil/gas resources, density of petroleum and water wells, and volume of water injected in oil fields. This study compiled data for these factors, computed summary metrics for each oil field, analyzed statewide distributions of summary metrics, used those distributions to define relative categories of potential risk for each factor, and combined these into an overall priority ranking. Aggregated results categorized 22% (107 fields) of the total number of onshore oil and gas fields in California as high priority, 23% as moderate priority, and 55% as low priority. On an area-weighted basis, 41% of the fields ranked high, 30% moderate, and 29% low, highlighting that larger fields tend to have higher potential risk because of greater intensity of development, sometimes coupled with closer proximity to groundwater. More than half of the fields ranked as high priority were located in the southern Central Valley or the Los Angeles Basin. The prioritization does not represent an assessment of groundwater risk from oil and gas development; rather, such assessments are planned to follow based on detailed analysis of data from the RMP near the oil fields selected for study in the future.

  15. Distal and proximal family predictors of adolescents' smoking initiation and development: A longitudinal latent curve model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjora Tore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents' socioeconomic status (SES is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB, in which participants were followed from the age of 13 to 30. We analysed data from the first 5 waves, covering the age span from 13 to 18, with latent curve modeling (LCM. Results Smoking rates increased from 3% to 31% from age 13 to age 18. Participants' smoking was strongly associated with their best friends' smoking. Parental SES, parents' smoking and older siblings' smoking predicted adolescents' initial level of smoking. Furthermore, the same variables predicted the development of smoking behaviour from age 13 to 18. Parents' and siblings' smoking behaviours acted as mediators of parents' SES on the smoking habits of adolescents. Conclusions Parents' SES was significantly associated, directly and indirectly, with both smoking initiation and development. Parental and older siblings' smoking behaviours were positively associated with both initiation and development of smoking behaviour in adolescents. There were no significant gender differences in these associations.

  16. Axonal regeneration and development of de novo axons from distal dendrites of adult feline commissural interneurons after a proximal axotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenrich, Keith K; Skelton, Nicole; MacDermid, Victoria E

    2007-01-01

    , develop de novo axons. Our goal was to determine whether spinal commissural interneurons (CINs), axotomized by 3-4-mm midsagittal transection at C3, form de novo axons from distal dendrites. All experiments were performed on adult cats. CINs in C3 were stained with extracellular injections of Neurobiotin...

  17. Distal and proximal family predictors of adolescents' smoking initiation and development: A longitudinal latent curve model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents' socioeconomic status (SES) is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB), in which participants were followed from the age of 13 to 30. We analysed data from the first 5 waves, covering the age span from 13 to 18, with latent curve modeling (LCM). Results Smoking rates increased from 3% to 31% from age 13 to age 18. Participants' smoking was strongly associated with their best friends' smoking. Parental SES, parents' smoking and older siblings' smoking predicted adolescents' initial level of smoking. Furthermore, the same variables predicted the development of smoking behaviour from age 13 to 18. Parents' and siblings' smoking behaviours acted as mediators of parents' SES on the smoking habits of adolescents. Conclusions Parents' SES was significantly associated, directly and indirectly, with both smoking initiation and development. Parental and older siblings' smoking behaviours were positively associated with both initiation and development of smoking behaviour in adolescents. There were no significant gender differences in these associations. PMID:22152017

  18. Distal and proximal family predictors of adolescents' smoking initiation and development: A longitudinal latent curve model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tjora Tore; Hetland Jørn; Aarø Leif; Øverland Simon

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies on adolescent smoking indicate that the smoking behaviours of their parents, siblings and friends are significant micro-level predictors. Parents’ socioeconomic status (SES) is an important macro-level predictor. We examined the longitudinal relationships between these predictors and the initiation and development of adolescents’ smoking behaviour in Norway. Methods: We employed data from The Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB), in which par...

  19. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  20. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  1. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  2. What Is the Association Between Sports Participation and the Development of Proximal Femoral Cam Deformity? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Clohisy, John C

    2015-11-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is recognized as a common cause of hip pain and intra-articular disorders in athletes. Studies have suggested a link between participation in athletics during adolescence and the development of cam-type deformities of the proximal femoral head-neck junction. To investigate the association of sporting activity participation during adolescence and the development of cam deformity. Systematic review. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify potential studies. Abstracts and manuscripts (when applicable) were independently reviewed by 2 reviewers. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, including 8 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity in athletes with that in controls and 3 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity before and after physeal closure (2 with both). A meta-analysis was performed with pooling of data and random-effects modeling to compare rates of cam deformity between athletes and controls. High-level male athletes are 1.9 to 8.0 times more likely to develop a cam deformity than are male controls. The pooled prevalence rate (by hip) of cam deformity in male athletes was 41%, compared with 17% for male controls. The pooled mean alpha angle among male athletes was 61°, compared with 51° for male controls. Males participating in specific high-level impact sports (hockey, basketball, and possibly soccer) are at an increased risk of physeal abnormalities of the anterosuperior head-neck junction that result in a cam deformity at skeletal maturity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  4. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  5. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  6. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  7. Children's Problem-Solving in Serious Games: The "Fine-Tuning System (FTS)" Elaborated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obikwelu, Chinedu; Read, Janet; Sim, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    For a child to learn through Problem-Solving in Serious games, the game scaffolding mechanism has to be effective. Scaffolding is based on the Vygotzkian Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) concept which refers to the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as…

  8. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  9. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  10. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  11. Development of the safety control framework for shield tunneling in close proximity to the operational subway tunnels: case studies in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinggao; Yuan, Dajun

    2016-01-01

    China's largest cities like Beijing and Shanghai have seen a sharp increase in subway network development as a result of the rapid urbanization in the last decade. The cities are still expanding their subway networks now, and many shield tunnels are being or will be constructed in close proximity to the existing operational subway tunnels. The execution plans for the new nearby shield tunnel construction calls for the development of a safety control framework-a set of control standards and best practices to help organizations manage the risks involved. Typical case studies and relevant key technical parameters are presented with a view to presenting the resulting safety control framework. The framework, created through collaboration among the relevant parties, addresses and manages the risks in a systematic way based on actual conditions of each tunnel crossing construction. The framework consists of six parts: (1) inspecting the operational subway tunnels; (2) deciding allowed movements of the existing tunnels and tracks; (3) simulating effects of the shield tunneling on the existing tunnels; (4) doing preparation work; (5) monitoring design and information management; and (6) measures and activation mechanism of the countermeasures. The six components are explained and demonstrated in detail. In the end, discussions made involve construction and post-construction settlement of the operational tunnel, application of the remedial grouting to rectify excessive settlements of the operational tunnel, and use of the innovative tool of the optical fiber measurement for tunnel movement monitoring. It is concluded that the construction movement of the tunnel can be controlled within 15 mm when the shield machine is tunnel buried in the very soft ground is much greater than its construction settlement, and last several years until reaching a final stable state. Two cases are outlined to demonstrate the feasibility of using the remedial grouting to reduce the long

  12. Dynamic Assessment of EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension via Computerized Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Saman; Latif, Shokoufeh Vakili

    2015-01-01

    In Vygotsky's theory, learner's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and autonomous performance could be further developed through social interaction with an expert. Computerized concept mapping enjoys the advantage of meeting learners' differences and therefore can be applied as a scaffold to support learning process.Taking a dynamic assessment…

  13. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  14. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  15. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  16. Understanding Vygotsky for the Classroom: Is It Too Late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredler, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the capability of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory to fulfill key functions of educational theory (such as revealing the complexity of apparently simple events) has been hindered primarily by the following factors: (a) inaccurate information about a minor discussion, the zone of proximal development (ZPD), attracted attention…

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holardoughyean

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... Piaget portrayed the instructional value to cognitive conflict for hastening growth, purely attained by interacting with another person at a higher developmental stage. Similarly, Vygotsky identified the zone of proximal development (ZPD) as the distance between what an individual can accomplish alone and ...

  18. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  19. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  20. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET

    2015-01-01

    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  1. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  2. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  3. Development of a Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) Based, High Throughput Screening Feasible Method for the Identification of PDE12 Activity Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Samuel; Bucher, Hannes; Nickolaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology has been widely used to establish high throughput screens (HTS) for a range of targets in the pharmaceutical industry. PDE12 (aka. 2'- phosphodiesterase) has been published to participate in the degradation of oligoadenylates that are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state via the activation of ribonuclease L (RNAse-L). Degradation of oligoadenylates by PDE12 terminates these antiviral activities, leading to decreased resistance of cells for a variety of viral pathogens. Therefore inhibitors of PDE12 are discussed as antiviral therapy. Here we describe the use of the yttrium silicate SPA bead technology to assess inhibitory activity of compounds against PDE12 in a homogeneous, robust HTS feasible assay using tritiated adenosine-P-adenylate ([3H]ApA) as substrate. We found that the used [3H]ApA educt, was not able to bind to SPA beads, whereas the product [3H]AMP, as known before, was able to bind to SPA beads. This enables the measurement of PDE12 activity on [3H]ApA as a substrate using a wallac microbeta counter. This method describes a robust and high throughput capable format in terms of specificity, commonly used compound solvents, ease of detection and assay matrices. The method could facilitate the search for PDE12 inhibitors as antiviral compounds.

  4. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  5. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M

    2014-05-01

    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  6. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  7. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  8. On-orbit demonstrations of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing serviceable NASA Explorer platform spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohweisner, Bill; Pairot, Jean-Michael

    1991-01-01

    Since 1984 the European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability to enable Hermes to dock automatically with Columbus. As a result, ESA (with Matra, MBB, and other space companies) have developed technologies that are directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments and suggest how these capabilities could be used together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite to minimize new development and accomplish a cost-effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program.

  9. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  10. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  11. Development of Validated Computer-based Preoperative Predictive Model for Proximal Junction Failure (PJF) or Clinically Significant PJK With 86% Accuracy Based on 510 ASD Patients With 2-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Osorio, Joseph A; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Hart, Robert A; Bess, Shay; Line, Breton; Diebo, Bassel G; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Jain, Amit; Ailon, Tamir; Burton, Douglas C; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Klineberg, Eric; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-11-15

    A retrospective review of large, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) database. The aim of this study was to build a model based on baseline demographic, radiographic, and surgical factors that can predict clinically significant proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF). PJF and PJK are significant complications and it remains unclear what are the specific drivers behind the development of either. There exists no predictive model that could potentially aid in the clinical decision making for adult patients undergoing deformity correction. Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, ASD, at least four levels fused. Variables included in the model were demographics, primary/revision, use of three-column osteotomy, upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV)/lower-most instrumented vertebra (LIV) levels and UIV implant type (screw, hooks), number of levels fused, and baseline sagittal radiographs [pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA)]. PJK was defined as an increase from baseline of proximal junctional angle ≥20° with concomitant deterioration of at least one SRS-Schwab sagittal modifier grade from 6 weeks postop. PJF was defined as requiring revision for PJK. An ensemble of decision trees were constructed using the C5.0 algorithm with five different bootstrapped models, and internally validated via a 70 : 30 data split for training and testing. Accuracy and the area under a receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Five hundred ten patients were included, with 357 for model training and 153 as testing targets (PJF: 37, PJK: 102). The overall model accuracy was 86.3% with an AUC of 0.89 indicating a good model fit. The seven strongest (importance ≥0.95) predictors were age, LIV, pre-operative SVA, UIV implant type, UIV, pre-operative PT, and pre-operative PI-LL. A successful model (86% accuracy, 0.89 AUC) was built predicting either

  12. Proximity of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread acknowledgement among European policy-makers that higher education may potentially contribute to enhancing competitiveness of tourism. This has led to a sheer explosion of specific measures encouraging knowledge transfer with the private sector. Despite the importance...... of knowledge flow processes, the role of universities and students has been little researched or linked to the understanding of innovation defectiveness in tourism. Followed by a critical review of knowledge transfer and learning processes in generic development and tourism literature, the chapter presents...... an illustrative case from an innovation course on a Danish Master program in tourism. The case describes and discusses challenges in working with, creating and implementing innovation through student-practitioner collaboration. It is argued that successful innovation is not solely, as previously argued...

  13. School in a Box in Low Resource Primary School in Mozambique: Practical Application of Zone of Proximal Development in Teacher Training with Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Linda; Seabra, N. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The new Sustainable Development Goals call for quality education for all. This study aims to examine the role of mobile educational technology, through the School in a Box intervention, particularly in supporting teachers skills in achieving quality education, in the context of a public primary school in Mozambique. Quality education is examined…

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  15. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  16. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitatio...

  17. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  19. ZONA DE DESARROLLO PROXIMO, SUJETO Y SITUACIÓN. EL PROBLEMA DE LAS UNIDADES DE ANÁLISIS EN PSICOLOGÍA EDUCATIVA ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT, SUBJECT AND SITUATION. (THE PROBLEM OF UNITS OF ANALYSIS IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baquero Orueta Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En el presente trabajo intentaremos mostrar algunas de las implicancias de la obra de Vigotsky y los desarrollos de los Enfoques socioculturales en el campo psicoeducativo. Interesará principalmente describir sus efectos sobre la revisión del problema de la definición de unidades de análisis en la explicación de los procesos de desarrollo. A estos efectos se analizarán ciertos usos de la categoría de ZDP así como sus efectos posibles en el abordaje del fracaso escolar masivo.Abstract:This paper aims to present some of the implications that the work of Lev Vigotsky and other productions within the socio-cultural approaches have had in the field of educational psychology. It will be mainly focused on the contributions of these perspectives to the discussion about the units of analysis used to explain developmental processes. Certain uses of the Zone of Proximal Development concept will be analysed, as well as its possible effects in conceptualizing massive school failure.

  20. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  1. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  2. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  3. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  4. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    QUIGLEY, RAYMOND; LISEC, AMBER; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  5. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M

    2002-02-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  6. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events.

  7. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical cavitation and radiographic lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansare, Kaustubh; Raghav, Mamta; Sontakke, Subodeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To assess the relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces of permanent posterior teeth in an Indian population. This study also assessed the clinical feasibility of applying 'western guidelines' to this population from...... the developing world. Materials and methods. Relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population was assessed. Proximal surfaces (n = 126) without restorations were examined on bitewing radiographs in patients with suspected caries and lesion...

  9. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  10. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  11. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  12. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF PHILOS PLATE FIXATION FOR PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  13. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  14. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical...... work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity....

  15. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  16. Outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper reports the aetiology, presentation and management of proximal humeral fractures (PHF) in our setup. Objective: To ... Five of thirty two operated cases (15%) developed significant shoulder joint stiffness. ... There is need for arthroplasty in those with severe injury, particularly those with osteoporosis.

  17. One-stage surgical correction of proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, V T

    2003-01-01

    Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.

  18. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  19. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  20. Sequential Proximal Tibial Stress Fractures associated with Prolonged usage of Methotrexate and Corticosteroids: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan TJL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the proximal tibia metaphysis are rare in the elderly. We present a case of a 65-year old male who developed sequential proximal tibia stress fractures associated with prolonged usage of methotrexate and prednisolone within a span of 18 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed an incomplete stress fracture involving the medial proximal tibial region. The patient was treated with stemmed total knee arthroplasty (TKA bilaterally. Stress fractures should be considered in patients with atypical knee pain who have a history of methotrexate and prednisolone usage. TKA is an effective treatment in stress fractures of the proximal tibia.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  2. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  3. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  4. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  5. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  7. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  8. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  9. Visualizing cellular interactions with a generalized proximity reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmyer, Mark A; Bronsart, Laura; Imoto, Hiroshi; Contag, Christopher H; Wandless, Thomas J; Prescher, Jennifer A

    2013-05-21

    Interactions among neighboring cells underpin many physiological processes ranging from early development to immune responses. When these interactions do not function properly, numerous pathologies, including infection and cancer, can result. Molecular imaging technologies, especially optical imaging, are uniquely suited to illuminate complex cellular interactions within the context of living tissues in the body. However, no tools yet exist that allow the detection of microscopic events, such as two cells coming into close proximity, on a global, whole-animal scale. We report here a broadly applicable, longitudinal strategy for probing interactions among cells in living subjects. This approach relies on the generation of bioluminescent light when two distinct cell populations come into close proximity, with the intensity of the optical signal correlating with relative cellular location. We demonstrate the ability of this reporter strategy to gauge cell-cell proximity in culture models in vitro and then evaluate this approach for imaging tumor-immune cell interactions using a murine breast cancer model. In these studies, our imaging strategy enabled the facile visualization of features that are otherwise difficult to observe with conventional imaging techniques, including detection of micrometastatic lesions and potential sites of tumor immunosurveillance. This proximity reporter will facilitate probing of numerous types of cell-cell interactions and will stimulate the development of similar techniques to detect rare events and pathological processes in live animals.

  10. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  11. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  12. Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)

  13. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  14. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  16. Supervisory Feedback Efficiency: Developing a Framework Based on Iranian EFL Teachers’ and Supervisors’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mehrpour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Believing that providing EFL teachers with effective supervisory feedback during the post-observation conference is essential, researchers in the current study report on the views of Iranian EFL teachers and supervisors as to what constitutes effective supervisory feedback. Having conducted a qualitative content analysis of the data obtained from interviews with teachers and supervisors, researchers came up with a framework of the constituent elements of effective supervisory feedback, which includes 1 adopting a more creative approach 2 using above-the-utterance mitigation 3 gauging the teachers’ ZPD 4 being socioculturally sensitive 5 assessing the teachers’ beliefs and attitudes and 6 developing public relations. The results showed the teachers’ overall dissatisfaction with the present supervisory feedback. The paper concludes by suggestions to include supervisory training courses in the existing teacher development programs to better empower supervisors in their dealing with EFL supervisees throughout the country.

  17. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  18. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  19. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  20. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-02-16

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshito; Okuda, Ryuzo; Jotoku, Tsuyoshi; Shima, Hiroaki; Hida, Takashi; Neo, Masashi

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for hallux valgus recurrence include postoperative round-shaped lateral edge of the first metatarsal head and postoperative incomplete reduction of the sesamoids. To prevent the occurrence of such conditions, we developed a proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal. Our aim was to describe this novel technique and report the outcomes in this report. Sixty-six patients (83 feet) underwent a distal soft tissue procedure combined with a proximal supination osteotomy. After the proximal crescentic osteotomy, the proximal fragment was pushed medially, and the distal fragment was abducted, and then the distal fragment of the first metatarsal was manually supinated. Outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and radiographic examinations. The average follow-up duration was 34 (range, 25 to 52) months. The mean AOFAS score improved significantly from 58.0 points preoperatively to 93.8 points postoperatively (P hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle decreased significantly from 38.6 and 18.0 degrees preoperatively to 11.0 and 7.9 degrees postoperatively, respectively (both, P hallux valgus, defined as a hallux valgus angle ≥ 25 degrees. The rates of occurrence of a positive round sign and incomplete reduction of the sesamoids significantly decreased postoperatively, which may have contributed to the low hallux valgus recurrence rates. We conclude that a proximal supination osteotomy was an effective procedure for correction of hallux valgus and can achieve a low rate of hallux valgus recurrence. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  4. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  5. Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Zhao, Weiwei; Garlow, Joseph A.; Liu, Te-Huan; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Cui-Zu

    2017-11-01

    The possible realization of dissipationless chiral edge current in a topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructure is based on the condition that the magnetic proximity exchange coupling at the interface is dominated by the Dirac surface states of the topological insulator. Here we report a polarized neutron reflectometry observation of Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in a bulk-insulating topological insulator (B i0.2S b0.8)2 T e3 /magnetic insulator EuS heterostructure. We are able to maximize the proximity-induced magnetism by applying an electrical back gate to tune the Fermi level of topological insulator to be close to the Dirac point. A phenomenological model based on diamagnetic screening is developed to explain the suppressed proximity-induced magnetism at high carrier density. Our work paves the way to utilize the magnetic proximity effect at the topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterointerface for low-power spintronic applications.

  6. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyu Ye; Wei You; Weimin Zhu; Jiaming Cui; Kang Chen; Daping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze...

  7. Proximity ligation in situ assay for monitoring the global DNA methylation in cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hervouet, Eric; Hulin, Philippe; Vallette, François M; Cartron, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    .... We here present the development of the detection of protein-protein interactions via the adaptation of the proximity ligation in situ technology to evaluate the DNA methylation status in cells since...

  8. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  9. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  10. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  11. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  12. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  13. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  14. ICTs, ESPs and ZPD through Microlessons in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Esteban, Soraya; García Laborda, Jesús; Rábano Llamas, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of the use of dialogic interaction enhanced by the use of technology in teaching English in different settings and subjects of teacher education. Technology is used in three different ways: as a support (video) for analysis through teacher-instructor interaction, as a means of social interaction and use of…

  15. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  16. Management of proximal humeral fractures in the nineteenth century: an historical review of preradiographic sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding ...... of the pathoanatomy and pathophysiology of proximal humeral fractures was obtained, and new methods of reduction and bandaging were developed.......The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding...

  17. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  18. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  19. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  20. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  1. DEPRESSIONARY EFFECT OF PROXIMITY OF RESIDENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  2. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S

    2018-02-06

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  4. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  5. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  6. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  7. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  8. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2004-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  10. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  11. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  12. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  13. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  14. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  15. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  16. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  18. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  19. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  20. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  1. [Bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism without associated hypoxemia. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahloul, M; Chtara, K; Turki, O; Kammoun, M M; Bouaziz, W; Bouaziz, M

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a classic complication in intensive care. It is characterized by hypoxemia secondary to perturbed ventilation/perfusion ratios. We report a case of proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism that occurred without associated hypoxemia. A spiral computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to explore unexplained fever in a patient with a negative infectious investigation. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the absence of hypoxemia in this patient. A 43-year-old patient with no significant pathological history was admitted to intensive care for the management of multiple injuries following a road accident. During resuscitation, the patient developed a proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism without signs of hypertension of the pulmonary artery or associated hypoxemia. The patient improved under treatment. This case shows that bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism may be associated with normal gas exchange. The absence of hypoxemia could be explained by the bilateral nature of the pulmonary embolism that led to balanced ventilation/perfusion ratios on both sides. Furthermore, bronchoconstriction was bilateral, explaining the maintenance of a stable ventilation/perfusion ratio on both sides. The presence of unexplained fever in a victim of multiple trauma, despite the absence of hypoxemia, suggests the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [National Naval Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Davidson, Richard [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  3. Proximate and phytochemical of Cola nitida and Cola acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewole, E A; Dewumi, D F A; Alabi, J Y T; Adegoke, A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the research was to examine Cola nitida and Cola acuminata for their phytochemical and proximate compositions. Presence of secondary metabolites do provide information about the plants for their potentials as a lead candidates for the novel drug discovery. The proximate analysis was done using the method of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the phytochemical analysis was done using methods of Markkar and Goodchild for tannin, Brunner for saponin, Harbone for alkaloid and Bohm and Koupai-Abyazani for flavonoid. The proximate results showed that the moisture content of Cola acuminata and Cola nitida were in the range of 9.73-9.81%, ash 2.72-2.21%, fat 3.02-2.20%, protein 19.14-15.24%, crude fiber 7.30-4.18% and carbohydrate 58.09 66.45%. Cola acuminate has more protein content, ash and fat than Cola nitida. The result of phytochemical analysis showed that Cola acuminata has more alkaloids (2.22%), tannin (6.46%) and saponin (8.06%) than Cola nitida. The phenol contents of the two kola nuts were the same range 0.27%, the flavonoid were in the range of 0.12-0.14%. The presence of secondary metabolites in these plants are indications that if well researched, novel bioactive compounds can be discovered in them as there are worldwide efforts by scientists looking for new bioactive compounds to combat various ailments which have developed high resistant to already known antibiotics.

  4. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Salsamendi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome.

  5. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  6. Spindle and Giant Cell Type Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Proximal Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Takao; Miyoshi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kenji; Kai, Keita; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Undifferentiated spindle and giant cell carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm arising in the extrahepatic bile duct. We herein present the case of a 67-year-old male who developed an undifferentiated spindle and giant cell carcinoma of the proximal bile duct. A nodular infiltrating tumor was located at the proximal bile duct, resulting in obstructive jaundice. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly spindle-shaped and giant cells and showed positive immunoreactivity for b...

  7. Responses of proximal tubular cells to injury in congenital renal disease: fight or flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L; Forbes, Michael S; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A

    2014-04-01

    Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The polycystic kidney and fibrosis (pcy)-mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knockout mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial "fight" response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a "flight" response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration.

  8. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi

    2009-09-01

    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  9. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  10. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C

    2013-04-01

    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  11. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  12. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  13. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  14. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  15. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  16. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  17. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  18. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  19. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  20. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  1. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  2. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  4. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Vygotsky e a Zona de Desenvolvimento Proximal (ZDP: Três implicações pedagógicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fino Nogueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces Lev Vygotsky by providing a literature review where three of his seminal ideas are discussed: a the human activity as mediated by the use of tools which are as genes to the biological evolution; b there is a link between the socially organised activity and the construction of the consciousness; c the higher psychological processes appear twice, first interpsychologically, then intra-psychologically, as they are internalised by the subject. Three pedagogical implications of the concept of ZPD are discussed: a the existence of a learning opportunity window; b the role of the tutor as metacognitive agent; c the importance of peers as mediators of the apprenticeship.

  6. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  7. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  8. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  9. Proximity Utilizing Biotinylation of Nuclear Proteins in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kulyyassov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The human genome consists of roughly 30,000 genes coding for over 500,000 different proteins, of which more than 10,000 proteins can be produced by the cell at any given time (the cellular “proteome”. It has been estimated that over 80% of proteins do not operate alone, but in complexes. These protein-protein interactions (PPI are regulated by several mechanisms. For example, post-translational modifications (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination or metal-binding can lead to conformational changes that alter the affinity and kinetic parameters of the interaction. Many PPIs are part of larger cellular networks of interactions or interactomes. Indeed, these interactions are at the core of the entire interactomics system of any living cell, and so, aberrant PPIs are the basis of multiple diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The objective of this study was to develop a method of monitoring protein-protein interactions and proximity dependence in vivo.Methods. The biotin ligase BirA was fused to the protein of interest, and the Biotin Acceptor Peptide (BAP was fused to an interacting partner to make the detection of its biotinylation possible by western blot or mass spectrometry.Results. Using several experimental systems (BirA.A + BAP.B, we showed that the biotinylation is interaction/proximity dependent. Here, A and B are the next nuclear proteins used in the experiments – 3 paralogues of heterochromatin protein HP1a (CBX5, HP1b (CBX1, HP1g (CBX3, wild type and transcription mutant factor Kap1, translesion DNA polymerase PolH and E3, ubiquitin ligase RAD18, Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA, ubiquitin Ub, SUMO-2/3, different types and isoforms of histones H2A, H2Az, H3.1, H3.3, CenpA, H2A.BBD, and macroH2A. The variant of this approach is termed PUB-NChIP (Proximity Utilizing Biotinylation with Native Chromatin Immuno-precipitation and is designed to purify and study the protein

  10. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  11. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  12. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  13. Maturational timing does not predict HSA estimated adult bone geometry at the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Kontulainen, Saija A; Cooper, David M L; Lanovaz, Joel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2011-12-01

    Late maturational timing is documented to be detrimental to bone strength primarily at the distal radius. Studies at the proximal femur have focused on bone mass and the results remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the long term relationship between the onset of maturation and the development of estimated cross sectional area (CSA) and section modulus (Z) at the proximal femur. Two hundred and twenty six individuals (108 males and 118 females) from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were classified into maturity groups based on age of attainment of peak height velocity. CSA and Z were serially assessed at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT) and proximal shaft (S) sites using hip structural analysis (HSA). Multilevel models were constructed to examine the development of CSA and Z by maturity group. Cross sectional observations indicated that during adolescence, early maturing males had significantly greater CSA and Z than late maturing males at all sites of the proximal femur, while early maturing females had greater Z at the NN and S, and greater CSA at the NN, IT and S sites compared to late maturing females. When age, body size, body composition, physical activity and dietary intake were controlled no significant effects of maturational timing were found at the NN, IT or S regions (p>0.05) in either males or females. In this population of healthy individuals there appears to be no effect of the onset of maturation on estimated CSA and Z development at the proximal femur in both males and females. This may be a result of the proximal femur's loading environment. Future research is required to determine the role of loading on the relationship between maturational timing and bone structure and strength development at the proximal femur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai

    2013-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  15. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty for single-stage correction of proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Dubey, Manish; Jain, Viral

    2016-07-01

    Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty (TPOIF) was described initially for distal hypospadias, but has seen extended application for proximal hypospadias. We describe a set of modifications in the technique and results in a large series of proximal hypospadias. All children who underwent TPOIF repair for proximal hypospadias (proximal penile, penoscrotal and scrotal) from June 2006 to June 2013 by a single surgeon were prospectively followed till June, 2014. A standard technique and postoperative protocol were followed. Salient points to be emphasized in the technique: (1) dissection of the dartos pedicle till penopubic junction to prevent penile torsion, (2) incorporation of the spongiosum in the urethroplasty, (3) midline urethral plate incision in glans (hinging the plate), (4) Dartos blanket cover on whole urethroplasty. Out of 136 children with proximal hypospadias, 92 children who underwent TPOIF formed the study group. Out of 92 children, 48 (52 %) children required a tunica albuginea plication for chordee correction. In total, 16 (17 %) patients developed 24 complications and 11 children (12 %) required second surgeries: fistula closure in 7 (with meatoplasty in 5), glansplasty for glans dehiscence in 2 and excision of diverticulum in 2. Two children required a third surgery. Only 5 children had a noticeable penile torsion (less than 30 degree), and 7 had a patulous meatus. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty can deliver reliable cosmetic and functional outcomes in proximal hypospadias.

  16. Proximity to sports facilities and sports participation for adolescents in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K Reimers

    Full Text Available To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany.A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11-17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities.The logistic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively.Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas.

  17. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  18. Design of intelligent proximity detection zones to prevent striking and pinning fatalities around continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissert, P T; Carr, J L; DuCarme, J P; Smith, A K

    2016-01-01

    The continuous mining machine is a key piece of equipment used in underground coal mining operations. Over the past several decades these machines have been involved in a number of mine worker fatalities. Proximity detection systems have been developed to avert hazards associated with operating continuous mining machines. Incorporating intelligent design into proximity detection systems allows workers greater freedom to position themselves to see visual cues or avoid other hazards such as haulage equipment or unsupported roof or ribs. However, intelligent systems must be as safe as conventional proximity detection systems. An evaluation of the 39 fatal accidents for which the Mine Safety and Health Administration has published fatality investigation reports was conducted to determine whether the accident may have been prevented by conventional or intelligent proximity. Multiple zone configurations for the intelligent systems were studied to determine how system performance might be affected by the zone configuration. Researchers found that 32 of the 39 fatalities, or 82 percent, may have been prevented by both conventional and intelligent proximity systems. These results indicate that, by properly configuring the zones of an intelligent proximity detection system, equivalent protection to a conventional system is possible.

  19. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  20. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2017-05-10

    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  1. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  2. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  3. The Proximity Electronics of the GAIA Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alejandro; Peran, Francisco; Elorz, Ainhoa; Cuesta, Hermilo; Velasco, Raul; Polo, Jesus

    2011-08-01

    Gaia (Global Astrometric Intereferomenter for Astrophysics) is an ESA mission which will chart a three-dimensional map of our Galaxy, continuing the work initiated with ESA Hipparcos mission. The main objective is to investigate the origin and evolution of the Milky Way. This goal will be achieved by measuring the position and motion of around 1 billion stars, as well as measuring the physical properties of each star.The spacecraft payload consists of a single instrument. This instrument provides three functions (Astrometry, Photometry and Spectrometry), which will use common telescopes and a shared focal plane.The Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) will be the largest ever developed, comprising 106 CCDs-PEMs (Proximity Electronics Module) pairs, for a total 1 Gigapixels and 0.5x1 m dimensions. The CCDs are distributed on an array layout, with the different functions in separate columns. The proximity electronics main functions are CCD operation, video processing, sequencing and power supply distribution. A single PEM design is used for all the focal plane functions, as it is able to adapt the sequencing, biasing, video bandwidth and gain to each instrument function. All these functions and capabilities have been integrated in a very small module, weighting only 162 g.The video processing includes analogue amplification, filtering, A/D conversion and digital processing. This extremely exigent electronic module is able to deliver very low noise levels on a 16 bit video chain, in the range of fractions of a LSB.Such demanding level of performances has made necessary the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts instead of Hi-Rel parts for certain taxing functions of the PEM. Furthermore, the level of exigency in performances has been extremely difficult to achieve not only on the PEM, but on the test equipment also, so as to demonstrate the full capabilities of the proximity electronics. The excellent performances of the PEM will help to achieve the very challenging goals

  4. Ultrasound-guided proximal paravertebral anaesthesia in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Anne H; Doherr, Marcus G; Stoffel, Michael H; Steiner, Adrian; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    To develop and evaluate a method for ultrasound-guidance in performing the proximal paravertebral block for flank anaesthesia in cattle through a cadaveric study, followed by clinical application. prospective experimental cadaveric study and clinical series. Previously frozen lumbar sections of cows without known spinal abnormalities were used. The clinical case group comprised of ten animals for which a right flank laparotomy was indicated. Twenty cow cadavers were used to perform ultrasound-guided bilateral injections of 1.0 mL dye (1.0 mL 1% Toluidine Blue in 1% Borax) at the intervertebral foramen at the level of T13, L1 and L2 spinal nerves. Distance and depth of injection, staining of the dorsal and ventral nerve branches, and deviation from the target were evaluated. The investigator's confidence as to visualisation and expected success at staining the nerve was assessed. Ten clinical cases received the ultrasound-guided proximal paravertebral anaesthesia. Analgesic success was evaluated using a 4-grade scoring system at 10 minutes after the injection and during surgery, respectively. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and proportions. Both dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nerves T13, L1 or L2 were at least partially stained in 41% of injections, while in 77% of injections one of the branches was stained. Five out of ten clinical cases had a satisfactory anaesthesia. There was no significant association between confidence at injection and either staining or analgesic success. Results from the cadaveric and clinical study suggest no significant improvement using ultrasound guidance to perform proximal paravertebral block in cows compared to our previous clinical experience and to references in the literature using the blind method. Further research should be conducted to improve the ultrasound-guided technique described in this study. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary

  5. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-09-01

    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  6. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  7. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  9. Capturing knowledge integration through collaborations: measures of the diversity and coherence in multiple proximity dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F.; Rafols, I.; Hopkins, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to determine changes that occur as a result of collaborations that is intended to support knowledge integration. The approach combines and applies indicators of proximity, diversity, coherence and has potential applications in the study and evaluation of research collaborations. The scientometric literature has been exploring the topic of knowledge integration and interdisciplinarity for more than a decade (Bordons, 2004; Zitt, 2005; Rafols, 2014). The paper builds on the line of research that seeks to develop measures of knowledge integration, namely diversity and coherence (Rafols, 2014). Successful exchange and integration of knowledge through collaboration not only requires disciplinary or cognitive diversity, as previously studied in the scientometric literature (Rafols & Meyer, 2009; Rafols, 2014) but also other dimensions linked to the social, cultural background of the individuals involved. Economic geographers have developed a framework, the proximity framework (Boschma, 2005), identifying five features that may be important for collaborative learning which are: cognitive, social, geographical, institutional, and organisational proximities. The paper therefore proposes to use the diversity and coherence measures to not only look at diversity from a cognitive standpoint, but also apply it to the other proximities proposed in the Boschma framework. These indicators will capture the relationship occurring betweenindividuals taking part in the research and the categories (proximity dimensions) that they are associated to. This paper reviews and integrates concepts from economic geography with the scientometric literature on interdisciplinarity to form a conceptual framework that the paper applies to an illustrative case study. In order to apply the framework, the paper develops indicators for diversity and coherence that can be applied to each of Boschma’s five proximities. The illustrative case study looks at

  10. Modified Van Nes rotationplasty for osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bari, A; Krajbich, J I; Langer, F; Hamilton, E L; Hubbard, S

    1990-11-01

    Above-knee amputation has been the traditional treatment for osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia. Recent advances in chemotherapy have encouraged the development of limb-salvage techniques. Van Nes rotationplasty for malignant lesions of the distal femur has increased in popularity as a reconstructive technique, but no similar procedure has been described for lesions of the proximal tibia. We have developed a modified rotationplasty for this lesion and have performed it in four children. The surgical technique, postoperative management and results of the procedure are described. Two patients had delayed wound healing. No other complications have developed and our patients were disease-free at follow-up, while the appearance of the leg was well accepted by the patients and their parents. This procedure is a useful addition to the armamentarium of the tumour surgeon for the treatment of malignant lesions of the proximal tibia.

  11. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  12. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  13. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V

    2015-11-23

    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  15. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  16. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A

    2010-05-01

    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  17. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast Edge-Aware Processing via First Order Proximal Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Hicham; Yahia, Hussein; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2015-06-01

    We present a new framework for fast edge-aware processing of images and videos. The proposed smoothing method is based on an optimization formulation with a non-convex sparse regularization for a better smoothing behavior near strong edges. We develop mathematical tools based on first order approximation of proximal operators to accelerate the proposed method while maintaining high-quality smoothing. The first order approximation is used to estimate a solution of the proximal form in a half-quadratic solver, and also to derive a warm-start solution that can be calculated quickly when the image is loaded by the user. We extend the method to large-scale processing by estimating the smoothing operation with independent 1D convolution operations. This approach linearly scales to the size of the image and can fully take advantage of parallel processing. The method supports full color filtering and turns out to be temporally coherent for fast video processing. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on various applications including image smoothing, detail manipulation, HDR tone-mapping, fast edge simplification and video edge-aware processing.

  19. Proximal Tubular Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Obesity-Induced CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udi, Shiran; Hinden, Liad; Earley, Brian; Drori, Adi; Reuveni, Noa; Hadar, Rivka; Cinar, Resat; Nemirovski, Alina; Tam, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Obesity-related structural and functional changes in the kidney develop early in the course of obesity and occur independently of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Activating the renal cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB 1 R) induces nephropathy, whereas CB 1 R blockade improves kidney function. Whether these effects are mediated via a specific cell type within the kidney remains unknown. Here, we show that specific deletion of CB 1 R in the renal proximal tubule cells did not protect the mice from obesity, but markedly attenuated the obesity-induced lipid accumulation in the kidney and renal dysfunction, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These effects associated with increased activation of liver kinase B1 and the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase, as well as enhanced fatty acid β -oxidation. Collectively, these findings indicate that renal proximal tubule cell CB 1 R contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced renal lipotoxicity and nephropathy by regulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-12-14

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  1. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  2. Proximal Tubule Cell Hypothesis for Cardiorenal Syndrome in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Saito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is remarkably high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, even in the early microalbuminuric stages with normal glomerular filtration rates. Proximal tubule cells (PTCs mediate metabolism and urinary excretion of vasculotoxic substances via apical and basolateral receptors and transporters. These cells also retrieve vasculoprotective substances from circulation or synthesize them for release into the circulation. PTCs are also involved in the uptake of sodium and phosphate, which are critical for hemodynamic regulation and maintaining the mineral balance, respectively. Dysregulation of PTC functions in CKD is likely to be associated with the development of CVD and is linked to the progression to end-stage renal disease. In particular, PTC dysfunction occurs early in diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of CKD. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanisms of PTC dysfunction to develop therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal syndrome in diabetes.

  3. Silicone arthroplasty for chronic proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criner, Katherine T; Ilyas, Asif M

    2011-12-01

    Chronic dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint pose a significant treatment challenge. Chronically dislocated PIP joints can experience several changes to the articular cartilage including pressure necrosis, degeneration, and the development of secondary incongruence. Moreover, chronic dislocation allows the edema and hemorrhage from soft tissue trauma to develop into collateral ligament fibrosis and inelastic scar formation. Similarly, chronic dislocations associated with a fracture at the base of the middle phalanx can also experience changes in the form of joint incongruency, bony resorption, or malunion formation. Subsequently, these cumulative joint changes prohibit standard open reduction of the PIP joint and can cause significant loss of motion thereby demanding a different approach to restore motion and minimize pain. We propose the use of silicone arthroplasty in the management of chronic dislocations of the PIP joint.

  4. Sensitive detection of aggregated prion protein via proximity ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Maria; Wik, Lotta; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Comoy, Emmanuel; Linné, Tommy; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2014-01-01

    The DNA assisted solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) provides a unique opportunity to specifically detect prion protein (PrP) aggregates by investigating the collocation of 3 or more copies of the specific protein. We have developed an SP-PLA that can detect PrP aggregates in brain homogenates from infected hamsters even after a 10(7)-fold dilution. In contrast, brain homogenate from uninfected animals did not generate a detectable signal at 100-fold higher concentration. Using either of the 2 monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies, 3F4 and 6H4, we successfully detected low concentrations of aggregated PrP. The presented results provide a proof of concept that this method might be an interesting tool in the development of diagnostic approaches of prion diseases.

  5. An Improved Indoor Robot Human-Following Navigation Model Using Depth Camera, Active IR Marker and Proximity Sensors Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Tee Kit Tsun; Bee Theng Lau; Hudyjaya Siswoyo Jo

    2018-01-01

    ... model, based on multi-sensor fusion, using Microsoft Robotics Developer Studio 4 (MRDS). The model relies on a depth camera, a limited array of proximity sensors and an active IR marker tracking system...

  6. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  7. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  8. Proximity Online Media in Catalonia (Spain. The Case Study of Nació Digital Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Puntí Brun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a conceptualization of proximity digital media. It will define what is local and proximity communication as well as the history and evolution of online journalism and digital media features which are briefly reviewed. Business models that exist nowadays and the state of art in Catalonia (Spain will also be briefly analysed. From this theoretical framework it will be explained the case of Nació Digital and its territorial media. Initially the history of this media group will be developed, as well as its journalistic and business models. The paper seeks to underscore the importance of the journalistic model based on the tradition of the profession, the proximity information and the technology developed for this online media. The Nació Digital is an example of a successful media outlet judging from its audience figures (the second online media in Catalonia and its sustainable model business.

  9. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  10. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  11. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  12. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-06-27

    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  13. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  14. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25  ° C to 65  ° C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  15. Phase holograms in PMMA with proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Complex computer generated phase holograms (CGPH's) have been fabricated in PMMA by partial e-beam exposure and subsequent partial development. The CGPH was encoded as a sequence of phase delay pixels and written by the JEOL JBX-5D2 E-beam lithography system, a different dose being assigned to each value of phase delay. Following carefully controlled partial development, the pattern appeared rendered in relief in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The exposure dose was in the range 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and very aggressive development in pure acetone led to low contrast. This enabled etch depth control to better than plus or minus lambda(sub vis)/60. That result was obtained by exposing isolated 50 micron square patches and measuring resist removal over the central area where the proximity effect dose was uniform and related only to the local exposure. For complex CGPH's with pixel size of the order of the e-beam proximity effect radius, the patterns must be corrected for the extra exposure caused by electrons scattered back up out of the substrate. This has been accomplished by deconvolving the two-dimensional dose deposition function with the desired dose pattern. The deposition function, which plays much the same role as an instrument response function, was carefully measured under the exact conditions used to expose the samples. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 1 cm square, and consisted of up to 100 million 0.3-2.0 micron square pixels. Data files were up to 500 MB long and exposure times ranged to tens of hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated that had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85 percent efficiency.

  16. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  17. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  18. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  19. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  20. Still Separate, Still Unequal: Social Determinants of Playground Safety and Proximity Disparities in St. Louis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Woodward, Krista; Milam, Laurel; Ackermann, Nicole; Komaie, Goldie; Goodman, Melody S; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity among youth is shaped by the natural and built environment within which they live; however, few studies have focused on assessing playground safety and proximity in detail as part of the built environment for youth physical activity. We analyzed data on 100 publicly accessible playgrounds from Play Across St. Louis, a community-partnered study of the built environment for youth physical activity. Outcomes included overall playground safety, maintenance, and construction scores; distance to nearest playground; and distance to nearest top playground. Independent variables included neighborhood % youth, % black residents, % owner-occupied units, and % vacant units. Playgrounds in the city have varying degrees of safety and proximity. Mean overall playground safety score was 67.0 % (CI = 63.5, 70.4). Neighborhood % youth and % black residents were inversely associated with overall playground safety (p = 0.03 and p safety scores were found in the northern and central areas while all high safety score clusters were found in the southern part of St. Louis. Public playground safety and proximity vary across St. Louis neighborhoods, especially by neighborhood demographics. Disparities in playground safety and proximity reveal an opportunity to develop community-wide interventions focused on playgrounds for youth activity. Further work is needed to examine the association between playground safety, proximity, and use and youth physical activity and weight.

  1. Improve Static Performance Identification Of Inductive Proximity Sensor For a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, inductive proximity sensor and mobile robot are one of the most interesting topics attracting scientists. With enhancement techniques from using sensor for controlling mobile robots which can be developed more in the future. Additionally, measuring of static performance of inductive proximity sensor is also essential because the testing and navigation systems perform more exactly by result information from the experiment by assaying the output signal. In this paper, the hand-made measurement system is used to verify again the static performance of proximity sensor with ferrous, non-ferrous and alloy metal tape. Simultaneously, improve static properties of typical tape metal through the relationship between the output signal and the sensing distance of sensor. According to theoretical basis, the relationship of the static parameters can be determined such as: thickness of metal, sensing distance, dimension of metal, and so on. The testing results have shown the output signal of proximity sensor in the model and theory is not similar. The final data will accommodate some information about the relationship of the thickness of metal tape and the sensing distance of proximity sensor, the different affects of position sensor and optimum operation range of mobile robot.

  2. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  3. Missed posterior shoulder dislocation with malunited proximal humerus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Posterior dislocation of the shoulder may be missed or neglected at initial presentation especially in developing countries. We present a case of 40-year-old In- dian man who had 3-month missed posterior dislocation of the right shoulder along with malunited fracture of the ana- tomical neck of the humerus. Open reduction and stabiliza- tion with modified McLaughlin procedure was performed. Rotational osteotomy of proximal humerus had to be per- formed as supplementary procedure to keep the humeral head stable in glenoid cavity during functional range of movements. The patient had excellent result of the shoulder at 3 years follow-up. Key words: Shoulder dislocation; Humerus; Osteotomy

  4. Complications following dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelson, John J; Stern, Peter J; Abzug, Joshua M; Chang, James; Osterman, A Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are challenging injuries to treat and are associated with many complications. The determination of stability is crucial to appropriate management. Stable injuries can usually be treated nonsurgically, whereas unstable injuries typically require surgical stabilization. Many surgical techniques have been used, including extension block pinning, volar plate arthroplasty, open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation, and hemihamate autografting. Because stiffness and flexion contracture are frequent complications, every effort should be made to initiate early motion while maintaining concentric reduction. Other complications include redislocation, chronic swelling, swan neck and coronal plane deformities, and pin tract infections. Assessing injury characteristics, including chronicity, the percentage of articular surface fractured, and the degree of comminution, and understanding complications will help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Chronic dislocations and those injuries in which painful arthritis develops can be successfully treated with salvage procedures, including arthroplasty and arthrodesis.

  5. Posttraumatic tibia valga: a case demonstrating asymmetric activity at the proximal growth plate on technetium bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zionts, L.E.; Harcke, H.T.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Posttraumatic tibia valga is a well-recognized complication following fracture of the upper tibial metaphysis in young children. We present a case of a child who developed a valgus deformity following fracture of the proximal tibia and fibula in which quantitative bone scintigraphy at 5 months after injury demonstrated increased uptake at the proximal tibial growth plate with proportionally greater uptake on the medial side. This finding suggests that the valgus deformity in this patient was due to a relative increase in vascularity and consequent overgrowth of the medial portion of the proximal tibial physis.

  6. Endoscopic removal of a proximal urethral stent using a holmium laser: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stents were initially developed for the management of urethral strictures and obstructive voiding disorders in select patients. Urethral stent complications are common and may require stent explantation, which is often quite challenging. We present our experience with endoscopic removal of an encrusted UroLume proximal urethral stent in a 72-year-old male using a holmium laser. The literature on various management options and outcomes for urethral stent removal is reviewed. Endoscopic removal of proximal urethral stents is feasible and safe and should be considered as the primary treatment option in patients requiring stent extraction.

  7. Multiplexed homogeneous proximity ligation assays for high throughput protein biomarker research in serological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Martin; Thorsen, Stine Buch; Assarsson, Erika

    2011-01-01

    specificity, even in multiplex, by its dual recognition feature, its proximity requirement, and most importantly by using unique sequence specific reporter fragments on both antibody-based probes. To illustrate the potential of this protein detection technology, a pilot biomarker research project......A high throughput protein biomarker discovery tool has been developed based on multiplexed proximity ligation assays (PLA) in a homogeneous format in the sense of no washing steps. The platform consists of four 24-plex panels profiling 74 putative biomarkers with sub pM sensitivity each consuming...

  8. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-06-09

    Jun 9, 2011 ... perspective and a review of the lit- erature. Received: 28th February 2011. Accepted: 9th ... The management of this condition poses a lot of chal- lenge to the Orthopaedic Surgeon because of the pecu- ... literature to elaborate on the management problems en- countered in this supposedly rare disease.

  9. The zone of proximal development in the learning of mathematics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    schooling system. They are usually low academic achievers who show low confidence. ... Siyepu (2009:140) shows students' performance before and after intervention. (quantitative ..... International Study Center, Boston College. Van der Walt ...

  10. The zone of proximal development in the learning of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has a huge shortage of skilled workers in various fields such as engineering, applied sciences, accountancy, architecture, medicine and law. Mathematics is a requirement for entry in these careers to enable learners to grasp the content of various subjects in these disciplines. Despite that, in South Africa, ...

  11. The role of expectations in service evaluation : A longitudinal study of a proximity mobile payment service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujala, S; Mugge, R.; Miron-Shatz, T.

    2017-01-01

    We develop and test a model that suggests that expectations influence subjective usability and emotional experiences and, thereby, behavioral intentions to continue use and to recommend the service to others. A longitudinal study of 165 real-life users examined the proposed model in a proximity

  12. Recreation partnerships on national forests: The influences of institutional commitment and urban proximity on agency capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie E. McCreary; Erin Seekamp; Lee. Cerveny

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data from the second phase of a multiphase study being conducted to explore the structure and function of U.S. Forest Service (FS) recreation partnerships. In Phase I, institutional commitment and urban proximity emerged as key indicators of agency capacity to effectively develop and maintain recreation partnerships. In Phase II, multiple case...

  13. Proximal Ethnography: "Inside-Out-Inside" Research and the Impact of Shared Metaphors of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the way Higher Education (HE) students use metaphors to make tangible the lived and living experience of learning. The article provides a contemporary development of the ethnographic paradigm by offering a new model termed "proximal ethnography" to capture the sense of inside-out-inside research, of being what one has…

  14. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, A.M.; Nauta, A.; van den Heuvel, E.G.H.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2014-01-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to

  15. The Study of Function and Regulation of Renal Drug Transporters in Human Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caetano Pinto, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The study of renal function is crucial to understand and developed novel strategies to cope with renal diseases. This thesis was devoted to study renal proximal tubule function in vitro, focusing on the activity and regulation of renal drug transporters. Chapter 1 offers a rational of the study in

  16. Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Tao

    2014-04-27

    Proximal humeral fractures are common lesions of the elderly, but there are no established treatment guidelines. A surgical treatment for comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus was developed and is still evolving. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative review to evaluate the risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by operative fixation compared with conservative treatment. We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese), and Wanfang database (in Chinese) up to December 2013 to identify studies related to operative fixation and AVN in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Seven studies with a total of 291 patients (142 operative fixation cases and 149 conservative treatment cases) with proximal humeral fractures were considered in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the incidence of AVN between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-6.11, p = 0.64]. The subgroup meta-analysis by study design (retrospective/prospective), sample size (≤40/>40), and ethnicity (European/Asian) demonstrated similar results. However, the subgroup analysis by specific operative approach (plate fixation/tension band wiring fixation/others) indicated that plate fixation was associated with a higher rate of AVN than conservative treatment (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.76, p = 0.019). Plate fixation was associated with a higher risk of AVN development than conservative treatment in patients with proximal humeral fractures.

  17. Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polydorou, A A; Cairns, S R; Dowsett, J F; Hatfield, A R; Salmon, P R; Cotton, P B; Russell, R C

    1991-01-01

    For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification). All patients were either unfit or unsuitable for an attempt at curative surgical resection. A single endoprosthesis was placed initially, with a further stent being placed only if relief of cholestasis was insufficient or sepsis developed in undrained segments. The combined percutaneous-endoscopic technique was used to place the endoprosthesis when appropriate, after failed endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion or for second endoprosthesis placement. Full follow up was available in 97%.Thirteen patients were still alive at the time of review and all but one had been treated within the past six months. Initial endoprosthesis insertion succeeded technically at the first attempt in 127 patients, at the second in 30, and at a combined procedure in a further 13 (cumulative total success rate 89% - type I: 93%; type II: 94%; and type III: 84%). There was adequate biliary drainage after single endoprosthesis insertion in 152 of the 170 successful placements, giving an overall successful drainage rate of 80%. Three patients had a second stent placed by combined procedure because of insufficient drainage, giving an overall successful drainage rate of 82% (155 of 190). The final overall drainage success rates were type I: 91%; type II: 83%; and type III: 73%. The early complication rates were type I: 7%; type II: 14%; and type III: 31%. The principle early complication was clinical cholangitis, which occurred in 13 patients (7%) and required second stent placement in five. The 30 day mortality was 22% overall (type I: 14%; type II: 15%; and type III: 32%) but the

  18. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  19. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  20. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  1. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  2. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  3. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2008-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  4. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  5. Altruism by age and social proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  6. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  7. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  8. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  9. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  10. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  11. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng

    1983-09-01

    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  12. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  13. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J

    2009-08-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  14. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  15. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  16. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  17. Transillumination and HDR Imaging for Proximal Caries Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R; Litzenburger, F

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to develop an in vitro model for the validation of near-infrared transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection, to enhance NIRT with high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI), and to compare both methods, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) as a reference standard. Both proximal surfaces of 53 healthy or decayed permanent human teeth were examined using the Diagnocam (DC) (KaVo) and NIRT with HDRI (NIRT-HDRI). NIRT was combined with HDRI to improve the diagnostic performance by reducing under- and overexposed image areas. For NIRT-HDRI, an exposure series was captured and merged into a single HDR image. A classification was applied according to lesion depth. All surfaces were assessed twice by 2 trained examiners, and additionally with µCT for validation. The Kappa statistic was used to calculate inter-rater reliability and agreement between DC and NIRT-HDRI. Inter-rater reliability (weighted Kappa, wκ) showed very good agreement for the DC (0.90) and NIRT-HDRI (0.96). The overall agreement (wκ) was almost perfect (0.85). In the individual categories (0 to 4), the agreement (simple Kappa) ranged from almost perfect (category 4) to moderate (1 and 2) to substantial (categories 0 and 3). Sensitivity and specificity of sound surfaces, enamel, and dentin caries ranged from 0.57 to 0.99 and were similar for both methods in the different categories. NIRT-HDRI had a higher sensitivity for sound surfaces and enamel caries, as well as a higher specificity for dentin caries. Regarding the obtained images, HDRI allowed for the detection of caries within a greater range of luminance levels, resulting in a more detailed visualization of structures without under- or overexposure. However, HDRI this did not improve the diagnostics significantly. Distinguishing between a processed demineralized enamel and dentin lesions appears to be a problem specific to NIRT and cannot be balanced using HDRI.

  18. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian

    2017-08-11

    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  19. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J

    1996-10-01

    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  20. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür

    2017-09-29

    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  1. A device for in vivo measurements of quantitative ultrasound variables at the human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Laugier, Pascal; Moser, Urs; Dencks, Stefanie; Klausner, Michael; Padilla, Frédéric; Haïat, Guilleaume; Glüer, Claus-C

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus has similar power as a bone mineral density (BMD)- measurement using DXA for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. Ultrasound equipment is less expensive than DXA and free of ionizing radiation. As a mechanical wave, QUS has the potential of measuring different bone properties than dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA,) which depends on X-ray attenuation and might be developed into a tool of comprehensive assessment of bone strength. However, site-specific DXA at the proximal femur shows best performance in the prediction of hip fractures. To combine the potential of QUS with measurements directly at the femur, we developed a device for in vivo QUS measurements at this site. Methods comprise ultrasound transmission through the bone, reflection from the bone surface, and backscatter from the inner trabecular structure. The complete area of the proximal femur can be scanned except at the femoral head, which interferes with the ilium. To avoid edge artifacts, a subregion of the proximal femur in the trochanteric region was selected as measurement region. First, in vivo measurements demonstrate a good signal to noise ratio and proper depiction of the proximal femur on an attenuation image. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements. Further improvements can be expected by refinement of the scanning technique and data evaluation method to enhance the potential of the new method for the estimation of bone strength.

  2. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane

    2010-01-01

    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  3. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  4. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  5. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  6. Proximity to urban parks and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  7. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  8. Influence of muscle groups' activation on proximal femoral growth tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Pontén, Eva; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2017-12-01

    Muscle and joint contact force influence stresses at the proximal growth plate of the femur and thus bone growth, affecting the neck shaft angle (NSA) and femoral anteversion (FA). This study aims to illustrate how different muscle groups' activation during gait affects NSA and FA development in able-bodied children. Subject-specific femur models were developed for three able-bodied children (ages 6, 7, and 11 years) using magnetic resonance images. Contributions of different muscle groups-hip flexors, hip extensors, hip adductors, hip abductors, and knee extensors-to overall hip contact force were computed. Specific growth rate for the growth plate was computed, and the growth was simulated in the principal stress direction at each element in the growth front. The predicted growth indicated decreased NSA and FA (of about [Formula: see text] over a four-month period) for able-bodied children. Hip abductors contributed the most, and hip adductors, the least, to growth rate. All muscles groups contributed to a decrease in predicted NSA ([Formula: see text]0.01[Formula: see text]-0.04[Formula: see text] and FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]), except hip extensors and hip adductors, which showed a tendency to increase the FA ([Formula: see text]0.004[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]). Understanding influences of different muscle groups on long bone growth tendency can help in treatment planning for growing children with affected gait.

  9. A new technique of closed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the proximal humerus with varus deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chelnokov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Varus displacement is common in fractures of the proximal humerus. Development of new low invasive surgical modalities providing anatomy restoration and non-traumatic fracture fixation is actual. Purpose of the study was development of the low invasive technique of closed interlocking nailing providing reduction of the typical varus displacement in fractures and posttraumatic deformities of the proximal humerus. Material and methods. A new technique of correction of the proximal humerus in fractures and posttraumatic deformities was applied in 12 patients - 7 with two-part fractures and 5 with posttraumatic varus deformities. The surgical technique includes application of a small wire circular external frame. Its proximal part is secured to the humeral head to reduce varus displacement along with connection to the distal part of the frame, and the reached alignment is fixed by an intramedullary nail. Results. In all 12 cases we succeeded to reduce the varus deformity. At 1 year follow-up healing was reached in 11 patients, and in one patient exchange compression nailing was performed. Constant score in 1 year was 76±17 after fracture treament, and 70±16 in posttraumatic deformities, which corresponeded to good results. Conclusion. The presented technique allows to reach 40-50° angular correction without open approach and significant soft tissue damage. The obtained results confirm efficacy of the new technique and pertinence of its use in patients with fractures and posttraumatic deformities of this localization. The introduced technique of closed nailing appears to be a promising approach in reconstructive surgery of the proximal humerus.

  10. A review of progress in identifying and characterizing biocrusts using proximal and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Adamowski, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Biocrusts are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces they occupy. The mixture of biological components and soil particles that form the crust, in conjunction with moisture, determines the biocrusts' spectral signatures. Proximal and remote sensing in complementary spectral regions, namely the reflective region, and the thermal region, have been used to study biocrusts in a non-destructive manner, in the laboratory, in the field, and from space. The objectives of this review paper are to present the spectral characteristics of biocrusts across the optical domain, and to discuss significant developments in the application of proximal and remote sensing for biocrust studies in the last few years. The motivation for using proximal and remote sensing in biocrust studies is discussed. Next, the application of reflectance spectroscopy to the study of biocrusts is presented followed by a review of the emergence of high spectral resolution thermal remote sensing, which facilitates the application of thermal spectroscopy for biocrust studies. Four specific topics at the forefront of proximal and remote sensing of biocrusts are discussed: (1) The use of remote sensing in determining the role of biocrusts in global biogeochemical cycles; (2) Monitoring the inceptive establishment of biocrusts; (3) Identifying and characterizing biocrusts using Longwave infrared spectroscopy; and (4) Diurnal emissivity dynamics of biocrusts in a sand dune environment. The paper concludes by identifying innovative technologies such as low altitude and high resolution imagery that are increasingly used in remote sensing science, and are expected to be used in future biocrusts studies.

  11. Proximity Effect between Two Superconductors Spatially Resolved by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherkez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the proximity effect in an atomic-scale controlled junction between two different superconductors. Elaborated on a Si(111 surface, the junction comprises a Pb nanocrystal with an energy gap Δ_{1}=1.2  meV, connected to a crystalline atomic monolayer of lead with Δ_{2}=0.23  meV. Using in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we probe the local density of states of this hybrid system both in space and in energy, at temperatures below and above the critical temperature of the superconducting monolayer. Direct and inverse proximity effects are revealed with high resolution. Our observations are precisely explained with the help of a self-consistent solution of the Usadel equations. In particular, our results demonstrate that in the vicinity of the Pb islands, the Pb monolayer locally develops a finite proximity-induced superconducting order parameter, well above its own bulk critical temperature. This leads to a giant proximity effect where the superconducting correlations penetrate inside the monolayer a distance much larger than in a nonsuperconducting metal.

  12. Proximity effect in superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson tunnel junctions: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, A. A.; Houwman, E. P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Krasnov, V. M.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.

    1995-01-01

    A microscopic model of the proximity effect in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SS'IS''S) Josephson tunnel junctions has been developed for the general case of the finite critical temperature of the S' (S'') metal, arbitrary SS' (SS'') boundary transparency and the strength of the proximity effect between S and S' (respectively S and S''). The metals are assumed to be in the dirty limit and the thickness of the proximity layer is assumed to be small compared to its coherence length. The electrical properties of the SS'IS''S junction are calculated as a function of the strength of the proximity effect, boundary transparency, critical temperature ratio, and temperature. The experimentally determined electrical characteristics of a series of Nb/Al1, Al oxide, Al2/Nb junctions with varying thickness d1 of the Al1 layer were interpreted with this model. The current-voltage characteristics and the temperature dependence of the critical current and sum-gap voltage could be described quantitatively well without any other correction than the non-BCS ratio Δ0/kBTc~=1.93 of Nb. Deviations from the model for the junctions with the largest d1 are attributed to the fact that the Nb and Al are not fully in the dirty limit and d1 is not small compared to the coherence length.

  13. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel De la Sen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  14. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can range from mild to severe. In particular, vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) ... Some affected individuals have an unusually large head size ( macrocephaly ). People with proximal 18q deletion syndrome often ...

  16. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  17. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  18. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  19. [A case of proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the perineum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Takaya; Kamibeppu, Toyoharu; Hiromasa, Tukino; Mukai, Syoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Epithelioid sarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms which occur more often in young people. They tend to relapse, metastatize and show poor prognosis. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcomas arise from the more proximal part of body and are more malignant than distal-type epithelioid sarcomas. We present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma which occurred in the perineum. A 24-year-old male visited our hospital with the chief complaint of pain in the perineum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor 30×23×17 mm in diameter in the perineal region. The tumor was excised regionally and the pathological examination with immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. The patient is free of recurrence and metastasis one year after local excision.

  20. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  1. TETRAPOLIS - an exercise in building the complexities of proximity space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Blidariu; Diana Giurea

    2017-01-01

    ... student’s intuitive ways for understanding these vicinities, their physical and symbolic proximities, through participatory tactics and certain poetic/architectural tools required in the phenomenological build-up of space...

  2. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  3. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  4. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D

    2016-01-01

    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  5. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...

  6. Partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome: a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucaro, A; Faedda, A; Cao, A; Boccone, L

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of partial proximal trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) performed with whole chromosome 10 specific painting and specific yac clones. The phenotypic findings, compared to those found in other published cases with the same karyotype, support the recognition of a distinctive partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome (10q11-->q22).

  7. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  8. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  9. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-02-01

    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  10. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas

    1994-12-01

    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  12. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  13. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  14. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis After Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Gold, Meryl; Karlin, Lawrence

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective review of patients who had undergone vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) treatment at a single institution. To evaluate whether clinically significant proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) occurs after VEPTR insertion. PJK is a potential problem after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion. PJK after VEPTR insertion has not been well-described. A total of 68 patients underwent VEPTR treatment between 1999 and 2009. Diagnosis, age at time of VEPTR insertion, location of VEPTR anchors, preoperative and postoperative scoliosis, T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK, time from VEPTR insertion to development of PJK, revision procedure for significant PJK, change in PJK after the revision procedure, and PJK at final follow-up were recorded. Four patients developed PJK (6%). One patient had congenital scoliosis with rib fusions, 1 had scoliosis associated with a syndrome, and 2 had neuromuscular scoliosis. Mean follow-up was 5.7 years. Average T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK before VEPTR insertion were 77° and 14°, respectively. Mean T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK after VEPTR insertion were 63° and 33°, respectively. Average T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK before the recommended revision procedure for treatment of PJK were 89° and 53°, respectively. All patients developed PJK within the first year after VEPTR insertion. Two patients underwent revision to growing rods. One of these patients had preoperative halo-gravity traction. Mean PJK in these 2 patients improved from 39° to 18° after revision and remained stable at 19° at an average follow-up of 2.9 years. PJK after VEPTR insertion can occur. Patients with preoperative thoracic hyperkyphosis may be at higher risk. PJK can develop within the first year of VEPTR treatment, and can become progressive and severe enough to require complex interventions. In this small case series, patients were revised to growing rods. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximal Blade Twist Feedback Control for Heliogyro Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah Mitchell

    A heliogyro spacecraft is a specific type of solar sail that generates thrust from the reflection of solar photons. It consists of multiple long (200 to 600 meters), thin blades, similar to a helicopter. The heliogyro's blades remain in tension by spinning around the central hub of the spacecraft. The individual blades are pitched collectively or cyclically to produce the desired maneuver profile. The propellant-free heliogyro is a long-duration sustainable spacecraft whose maneuverability allows it to attain previously inaccessible orbits for traditional spacecraft. The blades are constructed from thin Mylar sheets, approximately 2.5 ?m thick, which have very little inherent damping making it necessary to include some other way of attenuating blade vibration caused by maneuvering. The most common approach is to incorporate damping through the root pitch actuator. However, due to the small root pitch control torques required, on the order of 2 ?Nm, compared to the large friction torques associated with a root pitch actuator, it is challenging to design a root control system that takes friction into account and can still add damping to the blade. The purpose of this research is to address the limitations of current control designs for a heliogyro spacecraft and to develop a physically realizable root pitch controller that effectively damps the torsional structural modes of a single heliogyro blade. Classical control theory in conjunction with impedance control techniques are used to design a position-source root pitch controller to dominate friction with high gains, wrapped with an outer loop that adds damping to the blade by sensing differential twist outboard of the blade root. First, modal parameter characterization experiments were performed on a small-scale heliogyro blade in a high vacuum chamber to determine a damping constant to be used in the membrane ladder finite element model of the blade. The experimental damping ratio of the lowest frequency torsional

  17. Event-triggered Decision Propagation in Proximity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik eSarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel event-triggered formulation as an extension of the recently develo-ped generalized gossip algorithm for decision/awareness propagation in mobile sensor networksmodeled as proximity networks. The key idea is to expend energy for communication (messagetransmission and reception only when there is any event of interest in the region of surveillance.The idea is implemented by using an agent’s belief about presence of a hotspot as feedback tochange its probability of (communication activity. In the original formulation, the evolution ofnetwork topology and the dynamics of decision propagation were completely decoupled whichis no longer the case as a consequence of this feedback policy. Analytical results and numeri-cal experiments are presented to show a significant gain in energy savings with no change inthe first moment characteristics of decision propagation. However, numerical experiments showthat the second moment characteristics may change and theoretical results are provided forupper and lower bounds for second moment characteristics. Effects of false alarms on networkformation and communication activity are also investigated.

  18. PHOTOJOURNALISM AND PROXIMITY IMAGES: two points of view, two professions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  19. Photojournalism and proximity images: two points of view, two professions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  20. The Hounsfield value for cortical bone geometry in the proximal humerus - an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Fat, Daren; Kennedy, Jim; Galvin, Rose; O' Brien, Fergal; Mc Grath, Frank; Mullett, Hannan [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Investigations Carried Out at Anatomy Lab, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-05-15

    Fractures of the proximal humerus represent a major osteoporotic burden. Recent developments in CT imaging have emphasized the importance of cortical bone thickness distribution in the prevention and management of fragility fractures. We aimed to experimentally define the CT density of cortical bone in the proximal humerus for building cortical geometry maps. With ethical approval, we used ten fresh-frozen human proximal humeri. These were stripped of all soft tissue and high-resolution CT images were then taken. The humeral heads were then subsequently resected to allow access to the metaphyseal area. Using curettes, cancellous bone was removed down to hard cortical bone. Another set of CT images of the reamed specimen was then taken. Using CT imaging software and a CAD interface, we then compared cortical contours at different CT density thresholds to the reference inner cortical contour of our reamed specimens. Working with 3D model representations of these cortical maps, we were able to accurately make distance comparison analyses based on different CT thresholds. We could compute a single closest value at 700 HU. No difference was found in the HU-based contours generated along the 500-900 HU pixels (p = 1.000). The contours were significantly different from those generated at 300, 400, 1,000, and 1,100 HU. A Hounsfield range of 500-900 HU can accurately depict cortical bone geometry in the proximal humerus. Thresholding outside this range leads to statistically significant inaccuracies. Our results concur with a similar range reported in the literature for the proximal femur. Knowledge of regional variations in cortical bone thickness has direct implications for basic science studies on osteoporosis and its treatment, but is also important for the orthopedic surgeon since our decision for treatment options is often guided by local bone quality. (orig.)

  1. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: the role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  2. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Research Institute for Computing and Information Systems (RICIS) activity, the reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Max satellite simulation. This activity is carried out in the software technology laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This interim report provides the status of the project and outlines the future plans.

  3. Longterm treatment of psoriasis using fumaric acid preparations can be associated with severe proximal tubular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    1999-12-01

    Fumaric acid preparations are used as longterm and effective treatment of psoriasis. Apart from gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological side-effects, transient renal damage was observed during treatment with fumaric acid. The case of a 38 year old woman who was treated with fumaric acid (420 mg bid) for 5 years before she complained of fatigue and weakness. According to clinical laboratory she had developed severe proximal tubular damage. Hypophosphatemia, glycosuria and proteinuria persisted although medication was stopped immediately.

  4. Spell Sequences, State Proximities, and Distance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Cees H.; Studer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Because optimal matching (OM) distance is not very sensitive to differences in the order of states, we introduce a subsequence-based distance measure that can be adapted to subsequence length, to subsequence duration, and to soft-matching of states. Using a simulation technique developed by Studer, we investigate the sensitivity, relative to OM,…

  5. Safety of intracorporeal circular stapling esophagojejunostomy using trans-orally inserted anvil (OrVil) following laparoscopic total or proximal gastrectomy - comparison with extracorporeal anastomosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Yoon Ju; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Jun Hyun; Kim, Wook

    2013-01-01

    There have been several attempts to develop a unique and easier way to perform esophagojejunostomy during laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy or laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The OrVil system...

  6. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Paul Aarne; Fang, Christian; Lau, Tak Wing; Leung, Frankie; Cheung, Nigel W K

    2015-08-01

    To report the outcome after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) through the deltoid-splitting approach for proximal humeral fractures. 10 men and 30 women aged 37 to 88 years underwent MIPO through the deltoid-splitting approach using the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System or the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate for 2-part (n=18), 3-part (n=20), and 4-part (n=2) proximal humeral fractures. The rehabilitation protocol was standardised. All 40 patients were followed up at 3 months, 34 (85%) at 6 months, 30 (75%) at one year, and 13 (33%) at 2 years. Two patients had malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis, infection, nerve palsy, or nonunion. The mean Constant score at one year and 2 years was 75 and 87.5, respectively. The Constant score at 6 months correlated to that at one year (r=0.926, pfracture grade, or hand dominance. MIPO for fixation of proximal humeral fractures using a locking plate is safe and effective in enabling an early return of shoulder function.

  7. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction.

  8. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  9. Results of the proximal humerus endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Mikailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection, compare the functional results with the results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with extensive damage of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin. Material and methods. Between 2001 and 2013 38 proximal humeral reconstructions were performed in our clinic: using monopolar endoprostheses - 26 (68% and modular systems with reversible head -12 (32%. The control group included 46 patients with extensive lesions of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin, operated in our clinic in the period from 2006 to 2012. Term follow-up of patients ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Assessment of functional results was carried out in a period from six months to one year. Results. The seven-year survival according the Kaplan - Meier method for patients with primary malignant tumors of the proximal humerus (25 patients was 77%. In the study group the average value of functional outcome MSTS score was 77.7%. Unipolar prosthesis showed a bad result, both in the control (61,3% MSTS, 60,7 Neer and in the main (67,7% MSTS, 61,1 Neer study groups. Conclusion. Currently the method of choice which doesn’t impair the oncologic component of treatment patients with shoulder neoplastic lesions is its replacement with modular reversible systems in combination with additional soft tissue fixation.

  10. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H

    2013-02-01

    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  11. Proximity Labeling of Interacting Proteins: Application of BioID as a Discovery Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Li; Di, Li-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Proteins perform biochemical functions by forming complexes, or protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Many different approaches such as phage display, yeast hybridization, etc. were developed to illustrate the PPIs, and disclose the composition and organization of protein complexes. However, none of these approaches are based on the real-time and in vivo PPI analysis. Proximity-dependent labeling (PDL) of interacting proteins has recently been proposed by taking advantage of several enzymes, which are capable of attaching the known reactive groups to the nearby proteins covalently. Among the PDL methods, BioID is the earliest and the most widely used one and has been upgraded from its prototype, making it an extremely convenient research tool. In this review, we describe the BioID technology development, its potential applications according to the nature of the target protein, and some recent efforts to circumvent the technical limitations. Moreover, some comparable PDL methods are introduced, including selective proteomic proximity labeling assay using tyramide, enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources, Proximity Labeling with Ascorbate Peroxidase, in vivo proximal labeling, etc., and we propose that systematic comparison of the working radius of these methods may be helpful to develop a tool box, from which the right method can be selected for a given target protein for PPI research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quantitative Simulation of the Superconducting Proximity Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method is developed to calculate the transition temperature of double or multi-layers consisting of films of super- and normal conductors. The approach is based on a dynamic interpretation of Gorkov's linear gap equation and is very flexible. The mean free path of the different metals, transmission through the interface, ratio of specular reflection to diffusive scattering at the surfaces, and fraction of diffusive scattering at the interface can be included. Furthermore it is pos...

  13. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene...

  14. The Proximity Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Brown, G; Cragg, D; Crook, M; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlowska, A H; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; ten Kate, H H J; Rochford, J; Sole, D

    2002-01-01

    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  15. The proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroidal magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; ten Kate, H.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, G.; Cragg, D.; Crook, M.; Orlowska, A. H.; Rochford, J.; Sole, D.; Mayri, C.

    2002-05-01

    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  16. How to improve outcome in surgery for Proximal Hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the role of subdartos fascial tissue as watertight layer in improving outcome for 2-stage proximal hypospadias surgery. The experimental study was conducted at the Department of Urology, Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised an audit of patients with proximal hypospadias who underwent surgery from July 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011. The initial two-stage repair of proximal hypospadias led to a high rate of urethrocutanous fistula formation (Group A), and, thus, a modification was introduced and subdartos facial double layer was applied over the urethral suture line (Group B). The results were compared regarding age, type of hypospadias, graft failure and urethrocutanous fistula in these patients. There were 27 patients in Group A and 16(59.3%) of them ended up having urethrocutanous fistula. Group B had 25 patients and only 2(8%) had fistula formation. The application of dartos facial flap waterproofing layer reduced fistula rate.

  17. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  18. Software Modules for the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Veregge, John R.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David

    2012-01-01

    The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) protocol provides time distribution and synchronization services for space systems. A software prototype implementation of the PITS algorithm has been developed that also provides the test harness to evaluate the key functionalities of PITS with simulated data source and sink. PITS integrates time synchronization functionality into the link layer of the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol. The software prototype implements the network packet format, data structures, and transmit- and receive-timestamp function for a time server and a client. The software also simulates the transmit and receive-time stamp exchanges via UDP (User Datagram Protocol) socket between a time server and a time client, and produces relative time offsets and delay estimates.

  19. Management of difficult intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Xing, S G; Mailaender, P; Stang, F

    2015-01-01

    Intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are difficult clinically because the bone and soft tissue structures are small and intricate. Suboptimal treatment of intra-articular fractures typically leads to functional impairment of the hand. This article reviews the current methods of treatment, together with the senior author's experience in treating difficult proximal interphalangeal joint fractures and dislocations. Besides conservative treatments, surgical treatments include open or closed reduction with traditional Osteosynthesis, such as K-wires, screws or plates. Among recent developments are the percutaneous application of thin cannulated compression screws and novel dynamic external fixators. After a preferred minimally invasive treatment with stable reconstruction of the articular surface, sufficient aftercare is necessary to improve surgical outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Research Techniques Made Simple: Emerging Methods to Elucidate Protein Interactions through Spatial Proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yonglu; Khavari, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between proteins are essential for fundamental cellular processes, and the diversity of such interactions enables the vast variety of functions essential for life. A persistent goal in biological research is to develop assays that can faithfully capture different types of protein interactions to allow their study. A major step forward in this direction came with a family of methods that delineates spatial proximity of proteins as an indirect measure of protein-protein interaction. A variety of enzyme- and DNA ligation-based methods measure protein co-localization in space, capturing novel interactions that were previously too transient or low affinity to be identified. Here we review some of the methods that have been successfully used to measure spatially proximal protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Tissue Propagation Model for Validating Close-Proximity Biomedical Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Q.; Herzig, P.; Weller, T.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of thermally-generated electromagnetic emissions through stratified human tissue is studied herein using a non-coherent mathematical model. The model is developed to complement subsurface body temperature measurements performed using a close proximity microwave radiometer. The model takes into account losses and reflections as thermal emissions propagate through the body, before being emitted at the skin surface. The derivation is presented in four stages and applied to the human core phantom, a physical representation of a stomach volume of skin, muscle, and blood-fatty tissue. A drop in core body temperature is simulated via the human core phantom and the response of the propagation model is correlated to the radiometric measurement. The results are comparable, with differences on the order of 1.5 - 3%. Hence the plausibility of core body temperature extraction via close proximity radiometry is demonstrated, given that the electromagnetic characteristics of the stratified tissue layers are known.

  2. Detection of driver drowsiness using wearable devices: A feasibility study of the proximity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; Choi, William; Yang, Yan; Lu, Junshi; Wu, Xiaohui; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-11-01

    Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving. Drowsy drivers increased frequency of eye blinks, produced longer braking response time and increased lane deviation, compared to when they were alert. A threshold algorithm for proximity sensor can reliably detect eye blinks and proved the feasibility of using Google Glass to detect operator drowsiness. This technology provides a new platform to detect operator drowsiness and has the potential to reduce drowsiness-related crashes in driving and aviation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P associated with malnutrition in the country.

  4. Proximal Remote Sensing Buggies and Potential Applications for Field-Based Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Deery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The achievements made in genomic technology in recent decades are yet to be matched by fast and accurate crop phenotyping methods. Such crop phenotyping methods are required for crop improvement efforts to meet expected demand for food and fibre in the future. This review evaluates the role of proximal remote sensing buggies for field-based phenotyping with a particular focus on the application of currently available sensor technology for large-scale field phenotyping. To illustrate the potential for the development of high throughput phenotyping techniques, a case study is presented with sample data sets obtained from a ground-based proximal remote sensing buggy mounted with the following sensors: LiDAR, RGB camera, thermal infra-red camera and imaging spectroradiometer. The development of such techniques for routine deployment in commercial-scale breeding and pre-breeding operations will require a multidisciplinary approach to leverage the recent technological advances realised in computer science, image analysis, proximal remote sensing and robotics.

  5. Transparent and flexible cellulose nanocrystal/reduced graphene oxide film for proximity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Kafy, Abdullahil; Zhai, Lindong; Ko, Hyun-U; Mun, Seongcheol; Kim, Jaehwan

    2015-02-25

    The rapid development of touch screens as well as photoelectric sensors has stimulated the fabrication of reliable, convenient, and human-friendly devices. Other than sensors that detect physical touch or are based on pressure sensing, proximity sensors offer controlled sensibility without physical contact. In this work we present a transparent and eco-friendly sensor made through layer-by-layer spraying of modified graphene oxide filled cellulose nanocrystals on lithographic patterns of interdigitated electrodes on polymer substrates, which help to realize the precise location of approaching objects. Stable and reproducible signals generated by keeping the finger in close proximity to the sensor can be controlled by humidity, temperature, and the distance and number of sprayed layers. The chemical modification and reduction of the graphene oxide/cellulose crystal composite and its excellent nanostructure enable the development of proximity sensors with faster response and higher sensitivity, the integration of which resolves nearly all of the technological issues imposed on optoelectronic sensing devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  7. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal

    2014-09-25

    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  8. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  9. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  10. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  11. Arthroscopic-assisted removal of proximal tibia locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gille Justus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a new technique to remove plates from the proximal tibia arthroscopic-assisted with all advantages of the minimally invasive surgery and the possibility to treat concomitant intraarticular pathologies. The initial results (n = 7 are promising with an increase of the Lysholm score in all cases studied [preop. median 78 (range 32–100, postop. median 89 (range 60–100]. In conclusion, arthroscopic-assisted hardware removal at the proximal tibia is feasible and may provide patients with all the benefits of minimal-invasive hardware removal. The described technique can be recommended for all surgeons familiar with arthroscopic surgery.

  12. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Uchida, K; Shiomi, Y; Qiu, Z; Hou, D; Tian, D; Nakayama, H; Jin, X-F; Saitoh, E

    2013-02-08

    This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

  13. Proximal focal humeral deficiency in a large breed dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalff, S; Gemmill, T

    2012-01-01

    A 26-week-old female Boerboel was referred for evaluation of progressive left thoracic limb lameness. Computed tomography and radiographic evaluation revealed radiolucency of the caudal region of the proximal humeral metaphysis, absence of the humeral head, and gross distortion of the glenoid. Given the severe glenohumeral deformation, arthrodesis of the left shoulder was performed using orthogonal locking bone plates, lag screw fixation, and bone grafting. Despite late implant failure, arthrodesis was successful in this case, and satisfactory limb function was restored. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a case of a focal developmental deficiency of the proximal humerus reported in a dog.

  14. Defining trauma: How level of exposure and proximity affect risk for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Casey L; Wisco, Blair E

    2016-03-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes significant changes to Criterion A for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the criterion that defines which events qualify as "traumatic." This systematic review explores the fundamental question of how to define a trauma by reviewing the difference between direct and indirect trauma exposure and the risk for PTSD associated with both exposure types. Direct exposure includes experiencing a trauma firsthand or witnessing a trauma as it occurs to others. In contrast, indirect exposure may occur by learning about the violent or accidental death of a close associate, through secondary narrative accounts (e.g., in service-related professions), or through work-related media reports. This review examines whether indirect trauma exposure can lead to PTSD and the role of proximity in symptom development. We conducted a systematic review of the research assessing changes to PTSD Criterion A in DSM-5, various levels of traumatic exposure, and proximity as a risk factor for PTSD. Our review indicates that indirect exposure can lead to PTSD, although the probability of developing the disorder from indirect exposure is lower than that from direct exposure. Proximity to a trauma also increases risk, but this may be limited to direct exposure. Knowledge of the impact of level of exposure (direct vs. indirect) and proximity will help to better define what events meet PTSD Criterion A. Future research is needed to examine DSM-5's requirement that exposure through media must be related to one's work. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  16. Automated Acquisition of Proximal Femur Morphological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakovic, Slobodan; Zeljkovic, Milan; Milojevic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    The success of the hip arthroplasty surgery largely depends on the endoprosthesis adjustment to the patient's femur. This implies that the position of the femoral bone in relation to the pelvis is preserved and that the endoprosthesis position ensures its longevity. Dimensions and body shape of the hip joint endoprosthesis and its position after the surgery depend on a number of geometrical parameters of the patient's femur. One of the most suitable methods for determination of these parameters involves 3D reconstruction of femur, based on diagnostic images, and subsequent determination of the required geometric parameters. In this paper, software for automated determination of geometric parameters of the femur is presented. Detailed software development procedure for the purpose of faster and more efficient design of the hip endoprosthesis that ensures patients' specific requirements is also offered

  17. In vivo Biotinylation Based Method for the Study of Protein-Protein Proximity in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kulyyassov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The spatiotemporal order plays an important role in cell functioning and is affected in many pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the ultimate goals of molecular biology is reconstruction of the spatiotemporal structure of a living cell at the molecular level. This task includes determination of proximities between different molecular components in the cell and monitoring their time- and physiological state-dependent changes. In many cases, proximity between macromolecules arises due to their interactions; however, the contribution of dynamic self-organization in generation of spatiotemporal order is emerging as another viable possibility. Specifically, in proteomics, this implies that the detection of protein-protein proximity is a more general task than gaining information about physical interactions between proteins, as it could detail aspects of spatial order in vivo that are challenging to reconstitute in binding experiments in vitro. Methods: In this work, we have developed a method of monitoring protein-protein proximity in vivo. For this purpose, the BirA was fused to one of the interaction partners, whereas the BAP was modified to make the detection of its biotinylation possible by mass spectrometry. Results: Using several experimental systems, we showed that the biotinylation is interaction dependent. In addition, we demonstrated that BAP domains with different primary amino acid structures and thus with different molecular weights can be used in the same experiment, providing the possibility of multiplexing. Alternatively to the changes in primary amino acid structure, the stable isotope format can also be used, providing another way to perform multiplexing experiments. Finally, we also demonstrated that our system could help to overcome another limitation of current methodologies to detect protein-protein proximity. For example, one can follow the state of a protein of interest at a defined

  18. Reducing resource utilization during non-operative treatment of pediatric proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstein, A Z; Schade, A T; Howard, A W; Camp, M W

    2017-02-01

    The majority of proximal humeral fractures in the skeletally immature are treated non-operatively. Operative indications vary but are largely based on degree of displacement. Non-union is rare. Non-operatively treated fractures are typically monitored radiographically to assess healing. We hypothesize that the decision to treat fractures operatively is made at the time of first imaging and that follow-up X-rays do not lead to a change in management. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 239 patients treated for proximal humerus fractures over a 5-year period. There were 225 who were treated non-operatively. Records were reviewed for the number of clinic visits and radiographs, as well as any change to operative management based on follow-up X-rays. The primary outcome of the study was the proportion of proximal humerus fractures, initially treated non-operatively, for which displacement or angulation on follow-up radiographs led to a change to operative treatment. Secondary outcomes were the number of follow-up radiographs obtained after the initial diagnosis and initiation of non-operative treatment. Of the 225 patients that were initially managed non-operatively, only 1 patient required subsequent surgical management. This patient underwent a proximal humerus epiphysiodesis 365 days from injury after development of a partial growth arrest. The mean number of fracture clinic visits for patients managed non-operatively was 2.67 (±1.24). The mean number of radiology department visits and radiographs obtained was 3.57 (±1.44) and 8.36 (±3.89) respectively. No clinical or radiographic non-unions were identified in these patients. No patients suffered a refracture during the review period. This study shows that of the 239 uncomplicated pediatric proximal humerus fractures treated at our hospital over a 5-year period, only 1 had a change in treatment plan, from non-operative to operative, based on follow-up radiographs. These data suggest that non

  19. Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Properties of Selected Fruits in Batangas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielli Katherine C. Untalan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Five selected fruits in Batangas namely banana (Musa lacatan, chico (Manilkarasapota, papaya (Carica papaya L., pomelo (Citrus grandis and tamarind (Tamarindicusindica were analyzed for their proximate analysis, antioxidant properties and antioxidant activity. The study aimed to make a baseline database using the information obtained which will be useful for further studies and improvement of existing products and food processes and for development of new ones. Among the five selected fruits, tamarind got the highest ash content of 12.51%, crude protein of 4.68%, crude fat of 3.39% and total carbohydrates of 46.67% but the lowest moisture content of 33.45%. Pomelo got the highest moisture content of 91.74% while chico got the highest crude fiber content of 2.64%. Papaya had the lowest total carbohydrates of 7.54% while banana had the lowest crude fiber content of 0.51%. For the antioxidant properties, tamarind had the highest TFC of 0.007 mg quercetin / L, TPC of 0.223 mg gallic acid / L, and Vitamin C of 1024.41 mg/100cm³ while papaya had the highest Beta-carotene content of 286μg/100g. The selected fruits exerted remarkable antioxidant properties. Pomelowith 94.4% hadthe strongest antioxidant activity followed by chico with 91.96%, then banana with 90.84%, papaya with 88.72% and lastly by tamarind with only 70.69%. Based on the statistical treatment of results, there were significant differences in the antioxidant properties and antioxidant activity of selected fruits in Batangas.

  20. Structural evidence for counter-current flow in proximal tubules versus pertitubular capillaries in the rat kidney. Evaluation of the counter-current mechanism between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Hegedüs, V

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the very high exchange of water and solutes between the proximal tubules and the peritubular capillaries, very little is known about flow directions in these two interrelated structures. We therefore developed a morphological technique suitable for the quantitative...... evaluation of a counter-current system between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in rat renal cortex. METHODS: In male pentothal-anesthetized Wistar rats (body weight 200-250 g), India ink was injected into the aorta above the renal arteries, followed by instant freezing...... of the right kidney in isopentane at -165 degrees C, and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. In microscopic slides from kidneys in which only 20-55% of the cortical peritubular capillary loops was filled with ink--representing the arterial end of the capillaries--and in which the proximal tubular...

  1. The Reliability of Classifications of Proximal Femoral Fractures with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: The New Concept of Comprehensive Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kijima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of proximal femoral fracture classifications using 3DCT was evaluated, and a comprehensive “area classification” was developed. Eleven orthopedists (5–26 years from graduation classified 27 proximal femoral fractures at one hospital from June 2013 to July 2014 based on preoperative images. Various classifications were compared to “area classification.” In “area classification,” the proximal femur is divided into 4 areas with 3 boundary lines: Line-1 is the center of the neck, Line-2 is the border between the neck and the trochanteric zone, and Line-3 links the inferior borders of the greater and lesser trochanters. A fracture only in the first area was classified as a pure first area fracture; one in the first and second area was classified as a 1-2 type fracture. In the same way, fractures were classified as pure 2, 3-4, 1-2-3, and so on. “Area classification” reliability was highest when orthopedists with varying experience classified proximal femoral fractures using 3DCT. Other classifications cannot classify proximal femoral fractures if they exceed each classification’s particular zones. However, fractures that exceed the target zones are “dangerous” fractures. “Area classification” can classify such fractures, and it is therefore useful for selecting osteosynthesis methods.

  2. Different mosaicism frequencies for proximal and distal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mutations indicate difference in etiology and recurrence risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos-Bueno, M.R.; Takata, R.I.; Rapaport, D.; Bakker, E.; Kneppers, A.L.J.; Dunnen, J.T. den; Ommen, J.B. van

    1992-11-01

    In about 65% of the cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) a partial gene deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene can be detected. These mutations are clustered at two hot spots: 30% at the hot spot in the proximal part of the gene and about 70% at a more distal hot spot. Unexpectedly the authors observed a higher frequency of proximal gene rearrangements among proved germ line' mosaic cases. Of the 24 mosaic cases they are aware of, 19 (79%) have a proximal mutation, while only 5 (21%) have a distal mutation. This finding indicates that the mutations at the two hot spots in the dystrophin gene differ in origin. Independent support for the different mosaicism frequency was found by comparing the mutation spectra observed in isolated cases of DMD and familial cases (ratio 1:1). The authors conclude from these data that proximal deletions most likely occur early in embryonic development, causing them to have a higher chance of becoming familial, while distal deletions occur later and have a higher chance of causing only isolated cases. Finally, the findings have important consequences for the calculation of recurrence-risk estimates according to the site of the deletion: a [open quote]proximal[close quote] new mutant has an increased recurrence risk of approximately 30%, and a [open quote]distal[close quote] new mutant has a decreased recurrence risk of approximately 4%. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Aircraft dynamics, wind tunnel testing, and CFD flow visualization of two linked UAVs flying at close proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuji, Edgar A.; Lukaczyk, Trent W.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of close proximity aerodynamics and aircraft dynamics of two Linked UAVs. As the UAVs approach each other for wingtip docking there will be strong aerodynamic coupling between their wings tips. Lifting line and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation as well as wind tunnel testing of close proximity effects on lift, drag, roll, pitch and yaw moments for two UAV wings has been performed. The proximity aerodynamics effects between the UAVs wings were analyzed as a function of its relative position in all three directions. A look-up library of aerodynamic forces and moments for relative positions and angles of attack between the two UAVs has been developed. In this study we examined how the close proximity aerodynamics affects the dynamics and stability of the UAVs. The aircraft dynamics analysis is done in Simulink, which will include the close proximity aerodynamic look-up library. An aerodynamic disturbance intensity field will be generated, utilizing both simulation and wind tunnel data, to determine a trajectory for the two UAVs to approach each other for docking.

  4. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    An autodock was demonstrated using straightforward techniques and real sensor hardware. A simulation testbed was established and validated. The sensor design was refined with improved optical performance and image processing noise mitigation techniques, and the sensor is ready for production from off-the-shelf components. The autonomous spacecraft architecture is defined. The areas of sensors, docking hardware, propulsion, and avionics are included in the design. The Guidance Navigation and Control architecture and requirements are developed. Modular structures suitable for automated control are used. The spacecraft system manager functions including configuration, resource, and redundancy management are defined. The requirements for autonomous spacecraft executive are defined. High level decisionmaking, mission planning, and mission contingency recovery are a part of this. The next step is to do flight demonstrations. After the presentation the following question was asked. How do you define validation? There are two components to validation definition: software simulation with formal and vigorous validation, and hardware and facility performance validated with respect to software already validated against analytical profile.

  5. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo

    2015-03-01

    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement

  6. Musicians' and nonmusicians' short-term memory for verbal and musical sequences: comparing phonological similarity and pitch proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2010-03-01

    Language-music comparative studies have highlighted the potential for shared resources or neural overlap in auditory short-term memory. However, there is a lack of behavioral methodologies for comparing verbal and musical serial recall. We developed a visual grid response that allowed both musicians and nonmusicians to perform serial recall of letter and tone sequences. The new method was used to compare the phonological similarity effect with the impact of an operationalized musical equivalent-pitch proximity. Over the course of three experiments, we found that short-term memory for tones had several similarities to verbal memory, including limited capacity and a significant effect of pitch proximity in nonmusicians. Despite being vulnerable to phonological similarity when recalling letters, however, musicians showed no effect of pitch proximity, a result that we suggest might reflect strategy differences. Overall, the findings support a limited degree of correspondence in the way that verbal and musical sounds are processed in auditory short-term memory.

  7. [Contralateral preventive screwing in proximal femoral epiphysiolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, I; Damsin, J P; Carlioz, H

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of bilaterality in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) ranges, in the literature, from 19 per cent to 80 per cent. The role of contralateral pinning is to prevent late slipping of the femoral epiphysis and its complications. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of routine preventive contralateral pinning in SCFE, and to evaluate its complications. We reviewed retrospectively 74 consecutive patients treated for unilateral SCFE by associated routine preventive contralateral pinning. The age at surgery ranged from 10 years and 6 months to 16 years and 10 months. The osteosynthesis was achieved by a single cannulated holothreaded screw with a cross grooved head, with or without the use of washers. An accidental pin penetration was noted in 4 cases. The epiphyseal position of the screw was satisfactory in 56 cases. The patient was allowed to walk the second or third day after surgery with the use of crutches. All our patients were reviewed after the end of squeletal growth. The follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 years and 8 months. The age at which the patient was last seen ranged from 15 years and 7 months to 27 years. Two major complications were noted: a femoral fracture at the level of the screw penetration in one case, and secondary slipping of the epiphysis after premature removal of the screw in two cases. The removal of the screw was considered to be very difficult in 10 cases. A relative overgrowth of the greater trochanter was noted in 8 cases, and was of no clinical significance. No infection was noted. At last follow-up, the shape of the femoral head and the function of the hip were normal in all cases except for one hip where severe coxa vara developed because of a secondary slip after premature removal of the screw. There is a lot of controversy about the real necessity of routine preventive contralateral osteosynthesis in SCFE. In our experience this surgery succeeded in reducing the incidence of secondary contralateral

  8. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste Disposal Sites in Nigeria. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  9. PROXIMAL RADIUS RECONSTRUCTION BY METATARSAL OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTO GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  10. outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through decreased bone mineral density, disruption of bone micro-architecture and reduction in non- collagenous proteins. Proximal humerus fractures are difficult to manage, particularly in the osteoporotic bone, where the fracture is usually .... is followed by pendulum shoulder exercises which gradually graduate to active ...

  11. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  12. Case report of LCP pediatric hip osteosynthesis of a proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report demonstrating the experience of the department of pediatric orthopaedics of the University Orthopedic Hospital at Sofia Medical University in the treatment of an intertrochanteric proximal femoral fracture in a child with osteopetrosis. We performed open fracture reduction with stable 120° LCP ...

  13. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  14. Noncycling mappings and best proximity pair results in Hilbert and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new class of noncyclic mappings, called generalized noncyclic relatively nonexpansive, is introduced and used to study the existence of best proximity pairs in the setting of uniformly convex Banach spaces. We also obtain a weak convergence theorem for noncyclic relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of ...

  15. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    It decreases the rate of fistula formation; disruption; stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Index Word: proximal hypospadias, two stages repair. ... Second procedure: a) formation of the neo-urethra, b) skin closure, c) dressing. Complete degloving of the penile shaft was performed till its base. Then artificial ...

  16. Fractures of the proximal humerus in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Raj Joshi, Dr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most children proximal humeral fractures are treated non-operatively with generally good results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of closed/open reduction in children with severely displaced proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The charts of 15 patients (8 girls and 7 boys; mean age: 9.4 years with proximal humeral fractures who were managed at our institution were reviewed from October 2011 to December 2013. Results: There were 7 metaphyseal fractures and 8 physeal injuries which were angulated according to Neer-Horowitz score as grade II (n=2, grade III(n=4 and grade IV(n=9. Associated lesions comprised open fracture with head trauma in a 2 year old female child which was operated on primarily and the 14 others by secondary intention. All patients were treated surgically with either closed (n = 5 or open (n=10 reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wire or titanium elastic nails (TENs. They were assessed for clinical and radiological healing at a mean follow up of 1.25 years ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 years. Conclusion: Surgical option is indicated for severely displaced and unstable fractures in older children and adolescents. In addition to the periosteum , long head of the biceps, deltoid muscle, and bone fragments in combination can prevent fracture reduction. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture, Children, Open reduction, Operative.

  17. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  18. Proximate composition of traditional local sorghum beer “dolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dolo is a local beer manufactured from malted sorghum grains. It is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage in Burkina Faso (60% of population). Thirty (30) samples of dolo were collected from local markets in Ouagadougou and analyzed with respect to their proximate compositions and pH values using ...

  19. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect(s) of cooking fresh fish (Lake Malawi tilapia) by boiling, roasting, pan frying and, using a locally made fireless cooker) on its proximate (protein, fat, ash and moisture) and mineral (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus) composition. Highest and lowest values for crude protein were ...

  20. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of five agricultural wastes were determined and latter subjected to low temperature conversion process in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere.These agricultural wastes are Cocos nucifera husk,Theobroma cacao pod, Kola nitida pods and Plantago major peels(ripe and unripe peels). All the ...

  1. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  2. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  3. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  4. Oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: a mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1987-01-01

    This study presents a dynamic continuous time model of the regulation of the renal proximal intratubular pressure in the rat. The model integrates a functional model of the glomerulus, a tubular model, a feedback model, and an afferent arteriolar model. The model has one equilibrium solution for ...

  5. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    and child health services in Ethiopia were one of the main aims of the health extension program. The impediment of ... Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A ... its link to the success of reproductive health programs and policies ...

  6. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  7. Seasonal variations in the proximate compositions of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania were determined using standard methods and procedures of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. Samples of Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea, Limnothrissa miodon ...

  8. Two stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 700 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Two stages procedure using the principles of Byar's technique is a versatile operation that can be used for 2 two-stage procedures the proximal hypospadias. It decreases the rate of fistula formation, disruption, and stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance.

  9. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  10. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  11. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  12. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  13. 7383 EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHOD ON THE PROXIMATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tilahun

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products. Boiling and fermentation processing techniques are widely used in the country, especially ...

  14. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day ...

  15. Proximal femoral nail: a minimally invasive treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: In our study patients who presented to department of orthopaedics, Katuri Medical College between January 2013 and December 2014, with intertrochanteric fractures were included and treated with Proximal Femoral Nail. Total of 82 patients were included in the study. Medically unfit patients and ...

  16. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  17. Do Proximate Micro-Swimmers Synchronize their Gait?

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M; Bau, Haim H

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we show that low Reynolds number swimmers, such as Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans, synchronize their gait when swimming in close proximity to maximize utilization of space. Synchronization most likely results from steric hindrance and enhances the propulsive speed only marginally.

  18. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  19. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  20. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  1. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  2. Proximate and elemental composition of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at investigating the proximate contents, concentrations of some micro/macroelements and anions of the stem bark and leaves of B. rufescens with the view of validating its used as forage and medicinally by man in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and in wound healing. The stem bark and leaves of ...

  3. Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit) ... It was concluded that the pulp of Adansonia digitata is an important source of vitamin C, while the seed is a potential source of edible oil, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Keywords: Baobab, Adansonia ...

  4. Effect Of Processing On The Proximate, Mineral, And Pasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Processing On The Proximate, Mineral, And Pasting Properties Of Whole Flour Made From Some New Plantain And Banana Hybrids Pulp And Peel ... Whole plantain and banana flour may constitute an important feeding stuff for livestock, which may eventually provide protein in human diet from consumption of ...

  5. Proximate and mineral composition of six commercially important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016 on the proximate and mineral composition of six species of fish from Obueyinomo River in Edo State, Nigeria. The six (6) species are M. electricus, C. gariepinus, T. zilli, A. monkei, P. obscura, P. africana. Biochemical assay of moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, ...

  6. Rate of water absorption and proximate analysis of different varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water absorption and proximate composition of four varieties of maize; sweet corn, pop corn, white corn and yellow corn soaked at different temperatures and time duration were determined. Absorption increased with increase in temperatures and time but generally low at 45°C. The total average rate of hydration at different ...

  7. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  8. The Grammaticalization of the Proximative in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses grammaticalization of "laik" in Tok Pisin, meaning "want/like/desire" (from English "like") and "klostu," meaning "near" (from English "close to") as markers of proximative. Shows although "klostu" was more generally a feature of Pacific Pidgin English and began to…

  9. Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral contents of Leaves and Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, proximate and mineral contents of Ficus capensis (leaves & bark) were analyzed, using Trease and Evans and Harboure procedure, the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Flame Photometry respectively. This study is aimed at ...

  10. Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Tona

    and well-being of the populace. There is regular supply of different kinds of animal protein sources. The keeping of sheep and goats in rural communities is an age long practice in Nigeria. The West ... the amount of methane produced as reported by Fievezet al. (2005). .... negatively to global warming. Table 2: Proximate ...

  11. Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants around the University of Agriculture Makurdi Wildlife Park were investigated. The selected plants were Anona senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tacca leontopetaloides and Vitex doniana. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique was employed to ...

  12. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., feeders, loaders/muckers, track equipment, trucks, roof bolting machines, and mobile bridge conveyors... which you rely. Include experiences, data, models, calculations, studies and articles, and standard... outreach and/or training in the area of proximity detection (e.g., red zone warning materials). How often...

  13. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint, do not miss it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wulfften Palthe, A.F.Y.; Musters, L.; Sonnega, R.J.A.; van der Sluijs, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with a right proximal tibiofibular dislocation she sustained after a fall during roller skating. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs confirmed the diagnosis; there were no other injuries. The dislocation was reduced by direct manipulation after

  14. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, trace metals and amino acids composition of Celosia argentea were determined. The crude fat, fibre and protein contents were moderate with 1.10, 3.53 and 5.17% respectively while high in the ash content (22.43%). Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with ...

  15. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The envelopes were put into an oven set at 60°C for 6 h. Seeds of each plant species were milled ... This research work recommends that little quantities of these seeds should be taken periodically to minimize the adverse effects arising from consuming large quantities of the seeds. Key words: Proximate, oil, Poga oleosa, ...

  16. Performance, proximate and mineral analyses of African giant land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, proximate and mineral analyses of African giant land snail ( Archachatina marginata ) fed different nitrogen sources. ... Analysis of the Hemolymph mineral composition revealed that snails fed Diet I had the highest value for Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ while the highest value in Na+ and Zn2+ was recorded in snails ...

  17. Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Constituents of Forage Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five non-conventional forage legumes used as alternative plant protein sources in livestock nutrition in Nigeria were assayed for proximate and anti-nutritional compositions. The forages, Cajanus cajan, Vigna radiata, Mucuna ghana, Mucuna conchinchinensis and Mucuna rajada were harvested at emergence, 4 and 8 ...

  18. Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water binding capacity was affected in the order boiled > roasted > steeped > control. No significant change was observed for oil absorption capacity of the processed samples when compared with increase observed in water binding capacity. Key Words: Plantain, proximate composition, functional properties and ...

  19. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2004-01-01

    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  20. local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2. S.A. Shomkegh and. 3. Mbakwe, R. 1. Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State. ... Key words: Local Perception, Proximate Analysis, Edible Forest Plants, Focused Group. Discussions. INTRODUCTION ..... Deciduous Forests of India: An Explorative. Study Towards Non ...

  1. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Nigerian soups (Egusi soup and bitter leaf soup) were prepared and freeze - dried to produce instant soups. These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 ...

  2. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  3. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to know if and to which extent proximity to waste disposal sites or treatment plants depresses residential property values for many reasons. Whether as a measure of the impact of the sites on health and general welfare of the resident, or to ascertain the degree of monetary depression that would be suffered by ...

  4. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  5. Unilateral proximal focal femoral deficiency, fibular aplasia, tibial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Unilateral proximal focal femoral deficiency, fibular aplasia, tibial campomelia and oligosyndactyly in an Egyptian child – Probable. FFU syndrome. Rabah M. ... Our patient is an Egyptian male child, fifteen months old, the third in order of .... 4th and 5th metatarsal bones are absent), absent middle phalanx.

  6. Proximate Compositions and physical properties of selected maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions and physical properties of five different maize grain varieties, Oba Supa, DMR, Popcorn, local Tiv and SWAM 1 were determined in accordance with established methods. Significant differences (P≤ 0.05) were found in the moisture, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and fat contents among the varieties.

  7. Effect of Processing Methods on the Proximate and Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four methods of processing were assessed to investigate the effect of processing methods on the digestibility, proximate and energy composition of Lablab purpureus (Rongai) beans. The processing methods were boiling (in water), fermentation, toasting and fermentation plus toasting. Some of The beans were boiled for 0, ...

  8. Irreducible Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation of the Fourth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dislocation of the interphalangeal joint of the toe is a very rare injury and there are only few published reports. Most of the cases reported are those of the hallucal interphalangeal joint. There are only very few reports of complex dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth toe in the world literature. Nigerian ...

  9. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  10. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials & Methods: During the period from June 2002 to December 2009, I performed 33 cases with proximal hypospadias, at Demerdash hospital; Ain Shams University; department of paediatric surgery. Data were collected retrospectively and included patient's age at operation, degree of the hypospadias, degree of ...

  11. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  12. Unilateral proximal focal femoral deficiency, fibular aplasia, tibial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dominant mutation with possible gonadal mosaicism and with variable expression in the family, as limb anomaly in one child and cyanotic congenital heart disease in another child. Keywords: Short femur; Limb anomaly; FFU syndrome; Proximal focal femoral deficiency; Fibular aplasia; Tibial campomelia; Oligosyndactyly ...

  13. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Zeki Demir. Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Düzce University. Konuralp, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. E-mail: zekidemir@duzce.edu.tr. Tel: +90-380-5421136. Fax: +90-380-5421136. Accepted 18 August, 2010. The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress.

  14. Effect of Graded Bambara Nut Flour on Proximate Composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and some physico-chemical properties were determined using the parameters of protein, fat, fibre, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, swelling capacity, foam capacity, foam stability, loose and packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, pH and TTA. The protein content of the samples ranged between ...

  15. Proximity Effect at Graphene - High Tc Superconductor Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Shih, En-Min; Arefe, Ghidewon; Kim, Youngduck; Edelberg, Drew; Andrade, Erick; Wang, Dennis; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Pasupathy, Abhay; Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA Collaboration

    The proximity effect is a well-known mesoscopic phenomenon where Cooper pairs from a superconductor (S) enter into a normal metal (N) that is well coupled to it. Since graphene was discovered a decade ago, the proximity effect at superconductor-graphene junctions has been extensively studied and interesting phenomena such as specular Andreev reflection and ballistic transport at graphene Josephson junctions have been observed. However, superconductors used in these experiments to date are of conventional low Tc, such as aluminum(Tc=1.2K), NbSe2(Tc=7K), and MoRe(Tc=8K). Understanding how the proximity effect works between high-Tc superconductors (pnictides and cuprates) and the Dirac Fermions of graphene remains largely unexplored. The chief technical challenge here is to create high-quality junctions between high-Tc superconductors and graphene. In this work, we will introduce a home-made setup that allows us to exfoliate, transfer and encapsulate superconductor-graphene junctions in a well controlled inert atmosphere. Transport measurements of the proximity effect at graphene-iron pnictide(FeSe, FeTeSe) and graphene-cuprate(BSCCO) junctions will be described.

  16. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i2.14. Keywords: locations, moringa, LGA, proximate composition, soil factors. Moringa leaves contain more vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more potassium than bananas, and more vitamin C than oranges. The leaves are considered to offer great.

  17. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the exotic vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are cabbage, lettuce, cauli-flower and turnip leafy as well as stems such as Carrot (Aliyu, 2006). ... at 550°C for 48 h, proximate chemical composition of each vegetable sample was carried out to determine the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ...

  18. Comparison of proximate and fatty acid compositions of wild brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fatty acid and proximate composition of two commercially exploited trout species (wild brown trout (WBT) and farmed rainbow trout (FRT)). The mean crude lipid content in FRT (4.3%) was significantly higher than that in WBT (2.7%). Total saturated fatty acid concentration ...

  19. Proximate and chemical composition of three species of snails in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to determine the proximate and chemical composition of three common species of snails in Nigeria. The species were Archachatina marginata (T1), Achatina achatina (T2), and Achatina fulica (T3). The three species constituted the three treatments and thirty-six adult snails were used for this trial ...

  20. Proximate, Physical And Sensory Properties Of Soy-Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour mixtures consisting of full-fat soy flour and sweet potato flour at 25-75% levels were used in cookie production. Proximate, physical and sensory properties of the cookies were determined. Physical and sensory properties investigated included thickness, diameter, spread factor, spread ratio, fragility, appearance, ...

  1. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  2. Proximate composition and basic phytochemical assessment of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The nut of the yellow variety had terpenoids and steroids present in it while the nut of the red variety had alkaloids present. Statistical analyses carried out showed that there were no significant differences (p≤0.05) between the two varieties based on their proximate composition. INTRODUCTION. Terminalia catappa is ...

  3. Fertility decline in Malawi: An analysis of the proximate determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines trends in the proximate determinants of fertility (nuptiality or marriage, contraception and post-partum infecundability) in Malawi during the twelve-year period 1992-2004, with a view to explaining the factors responsible for fertility decline in the country. The study uses the Malawi Demographic and ...

  4. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impediment of early marriage was revised in the national family code which claims assessment of fertility situations. Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on resident women of ...

  5. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monly used technique in this field, and many researchers have been investigating its application to make nanopatterns. In electron beam lithography, the well-known proximity effect refers to .... electrodes are grounded. The charging effect, which blocks the injection/ejection of a single charge into/from a quantum dot, ...

  6. Proximate and Vitamin Content of Four Nigerian Pterocarpus Species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the proximate and vitamin contents of four Nigerian Pterocarpus species; Pterocarpus osun, P. soyauxii, P. santalinoides and P. mildbraedii was carried out. Freshly expanded and mature leaves of the plants were used for the analysis. The investigation revealed that on the average the plants contained ...

  7. Proximity focusing RICH detector based on multilayer silica aerogel radiator

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, R; Bellunato, T; Calvi, M; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; Garibaldi, F; Lagamba, L; Marra, M; Marrone, S; Matteuzzi, C; Musico, P; Nappi, E; Perego, D L; Torrioli, S; Vilardi, I

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector equipped with a radiator of silica aerogel is presented. The aerogel tile used is a monolith with variable index of refraction. Cherenkov photons are detected with high granularity by eight Hamamatsu H9500 flat panel multi anode phototubes.

  8. Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Vitex doniana, micronutrients, proximate, vitamins and mineral composition, Fruit. ... Vitamin B2 and Spectrophotometric method for. Vitamin B6, while titremetric method was used for Vitamin C. Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after sample .... to calcium for bone, teeth and muscles growth.

  9. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  10. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day 0 to 12.

  11. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and mineral analysis of five species of mushroom, Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella volvacea, Coprinus micaceus, Lepiota procera, and Auricularia auricula were examined in this study to determine their nutritional value. These mushrooms were found to contain on the average, 3.24 to 8.70% of crude fibre; 4.12 ...

  12. Proximal femoral periprosthetic fracture fixation with a hooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximal femoral periprosthetic fracture fixation with a hooked locking plate: a Kenyan experience. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and ...

  13. Proximate, mineral and vitamin C composition of vegetable Gbolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbolo (Crassocephalum crepidioides and Crassocephalum rubens) is a traditional leafy vegetable highly consumed in southern and central Benin, as well as in some part of northern Benin. The nutritional potential of the two species of Gbolo were evaluated through their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin C ...

  14. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to dry chicken eggs in order to determine the effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of dried eggs. The albumen, yolk and whole egg were dried separately at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60oC. The drying time for the samples ranged from 7hrs20mins to ...

  15. Long‑Term Outcome of Endoprosthetic Replacement for Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) represents 5% of neoplasms of bone. It is a benign locally aggressive tumor usually involving the distal end of the femur, proximal tibia and distal radius in young adults.[1-3] The main variables to be considered for planning treatment include the site of involvement and Campanacci stage of the tumor.

  16. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bosmans

    Full Text Available Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children's support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional encoding of mother, reducing the breadth of children's attentional field around her. We investigated whether this attentional bias is related to how long distressed children wait before seeking their mother's proximity. Thirty-three children (9-11 years participated in this study that consisted of experimental tasks to measure attentional breadth and to observe proximity seeking behavior and of questionnaires to measure confidence in maternal support and experienced distress. Results suggested that distressed children with a more narrow attentional field around their mother wait longer to seek her proximity. Key Message: These findings provide a first support for the hypothesis that the attentional processing of mother is related to children's attachment behavior.

  17. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  18. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  19. 37 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 19, 2014 Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AL-AMAANI

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. Vol. 19, 2014. Proximate, Mineral and Anti-nutritional Composition of Cucurbita Maxima Fruits Parts. Mohaammed S. S. 1 ., Paiko Y. B. 2 ., Mann A. 2 ., Ndamitso M. M. 3 ., Mathew J. T. 2 . and Maaji, S. 1 . 1. Deparment of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M. B. 65, ...

  20. Proximate composition and the functional properties of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the Kargo seeds and the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil have been determined. Matured dried seeds were collected. They were then dehusked and pulverized into a fine powder and kept in air tight sample bottle for further analysis. Functional properties of the defatted sample and ...