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Sample records for proximal colon cancer

  1. Microsatellite instability in cancer of the proximal colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Bren, G.; Schaid, D. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1993-05-07

    Colorectal tumor DNA was examined for somatic instability at (CA)[sub n] repeats on human chromosomes 5q, 15q, 17p, and 18q. Differences between tumor and normal DNA were detected in 25 of the 90 (28 percent) tumors examined. This instability appeared as either a substantial change in repeat length (often heterogeneous in nature) or a minor change (typically two base pairs). Microsatellite instability was significantly correlated with the tumor's location in the proximal colon (P = 0.003), with increased patient survival (P = 0.02), and, inversely, with loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 5q, 17p, and 18q. These data suggest that some colorectal cancers may arise through a mechanism that does not necessarily involve loss of heterozygosity. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  3. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-09-15

    APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I-IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer.

  4. The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and promoter methylation in proximal colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Kaeko; Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Kazuya; Ishiguro, Kaname; Watanabe, Go

    2004-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a critical role in folate metabolism, which is an important pathway of the methyl donor for DNA methylation. The MTHFR gene has genetic variants (C667T and A1298C), which cause reduced enzyme activity. Impaired folate metabolism by these genetic variants of MTHFR could change the methylation pattern of DNA including promoter hypermethylation, which has been frequently observed in cancer. In this study, we compared the MTHFR genotypes and haplotype to the features of colorectal cancer focusing on the promoter methylation of tumor DNA. Genomic DNA was isolated from 194 colorectal cancer tissues and subjected to MTHFR genotyping by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The MTHFR haplotype was determined by combination of C667T and A1298C genotype and classified into 2 groups, high (H-haplotype) or low (L-haplotype) enzymatic activity of MTHFR. The methylation level of tumor suppressor genes (CDKN2A, hMLH1, ARF and TIMP3) was measured by a fluorescence-based, real-time methylation specific PCR method. There was no significant association of the clinicopathological features with either C667T genotype, A1298C genotype or haplotype of MTHFR. The methylation level of CDKN2A was higher in cancer with the L-haplotype of MTHFR than in that with the H-haplotype when cancers of proximal origin were considered (p=0.029). hMLH1 methylation also tended to be higher in proximal colon cancers of MTHFR L-haplotype (p=0.059). In addition, the proximal colon cancers showing CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) were significantly more frequent in L-haplotype than in H-haplotype. These results suggest that the haplotype with low enzymatic activity of MTHFR is linked with promoter hypermethylation and consequently modifies the risk of CIMP(+) proximal colon cancer development in the Japanese people. The relationship between MTHFR polymorphism and DNA methylation in the Japanese is contrary to the previous results

  5. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  6. Clinical Significance of Preoperative Virtual Colonoscopy for Evaluation of the Proximal Colon in Patient With Obstructive Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyuk; Ryu, Chun-Geun; Jung, Eun-Joo; Paik, Jin-Hee; Hwang, Dae-Yong

    2017-08-01

    Virtual colonoscopy is the most recently developed tool for detecting colorectal cancers and polyps, but its effectiveness is limited. In our study, we compared the result of preoperative virtual colonoscopy to result of preoperative and postoperative colonoscopy. We evaluated also the accuracy of preoperative virtual colonoscopy in patients who had obstructive colorectal cancer that did not allow passage of a colonoscope. A total of 164 patients who had undergone preoperative virtual colonoscopy and curative surgery after the diagnosis of a colorectal adenocarcinoma between November 2008 and August 2013 were pooled. We compared the result of conventional colonoscopy with that of virtual colonoscopy in the nonobstructive group and the results of preoperative virtual colonoscopy with that of postoperative colonoscopy performed at 6 months after surgery in the obstructive group. Of the 164 patients, 108 were male and 56 were female patients. The mean age was 62.7 years. The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of virtual colonoscopy for all patients were 31.0%, 67.2%, and 43.8%, respectively. In the nonobstructive group, the average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 36.6%, 66.2%, and 48.0%, respectively, whereas in the obstructive group, they were 2%, 72.4%, and 25.4%. Synchronous cancer was detected via virtual colonoscopy in 4 of the 164 patients. Virtual colonoscopy may not be an effective method for the detection of proximal colon polyps, but it can be helpful in determining the therapeutic plan when its results are correlated with the results of other studies.

  7. Risk of Proximal Colonic Neoplasms in Asymptomatic Adults Older Than 50 Years Found to Have Distal Hyperplastic Polyps on Routine Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Bradley D

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate whether hyperplastic polyps (HPs) found in the lower 50 cm of colon could be used as indicators for synchronous proximal neoplasms (SPNs) in the large intestine. Additionally, other characteristics considered included age; sex; ethnicity; history of cancer, cholecystectomy, or appendectomy; current use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); current use of estrogen or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) i...

  8. β-Catenin activation in fundic gland polyps, gastric cancer and colonic polyps in families afflicted by 'gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach' (GAPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Lucas A; Sabesan, Arvind; Allgäeuer, Michael; Xin, Liqiang; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo; Davis, Jeremy L; Raffeld, Mark; Miettienen, Markku; Quezado, Martha; Rudloff, Udo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate possible colon involvement in the 'gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach' (GAPPS) gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Prospective clinicopathological evaluation of two GAPPS families and expression of nuclear β-catenin, p53 and Ki67 measured by immunohistochemistry on endoscopic and surgical specimens from patients with GAPPS. Patients with the GAPPS phenotype were more frequently affected by colonic polyps than patients at risk within the same families (pgastric cancers including increased expression of nuclear β-catenin, Ki67 and p53. Both gastric and colonic lesions harboured activating somatic variants of β-catenin signalling. Similarities in expression markers in fundic gland and colonic polyps, together with an enrichment of colonic adenomas in family members affected by GAPPS phenotype compared with family members at risk, support mild colonic involvement of this rare cancer syndrome. Colonoscopic screening might be warranted. #09-C-0079; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  10. Genetic polymorphism 609C>T in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 enhances the risk of proximal colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freriksen, Jolien J M; Salomon, Jody; Roelofs, Hennie M J; Te Morsche, Rene H M; van der Stappen, Jos W J; Dura, Polat; Witteman, Ben J M; Lacko, Martin; Peters, Wilbert H M

    2014-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is responsible for the majority of deaths among all types of cancer. Lifestyle factors may not only be the main risk factor for GI cancer but reactive oxygen species (ROS) may also be involved. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 609C>T (rs1800566) and 465C>T (rs1131341) in the quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene lead to a decline in NQO1 enzyme activity. NQO1 catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones, thereby preventing the formation of ROS. Such polymorphisms in NQO1 may increase the risk of GI cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the SNPs rs1800566 and rs1131341 in the NQO1 gene on the risk of GI cancer in the Netherlands. Real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques were conducted to determine the NQO1 genotypes of 1457 patients with GI cancer and 1457 age- and gender-matched controls in a case-control study. Binary logistic regression analyses showed no statistically significant difference in genotype distributions between patients and controls: odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for rs1800566 were 1.09 (0.93-1.28) and 1.17 (0.77-1.77) for the CT and TT genotypes, respectively. ORs for rs1131341 CT and TT genotypes were 1.21 (0.90-1.63) and 0.54 (0.05-5.94), respectively. For rs1800566, a significant association between the CT genotype and proximal colon cancer was detected (OR=1.60; 95% CI=1.09-2.35). The NQO1*2 T allele of SNP rs1800566 was found associated with an increased risk for proximal colorectal cancer, whereas SNP rs1131341 was rare in our Dutch population and was not associated with GI cancer.

  11. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  12. Early stage colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-01-01

    .... After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced...

  13. Colon cancer - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  14. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  15. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page Is there a test for hereditary colon cancer? Gene testing can identify individuals who carry the more ... looking for mutations in four of the five genes identified that are associated with ... Colon Cancer Currently, NHGRI is not conducting clinical research studies ...

  16. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  17. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history affects the risk of developing colon cancer. Anything ... and organs. This is called metastatic cancer. This animation shows how cancer cells travel from the place ...

  18. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor.However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown...

  20. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. PMID:25797264

  1. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  2. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  3. Proximal adenomas in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer are prone to rapid malignant transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Hollema, H; Kleibeuker, JH

    Background: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is thought to arise from adenomas. HNPCC mostly occurs in the proximal colon. We investigated whether this proximal preponderance is due to a proximal preponderance of adenomas or (also) differences in transformation rates from adenomas

  4. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  5. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  6. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  8. Differential DNA methylation patterns of homeobox genes in proximal and distal colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicle, Alan; Seoighe, Cathal; Golden, Aaron; Greally, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Region and cell-type specific differences in the molecular make up of colon epithelial cells have been reported. Those differences may underlie the region-specific characteristics of common colon epithelial diseases such as colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation is a cell-type specific epigenetic mark, essential for transcriptional regulation, silencing of repetitive DNA and genomic imprinting. Little is known about any region-specific variations in methylation patterns in human colon epithelial cells. Using purified epithelial cells and whole biopsies (n = 19) from human subjects, we generated epigenome-wide DNA methylation data (using the HELP-tagging assay), comparing the methylation signatures of the proximal and distal colon. We identified a total of 125 differentially methylated sites (DMS) mapping to transcription start sites of protein-coding genes, most notably several members of the homeobox (HOX) family of genes. Patterns of differential methylation were validated with MassArray EpiTYPER. We also examined DNA methylation in whole biopsies, applying a computational technique to deconvolve variation in methylation within cell types and variation in cell-type composition across biopsies. Including inferred epithelial proportions as a covariate in differential methylation analysis applied to the whole biopsies resulted in greater overlap with the results obtained from purified epithelial cells compared with when the covariate was not included. Results obtained from both approaches highlight region-specific methylation patterns of HOX genes in colonic epithelium. Regional variation in methylation patterns has implications for the study of diseases that exhibit regional expression patterns in the human colon, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. PMID:26812987

  9. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  10. Decorin in Human Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Marie C.; Sainio, Annele O.; Pennanen, Mirka M.; Lund, Riikka J.; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Sundström, Jari T. T.

    2015-01-01

    Decorin is generally recognized as a tumor suppressing molecule. Nevertheless, although decorin has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant tissues, it has often remained unclear whether, in addition to non-malignant stromal cells, cancer cells also express it. Here, we first used two publicly available databases to analyze the current information about decorin expression and immunoreactivity in normal and malignant human colorectal tissue samples. The analyses demonstrated that decorin expression and immunoreactivity may vary in cancer cells of human colorectal tissues. Therefore, we next examined decorin expression in normal, premalignant and malignant human colorectal tissues in more detail using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for decorin. Our results invariably demonstrate that malignant cells within human colorectal cancer tissues are devoid of both decorin mRNA and immunoreactivity. Identical results were obtained for cells of neuroendocrine tumors of human colon. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines are also decorin negative, in accordance with the above in vivo results. Finally, we demonstrate that decorin transduction of human colon cancer cell lines causes a significant reduction in their colony forming capability. Thus, strategies to develop decorin-based adjuvant therapies for human colorectal malignancies are highly rational. PMID:26001829

  11. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or polyps. This usually means close relatives (parent, sibling, or child) who developed these conditions younger than age 60. A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. A personal history of chronic inflammatory ...

  12. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope ). Having inherited changes in certain genes that increase the risk of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). Having a personal history of chronic ulcerative colitis ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, A.M.; Nauta, A.; van den Heuvel, E.G.H.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2014-01-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to

  15. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  16. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  17. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  18. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.-García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. © FASEB.

  19. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    were linked to MMR status based on immunostaining and BRAF mutation status.MMR defects were identified in 22.7% of the tumors, with 46 classified as sporadic. When the clinical parameters of age, sex, and proximal tumor location were combined with the morphologic features with the highest relative...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  20. Dietary factors in colon cancer: international relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Eyssen, G E; Bright-See, E

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between dietary factors and mortality from colon cancer was explored by an analysis of the correlation between age-adjusted colon cancer death rates for men in 38 countries and estimates of the availability of a number of dietary components. Cereals were the only source of fiber found to be negatively associated with colon cancer mortality after adjustment for the availability of total or animal fats, or total or red meats, foods that were themselves positively associated with mortality. The estimate of dietary fiber from cereals was more closely associated with mortality than that of crude fiber. The previously postulated protective effects of vitamins C and A and of cruciferous vegetables were not supported by the international data; we found no evidence of a negative association between colon cancer mortality and availability of these dietary factors. The positive association previously reported between colon cancer and beer consumption disappeared following adjustment for animal fat.

  1. The retroperitoneal surface in distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinoma: the Cinderella surgical margin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A C; Carr, N J; Warren, B F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mesorectal margin tumour involvement is a predictor of local recurrence in rectal carcinoma and an indication for postoperative radiotherapy in suitable patients. However, the prevalence of non-peritonealised surgical margin involvement in ascending colon carcinoma is unknown. Aims: To test the hypothesis that retroperitoneal surgical margin (RSM) tumour involvement occurs in distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinoma. Methods/Results: One hundred right hemicolectomy specimens, removed for adenocarcinoma of the caecum or proximal ascending colon, were studied. During routine specimen dissection, at least one additional tissue block was taken to include the tumour and the RSM. The tumour distance from the RSM was recorded. RSM tumour involvement was present in seven cases (7%). Direct (non-nodal) RSM tumour involvement (five cases) only occurred in posterior or circumferential tumours. Conclusions: RSM tumour involvement occurs within a considerable number of distal caecal and proximal ascending colon carcinomas. The rate of RSM tumour involvement identified here is similar to a previously published local recurrence rate of 10% in caecal carcinoma, suggesting that RSM tumour involvement may be a predictor of recurrence in these tumours. Therefore, patients with distal caecal or proximal ascending colon carcinoma and RSM tumour involvement may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. PMID:15790712

  2. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but...

  3. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon...... fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer....

  4. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Alexandra T.; Clayton, Steven B.; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD.

  5. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  6. Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye

    1994-03-01

    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

  7. Hydroxy-α sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kunitsugu; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mase, Akihito; Imamura, Sachiko; Sudo, Yuka; Miyano, Kanako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-α sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive "squeezing" motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-β sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced "LDC," but not lidocaine-induced "RPR," was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  9. Deaths from Colon Cancer Up Among Younger White Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167665.html Deaths From Colon Cancer Up Among Younger White Americans Uptick has researchers ... Darrell Gray, of the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. Because colon cancer is still rare among younger adults, this ...

  10. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, Anne Marieke; Nauta, Arjen; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Colon resection for ovarian cancer: intraoperative decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mitchel S; Zervose, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    To discuss the benefits and morbidity of and indications for colon resection during cytoreductive operations for ovarian cancer. The history of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is discussed, with special attention to the incorporation of colon resection. Literature regarding cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is then reviewed, again with attention to the role of colon resection. The focus of the review is directed at broad technical considerations and rationales, for both primary and secondary cytoreduction. Over the past 15 to 20 years the standard cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer has shifted from an abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy to an en bloc radical resection of the pelvic tumor and an omentectomy, and more recently to include increasing use of extensive upper abdominal surgery. En bloc pelvic resection frequently includes rectosigmoid resection, almost always accompanied by a primary anastomosis. Other portions of the colon are at risk for metastatic involvement and sometimes require resection in order to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The data regarding colon resection for the purpose of surgical cytoreduction of ovarian cancer are conflicting (in terms of benefit) and all retrospective. However, the preponderance of information supports a benefit in terms of survival when cytoreduction is clearly optimal. Similar to primary surgery, benefit from secondary cytoreduction of ovarian cancer occurs when only a small volume of disease is left behind. The preponderance of data suggests that colon resection to achieve optimal cytoreduction has a positive impact on survival. In order to better understand the role of colon resection as well as other extensive cytoreductive procedures for ovarian cancer, it will be important to continue to improve our understanding of prognostic variables such as the nuances of metastatic bowel involvement in order to better guide appropriate surgical management.

  12. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal....... DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained...

  13. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P colon cancer screening.

  14. Differential expression proteomics of human colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Solazzo, Michela; Fantappié, Ornella; Elfering, Sarah; Pantaleo, Pietro; Bechi, Paolo; Cianchi, Fabio; Ettl, Adam; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2006-06-01

    The focus of this study was to use differential protein expression to investigate operative pathways in early stages of human colon cancer. Colorectal cancer represents an ideal model system to study the development and progression of human tumors, and the proteomic approach avoids overlooking posttranslational modifications not detected by microarray analyses and the limited correlation between transcript and protein levels. Colon cancer samples, confined to the intestinal wall, were analyzed by expression proteomics and compared with matched samples from normal colon tissue. Samples were processed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and spots differentially expressed and consistent across all patients were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses and by Western blot analyses. After differentially expressed proteins and their metabolic pathways were analyzed, the following main conclusions were achieved for tumor tissue: 1) a shift from beta-oxidation, as the main source of energy, to anaerobic glycolysis was observed owed to the alteration of nuclear- versus mitochondrial-encoded proteins and other proteins related to fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism; 2) lower capacity for Na(+) and K(+) cycling; and 3) operativity of the apoptosis pathway, especially the mitochondrial one. This study of the human colon cancer proteome represents a step toward a better understanding of the metabolomics of colon cancer at early stages confined to the intestinal wall.

  15. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert H M; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  16. Radiologic Placement of Uncovered Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Colonic Obstruction Proximal to the Descending Colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jehong; Kwon, Se Hwan, E-mail: Kwon98@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Kyun [Kyung Hee University, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Jin [Kyung Hee University, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Hyeong [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety, feasibility, and patency rates of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective, single-center study. From May 2003 to March 2015, 53 image-guided placements of uncovered stents (44 initial placements, 9 secondary placements) were attempted in 44 patients (male:female = 23:21; mean age, 71.8 years). The technical and clinical success, complication rates, and patency rates of the stents were also evaluated. Technical success was defined as the successful deployment of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance alone and clinical success was defined as the relief of obstructive symptoms or signs within 48 h of stent deployment.ResultsIn total, 12 (27.3 %) patients underwent preoperative decompression, while 32 (72.7 %) underwent decompression with palliative intent. The technical success rate was 93.2 % (41/44) for initial placement and 88.9 % (8/9) for secondary placement. Secondary stent placement in the palliative group was required in nine patients after successful initial stent placement due to stent obstruction from tumor ingrowth (n = 7) and stent migration (n = 2). The symptoms of obstruction were relieved in all successful cases (100 %). In the palliative group, the patency rates were 94.4 % at 1 month, 84.0 % at 3 months, 64.8 % at 6 months, and 48.6 % at 12 months.ConclusionsThe radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant obstruction proximal to the descending colon is feasible and safe, and provides acceptable clinical results.

  17. Asian and Hispanic Americans' cancer fatalism and colon cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2013-03-01

    To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.

  18. Blacks More Prone to Colon Cancers That Arise Between Colonoscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_165821.html Blacks More Prone to Colon Cancers That Arise Between Colonoscopies: Study Differences in biology ... 22, 2017 MONDAY, May 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer guidelines now recommend a colonoscopy every 10 years, ...

  19. Comparative effectiveness in colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine C; Madoff, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of colorectal cancer is becoming more uniform, with wider acceptance of standardized guidelines. However, areas of controversy exist where the appropriate treatment is not clear, including: should a segmental colectomy or a more extensive resection be performed in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer? should an asymptomatic primary cancer be resected in the presence of unresectable metastatic disease? what is the role of extended lymph node resection in colon and rectal cancer? are there clinically significant benefits for a robotic approach to colorectal resection versus a laparoscopic approach? This chapter will examine these issues and discuss how they may be resolved.

  20. Surgical outcome of colon interposition by the posterior mediastinal route for thoracic esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Satoru; Kitamura, Michihiko; Saito, Reijiro; Maruyama, Kiyotomi; Sato, Yusuke; Hayashi, Kaori; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Jun-ichi

    2007-04-01

    For thoracic esophageal cancer patients with a history of gastrectomy, esophageal reconstruction using segments of colon was often accomplished using the anterior mediastinal route to avoid fatal complications related to colon necrosis. Our aim was to review our experience with reconstruction by the posterior mediastinal route and assess the surgical outcomes. Between 1989 and August 2006, 34 esophageal cancer patients at Akita University Hospital underwent esophageal reconstruction accomplished by colon interposition by the posterior mediastinal route. Data from these patients were reviewed. Colon conduits consisted of left colon segments in 4 patients and right colon segments in 30. The grafts were supplied with blood by the left colonic artery in 13 patients, the middle colonic artery in 20, and the right colonic artery in 1. The esophagocolic (pharyngocolic) anastomosis was located in the neck in 33 patients (97%) and in the thorax in 1. No patient died during the initial hospital stay. There were no instances of colon necrosis. An anastomotic fistula occurred in 3 patients (9%). Proximal anastomotic strictures occurred in 2 patients (6%). No late graft redundancies resulting in significant dysphagia occurred. Reductions in body weight did not differ from those seen when the gastric tube was used for reconstruction, and alimentary function was good after surgery. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 66%, 52%, 48%, and 48%, respectively. Colon interposition by the posterior mediastinal route provides a good outcome and is considered the route of first choice.

  1. Distinct gene expression profiles of proximal and distal colorectal cancer: implications for cytotoxic and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, M K H; Hanna, D L; Stephens, C L; Astrow, S H; Yang, D; Grimminger, P P; Loupakis, F; Hsiang, J H; Zeger, G; Wakatsuki, T; Barzi, A; Lenz, H-J

    2015-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with genetic profiles and clinical outcomes dependent on the anatomic location of the primary tumor. How location has an impact on the molecular makeup of a tumor and how prognostic and predictive biomarkers differ between proximal versus distal colon cancers is not well established. We investigated the associations between tumor location, KRAS and BRAF mutation status, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proteins involved in major signaling pathways, including tumor growth (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)), DNA repair (excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1)) and fluoropyrimidine metabolism (thymidylate synthase (TS)). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 431 advanced CRC patients were analyzed. The presence of seven different KRAS base substitutions and the BRAF V600E mutation was determined. ERCC1, TS, EGFR and VEGFR2 mRNA expression levels were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR. BRAF mutations were significantly more common in the proximal colon (Pexpression in multivariate analysis. In a subgroup analysis, this association remained significant for all genes in the proximal colon and for VEGFR2 expression in rectal cancers. The mRNA expression patterns of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, as well as associations with KRAS and BRAF mutation status depend on primary tumor location. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings and determine the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  3. Metastasis of Colon Cancer to the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swei H. Tsung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast metastases from extramammary neoplasms are extremely rare, and even more so is metastasis of colon cancer to the breast. Despite its rarity, metastatic disease to the breast is an important diagnostic issue because its treatment differs greatly from that of primary cancer. Proper diagnosis of this rare event requires an accurate clinical history, proper immunohistochemical workup, and a high level of suspicion.

  4. Chemotherapy of metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality. In 2008 inRussian Federation55 719 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed and 37 911 patients died of this disease. A significant progress was achieved in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment during the last decades. A lot of treatment options became available: from 5-fluoruracil monotherapy to combined treatment treatment schemes including surgery. A group of patients with isolated liver metastases was distinguished, who can achieve 5-year survival rate of 40 % after systemic treatment and surgery. Today, based on clinical data and molecular analysis, we come close to individualized treatment of this patient group. In this literature review results of metastatic colorectal cancer chemotherapy are being analyzed and rational treatment tactic is proposed based on therapy goals. 

  5. Colon cancer: a civilization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alastair J M; Collins, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer arises in individuals with acquired or inherited genetic predisposition who are exposed to a range of risk factors. Many of these risk factors are associated with affluent Western societies. More than 95% of colorectal cancers are sporadic, arising in individuals without a significant hereditary risk. Geographic variation in the incidence of colorectal cancer is considerable with a higher incidence observed in the West. Environmental factors contribute substantially to this variation. A number of these risk factors are associated with a Western lifestyle and could be considered a product of 'civilization'. Recently, smoking has been recognized as a risk factor. Energy consumption also influences colorectal cancer risk, with obesity increasing risk and exercise reducing risk. However, the strongest contribution to environmental risk for colorectal cancer is dietary. Consumption of fat, alcohol and red meat is associated with an increased risk. Fresh fruit and vegetables and dietary fibre may be protective. Much has been learnt recently about the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer always arises in the context of genomic instability. There is inactivation of the tumour suppressor genes adenomatous polyposis coli, p53, transforming growth factor-β, activation of oncogene pathways including K-ras, and activation of the cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor pathways. The mechanisms by which some environmental factors modify the mutation risk in these pathways have been described. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Coffee, colon function and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-09-01

    For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.

  7. Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.

  8. Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

  9. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Fábio; Larriba, María Jesús; Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    .... In addition, recent epidemiological and experimental studies support the association of vitamin D deficiency with a large variety of human diseases, and particularly with the high risk of colorectal cancer...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope ). Having inherited changes in certain genes that increase the risk of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). Having a personal history of chronic ulcerative colitis ...

  11. Diet, Genes, and Microbes: Complexities of Colon Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Birt, Diane F.; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-r...

  12. Recent advances in the treatment of colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, R; Zhou, B.; Fung, P.C.W.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although surgical resection is still the only treatment capable of curing colon cancer, adjuvant therapy continues to play an important role in preventing recurrence and metastasis. In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the treatment of colon cancer. This review discusses recent advances in adjuvant therapy for colon cancer, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, a...

  13. [Clinico-genetical studies of colonic cancer. II. Genetic analysis of predisposition to colonic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belev, N F; Gar'kavtseva, R F; Samotyia, E E; Trubnikov, V I; Gindilis, V M

    1986-10-01

    The structure of subjection to different clinical forms of colon cancer and to the morbidity as a whole approximates better the quasi-continued phenotypical model within which the contribution of genetic factors reaches 68-84%, that of incidental medium factors being 16-32%. Genetic study of heterogeneity of colon cancer clinical forms revealed that their pathogenetic community was quite high. However, the origin of colon cancer depends strongly on genetic factors (83.7 +/- 7.3%), in comparison with rectal cancer (67.9 +/- 7.1%). The analysis of colon cancer interrelation with other malignant neoplasms (including specific ones for women--breast and uterus cancer) revealed that the development of another malignant neoplasms was the result of the influence of partially common genes (20-50%) which predetermined the development of colon cancer and other malignant neoplasms. According to the data obtained in this study, the tables of repeated risk have been worked out which may be used for medico-genetic consultation.

  14. Oral bisphosphonates and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiken, Pia; Vestergaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used as the main treatment for osteoporosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest that use of BPs may have a potential for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Safety and efficacy in terms of osteoporosis prevention have only been evaluated in randomized controlled...

  15. Lymph node metastases in the gastrocolic ligament in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus A; Bols, Birgitte; Ingeholm, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the proximity of the flexures or in the transverse colon. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to present our findings of metastases in the gastrocolic ligament in a consecutive series of patients. DESIGN: This was a single-center retrospective study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in a colorectal cancer......BACKGROUND: Long-term survival after colorectal cancer may be improved by more extensive resection of the primary tumor and lymph nodes. Resection of the gastroepiploic and infrapyloric lymph nodes in the gastrocolic ligament has been proposed as a standard procedure when resecting tumors located...... center. PATIENTS: All of the colon adenocarcinoma resections with relevant tumor location from June 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012 were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presence of lymph node metastases in the gastrocolic ligament in colon adenocarcinomas located in the proximity...

  16. Right sided colon cancer at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies suggest that right sided colon cancer may have a different clinicopathological behaviour and prognosis from carcinoma in the rest of the colon and especially the rectum. Reports in the Nigerian literature had usually considered colon and rectal cancer together, thereby masking these differences. This study is ...

  17. Red meat and colon cancer : a possible role for heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however,

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...... mutational status received three cycles of capecitabine 2000 mg/m(2) days 1-14 q3w and oxaliplatin 130 mg iv day 1 q3w. Wild-type patients received the same chemotherapy supplemented with panitumumab 9 mg/kg iv q3w. After the operation, patients fulfilling the international criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy......, i.e. high-risk stage II and III patients, received five cycles of the same chemotherapy without panitumumab. Patients not fulfilling the criteria were offered follow-up only. The primary endpoint was the fraction of patients not fulfilling the criteria for adjuvant chemotherapy (converted patients...

  19. Influence of race on microsatellite instability and CD8+ T cell infiltration in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Carethers

    Full Text Available African American patients with colorectal cancer show higher mortality than their Caucasian counterparts. Biology might play a partial role, and prior studies suggest a higher prevalence for microsatellite instability (MSI among cancers from African Americans, albeit patients with MSI cancers have improved survival over patients with non-MSI cancers, counter to the outcome observed for African American patients. CD8+ T cell infiltration of colon cancer is postively correlated with MSI tumors, and is also related to improved outcome. Here, we utilized a 503-person, population-based colon cancer cohort comprising 45% African Americans to determine, under blinded conditions from all epidemiological data, the prevalence of MSI and associated CD8+ T cell infiltration within the cancers. Among Caucasian cancers, 14% were MSI, whereas African American cancers demonstrated 7% MSI (P = 0.009. Clinically, MSI cancers between races were similar; among microsatellite stable cancers, African American patients were younger, female, and with proximal cancers. CD8+ T cells were higher in MSI cancers (88.0 vs 30.4/hpf, P<0.0001, but was not different between races. Utilizing this population-based cohort, African American cancers show half the MSI prevalence of Caucasians without change in CD8+ T cell infiltration which may contribute towards their higher mortality from colon cancer.

  20. Field Cancerization in Sporadic Colon Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Song, Chang Seok; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Koo, Dong Hoe; Kim, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyung Ook; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    ...), have previously been shown to be hypermethylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to examine field cancerization in CRC based on the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in normal-appearing tissue from CRC patients...

  1. Oxaliplatin and Infliximab Combination Synergizes in Inducing Colon Cancer Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenya; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; ZHANG, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers and causes millions of deaths each year. There are still no effective treatments for colon cancer patients who are at advanced stage. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) might be a good therapy target due to its widely-accepted roles in regulating multiple important biological processes, especially in promoting inflammation. Material/Methods We evaluated the expression of TNF-? in 108 human colon cancer tissue samples and 2 c...

  2. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Distal, not proximal, colonic acetate infusions promote fat oxidation and improve metabolic markers in overweight/obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Beek, Christina M; Canfora, Emanuel E; Lenaerts, Kaatje

    2016-01-01

    in the colon for three consecutive test days, enabling colonic acetate (100 or 180 mmol/l) or placebo infusion during fasting conditions and after an oral glucose load (postprandial). Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured using an open-circuit ventilated hood system and blood samples were......Gut microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are believed to affect host metabolism and cardiometabolic risk factors. The present study aim was to investigate the effects of proximal and distal colonic infusions with the SCFA acetate on fat oxidation and other metabolic parameters in men....... In this randomized, double-blind crossover trial, six overweight/obese men [body mass index (BMI) 25-35 kg/m(2)] underwent two experimental periods: one with distal and one with proximal colonic sodium acetate infusions. A feeding catheter was endoscopically positioned at the beginning of each period and remained...

  4. [A case of transverse colon cancer mimicking urachal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Taku; Inoue, Ryo; Kondo, Junya; Nagashima, Yukiko; Okada, Toshimasa; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Sakata, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Shiro; Setoguchi, Mihoko

    2013-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal distension. Computed tomography revealed an abscess in the anterior abdominal wall and invasion of the large intestine. Biopsy of the large intestine revealed adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the antigen expression profile of the tumor was positive for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 903 (34βE12), and cytokeratin 20. We diagnosed the tumor as urachal cancer and performed surgery. Examination of the resected specimen showed that the tumor was located in the transverse colon. Finally, the patient was diagnosed as having transverse colon cancer with urachal abscess.

  5. Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0527 TITLE: Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Aik...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0527 5c...combination with irinotecan or cetuximab. Results: Colon cancer cell lines demonstrated varying sensitivity to MLN8237 with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to

  6. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: Towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.M.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived

  7. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived

  8. Up-regulation of CIT promotes the growth of colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zehua; Zhu, Xiangying; Xu, Wendi; Zhang,Yu; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Fabo; Zhang, Binyuan; Wu, Liqun; Peng, Zhihai; Tang, Huamei

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism and therapeutic targets of colon cancer have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that citron rho-interacting, serine/threonine kinase 21 (CIT) promotes the growth of human colon cancer cells. CIT is overexpressed in human colon cancer tissues and cell lines. High expression of CIT predicts poor survival for patients with colon cancer. In colon cancer cells, ...

  9. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  10. Endoscopic Localization of Colon Cancer Is Frequently Inaccurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayor, Jennifer; Rotman, Stephen R; Chan, Walter W; Goldberg, Joel E; Saltzman, John R

    2017-08-01

    Colonoscopic location of a tumor can influence both the surgical procedure choice and overall treatment strategy. To determine the accuracy of colonoscopy in determining the location of colon cancer compared to surgical localization and to elucidate factors that predict discordant colon cancer localization. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of colon cancers diagnosed on colonoscopy at two academic tertiary-care hospitals and two affiliated community hospitals from 2012 to 2014. Colon cancer location was obtained from the endoscopic and surgical pathology reports and characterized by colon segment. We collected data on patient demographics, tumor characteristics, endoscopic procedure characteristics, surgery planned, and surgery performed. Univariate analyses using Chi-squared test and multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression were performed to determine factors that predict discordant colon cancer localization. There were 110 colon cancer cases identified during the study period. Inaccurate endoscopic colon cancer localization was found in 29% (32/110) of cases. These included 14 cases (12.7%) that were discordant by more than one colonic segment and three cases where the presurgical planned procedure was significantly changed at the time of surgery. On univariate analyses, right-sided colon lesions were associated with increased inaccuracy (43.8 vs 24.4%, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, right-sided colon lesions remained independently associated with inaccuracy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.93, p = 0.04). Colon cancer location as determined by colonoscopy is often inaccurate, which can result in intraoperative changes to surgical management, particularly in the right colon.

  11. Oxaliplatin and Infliximab Combination Synergizes in Inducing Colon Cancer Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenya; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-02-12

    BACKGROUND Colon cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers and causes millions of deaths each year. There are still no effective treatments for colon cancer patients who are at advanced stage. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) might be a good therapy target due to its widely-accepted roles in regulating multiple important biological processes, especially in promoting inflammation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We evaluated the expression of TNF-α in 108 human colon cancer tissue samples and 2 colon cancer cell lines (CT26 and HCT116), and analyzed its prognostic values. Further, we explored the roles and mechanism of anti-TNF-α treatment in combination with chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS We found that TNF-α was highly expressed in colon cancer cell lines. The survival analysis and Cox regression analysis indicated that high TNF-α was an independent adverse prognosticator of colon cancer. In addition, anti-TNF-α treatment enhanced the effects of chemotherapy in the xenograft mouse model through inducing ADCC and CDC effects. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that TNF-α is an independent adverse prognosticator of colon cancer, and anti-TNF-α might benefit colon cancer patients.

  12. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with survival after breast and maybe colon cancer diagnosis. Despite the findings on colon cancer in our original......Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article...... report, I speculate whether microchimerism could have a general beneficial role in cancer, which in some sites may not be evident because an allogeneic maternal immune reaction hastens cancer development....

  13. Rectal and colon cancer : Not just a different anatomic site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, K.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van Vugt, M. A. T. M.; Beets-Tan, R. G.; van Etten, B.; de Groot, D. J. A.; Hospers, G. A. P.

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total

  14. Field Cancerization in Sporadic Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Song, Chang Seok; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Koo, Dong Hoe; Kim, Kyung Eun; Jeong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyung Ook; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2016-09-15

    Aberrant DNA methylation has a specific role in field cancerization. Certain molecular markers, including secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2 ), N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and bone morphogenic protein 3 (BMP3), have previously been shown to be hypermethylated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to examine field cancerization in CRC based on the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in normal-appearing tissue from CRC patients. We investigated promoter methylation in 34 CRC patients and five individuals with normal colonoscopy results. CRC patients were divided into three tissue groups: tumor tissue, adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue. The methylation status (positive: methylation level >20%) of SFRP2 , TFPI2 , NDRG4 , and BMP3 promoters was investigated using methylation-specific PCR. The methylation frequencies of the SFRP2 , TFPI2 , NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor/adjacent/nonadjacent normal-appearing tissue were 79.4%/63.0%/70.4%, 82.4%/53.6%/60.7%, 76.5%/61.5%/69.2%, 41.2%/35.7%/50.0%, respectively. The methylation levels of the SFRP, TFPI2, NDRG4 and BMP3 promoters in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in normal-appearing tissue (SFRP2, p=0.013; TFPI2, p<0.001; NDRG4, p=0.003; BMP3, p=0.001). No significant correlation was observed between the methylation levels of the promoters and the clinicopathological variables. The field effect is present in CRC and affects both the adjacent and nonadjacent normal-appearing mucosa.

  15. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  16. Clinical issues in the surgical treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amri, R.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of colon cancer patients will eventually die of their disease. Early detection is crucial to maximize chances of cure, as five-year survival can range from 97% to as low as 8% depending on disease stage at diagnosis. Since colon cancer is associated with both old age and obesity,

  17. Combination of capecitabine and ludartin inhibits colon cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of capecitabine and ludartin in the treatment of colon cancer in mice. Methods: Mice model of colon cancer was used in this study. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Qrt-PCR) was used to quantify the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA.

  18. Risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessler, Bodil; Bock, David; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this was to assess potential risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery in a national cohort. METHODS: All patients, who had undergone a resection of a large bowel segment with an anastomosis between 2008 and 2011, were identified in the Swedish Colon Cancer...

  19. Prophylactic effects of triptolide on colon cancer development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate effects of triptolide on colon cancer cell growth and its capacity to prevent tumor development in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colon cancer. Methods: HCT116 cell viability and migration potential were assessed. Control and AOM/DSS-treated mice (with and ...

  20. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling.

  1. Reproductive and hormonal factors in male and female colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Bijl, A.J.; Kok, C.; Veer, P. van 't

    1994-01-01

    We analysed data from a case-control study in the Netherlands in order to investigate whether reproductive events and hormonal factors are similarly related to colon cancer risk in men and women after adjustment for dietary factors. In total, 232 colon cancer cases (102 women, 130 men) and 259

  2. The differential impact of microsatellite instability as a marker of prognosis and tumour response between colon cancer and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Pil; Min, Byung So; Kim, Tae Il; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

    2012-05-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular phenotype of colorectal cancer related to prognosis and tumour response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. We investigated the differential impact of MSI between colon and rectal cancers as a marker of prognosis and chemotherapeutic response. PCR-based MSI assay was performed on 1125 patients. Six hundred and sixty patients (58.7%) had colon cancer and 465 patients (41.3%) had rectal cancer. Among 1125 patients, 106 (9.4%) had high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) tumours. MSI-H colon cancers (13%) had distinct phenotypes including young age at diagnosis, family history of colorectal cancer, early Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) stage, proximal location, poor differentiation, and high level of baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), while MSI-H rectal cancers (4.3%) showed similar clinicopathological characteristics to MSS/MSI-L tumours except for family history of colorectal cancer. MSI-H tumours were strongly correlated with longer disease free survival (DFS) (P=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.009) than MSS/MSI-L tumours in colon cancer, while these positive correlations were not observed in rectal cancers. The patients with MSS/MSI-L tumours receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy showed good prognosis (P=0.013), but this positive association was not observed in MSI-H (P=0.104). These results support the use of MSI status as a marker of prognosis and response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with colon cancers. Further study is mandatory to evaluate the precise role of MSI in patients with rectal cancers and the effect of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in MSI-H tumours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer.

  4. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D.; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Methods Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. Results We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Conclusion Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer. PMID:24869613

  5. Intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy for anorectal Crohn's disease results in early and severe proximal colonic recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; Wolthuis, Albert M; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Penninckx, Freddy; D'Hoore, André

    2013-07-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) represents a more aggressive phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease and often coincides with proctocolitis. This study aims to assess the outcome of patients undergoing proctectomy with end-colostomy. A retrospective outcome analysis of 10 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy between February 2007 and May 2011 was performed. All patients suffered from refractory distal and perianal CD. The proximal colon was normal at endoscopy. All data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. The main outcome parameter was disease recurrence and need for completion colectomy. Severe and early endoscopic recurrence in the proximal colon occurred in 9/10 patients at a median time interval of 9.5 months (range: 1.9-23.6 months). Despite protracted medical treatment, completion colectomy was necessary in 5 patients. One patient, who underwent a second segmental colectomy with a new end-colostomy, showed again endoscopic recurrence and is currently treated with anti-TNF agents. Intersphincteric proctectomy with colostomy seems to be an ineffective surgery for perianal CD with coexisting proctitis and results in a high risk of recurrence of the disease in the remaining colon. Therefore, despite a normal appearance of the proximal colon, a proctocolectomy with end-ileostomy seems to be the surgical approach of choice in these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Double primary malignancies associated with colon cancer in patients with situs inversus totalis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dae

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Situs inversus totalis (SIT is not itself a premalignant condition, however, rare synchronous or metachronous multiple primary malignancies have been reported. Herein we present a case of synchronous transverse and sigmoid colon cancers and a case of metachronous rectosigmoid colon and gastric cancers in patients with SIT. A 66-year-old male with SIT was referred for a two-month history of hematochezia. Synchronous colonic tumors were found on the proximal transverse and sigmoid colon. The patient underwent open total colectomy and was discharged without incident. A 71-year-old female with rectosigmoid colon cancer and SIT underwent laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection. Fourteen months after the surgery, the patient developed a single hepatic metastasis and underwent hepatic segmentectomy (S6. Forty-six months after laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection, the patient developed metachronous early gastric cancer on the antrum and underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with gastroduodenostomy. The patient is doing well without recurrence for 28 months.

  7. Colon Cancer Screening - Is It Time Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhurgri, Hadi; Samiullah, Sami

    2017-06-01

    The month of March is dedicated to Colon Cancer Awareness. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been on the rise. It is currently the third most common cancer in men (746,000 cases, 10.0% of the total) and the second in women (614,000 cases, 9.2% of the total).1 Arecent meta-analysis reported a 61% risk reduction in CRC incidence with colonoscopy.2 Unlike screening programs for breast and prostate cancers, not only has CRC screening reduced mortality from colon cancer and detected early CRC, it has also decreased the incidence of CRC through detection and removal of pre-cancerous lesions. Studies have shown that screening for colorectal cancer provided 152 to 313 life-years-gained (LYG) per 1000 forty-year-old individuals.3 Anumber of modalities exist for CRC screening, which can broadly be categorized into stool-based tests and direct visualization tests. Stool-based tests include fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNAtesting. Direct visualization tests include endoscopic procedures such as colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy; and radiographic tests such as CT colonography, which has largely replaced air contrast barium enemas.4 The only reported population-based data for CRC in Pakistan comes from Bhurgri et al. in 2011.5It described Pakistan as a low risk region with an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) world per 100,000 of 7.1 in males and 5.2 in females, but with a much younger age and advanced stage at diagnosis. The ratio for individuals diagnosed with CRC under the age of 40, as oppose to over 40 years, was 3:1, which is much higher than the international average. Noteworthy as well, is an increase in incidence especially among men, noted between the study periods of 1995-1997 and 1997-2002. It ranks 7th in incidence among males, and 8th among females, with tobacco related malignancies topping the list.6 There has since been additional cross-sectional data from Pakistan echoing these findings

  8. Couples' patterns of adjustment to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Mood, D; Templin, T; Mellon, S; George, T

    2000-01-01

    The objectives for this longitudinal study were to: (a) compare colon cancer patients' and their spouses' appraisal of illness, resources, concurrent stress, and adjustment during the first year following surgery; (b) examine the influence of gender (male vs female) and role (patient vs spouse caregiver) on study variables; (c) assess the degree of correlation between patients' and spouses' adjustments; and (d) identify factors that affect adjustment to the illness. Fifty-six couples were interviewed at one week post diagnosis, and at 60 days and one year post surgery. Based on a cognitive-appraisal model of stress, the Smilkstein Stress Scale was used to measure concurrent stress; the Family APGAR, Social Support Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to measure social resources; the Beck Hopelessness Scale and Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scales were used to measure appraisal of illness; and the Brief Symptom Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale were used to measure psychosocial adjustment. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance indicated that spouses reported significantly more emotional distress and less social support than patients. Gender differences were found, with women reporting more distress, more role problems, and less marital satisfaction, regardless of whether they were patient or spouse. Both patients and spouses reported decreases in their family functioning and social support, but also decreases in emotional distress over time. Moderately high autocorrelations and modest intercorrelations were found among and between patients' and spouses' adjustment scores over time. The strongest predictors of patients' role adjustment problems were hopelessness and spouses' role problems. The strongest predictors of spouses' role problems were spouses' own baseline role problems and level of marital satisfaction. Interventions need to start early in the course of illness, be family-focused, and identify the couples at risk of

  9. β-Catenin promotes colitis and colon cancer through imprinting of proinflammatory properties in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthivasan, Shilpa; Aghajani, Katayoun; Dose, Marei; Molinero, Luciana; Khan, Mohammad W; Venkateswaran, Vysak; Weber, Christopher; Emmanuel, Akinola Olumide; Sun, Tianjao; Bentrem, David J; Mulcahy, Mary; Keshavarzian, Ali; Ramos, Elena M; Blatner, Nichole; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Gounari, Fotini

    2014-02-26

    The density and type of lymphocytes that infiltrate colon tumors are predictive of the clinical outcome of colon cancer. High densities of T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells and inflammation predict poor outcome, whereas infiltration by T regulatory cells (Tregs) that naturally suppress inflammation is associated with longer patient survival. However, the role of Tregs in cancer remains controversial. We recently reported that Tregs in colon cancer patients can become proinflammatory and tumor-promoting. These properties were directly linked with their expression of RORγt (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt), the signature transcription factor of T(H)17 cells. We report that Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T cells promotes expression of RORγt. Expression of β-catenin was elevated in T cells, including Tregs, of patients with colon cancer. Genetically engineered activation of β-catenin in mouse T cells resulted in enhanced chromatin accessibility in the proximity of T cell factor-1 (Tcf-1) binding sites genome-wide, induced expression of T(H)17 signature genes including RORγt, and promoted T(H)17-mediated inflammation. Strikingly, the mice had inflammation of small intestine and colon and developed lesions indistinguishable from colitis-induced cancer. Activation of β-catenin only in Tregs was sufficient to produce inflammation and initiate cancer. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in effector T cells and/or Tregs is causatively linked with the imprinting of proinflammatory properties and the promotion of colon cancer.

  10. Novel mechanism for obesity-induced colon cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Birmingham, Janette M; Busik, Julia V.; Hansen-Smith, Fay M.; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes factors linked to colon cancer risk including leptin. A hallmark of cancer is sustained angiogenesis. While leptin promotes angiogenesis in adipose tissue, it is unknown whether leptin can induce epithelial cells to produce factors that may drive angiogenesis, vascular development and therefore cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of leptin-stimulated colon epithelial cells differing in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) genotype (gate...

  11. Cohorts with familial disposition for colon cancers in chemoprevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, R W

    1996-01-01

    Colon cancer provides an attractive setting for chemoprevention trials because of the frequency and variation of familial predisposition that is observed in this malignancy. Additionally, the adenomatous polyp, the precursor of colon cancer, is a valuable intermediate marker for judging the effectiveness of candidate chemopreventive agents. Inherited colon cancer susceptibility varies from mild to severe. Conditions with extreme susceptibility include the autosomal dominantly inherited syndromes of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). These are highly penetrant syndromes with extreme cancer risk. FAP arises from mutations of the APC gene and HNPCC from mutations of the mismatch repair genes. Specific and individual genetic diagnosis is now possible in both syndromes, thus allowing identification of genetically affected individuals for chemoprevention trials. FAP accounts for less than 1% of colon cancers, while HNPCC may be present in up to 5% of cases. Familial clustering is common in the remainder of cases, which are often referred to as sporadic, but probably arise in part from inherited susceptibility. Epidemiologic studies have shown that first-degree relatives have a two- to four-fold increased risk of acquiring colon cancer compared to the general population. Ten percent of individuals in the U.S. have a first-degree with colon cancer. This clinically identifiable higher risk group thus constitutes a large potential cohort for chemoprevention trials. The common familial cases of colon cancer can be further stratified by severity. A relative diagnosed under the age of 50 or two first-degree relatives affected with colon cancer confers an even greater risk for this malignancy, estimated to be four to six times that of the general population. Adenomatous polyps also precede the development of colon cancer in these categories, thereby providing a readily identifiable clinical endpoint to judge the

  12. Cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess as the herald of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Gun; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Seung Hoon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Jin-Oh; Kim, Boo Sung; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong

    2012-02-01

    Colonic mucosal defects might be a route for bacterial invasion into the portal system, with subsequent hematogenous spread to the liver. We retrospectively investigated the results of colonoscopy and the clinical characteristics of patients with pyogenic liver abscess of colonic origin. A total of 230 consecutive patients with pyogenic liver abscess were reviewed between 2003 and 2010. The 230 patients were categorized into three groups (pancreatobiliary [n = 135], cryptogenic [n = 81], and others [n = 14]). Of the 81 cryptogenic patients, 37 (45.7%) underwent colonoscopy. Colonic lesions with mucosal defects were considered colonic causes of abscess. In the 37 colonoscopic investigations, colon cancer was found in six patients (16.2%), laterally-spreading tumor (LST) in two patients (5.4%), multiple colon ulcers in one patient (2.7%), colon polyps in 17 patients (45.9%), and diverticula in four patients (10.8%). Nine (11%) of 81 cryptogenic abscesses were therefore reclassified as being of colonic origin (colon cancer = 6, LST = 2, ulcer = 1). Three cases were stage III colon cancer, and the others were stage I. Two LST were high-grade dysplasia. The percentage of patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and diabetes mellitus (DM) of colonic origin was 66.7%, which was significantly higher than the 8.6% for other causes (P colonic cause. Colonoscopy should be considered for the detection of hidden colonic malignant lesions in patients with cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess, especially for patients with K. pneumoniae and DM. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. EZH2 depletion blocks the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Fussbroich

    Full Text Available The Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2 protein has been reported to stimulate cell growth in some cancers and is therefore considered to represent an interesting new target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated a possible role of EZH2 for the growth control of colon cancer cells. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated intracellular EZH2 depletion led to cell cycle arrest of colon carcinoma cells at the G1/S transition. This was associated with a reduction of cell numbers upon transient transfection of synthetic EZH2-targeting siRNAs and with inhibition of their colony formation capacity upon stable expression of vector-borne siRNAs. We furthermore tested whether EZH2 may repress the growth-inhibitory p27 gene, as reported for pancreatic cancer. However, expression analyses of colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer biopsies did not reveal a consistent correlation between EZH2 and p27 levels. Moreover, EZH2 depletion did not re-induce p27 expression in colon cancer cells, indicating that p27 repression by EZH2 may be cell- or tissue-specific. Whole genome transcriptome analyses identified cellular genes affected by EZH2 depletion in colon cancer cell lines. They included several cancer-associated genes linked to cellular proliferation or invasion, such as Dag1, MageD1, SDC1, Timp2, and Tob1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EZH2 depletion blocks the growth of colon cancer cells. These findings might provide benefits for the treatment of colon cancer.

  14. Explanation of colon cancer pathophysiology through analyzing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The colon plays a key role in regulating the homeostasis of bile acids. Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the influence of colon cancer towards the homeostasis of bile acids. Methods: The free and conjugated bile acids were determined using ultraperformance LC (UPLC) coupled with ABI 4000.

  15. Explanation of colon cancer pathophysiology through analyzing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The colon plays a key role in regulating the homeostasis of bile acids. Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the influence of colon cancer towards the homeostasis of bile acids. Methods: The free and conjugated bile acids were determined using ultraperformance LC (UPLC) coupled with ABI 4000 QTRAP ...

  16. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme to

  17. Better Check Your Bowels: Screening for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and older don’t get screened for colorectal cancer. The most common reason, says Klabunde, is that “people don’t realize ... is something they need to do.” Other common reasons include costs and inconvenience, such as taking time off from work. Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon or rectum, both ...

  18. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray B. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01995734. Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%. Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed.

  19. Fuzzy neural approach for colon cancer prediction | Obi | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fuzzy inference procedure. The proposed system which is self-learning and adaptive is able to handle the uncertainties often associated with the diagnosis and analysis of colon cancer. Keywords: Neural Network, Fuzzy logic, Neuro Fuzzy System, ...

  20. Local staging of sigmoid colon cancer using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Jakobsen, Anders; Jensen, Lars Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An accurate radiological staging of colon cancer is crucial to select patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying locally advanced sigmoid colon cancer, poor...... prognostic factors, and the inter-observer variation of the tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using 1.5 T MRI with high resolution T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, DWI, and no contrast enhancement, 35 patients with sigmoid colon cancer were...... the measured mean ADC values were below 1.0 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s with an intra-class correlation coefficient in T3cd-T4 tumors of 0.85. CONCLUSION: Preoperative MRI can identify locally advanced sigmoid colon cancer and has potential as the imaging of choice to select patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Initial...

  1. Efficient and reproducible identification of mismatch repair deficient colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Halvarsson, Britta

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of mismatch-repair (MMR) defective colon cancer is clinically relevant for diagnostic, prognostic and potentially also for treatment predictive purposes. Preselection of tumors for MMR analysis can be obtained with predictive models, which need to demonstrate ease...... of application and favorable reproducibility. METHODS: We validated the MMR index for the identification of prognostically favorable MMR deficient colon cancers and compared performance to 5 other prediction models. In total, 474 colon cancers diagnosed ≥ age 50 were evaluated with correlation between...... and efficiently identifies MMR defective colon cancers with high sensitivity and specificity. The model shows stable performance with low inter-observer variability and favorable performance when compared to other MMR predictive models....

  2. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  3. Survival after elective surgery for colonic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawid, S K; Hemmingsen, L; Boesby, S

    2012-01-01

    % of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark. Only patients having elective surgery for colonic cancer in the period 2001-2008 were included. Overall and relative survival analyses were carried out. The study period was divided into the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. RESULTS: 9149 patients were......AIM: Total mesorectal excision (TME) has been shown to improve the outcome for patients with rectal cancer. In contrast, there are fewer data on complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colonic cancer. METHOD: Data from the National Colorectal Cancer Database were analysed. This includes about 95...... included for the final analysis. The overall 5-year survival rates were 0.65 in 2001-2004 and 0.66 in 2005-2008. The relative 5-year survival rates were also within 1% of each other. None of these comparisons was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Survival following elective colon cancer surgery has...

  4. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  5. Limitations of tissue micro array in Duke's B colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Frifeldt, Sanne; Lindebjerg, Jan; Brunner, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Tissue micro array (TMA) is widely used in cancer research in search of new predictive and prognostic markers. Colon cancer is known to be heterogeneous and the present study addresses some methodological aspects using cores of different size and analysing markers with different cellular distribu......Tissue micro array (TMA) is widely used in cancer research in search of new predictive and prognostic markers. Colon cancer is known to be heterogeneous and the present study addresses some methodological aspects using cores of different size and analysing markers with different cellular...

  6. One case of endometrial cancer occurrence: Over 10 years after colon cancer in Lynch family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Yeon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Min Kyu

    2013-11-01

    We have recently experienced an endometrial cancer 12 years after the diagnosis of colon cancer with Lynch syndrome. A 49-year-old Korean woman had a family history of colon cancer. Her mother had colon cancer at 56-year-old, and her brother had colon cancer at 48 years old. The patient received surgery for endometrial cancer at the same hospital 12 years after being treated for colon cancer. Immunohistochemistry showed that her endometrial tissue stained negative for MSH2. A microsatellite instability test was performed and showed the presence of instability high microsatellite instability. An hMLH2 gene mutation was detected at codon 629 codon of exon 12, in which a glutamine was replaced with an arginine (1886A>G [p.Gln629Arg]). To our knowledge, this is the first case of metachronous cancer in a Lynch syndrome family in Korea with a gap of more than ten years between cancer diagnoses.

  7. Family history and environmental risk factors for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Esteve; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    We analyzed the joint effect of environmental risk factors and family history of colorectal cancer on colon cancer. We used data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1992 and 1996 including 1225 cases with colon cancer and 4154 controls. We created a weighed risk factor score for the main environmental risk factors in this population (positive family history, high education, low occupational physical activity, high daily meal frequency, low intake of fiber, low intake of calcium, and low intake of beta-carotene). Compared with the reference category (subjects with no family history of colorectal cancer and in the lowest tertile of the risk factor score), the odds ratios of colon cancer were 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.89-2.73] for subjects without family history and in the highest environmental risk factor score, 3.20 (95% CI = 2.05-5.01) for those with family history and low risk factor score, and 7.08 (95% CI = 4.68-10.71) for those with family history and high risk factor score. The pattern of risk was similar for men and women and no meaningful differences emerged according to subsite within the colon. Family history of colorectal cancer interacts with environmental risk factors of colon cancer.

  8. [A Case of Colon Cancer That Developed in the Subcutaneously Reconstructed Colon after Esophagectomy for Thoracic Esophageal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Yamasaki, Makoto; Sakai, Daisuke; Makino, Tomoki; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2015-11-01

    An 83-year-old man with a history of esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer presented with a chief complaint of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy abnormality. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed colon cancer developing in the subcutaneously reconstructed colon, located 45 cm from the incisor tooth. Computed tomography and positron-emission tomography revealed a thickening of the wall of the reconstructed colon, a lymph node metastasis adjacent to the reconstructed colon, and no distant metastases. A partial colectomy with excision of the breastbone, rib cartilage, and the lymph node adjacent to the reconstructed colon was performed. The patient experienced a localized recurrence on postoperative day 75 and was treated with chemotherapy. The patient is alive 2 years after the diagnosis of local recurrence.

  9. [Evaluation of knowledge about colon cancer prevention versus other tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, José María; Henry, Nicolás; Ocaña, Domingo; Polesel, Julio Lotero

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina almost 7% of deaths are due to different cancers with screening strategies. Evaluate knowledge about cancer prevention compared with other tumors. Materials. A descriptive and comparative study. A survey between April and June 2013 in Salta City, province of Salta, Argentina. Correct answers were considered. Statistical analysis: Descriptive (mean and percentage), comparative Chi square Test (significance level Pmama and cervix. 20% (CI 0,13-0,28) knew that colon cancer has a genetic predisposition and 58% (CI 0,48-0,67) about mama. 73% (CI 0,63-0,8) received information about cancer prevention. The main source of information was the physician. 46% (CI 0,36-0,55) received medical care in private institutions. Those who had social security, higher educational levels and medical care in private institutions had better knowledge about cancer prevention except in colon cancer. The global results showed levels below 70% in general but extremely low in colon cancer. Not having social security, receiving medical care in public institutions and having a low educational level are related with poor knowledge about cancer prevention except for colon and prostate cancer.

  10. Differences in plasma gastrin, CEA, and CA 19-9 concentration in patients with proximal and distal colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombski, Grzegorz; Gasiorowska, Anita; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria; Neneman, Beata; Kotynia, Justyna; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Janiak, Adam; Malecka-Panas, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    We investigated whether there are differences in plasma gastrin, as compared with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 between patients with proximal and distal colorectal cancer. Gastrin concentration has also been analyzed, dependent on the tumor stage, in order to evaluate the possible prognostic role of this measurement. In 50 patients with colon cancer-fasting gastrin, CA 19-9 and CEA levels were evaluated. Mean plasma-gastrin level in patients with distal tumor yielded 105.31 +/- 12.5 microU/L and was significantly higher than in patients with the proximal tumor site (42.2 +/- 3.1 microU/L) as well as in controls (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between mean plasma gastrin in patients with proximal tumors and the control group. The mean CEA plasma level was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients with distal tumors (9.1 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in those with proximal tumors (1.48 +/- 0.1 ng/mL). Similarly, the mean CA 19-9 plasma level was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in patients with distal tumor (19.9 +/- 2.1 U/mL) than in those with proximal tumor: 1.8 +/- 0.2 U/mL. The mean gastrin plasma, CA 19-9, and CEA level was significantly higher in group of Duke's stage C and D as compared to A and B. We speculate that observed differences in gastrin concentration in patients with distal and proximal tumors may contribute to the distinct pathogenesis and biological properties of those cancers. The significance of gastrin as a marker for diagnostic or prognostic purposes in colorectal cancer requires further study.

  11. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate human colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Bianchi, Mariana; de Thomaz, André A.; Baratti, Mariana O.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Casco, Víctor H.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2013-02-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most diffused cancers in the Western World, ranking third worldwide in frequency of incidence after lung and breast cancers. Even if it is curable when detected and treated early, a more accurate premature diagnosis would be a suitable aim for both cancer prognostic and treatment. Combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation in colon cancer disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns between normal and malignant human colonic mucosa. Using a set of scoring methods significant differences both in the content, distribution and organization of stroma collagen fibrils, and lifetime components of NADH and FAD cofactors of human colon mucosa biopsies were found. Our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human colon cancer, and also suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics could be applied to other intestinal disorders, which are characterized by abnormal cell proliferation and collagen assembly.

  12. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drugs for chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is in the third most frequent cancer among malignant tumors of both sexes in developed countries. It is predominantly a disease of older persons and occurs mostly after the age of 60. Although the etiology of colon cancer is unknown, it is assumed to arise as a result of unclear and complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The main element in the etiology of colorectal cancer is the process of genetic changes in epithelial cells of colon mucosa. It is believed that specific epidemiological factors such as stress, hypoxia, reduced intake of glucose and other nutrients, a hereditary predisposition to mutagenic effects, the meat in the diet, bile acids, reduced intake of minerals and vitamins as well as changes in pH of feces lead to initiation of the process of carcinogenesis in mucosa of the colon. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of chemical agents in order to block, prevent or delay the reversal development or progress of cancer. It is believed that chemoprevention is a key component of cancer control, and numerous studies indicate potential role of NSAIDs in chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  13. Colon Cancer Stem Cells: Promise of Targeted Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todaro, Matilde; Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    First developed for hematologic disorders, the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) was expanded to solid tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The traditional model of colon carcinogenesis includes several steps that occur via mutational activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor

  14. Clinical significance of adiponectin expression in colon cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Canhoroz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Adiponectin, which is secreted by adipose tissue, may have a role in the development and progression of cancer via its pro-apoptotic and/or anti-proliferative effects. Adiponectin expression in tumor tissues is likely to have a negative effect on disease - free survival in patients with stage II/III colon cancer; however, no statistically significant effect was demonstrated.

  15. Invasive ductal breast cancer metastatic to the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiao-cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common sites of breast cancer metastasis are the bone, lung, liver and brain. However, colonic metastases from breast cancer are very rare in the clinic. We describe an unusual case of sigmoid colonic metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer. With this report, we should increase the clinical awareness that any patient with a colorectal lesion and a history of malignancy should be considered to have a metastasis until proven otherwise. Early diagnosis is very important, which enables prompt initiation of systemic treatment, such as chemotherapy, endocrine therapy or both, thus avoiding unnecessary radical surgical resection and improving the prognosis.

  16. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2009-11-01

    We explore an NIR autofluorescence imaging technique for cancer diagnosis and detection. A set of tissue images including NIR white light images, autofluorescence (AF) images and fluorescence polarized images (FPI) (parallel-, and perpendicular- polarization) were acquired in tandem on human colonic tissues. The results show that NIR fluorescence intensity of normal tissue is significantly higher than that of cancer tissue. The perpendicular-polarization image yields the highest diagnostic accuracy 93% compared to other imaging modes. This work demonstrates that Fluorescence polarization imaging (FPI) technique has great potential for cancer diagnosis and detection in the colon.

  17. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Mo, Jianhua; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2008-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a novel optical technique with an ability of probing larger volume of tissues or lesions located in deep tissue areas. An integrated fluorescence and reflectance imaging system was developed to evaluate its potential for cancer diagnosis. The results show that the NIR autofluorescence intensity of normal colon tissues is significantly higher than that of cancer, and the diagnostic accuracy of 92.8% can be achieved using NIR autofluorescence/reflectance imaging. This work demonstrates that NIR autofluorescence/NIR reflectance imaging technique has potential for colonic cancer diagnosis and detection.

  18. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinstein, Scott C.; Conerly, Melissa; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Biswas, Swati; Washington, M. Kay; Trobridge, Patty; Henikoff, Steve; Grady, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19Arf, Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors. PMID:19777566

  19. Colon adenoma features and their impact on risk of future advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Audrey H; Lasser, Karen E; Roy, Hemant K

    2016-12-15

    To review the evidence on the association between specific colon adenoma features and the risk of future colonic neoplasia [adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC)]. We performed a literature search using the National Library of Medicine through PubMed from 1/1/2003 to 5/30/2015. Specific Medical Subject Headings terms (colon, colon polyps, adenomatous polyps, epidemiology, natural history, growth, cancer screening, colonoscopy, CRC) were used in conjunction with subject headings/key words (surveillance, adenoma surveillance, polypectomy surveillance, and serrated adenoma). We defined non-advanced adenomas as 1-2 adenomas each 25% villous histology or high-grade dysplasia. A combined endpoint of advanced neoplasia included advanced adenomas and invasive CRC. Our search strategy identified 592 candidate articles of which 8 met inclusion criteria and were relevant for assessment of histology (low grade vs high grade dysplasia, villous features) and adenoma size. Six of these studies met the accepted quality indicator threshold for overall adenoma detection rate > 25% among study patients. We found 254 articles of which 7 met inclusion criteria for the evaluation of multiple adenomas. Lastly, our search revealed 222 candidate articles of which 6 met inclusion criteria for evaluation of serrated polyps. Our review found that villous features, high grade dysplasia, larger adenoma size, and having ≥ 3 adenomas at baseline are associated with an increased risk of future colonic neoplasia in some but not all studies. Serrated polyps in the proximal colon are associated with an increased risk of future colonic neoplasia, comparable to having a baseline advanced adenoma. Data on adenoma features and risk of future adenomas and CRC are compelling yet modest in absolute effect size. Future research should refine this risk stratification.

  20. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  1. Special Section: New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Detect Colon Cancer 3-D virtual screening now being used Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... the colon wall, forming the basis for an electronic biopsy (medical test) of the entire colon surface. " ...

  2. EMT is the dominant program in human colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollenaar Rob AEM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer has been classically described by clinicopathologic features that permit the prediction of outcome only after surgical resection and staging. Methods We performed an unsupervised analysis of microarray data from 326 colon cancers to identify the first principal component (PC1 of the most variable set of genes. PC1 deciphered two primary, intrinsic molecular subtypes of colon cancer that predicted disease progression and recurrence. Results Here we report that the most dominant pattern of intrinsic gene expression in colon cancer (PC1 was tightly correlated (Pearson R = 0.92, P -135 with the EMT signature-- both in gene identity and directionality. In a global micro-RNA screen, we further identified the most anti-correlated microRNA with PC1 as MiR200, known to regulate EMT. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the biology underpinning the native, molecular classification of human colon cancer--previously thought to be highly heterogeneous-- was clarified through the lens of comprehensive transcriptome analysis.

  3. Physical activity, mediating factors and risk of colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Leitzmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is convincing evidence that high physical activity lowers the risk of colon cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine the extent to which body fatness and biomarkers of various biologically plausible pathways account for ......%; 111%) of the association, respectively. Conclusions: Promoting physical activity, particularly outdoors, and maintaining metabolic health and adequate vitamin D levels could represent a promising strategy for colon cancer prevention.......Background: There is convincing evidence that high physical activity lowers the risk of colon cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. We aimed to determine the extent to which body fatness and biomarkers of various biologically plausible pathways account...... for the association between physical activity and colon cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 519 978 men and women aged 25 to 70 years followed from 1992 to 2003. A total of 713 incident colon cancer cases were matched, using risk-set sampling, to 713 controls on age, sex, study...

  4. LIGHT Elevation Enhances Immune Eradication of Colon Cancer Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guilin; Qin, Jianzhong; Kunda, Nicholas; Calata, Jed F; Mahmud, Dolores L; Gann, Peter; Fu, Yang-Xin; Rosenberg, Steven A; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2017-04-15

    The majority of patients with colon cancer will develop advanced disease, with the liver being the most common site of metastatic disease. Patients with increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary colon tumors and liver metastases have improved outcomes. However, the molecular factors that could empower antitumor immune responses in this setting remain to be elucidated. We reported that the immunostimulatory cytokine LIGHT (TNFSF14) in the microenvironment of colon cancer metastases associates with improved patient survival, and here we demonstrate in an immunocompetent murine model that colon tumors expressing LIGHT stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and tumor cell-specific antitumor immune responses. In this model, increasing LIGHT expression in the microenvironment of either primary tumors or liver metastases triggered regression of established tumors and slowed the growth of liver metastases, driven by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated antitumor immunity. These responses corresponded with significant increases in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and increased expression of lymphocyte-homing signals in the metastatic tumors. Furthermore, we demonstrated evidence of durable tumor-specific antitumor immunity. In conclusion, increasing LIGHT expression increased T-cell proliferation, activation, and infiltration, resulting in enhanced tumor-specific immune-mediated tumor regressions in primary tumors and colorectal liver metastases. Mechanisms to increase LIGHT in the colon cancer microenvironment warrant further investigation and hold promise as an immunotherapeutic strategy. Cancer Res; 77(8); 1880-91. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. SRPK2 promotes the growth and migration of the colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Wei; Xu, Dong-Yan; Ruan, Ting-Yan; Tao, Guo-Qing; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related death in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this malignancy will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment. Serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) has been reported to be upregulated in several cancer types. However, its expression and functions in colon cancer remains unknown. In this study, it was found that the expression of SRPK2 was up-regulated in the clinical colon cancer samples. Overexpression of SRPK2 promoted the growth and migration of colon cancer cells, while knocking down the expression of SRPK2 inhibited the growth, migration and tumorigenecity of colon cancer cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that SRPK2 activated ERK signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the tumor promoting roles of SRPK2 in colon cancer cells and SRPK2 might be a promising therapeutic target for colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of resistant starch on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk patients with colonic adenomas : A controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J A L; van den Braak, C.C.M.; Essenberg, M.; Olthof, M.; Tangerman, A.; Katan, M. B.; Nagengast, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    Resistant starch decreases the concentration of secondary bile acids in the feces and the proliferation rate of colonic mucosal cells in healthy volunteers. This may reduce the risk of colon cancer. We investigated 23 patients with recently removed colonic adenoma(s) in a controlled parallel trial.

  7. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels

    2016-01-01

    analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68–0.86 and 0.88, 0.80–0.96) and rectal cancer (0......Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50–79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were...... followed 1995–2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression...

  8. Influence of dietary protein sources on putative in vitro and in vivo colon cancer biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    Colon cancer (cancer of the large intestine) is a worldwide problem in especially Western countries. The diet might be responsible for up to 90% of these colon cancer cases. This means that decreasing colon cancer risk should be possible by changing the diet. The research presented in this

  9. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougall Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation – CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion – CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion – CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

  10. Coexistence of Colon Cancer and Diverticilutis Complicated with Diverticular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of a diverticular abscess and colorectal cancer is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical presentation and the extension of a diverticular abscess could cause mis-staging of colon cancer. We are presenting an overstaged colon cancer due to a diverticular abscess penetrating into the abdominal wall. A 65-year-old male patient with a history of an enlarging mass in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen was admitted to our service. Diagnostic studies revealed a sigmoid tumor communicating with an abdominal wall mass. The patient was clinically staged as T4 N1. Exploration revealed a diverticular abscess penetrating into the abdominal wall and a sigmoid tumor. Histopathological examination reported an intermediately differentiated T3 N0 adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. After an uneventful postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to chemotherapy. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(4.000: 231-233

  11. Locally advanced colon cancer with cutaneous invasion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro, Nádia; Ferreira, Cátia; Silva, Silvia; Marques, Rita; Ribeiro, Artur; Sousa, Paulo Jorge; Luís, Fernando Próspero

    2017-03-01

    Locally advanced colon cancer with direct abdominal wall and skin invasion is an extremely rare finding with most data being derived from case reports, historical autopsy-based or single-center retrospective studies. We present a unique case of a colon cancer with direct cutaneous invasion and colocutaneous fistulization. Eighty-six year old Caucasian female with multiple comorbidities, referred to Surgical Consultation due to ulcerated skin lesion in the abdomen. She had a long-standing large umbilical hernia but with no previous episodes of incarceration or occlusive symptoms. She denied any digestive or constitutional symptoms. Physical examination showed a large non-reducible umbilical hernia, with an associated painless firm mass within the hernia sac and cutaneous ulcerated growth. Colonoscopy revealed transverse colon cancer (endoscopic biopsy of the tumor and skin punch biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma of the colon). Computed tomography showed a tumoral mass within the umbilical hernia, with cutaneous infiltration and enlarged regional lymph nodes. Rapid local progression led to colocutaneous fistula with total fecal diversion. We performed an extended right hemicolectomy with en bloc excision of the hernia sac and infiltrating cutaneous mass. In the current era of widespread use of screening colonoscopies, initial diagnosis of locally advanced colon cancer is decreasing. However, this unique case presented an opportunity to recall the advantages of multivisceral resections.

  12. Pitfalls in diagnosing colon cancer on abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, E; Eifer, M; Kopylov, U; Belsky, V; Raskin, S; Konen, E; Amitai, M M

    2017-10-01

    To assess the frequency of undetected colon cancer on conventional abdominal CT and to evaluate the imaging features that are characteristic of those cancers. The present study included consecutive patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at colonoscopy (2006-2015) who also underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed for various reasons within a year prior to the colonoscopy. The frequency of undetected lesions was evaluated for the original CT interpretations ("original readers"). Two radiologists ("study readers"), blinded to the tumour location, independently performed interpretations oriented for colon cancer detection. The study readers analysed the imaging features of detected tumours (tumour shape, length, maximal wall thickness, free fluid, fat stranding, vascular engorgement, stenosis, and lymphadenopathy). Imaging features of the cancers undetected by the original readers were evaluated. The study included 127 patients. The original readers' frequency of undetected cancer was 25/127 (19.7%). Each study reader could not identify the cancer in 8/127 (6.3%) patients. Imaging features associated with undetected cancers by the original readers included the absence of fat stranding (p=0.007, p=0.003), absence of vascular engorgement (pColon cancer is undetected in 20% of abdominal CT examinations in patients subsequently proven to have colon cancer at colonoscopy. The absence of fat stranding, vascular engorgement, or lymphadenopathy, and an average tumour length of 3.3 cm are contributing factors for failure of detection. Radiologists' training should emphasis these findings as it may improve cancer detection, and clinicians should be aware of the limitations of abdominal CT. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Teuling, E.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Huybers, S.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Ommen, B. van

    2004-01-01

    Background. Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  14. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Teuling, E.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Huybers, S.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Ommen, van B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  15. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erk, Marjan J; Teuling, Eva; Staal, Yvonne C. M.; Huybers, Sylvie; Van Bladeren, Peter J; Aarts, Jac MMJG; Van Ommen, Ben

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an

  16. CPTAC Releases Cancer Proteome Confirmatory Colon Study Data | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) announces the release of the cancer proteome confirmatory colon study data. The goal of the study is to analyze the proteomes of approximately 100 confirmatory colon tumor patients, which includes tumor and adjacent normal samples, with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling.

  17. Resolution of Paraneoplastic Collagenous Enterocolitis after Resection of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman developed severe watery diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and hypoalbuminemia. A localized colon cancer was detected. Subsequently, extensive collagenous mucosal involvement of the small and large intestine was discovered. After resection of the colon cancer, her symptoms resolved. In addition, resolution of the inflammatory process occurred, including the subepithelial collagen deposits. Despite extensive small and large intestinal involvement, both clinical and histological resolution of collagenous inflammatory disease was evident. Collagenous enterocolitis is an inflammatory process that may represent a distinctive and reversible paraneoplastic phenomenon.

  18. [Multidisciplinary tailoring of therapy of metastatic colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlund, Pia; Isoniemi, Helena; Scheinin, Tom; Ristimäki, Ari; Lantto, Eila

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of colon cancer requires multidisciplinary team work. The multitude of therapies in metastatic colon cancer have led to longer overall survival with fewer symptoms. Median survival has increased from 5 months with the best supportive care to 30-40 months in randomized studies, even with curative treatment in some patients. Tailoring of the treatment is best done by a multidisciplinary team considering radiotherapy and operation of the primary tumor, resection of liver, lung and peritoneal metastases, medical treatment alternatives, palliative care, ablative methods etc. Without skillful surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, geneticists, radiologists etc. the best treatment opportunities may be missed.

  19. Association of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene polymorphism with pancreatic cancer but not colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Kyoko; Hosoya, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Uegaki, Satoko; Kino, Kenji; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Kawanami, Takako; Funakoshi, Akihiro

    2010-07-01

    Most of the acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, generated during alcohol metabolism is eliminated by liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). More than 40% of Japanese people have the inactive form of ALDH2, and inactive ALDH2 is a risk factor for multiple cancer of the esophagus, as well as head and neck cancer. Possible associations between pancreatic cancer and ALDH2 gene polymorphism, as well as between colon cancer and ALDH2 gene polymorphism, in conjunction with smoking and/or drinking habits, were examined in a Japanese population. Patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 187) and with colon cancer (n = 49) were examined. The drinking (5 g ethanol consumption/day) and/or smoking habits as well as ALDH2 gene polymorphism were examined. The age-matched control subjects were recruited in the NILS Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA). Aging, smoking and inactive ALDH2, but not alcohol, are independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer. The frequency of smoking habits tended to be higher in patients with colon cancer compared with the patients without cancer. However, age, body mass index or the distribution of ALDH2 genotypes did not differ significantly among the patients with colon cancer, colon polyps and others. Inactive ALDH2 is an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but inactive ALDH2 might not be a risk for colon cancer.

  20. Diet, microorganisms and their metabolites, and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the so-called westernized diseases and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. On the basis of global epidemiological and scientific studies, evidence suggests that the risk of colorectal cancer is increased by processed and unprocessed meat consumption but suppressed by fibre, and that food composition affects colonic health and cancer risk via its effects on colonic microbial metabolism. The gut microbiota can ferment complex dietary residues that are resistant to digestion by enteric enzymes. This process provides energy for the microbiota but culminates in the release of short-chain fatty acids including butyrate, which are utilized for the metabolic needs of the colon and the body. Butyrate has a remarkable array of colonic health-promoting and antineoplastic properties: it is the preferred energy source for colonocytes, it maintains mucosal integrity and it suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis through effects on immunity, gene expression and epigenetic modulation. Protein residues and fat-stimulated bile acids are also metabolized by the microbiota to inflammatory and/or carcinogenic metabolites, which increase the risk of neoplastic progression. This Review will discuss the mechanisms behind these microbial metabolite effects, which could be modified by diet to achieve the objective of preventing colorectal cancer in Western societies.

  1. Analysis on misdiagnosed cases of right colon cancer as appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to investigate the causes of misdiagnosing right colon cancer as appendicitis, in order to reduce the misdiagnosis rate. The process of diagnosing and treating 44 misdiagnosed right colon cancer cases was analyzed. It was found that the right colonic lumen in these patients was thick, and their cancer consisted mostly of the ulcerative type or of a cauliflower-like tumor that protruded into the intestinal cavity. Moreover, ring-shaped and structured cancer was rarely observed, which suggested a decreased likelihood of obstruction. The patients showed limited peritoneal irritation signs in their right lower abdomen, which was also a potential cause for misdiagnosis. Right colon cancer associated with appendicitis is easily misdiagnosed as simple appendicitis, chronic appendicitis, or appendiceal abscess. Therefore, it is necessary to raise general awareness on the manifestations of the disease in order to exclude other common complications during diagnosis and to reduce the misdiagnosis rate. An accurate early diagnosis and treatment will improve patient prognosis.

  2. Procaine Induces Epigenetic Changes in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, and it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The present study aimed at treating colon cancer cell line (HCT116 with different chemotherapeutic drug/drug combinations (procaine, vorinostat “SAHA,” sodium phenylbutyrate, erlotinib, and carboplatin. Two different final concentrations were applied: 3 μM and 5 μM. Trypan blue test was performed to assess the viability of the cell before and after being treated with the drugs. The data obtained showed that there was a significant decrease in the viability of cells after applying the chemotherapeutic drugs/drug combinations. Also, DNA fragmentation assay was carried out to study the effect of these drugs on the activation of apoptosis-mediated DNA degradation process. The results indicated that all the drugs/drug combinations had a severe effect on inducing DNA fragmentation. Global DNA methylation quantification was performed to identify the role of these drugs individually or in combination in hypo- or hypermethylating the CpG dinucleotide all over the genome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Data obtained indicated that different combinations had different effects in reducing or increasing the level of methylation, which might indicate the effectiveness of combining drugs in treating colon cancer cells.

  3. Personalizing colon cancer adjuvant therapy: selecting optimal treatments for individual patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Salazar, Ramon; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    ... for patients with resected colon cancer. Although universally recommended for patients with stage III disease, there is no consensus about the survival benefit of postoperative chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer...

  4. Epsin is required for Dishevelled stability and Wnt signaling activation in colon cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Baojun; Tessneer, Kandice L.; McManus, John; Liu, Xiaolei; Hahn, Scott; Pasula, Satish; Wu, Hao; Song, Hoogeun; Chen, Yiyuan; Cai, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yunzhou; Brophy, Megan L.; Rahman, Ruby; Ma, Jian-Xing; Xia, Lijun; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled canonical Wnt signaling supports colon epithelial tumor expansion and malignant transformation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of and will provide new therapeutic targets for colon cancer. Epsins are ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins upregulated in several human cancers; however, epsins’ involvement in colon cancer is unknown. Here we show that loss of intestinal epithelial epsins protects against colon cancer by significantly reducing the stability of the crucial Wnt signaling effector, dishevelled (Dvl2), and impairing Wnt signaling. Consistently, epsins and Dvl2 are correspondingly upregulated in colon cancer. Mechanistically, epsin binds Dvl2 via its epsin N-terminal homology domain and ubiquitin-interacting motifs and prohibits Dvl2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Our findings reveal an unconventional role for epsins in stabilizing Dvl2 and potentiating Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells to ensure robust colon cancer progression. Epsins’ pro-carcinogenic role suggests they are potential therapeutic targets to combat colon cancer. PMID:25871009

  5. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts. In this study, a label-free LC-MS was performed to analyze the secretomes of two paired primary fibroblasts, which were isolated from fresh surgical specimen of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal colonic tissues and exhibited negative modulatory activity for colon cancer cell growth in in vitro cocultures and in vivo xenograph mouse models. Follistatin-related protein 1 was further revealed to be one of the stroma-derived factors of potential suppression role for colon cancer cell proliferation. Our results provide novel

  6. Valproic acid enhances bosutinib cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mologni, Luca; Cleris, Loredana; Magistroni, Vera; Piazza, Rocco; Boschelli, Frank; Formelli, Franca; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2009-04-15

    Unbalanced histone deacetylase (HDAC) hyperactivity is a common feature of tumor cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity is often associated with cancer cell growth impairment and death. Valproic acid (VPA) is a HDAC inhibitor used for the treatment of epilepsy. It has recently been recognized as a promising anticancer drug. We investigated the effects of VPA on growth and survival of colon cancer cells. VPA caused growth inhibition and programmed cell death that correlated with histone hyperacetylation. VPA modulated the expression of various factors involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis and induced caspase activation. Interestingly, VPA induced downregulation of c-Src and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the c-Src inhibitor bosutinib, both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of sublethal doses of VPA and bosutinib led to massive apoptosis of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their genetic background. These results suggest that VPA may be employed as a positive modulator of bosutinib antitumor activity in colorectal cancer.

  7. Opposite effects of microchimerism on breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    microchimerism in 70% of 272 cancer-free women, 40% of 89 women who later developed breast cancer, and 90% of 67 women who later developed colon cancer. The corresponding odds ratios were 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.52) for breast, and 3.9 (95%CI 1.6-9.5) for colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Detection......BACKGROUND: Detection of Y chromosome, thought to originate from previous pregnancies with a male fetus, is common in women. Lower concentrations have been reported in women with breast cancer than cancer-free women. Data in women with other types of cancer are sparse. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether the lower concentrations predate cancer diagnosis, and whether a possible beneficial effect was specific to breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-cohort study of 50-64-year-old Danish women enrolled in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Blood samples and questionnaire...

  8. Alteration of gene expression in macroscopically normal colonic mucosa from individuals with a family history of sporadic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chun-Yi; Moore, Dan H; Wong, Patrick; Bennington, James L; Lee, Nancy M; Chen, Ling-Chun

    2005-02-15

    We have shown that the expression of several genes associated with human colon cancer is altered in the morphologically normal colonic mucosa (MNCM) of APC(min) mice and humans with colon cancers. To determine whether these alterations also occur in the MNCM of individuals who have not developed colon cancer but are at high risk of doing so, we measured gene expression in the MNCM of individuals with a family history of colon cancer. Expression of 16 genes in the MNCM of 12 individuals with a first-degree relative with sporadic colon cancer and 16 normal controls were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. All subjects tested had normal colonoscopic examinations. Biopsy samples of MNCM were obtained from the ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid regions of the colon (2-8 biopsy samples were obtained from each region). Relative to normal controls, the expression of several genes, including PPAR-gamma, SAA1, and IL-8 were significantly altered in the macroscopically normal rectosigmoid mucosa from individuals with a family history of colon cancer. Molecular abnormalities that precede the appearance of adenomatous polyp are present in the MNCM of individuals who have a family history of colon cancer. This observation raises the possibility of screening for individuals who are at an increased risk of developing colon cancer by analysis of gene expression in rectosigmoid biopsy samples. To assess this possibility, prospective studies will be needed to determine whether or not altered gene expression is associated with the subsequent development of adenomatous polyps and/ or colonic carcinomas.

  9. Urotensin-II receptor is over-expressed in colon cancer cell lines and in colon carcinoma in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Alessandro; Zappavigna, Silvia; Romano, Marco; Grieco, Paolo; Luce, Amalia; Marra, Monica; Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Stiuso, Paola; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Vitale, Giovanni; Tuccillo, Concetta; Novellino, Ettore; Loguercio, Carmela; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin (U)-II receptor (UTR) has been previously reported to be over-expressed in a number of tumours. Whether UTR-related pathway plays a role in colon carcinogenesis is unknown. We evaluated UTR protein and mRNA expression in human epithelial colon cancer cell lines and in normal colon tissue, adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. U-II protein expression was assessed in cancer cell lines. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of U-II(4-11) (an UTR agonist), antagonists and knockdown of UTR protein expression through a specific shRNA, on proliferation, invasion and motility of human colon cancer cells. Cancer cell lines expressed U-II protein and UTR protein and mRNA. By immunohistochemistry, UTR was expressed in 5-30% of epithelial cells in 45 normal controls, in 30-48% in 21 adenomatous polyps and in 65-90% in 48 colon adenocarcinomas. UTR mRNA expression was increased by threefold in adenomatous polyps and eightfold in colon cancer, compared with normal colon. U-II(4-11) induced a 20-40% increase in cell growth while the blockade of the receptor with specific antagonists caused growth inhibition of 20-40%. Moreover, the knock down of UTR with a shRNA or the inhibition of UTR with the antagonist urantide induced an approximately 50% inhibition of both motility and invasion. UTR appears to be involved in the regulation of colon cancer cell invasion and motility. These data suggest that UTR-related pathway may play a role in colon carcinogenesis and that UTR may function as a target for therapeutic intervention in colon cancer. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

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  1. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Green vegetables and colon cancer: the mechanism of a protective effect by chlorophyll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important environmental determinants of the risk of colon cancer is the composition of the diet. Regular consumption of high amounts of red meat increases colon cancer risk. In contrast, consumption of green vegetables decreases the risk of colon cancer. This thesis provides a molecular

  3. Clinical application of biomarkers in colon cancer : studies on apoptosis, proliferation and the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeestraten, Eliane Cornelia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a major contributor to can- cer-related mortality worldwide. Death from colon cancer occurs in the majority of cases from widespread metastatic disease. Only 15% of stage II colon cancer patients that develop metastasis will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, all of them will suffer

  4. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  5. Combination of capecitabine and ludartin inhibits colon cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, and increased median survival time of colon cancer mice from. 38 to 55 days. Expression of VEGF in ... pathway and mutation of cell cycle components. [3-6]. It has also been observed that ..... Angew Chem Int Ed. Eng1985; 24: 94. 9. Rodriguez E, Towers GHN, Mitchell JC.

  6. Capecitabine treatment of HCT-15 colon cancer cells induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capecitabine treatment of. HCT-15 cells caused condensation of DNA and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent ... Conclusion: Capecitabine treatment causes inhibition of colon cancer growth via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Thus ... extraction of distant metastases from various organs such as liver ...

  7. Capecitabine treatment of HCT-15 colon cancer cells induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capecitabine treatment of HCT-15 colon cancer cells induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. Mingli Li1*, Na Zhang2 and Mingxuan Li3. 1Biology and Medicine, 2Pharmaceutics, Shandong University, Shandong 250100, 3Department of Nursing, Affiliated Hospital of. Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong ...

  8. Effects of 5-fluorouracil adjuvant treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Plukker, John T. M.

    Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for Stage III colon cancer. After the initial introduction of 5-fluorouracil in standard treatment protocols, several changes have been made based on results of randomized studies on

  9. [Pulmonary metastases from colon cancer and occult thyroid cancer in the same lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Futagawa, Toshiro; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of surgery for colon cancer was found to have multiple enlarging pulmonary nodules( 2 in the left lower lobe and 1 in the right upper lobe), and was suspected of having pulmonary metastases from colon cancer. He underwent left lower lobectomy, and subsequent histopathological examination revealed that one was a pulmonary metastasis from colon cancer, and the other was a pulmonary metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer. There were no abnormalities in the thyroid gland according to computed tomography and ultrasonography findings. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with synchronous pulmonary metastases of both colon cancer and occult thyroid cancer in the same lobe. This is an exceedingly rare case;to the best of our knowledge, there has been no report thus far regarding multiple pulmonary metastases from different primary sites.

  10. Colon Cancer Cell Separation by Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, H.; Wood, P.; Hrushesky, W.; Wang, Guiren

    2009-11-01

    Separation of cancer cells from the other biological cells can be useful for clinical cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this presentation, conventional dielectrophoresis (c-DEP) is used in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and collect colorectal cancer HCT116 cell, which is doped with Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293). It is noticed that, the HCT116 cell are deflected to a side channel from a main channel clearly by apply electric field at particular AC frequency band. This motion caused by negative DEP can be used to separate the cancer cell from others. In this manuscript, chip design, flow condition, the DEP spectrum of the cancer cell are reported respectively, and the separation and collection efficiency are investigated as well. The sorter is microfabricated using plastic laminate technology. -/abstract- This work has been financially supported by the NSF RII funding (EP

  11. Jacalin Has Chemopreventive Effects on Colon Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Herrero Geraldino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity. To evaluate jacalin’s potential application in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, we studied its effects on the early stages of carcinogenesis. Balb/c mice were given 4 intrarectal deposits of 0.1 ml solution of Methyl-N′-Nitro-N-Nitroso-Guanidine (5 mg/ml twice a week (with a 3-day interval for 2 weeks. Starting 2 weeks before carcinogen administration, animals were treated orally with jacalin (0.5 and 25 μg three times a week (on alternate weekdays for 10 weeks. We show that jacalin treatment reduced the number of preneoplastic lesions in carcinogen-exposed mice. This anticarcinogenic activity was associated with decreased colonic epithelial cell proliferation and stromal COX-2 expression and with increased intestinal production of TNF-α. Our results demonstrate that jacalin is able to modulate the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and emphasize its promising chemopreventive activity in colorectal cancer.

  12. Jacalin Has Chemopreventive Effects on Colon Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldino, Thais Herrero; Modiano, Patricia; Veronez, Luciana Chain; Flória-Santos, Milena; Garcia, Sergio Britto; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, has a slow natural history that provides a great opportunity for prevention strategies. Plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention because of their inherent colorectal cancer chemopreventive effects. The plant lectin jacalin specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and has antiproliferative effects on human colon cancer cells, highlighting its potential antitumor activity. To evaluate jacalin's potential application in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, we studied its effects on the early stages of carcinogenesis. Balb/c mice were given 4 intrarectal deposits of 0.1 ml solution of Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitroso-Guanidine (5 mg/ml) twice a week (with a 3-day interval) for 2 weeks. Starting 2 weeks before carcinogen administration, animals were treated orally with jacalin (0.5 and 25 μg) three times a week (on alternate weekdays) for 10 weeks. We show that jacalin treatment reduced the number of preneoplastic lesions in carcinogen-exposed mice. This anticarcinogenic activity was associated with decreased colonic epithelial cell proliferation and stromal COX-2 expression and with increased intestinal production of TNF-α. Our results demonstrate that jacalin is able to modulate the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and emphasize its promising chemopreventive activity in colorectal cancer.

  13. Metabolic proximity in the order of colonization of a microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Mazumdar

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are often composed of multiple bacterial species that accumulate by adhering to a surface and to each other. Biofilms can be resistant to antibiotics and physical stresses, posing unresolved challenges in the fight against infectious diseases. It has been suggested that early colonizers of certain biofilms could cause local environmental changes, favoring the aggregation of subsequent organisms. Here we ask whether the enzyme content of different microbes in a well-characterized dental biofilm can be used to predict their order of colonization. We define a metabolic distance between different species, based on the overlap in their enzyme content. We next use this metric to quantify the average metabolic distance between neighboring organisms in the biofilm. We find that this distance is significantly smaller than the one observed for a random choice of prokaryotes, probably reflecting the environmental constraints on metabolic function of the community. More surprisingly, this metabolic metric is able to discriminate between observed and randomized orders of colonization of the biofilm, with the observed orders displaying smaller metabolic distance than randomized ones. By complementing these results with the analysis of individual vs. joint metabolic networks, we find that the tendency towards minimal metabolic distance may be counter-balanced by a propensity to pair organisms with maximal joint potential for synergistic interactions. The trade-off between these two tendencies may create a "sweet spot" of optimal inter-organism distance, with possible broad implications for our understanding of microbial community organization.

  14. In vitro continuous fermentation model (PolyFermS of the swine proximal colon for simultaneous testing on the same gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine A Tanner

    Full Text Available In vitro gut modeling provides a useful platform for a fast and reproducible assessment of treatment-related changes. Currently, pig intestinal fermentation models are mainly batch models with important inherent limitations. In this study we developed a novel in vitro continuous fermentation model, mimicking the porcine proximal colon, which we validated during 54 days of fermentation. This model, based on our recent PolyFermS design, allows comparing different treatment effects on the same microbiota. It is composed of a first-stage inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal swine microbiota and used to constantly inoculate (10% v/v five second-stage reactors, with all reactors fed with fresh nutritive chyme medium and set to mimic the swine proximal colon. Reactor effluents were analyzed for metabolite concentrations and bacterial composition by HPLC and quantitative PCR, and microbial diversity was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing. The novel PolyFermS featured stable microbial composition, diversity and metabolite production, consistent with bacterial activity reported for swine proximal colon in vivo. The constant inoculation provided by the inoculum reactor generated reproducible microbial ecosystems in all second-stage reactors, allowing the simultaneous investigation and direct comparison of different treatments on the same porcine gut microbiota. Our data demonstrate the unique features of this novel PolyFermS design for the swine proximal colon. The model provides a tool for efficient, reproducible and cost-effective screening of environmental factors, such as dietary additives, on pig colonic fermentation.

  15. The morphogenetic code and colon cancer development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Gijs R.; Offerhaus, G. Johan

    2007-01-01

    The initiating genetic lesion in sporadically occurring cancers is impossible to identify. The existence of rare inherited cancer syndromes has helped to uncover some of the mutations that can initiate tumorigenesis. Most of these initiating lesions affect genes belonging to morphogenetic signaling

  16. Betulinic Acid Kills Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potze, Lisette; Di Franco, Simone; Kessler, Jan H.; Stassi, Giorgio; Medema, Jan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the origin of cancer and it is suggested that they are resistant to chemotherapy. Current therapies fail to eradicate CSCs and therefore selecting a resistant cell subset that is able to facilitate tumor recurrences. Betulinic acid (BetA) is a broad

  17. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The final population included 1,827 patients scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant therapy started within 4 and 8 weeks improved survival when compared to start later than 8 weeks (HR [95%CI]: 1.7 [1.1-2.6]; P = 0.024 and 1.4 [1.07-1.8]; P = 0.013, respectively), whereas......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In stage III colonic cancer, time from surgery to start of adjuvant chemotherapy may influence survival. In this study, we evaluated the effect of timing of adjuvant therapy on survival. METHODS: Database study from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's national database...

  18. Management of colon cancer in patients with cirrhosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, C; Cosse, C; Chauffert, Bruno; Nguyen-Khac, E; Joly, Jean-Paul; Yzet, Thierry; Regimbeau, J M

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cirrhosis is increasing in parallel with that of hepatitis C and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with colon cancer and liver cirrhosis constitute an important at-risk group. Many colorectal surgeons and oncologists are not familiar with the management of colon cancer in patients with cirrhosis. Here, we review the literature on the management and prognosis of patients with both colon cancer and cirrhosis. The MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library electronic databases were systematically searched with appropriate keywords. Only publications in French or English were selected. For most studies, the level of evidence is weak. Child A patients should probably be managed in the same way as general population, although they have an elevated risk of morbidity and a five-year survival rate of just 70%. Child B and C patients should be managed more cautiously, although no specific recommendations can be made at present. For colon surgery, laparotomy should be preferred in patients with cirrhosis. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear, since survival is strongly associated with the improvements in liver function. Oxaliplatin appears to be associated with an elevated post-chemotherapy morbidity rate in patients with portal hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation of trace elements in hair with colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K.W.; Shore, R.E.; Redrick, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppM were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in a Patient with Undiscovered Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Po-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC is a stress-related cardiomyopathy that is characterized by reversible left systolic dysfunction, which appears to be precipitated by sudden emotional or physical stress in the absence of myocardial infarction. Here we present a rare case that clinically presented with intermittent abdominal pain, initially impressed as non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure but with a normal coronary angiogram. Her symptoms relieved spontaneously without returning. Sigmoid colon cancer was diagnosed via colonoscopy later due to persistent abdominal discomfort. In the absence of detectable emotional or physical stress factors, the newly diagnosed sigmoid colon cancer was the only possible trigger factor of TTC. We offer this case as a reminder that cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with the etiology of TTC.

  1. A nationwide study on anastomotic leakage after colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, L N; Andreasen, A H

    2012-01-01

    : AL occurred in 593 (6.4%) of 9333 patients. Laparoscopic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.70; P = 0.03); left hemicolectomy (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50-2.72) or sigmoid colectomy (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.32-2.17; P = 0.01); intraoperative blood loss (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1......Aim: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a major challenge in colorectal cancer surgery due to increased morbidity and mortality. Possible risk factors should be investigated differentially, distinguishing between rectal and colonic surgery in large-scale studies to avoid selection bias and confounding....... Method: The incidence and risk factors associated with AL were analysed in an unselected nation-wide prospective cohort of patient subjected to curative colonic cancer surgery with primary anastomosis and entered into The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database between May 2001 and December 2008. Results...

  2. SOLITARY SPLENIC METASTASIS OF COLON CANCER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Hashemzadeh M. Safari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although splenic metastasis is fairly common in disseminated cancer, solitary splenic metastasis in the absence of diffuse dissemination is rare. We report a case of 44 year-old man who developed isolated splenic metastasis of colon cancer. The patient had undergone right sided hemicolectomy for colon cancer in 1988. In 2001, he underwent reoperation because of local recurrence of tumor in the anastomotic site. The patient was admitted to our hospital on Sep 2003 with abdominal pain. Chest X-ray was normal. Abdominal CT scan showed a large cystic lesion in the spleen. Splenectomy was performed for the patient. The spleen was enlarged, firm and irregular. Histological examination showed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Based on this case, we recommend that clinicians consider possibility of metastasis in cystic lesions of spleen, especially in patients with a history of a malignant disease.

  3. Staging with computed tomography of patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrom, M. L.; Brisling, S.; Klausen, T. W.

    2018-01-01

    to overstaging among all individuals was calculated as the number needed to harm 11.7 (95% CI, 9–16). Conclusions There is basis for improvement of CT-based preoperative staging of patients with colorectal cancer. Supplementary modalities may be needed for correct staging of patients preoperatively, especially......Purpose Accurate staging of colonic cancer is important for patient stratification. We aimed to correlate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative computed tomography (CT) with final histopathology as reference standard. Methods Data was collected retrospectively on 615 consecutive patients operated...... for colonic cancer. Evaluation was based upon T-stage. Patients were stratified into high-risk and low-risk groups, based on the extent of tumor invasion beyond the proper muscle layer of more or less than 5 mm. The Kendall tau correlation coefficient was used to calculate concordance between radiological (r...

  4. Locally advanced transverse colon cancer with Trousseau’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aliyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migratory venous thrombosis is a manifestation of the rare paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with malignant neoplasms. The paper describes successful surgical treatment in a young patient with a colon tumor associated with Trousseau’s syndrome. The latter manifesting itself as ischemia forced urgent surgeons to amputate the lower third of the left leg. Locally advanced transverse colon cancer spreading to the great vessels was subsequently diagnosed. All paraneoplastic manifestations disappeared after tumor removal. The patient was professionally given surgical, anesthesiological, and resuscitative aids that not only improved his quality of life, but also gave the chance to prolong it.

  5. Colon cancer targeting using conjugates biomaterial 5-flurouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferian, Soleiman; Negahdari, Babak; Eatemadi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    There has been several research works on the development of an oral delivery system to deliver cytotoxic and chemo preventive agents directly at the targeted site of action with reduced unwanted side effects. The efficacy of the site-specific delivery system of a drug to colon has been proven to increase the drugs concentration at the target site, and thus requires a reduced dose of the drug with minimized side effects. This review includes discussion of the delivery systems of 5-FU using biodegradable materials and some significant outcomes in the pre-clinical development of 5-fluorouracil carriers for the colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A close-up of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding development of colorectal cancer requires knowledge on homeostasis of the normal intestinal epithelium as well as intestinal tumorigenesis. In the current thesis, a number of aspects of these two intricately connected subjects are further discussed.

  7. Prospective weight change and colon cancer risk in male US health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies are remarkably consistent, especially among men, in showing that overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) >25] are associated with increased risk of colon cancer. However, no prospective studies address the influence of weight change in adulthood on subsequent colon c.......5. Our results add support that overweight and obesity are modifiable risk factors for colon cancer among men and suggest that weight has an important influence on colon cancer risk even in later life....

  8. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angeles Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated.

  9. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Aberrant crypt foci and microadenoma as markers for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M C; Bruce, W R; Chan, C C; Corpet, D E; Medline, A; Roncucci, L; Stamp, D; Zhang, X M

    1992-11-01

    Foci of aberrant crypts similar to those seen in experimental animals exposed to colon carcinogens have been identified and quantified on the mucosal surface of fixed resections of human colon after methylene blue staining. Many of the foci in humans showed dysplasia on histologic examination and were considered to be microadenoma (MA). These lesions may be precursors for adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer. Rats and mice initiated with azoxymethane, then fed diets containing sucrose or casein heated at 180 degrees C to stimulate normal cooking conditions, had three to five times more large MA after 100 days than controls. Thus, cooked sugar and protein contain promoters of the growth of colonic MA. 5-Hydroxymethylfuraldehyde was identified as a promoter in cooked sugar.

  11. Gene expression profiles in stages II and III colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Morten; Kirkeby, Lene T; Hansen, Raino

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: A 128-gene signature has been proposed to predict outcome in patients with stages II and III colorectal cancers. In the present study, we aimed to reproduce and validate the 128-gene signature in external and independent material. METHODS: Gene expression data from the original material...... were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (n¿=¿111) in addition to a Danish data set (n¿=¿37). All patients had stages II and III colon cancers. A Prediction Analysis of Microarray classifier, based on the 128-gene signature and the original training set of stage I (n¿=¿65) and stage IV (n......¿=¿76) colon cancers, was reproduced. The stages II and III colon cancers were subsequently classified as either stage I-like (good prognosis) or stage IV-like (poor prognosis) and assessed by the 36 months cumulative incidence of relapse. RESULTS: In the GEO data set, results were reproducible in stage...

  12. Increased expression and aberrant localization of mucin 13 in metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Brij K; Maher, Diane M; Ebeling, Mara C; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D; Lynch, Douglas W; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2012-11-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (pcolon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (pcolon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer.

  13. Statin Use After Diagnosis of Colon Cancer and Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorneveld, Philip W; Reimers, Marlies S; Bastiaannet, Esther; Jacobs, Rutger J; van Eijk, Ronald; Zanders, Marjolein M J; Herings, Ron M C; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Kodach, Liudmila L; van Wezel, Tom; Kuppen, Peter J K; Morreau, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Hardwick, James C H; Liefers, Gerrit Jan

    2017-08-01

    Statin use has been associated with a reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and might also affect survival of patients diagnosed with colon cancer. Statins are believed to inhibit Ras signaling and may also activate the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. We investigated the effects of statins on overall survival of patients with a diagnosis of colon cancer, and whether their effects were associated with changes in KRAS or the BMP signaling pathways. Data were derived from the PHARMO database network (Netherlands) and linked to patients diagnosed with colon cancer from 2002 through 2007, listed in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. We obtained information on causes of death from statistics Netherlands. We constructed a tissue microarray of 999 colon cancer specimens from patients who underwent surgical resection from 2002 through 2008. Survival was analyzed with statin user status after diagnosis as a time-dependent covariate. Multivariable Poisson regression survival models and Cox analyses were used to study the effect of statins on survival. Tumor tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for levels of SMAD4, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 proteins. Tumor tissues were considered to have intact BMP signaling if they contained SMAD4 plus BMPR1A, BMPR1B, or BMPR2. DNA was isolated from tumor tissues and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect mutations in KRAS. The primary outcome measures were overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality. In this cohort, 21.0% of the patients (210/999) were defined as statin users after diagnosis of colon cancer. Statin use after diagnosis was significantly associated with reduced risk of death from any cause (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.87; P = .003) and death from cancer (adjusted RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.89; P = .007). Statin use after diagnosis was associated with reduced risk of death from any cause or from cancer for

  14. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T-cells drives epigenetic imprinting of pro-inflammatory properties and promotes colitis and colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthivasan, Shilpa; Aghajani, Katayoun; Dose, Marei; Molinero, Luciana; Khan, Mohammad W.; Venkatesvaran, Vysak; Weber, Christopher; Emmanuel, Akinola Olumide; Sun, Tianjao; Ramos, Elena M.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Mulcahy, Mary; Blatner, Nichole; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Gounari, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The density and type of lymphocytes that infiltrate colon tumors are predictive of the clinical outcome of colon cancer. High densities of TH17 cells and inflammation predict poor outcome, while infiltration by Tregs that naturally suppress inflammation is associated with longer patient survival. However, the role of Tregs in cancer remains controversial. We recently reported that Tregs in colon cancer patients can become pro-inflammatory and tumor promoting. These properties were directly linked with their expression of RORγt, the signature transcription factor of TH17 cells. Here, we report that Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T-cells promotes expression of RORγt. Expression of β-catenin was elevated in T-cells and Tregs of patients with colitis and colon cancer. Genetically engineered activation of β-catenin in mouse T-cells resulted in enhanced chromatin accessibility in the proximity of Tcf-1 binding sites genome-wide, induced expression of TH17 signature genes including RORγt, and promoted TH17-mediated inflammation. Strikingly, the mice had inflammation of intestine and colon and developed lesions indistinguishable from colitis-induced cancer. Activation of β-catenin only in Tregs was sufficient to produce inflammation and initiate cancer. Based on these findings we conclude that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T-cells and/or Tregs is causatively linked with the imprinting of pro-inflammatory properties and the promotion of colon cancer. PMID:24574339

  15. Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Lieshout, van E.M.M.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with increased colon cancer risk. This association might be partly due to the haem content of red meat. In rats, dietary haem is metabolized in the gut to a cytotoxic factor that increases colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial

  16. Red meat and colon cancer : dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    2001-01-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with increased colon cancer risk. We have shown earlier that this may be due to the high haem content of red meat, because dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits diet-induced

  17. A Population-Based Analysis of Three Treatment Modalities for Malignant Obstruction of the Proximal Colon: Acute Resection Versus Stent or Stoma as a Bridge to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F. J.; Consten, E. C. J.; Siersema, P. D.; Tanis, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) traditionally has been treated with acute resection. However, morbidity and mortality rates following these emergency surgeries are high. Initial bowel decompression by stent placement or stoma construction has been used for distal obstructions as

  18. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  19. Serum MicroRNA profile in patients with colon adenomas or cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yajie; Li, Min; Ding, Yijiang; Fan, Zhimin; Zhang, Jinchun; ZHANG, HONGYING; Jiang, Bin; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background Colon cancer, one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths, arises from adenomatous polyps. In these years, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted increasing attention as novel biomarkers for colon cancers. The dysregulated circulating miRNAs in patients with colon adenomas has not been well-understood. Methods Here, we aimed to identify miRNA profile in the serum of patients with colon adenomas or colon cancer by using microarray. Then we validated eight different...

  20. Grape compounds suppress colon cancer stem cells in vitro and in a rodent model of colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddivari, Lavanya; Charepalli, Venkata; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Elias, Ryan J; Lambert, Joshua D; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2016-08-09

    We have previously shown that the grape bioactive compound resveratrol (RSV) potentiates grape seed extract (GSE)-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis at physiologically relevant concentrations. However, RSV-GSE combination efficacy against colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), which play a key role in chemotherapy and radiation resistance, is not known. We tested the anti-cancer efficacy of the RSV-GSE against colon CSCs using isolated human colon CSCs in vitro and an azoxymethane-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis in vivo. RSV-GSE suppressed tumor incidence similar to sulindac, without any gastrointestinal toxicity. Additionally, RSV-GSE treatment reduced the number of crypts containing cells with nuclear β-catenin (an indicator of colon CSCs) via induction of apoptosis. In vitro, RSV-GSE suppressed - proliferation, sphere formation, nuclear translocation of β-catenin (a critical regulator of CSC proliferation) similar to sulindac in isolated human colon CSCs. RSV-GSE, but not sulindac, suppressed downstream protein levels of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, c-Myc and cyclin D1. RSV-GSE also induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in colon CSCs characterized by elevated p53, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved PARP. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated knockdown of p53, a tumor suppressor gene, in colon CSCs did not alter efficacy of RSV-GSE. The suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and elevated mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in colon CSCs support potential clinical testing/application of grape bioactives for colon cancer prevention and/or therapy.

  1. Treating Colon Cancer Survivability Prediction as a Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana SILVA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a survivability prediction model for colon cancer developed with machine learning techniques. Survivability was viewed as a classification task where it was necessary to determine if a patient would survive each of the five years following treatment. The model was based on the SEER dataset which, after preprocessing, consisted of 38,592 records of colon cancer patients. Six features were extracted from a feature selection process in order to construct the model. This model was compared with another one with 18 features indicated by a physician. The results show that the performance of the six-feature model is close to that of the model using 18 features, which indicates that the first may be a good compromise between usability and performance.

  2. Hybrid Single-Incision Laparoscopic Colon Cancer Surgery Using One Additional 5 mm Trocar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Ook; Choi, Dae Jin; Lee, Donghyoun; Lee, Sung Ryol; Jung, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2017-10-04

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a feasible and safe procedure for colorectal cancer. However, SILS has some technical limitations such as collision between instruments and inadequate countertraction. We present a hybrid single-incision laparoscopic surgery (hybrid SILS) technique for colon cancer that involves use of one additional 5 mm trocar. Hybrid SILS for colon cancer was attempted in 70 consecutive patients by a single surgeon between August 2014 and July 2016 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine. Using prospectively collected data, an observational study was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Hybrid SILS was technically completed in 66 patients, with a failure rate of 5.7% (4/70). One patient was converted to open surgery for para-aortic lymph node dissection. Another was converted to open surgery due to severe peritoneal adhesion. An additional trocar was inserted for adhesiolysis in the other two cases. Median lengths of proximal and distal margins were 12.8 cm (interquartile range [IQR], 10.0-18.6), and 8.2 cm (IQR, 5.5-18.3), respectively. Median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 24 (IQR, 18-33). Overall rate of postoperative morbidity was 12.9%, but there were no Clavien-Dindo grade III or IV complications. There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation. Median postoperative hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 5-7). Hybrid SILS using one additional 5 mm trocar is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical technique for colon cancer. Experienced laparoscopic surgeons can perform hybrid SILS without a learning curve based on the formulaic surgical techniques presented in this article.

  3. Clinical investigation of TROP-2 as an independent biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Noor; Direkze, Natalie; Leedham, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); Crohn's and Ulcerative colitis, result from an altered host response to intestinal flora. Recurrent inflammation with ulceration and tissue restitution confers an increased risk of cancer in both UC and Crohns, and genome wide searches have identified a number of disease susceptibility alleles. The carcinogenesis pathway in colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACRC) is less clearly understood than it's sporadic counterpart. Clonal ordering experiments have indicated the order and timing of chromosomal instability and common genetic mutations. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modification are thought to play an increasingly important role in inflammation induced carcinogenesis. Clonal expansion of procarcinogenic mutations can lead to large fields of mutant tissue from which colitis associated cancers can arise (field cancerisation). Endoscopic screening is the mainstay of surveillance in high-risk patients although the development of appropriate, clinically applicable biomarkers remains a research priority. Despite the expanding field of biological therapy in inflammatory bowel disease the ASA compounds remain the best-studied and most efficacious chemopreventive agents. Colitis associated CRC appears to have a different aetiology, carcinogenesis pathway and clinical course to its sporadic counterpart. Further research including long-term follow up of patient cohorts taking biological therapies will improve the detection and treatment of these important, inflammation-induced malignancies.

  5. Alcohol consumption and the risk of colon cancer by family history of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Jung Eun; Rimm, Eric B; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer may be more susceptible to adverse effects of alcohol consumption. We investigated whether the association between alcohol consumption and colon cancer risk differed by family history of colorectal cancer. We conducted prospective studies in women and men in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, respectively. Alcohol consumption was first assessed in 1980 in women and in 1986 in men. During a follow-up of 26 y among 87,861 women and 20 y among 47,290 men, we documented 1801 cases of colon cancer (1094 women and 707 men). Higher alcohol consumption was associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer, although the association was significant only for the highest intake category of ≥30 g/d, with no significant linear trend. The association between alcohol consumption and colon cancer risk differed by family history of colorectal cancer; in comparison with nondrinkers, the pooled multivariate RRs for alcohol consumption of ≥30 g/d were 1.23 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.57; NS) among those with no family history and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.30, 3.13) among those with a family history of colorectal cancer (P value test for difference = 0.05). In comparison with nondrinkers with no family history, the RR for colon cancer was 2.80 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.91) for individuals who consumed ≥30 g/d and who had a family history of colorectal cancer. Reducing alcohol consumption may decrease the incidence of colon cancer, especially among those with a family history of colorectal cancer.

  6. The Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on DNA Synthesis and Genotoxicity in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Rogers; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Walker, Alice M.; Barbara Graham; Jacqueline J. Stevens

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide is cytotoxic in human colon cancer (HT-29), lung (A549) and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide on DNA synthesis and the possible genotoxic effects on human colon cancer cells. HT-29 cells were cultured according to standard protocol, followed by exposure to various do...

  7. Laparoscopic vs open extended right hemicolectomy for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ying; Chi, Pan; Ding, Wei-Xing; Huang, Shun-Rong; Zhang, Si-Fen; Pan, Kai; Hu, Yan-Feng; Liu, Hao; Li, Guo-Xin

    2014-06-28

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy (LERH) for colon cancer. Since its establishment in 2009, the Southern Chinese Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgical Study (SCLCSS) group has been dedicated to promoting patients' quality of life through minimally invasive surgery. The multicenter database was launched by combining existing datasets from members of the SCLCSS group. The study enrolled 220 consecutive patients who were recorded in the multicenter retrospective database and underwent either LERH (n = 119) or open extended right hemicolectomy (OERH) (n = 101) for colon cancer. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, and oncologic outcomes were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), history of previous abdominal surgery, tumor location, and tumor stage between the two groups. The blood loss was lower in the LERH group than in the OERH group [100 (100-200) mL vs 150 (100-200) mL, P colon cancer is a technically feasible and safe procedure, yielding comparable short-term oncologic outcomes to those of open surgery.

  8. Local staging of sigmoid colon cancer using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Claus; Lindebjerg, Jan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An accurate radiological staging of colon cancer is crucial to select patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying locally advanced sigmoid colon cancer, poor...... prognostic factors, and the inter-observer variation of the tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using 1.5 T MRI with high resolution T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, DWI, and no contrast enhancement, 35 patients with sigmoid colon cancer were......: The accuracy of the two radiologists in staging early versus advanced tumors, N-stage, and identification of EMVI was 94%/89%, 60%/66%, and 77%/60% with an inter-observer agreement of к = 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67-1.00), к = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.39-0.90), and к = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.23-0.80). All...

  9. Colon and rectum cancer in Thailand: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Srivatanakul, Petcharin

    2008-04-01

    Cancers of the colon and rectum are rare in developing countries, in contrast to the high incidence rates in countries of Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. Significant differences also exist within continents. Colorectal cancer mortality and incidence rates have decreased in the USA. However, the incidence in Japan and Thailand is rising, probably due to the acquisition of Western lifestyle. Incidence also increases with age: carcinomas are rare before the age of 40 years except in individuals with genetic predisposition or predisposing conditions. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Thailand is low when compared with other countries. It is the third in frequency in males after liver and bile duct and lung cancers, and the fifth after cancers of the cervix, breast, liver and bile duct and lung for females. The highest incidence for both sexes is seen in Bangkok. The number of cases of colorectal cancer in both sexes is increasing and will probably exceed that of lung cancer in the next decade. Thus, we are planning to have colorectal cancer screening programme. We should pay more attention on primary and secondary prevention to control colorectal cancer in Asian countries.

  10. What's wrong with sentinel node mapping in colon cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2007-12-21

    Despite near-universal embrace of the concept and clinical relevance of lymphatic mapping for sentinel node identification and analysis for cancers of the breast and integument, the same technique has struggled to a find a role in gastrointestinal cancers in general and, perhaps, in colon cancer in particular. Despite many studies demonstrating its feasibility in malignancies of the large bowel, concern is continually aroused by the variable and often unacceptably low sensitivity rates. Additionally, many confess uncertainty as to what benefit it could ever confer to patients even if it were proven sufficiently accurate given that standard surgical resection incorporates mesenteric resection anyway. However, the huge impact sentinel node mapping has had on clinical practice in certain cancers means that each of these aspects merit careful reconsideration, from very first principles.

  11. Successful treatment of primary jejunal cancer after esophageal and colon cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Akinori; Taguchi, Ken-Ichi; Toh, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Manabu; Okamura, Takeshi; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Morita, Masaru; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Mimori, Koshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    Patients with esophageal cancer are susceptible to other primary cancers, but multiple primary cancers involving the esophagus and jejunum are rare. We herein report a case of primary jejunal cancer as a component of metachronous triple primary cancers including esophageal cancer and ascending colon cancer. A 63-year-old male patient with a history of surgery for esophageal cancer and ascending colon cancer was admitted to our hospital after experiencing 1 month of repeated vomiting and epigastric abdominal pain. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, duodenography, and computed tomography revealed a jejunal tumor located 2 cm from the ligament of Treitz on the anal side. Partial resection of the jejunum with lymph node dissection was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient remains well with no signs of recurrence 10 months after the operation. This is the first report of curative resection of triple primary cancers of the esophagus, jejunum, and colon. Patients with a history of esophageal cancer are susceptible to other primary cancers, and it is important to perform surveillance for the subsequent development of other cancers.

  12. Effect of colon cancer and surgical resection on skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity in colon cancer patients: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Bethan E.; Smith, Kenneth; Liptrot, Sarah; Atherton, Philip J.; Varadhan, Krishna; Rennie, Michael J.; Larvin, Mike; Lund, Jonathan N.; Williams, John P

    2012-01-01

    Background Colon cancer (CC) patients commonly suffer declines in muscle mass and aerobic function. We hypothesised that CC would be associated with reduced muscle mass and mitochondrial enzyme activity and that curative resection would exacerbate these changes. Methods We followed age-matched healthy controls and CC patients without distant metastasis on radiological imaging before and 6?weeks after hemi-colectomy surgery. Body composition was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry....

  13. High copy number of mitochondrial DNA predicts poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; He, Shuixiang; Zhu, Xingmei; Qiao, Wei; Zhang, Juan

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in colon cancer were associated with clinicopathological parameters and postsurgical outcome. By quantitative real-time PCR assay, the mtDNA copy number was detected in a cohort of colon cancer and matched adjacent colon tissues (n = 162). The majority of patients had higher mtDNA content in colon cancer tissues than matched adjacent colon tissues. Moreover, high mtDNA content in tumor tissues was associated with larger tumor size, higher serum CEA level, advanced TNM stage, vascular emboli, and liver metastases. Further survival curve analysis showed that high mtDNA content was related to the worst survival in patients with colon cancer at advanced TNM stage. High mtDNA content is a potential effective factor of poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage colon cancer.

  14. Embryonic Origin of Primary Colon Cancer Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients Undergoing Resection for Colon Cancer Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Suguru; Brudvik, Kristoffer Watten; Kopetz, Scott E; Maru, Dipen; Clarke, Callisia N; Passot, Guillaume; Conrad, Claudius; Chun, Yun Shin; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-12-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of embryonic origin in patients undergoing resection after chemotherapy for colon cancer liver metastases (CCLM). We identified 725 patients with primary colon cancer and known RAS mutation status who underwent hepatic resection after preoperative chemotherapy for CCLM (1990 to 2015). Survival after resection of CCLM from midgut origin (n = 238) and hindgut origin (n = 487) was analyzed. Predictors of pathologic response and survival were determined. Prognostic value of embryonic origin was validated with a separate cohort of 252 patients with primary colon cancer who underwent resection of CCLM without preoperative chemotherapy. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after hepatic resection were worse in patients with midgut origin tumors (RFS rate at 3 years: 15% vs 27%, P origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.55, P = 0.010], absence of bevacizumab (OR 1.42, P = 0.034), and mutant RAS (OR 1.41, P = 0.043). Independent factors associated with worse OS were midgut embryonic origin [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04, P origin had a worse 3-year OS rate (55% vs 78%, P = 0.003). Compared with CCLM from hindgut origin, CCLM from midgut origin are associated with worse pathologic response to chemotherapy and worse survival after resection. This effect appears to be independent of RAS mutation status.

  15. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Flavonoid Silibinin | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as the main cause for initiation, promotion and progression of most of the cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite this fact, efficacy of chemopreventive agents towards CSC generation leading to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis has not yet been well- defined. |

  16. En Bloc Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Locally Advanced Right Colon Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Ağalar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Locally advanced right colon cancer may invade adjacent tissue and organs. Direct invasion of the duodenum and pancreas necessitates an en bloc resection. Previously, this challenging procedure was associated with high morbidity and mortality; however, today, this procedure can be done more safely in experienced centers. The aim of this study is to report our experience on en bloc right colectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy for locally advanced right colon cancers. Between 2000 and 2012, 5 patients underwent en bloc multivisceral resection. No major morbidities or perioperative mortalities were observed. Median disease-free survival time was 24.5 months and median overall survival time was 42.1 (range: 4.5–70.4 months in our series. One patient lived 70 months after multivisceral resection and underwent cytoreductive surgery and total pelvic exenteration during the follow-up period. In locally advanced right colon tumors, all adhesions should be considered as malign invasion and separation should not be done. The reasonable option for this patient is to perform en bloc pancreaticoduodenectomy and right colectomy. This procedure may result in long-term survival with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Multidisciplinary teamwork and multimodality treatment alternatives may improve the results.

  17. En Bloc Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Locally Advanced Right Colon Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağalar, Cihan; Canda, Aras Emre; Unek, Tarkan; Sokmen, Selman

    2017-01-01

    Locally advanced right colon cancer may invade adjacent tissue and organs. Direct invasion of the duodenum and pancreas necessitates an en bloc resection. Previously, this challenging procedure was associated with high morbidity and mortality; however, today, this procedure can be done more safely in experienced centers. The aim of this study is to report our experience on en bloc right colectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy for locally advanced right colon cancers. Between 2000 and 2012, 5 patients underwent en bloc multivisceral resection. No major morbidities or perioperative mortalities were observed. Median disease-free survival time was 24.5 months and median overall survival time was 42.1 (range: 4.5-70.4) months in our series. One patient lived 70 months after multivisceral resection and underwent cytoreductive surgery and total pelvic exenteration during the follow-up period. In locally advanced right colon tumors, all adhesions should be considered as malign invasion and separation should not be done. The reasonable option for this patient is to perform en bloc pancreaticoduodenectomy and right colectomy. This procedure may result in long-term survival with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Multidisciplinary teamwork and multimodality treatment alternatives may improve the results.

  18. Synchronous Carcinoma of the Ampulla of Vater and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the papilla of Vater is a relatively rare tumor and its coexistence with other primary sporadic cancers is very exceptional. Here we report the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with painless obstructive jaundice, pathologically elevated liver function tests and increased serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a large polypoid mass in the ampulla of Vater. A large tumor in the ascending colon was also incidentally detected by abdominal computed tomography. Endoscopic biopsies from both lesions showed adenocarcinomas. Metastases to the liver and to the hepatoduodenal ligament and hepatic artery lymph nodes were found during surgery. Right colectomy and a biliary bypass were performed. Histological analysis showed an ampullary adenocarcinoma with metastases to regional lymph nodes and the liver and a colonic adenocarcinoma with local invasion into the pericolic fat. Treatment with gemcitabine plus cisplatin was suggested postoperatively. The association of sporadic ampullary and colonic adenocarcinomas and the mutually increased risk of developing either a synchronous or a metachronous tumor following each other should be considered in patients with primary ampullary or colorectal cancer during the preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up of these patients.

  19. A stochastic model for cancer stem cell origin in metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoux, Christine; Fohrer, Helene; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Guzik, Lynda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Lewis, Dale W; Gollin, Susanne M; Gamblin, T Clark; Geller, David A; Lagasse, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Human cancers have been found to include transformed stem cells that may drive cancer progression to metastasis. Here, we report that metastatic colon cancer contains clonally derived tumor cells with all of the critical properties expected of stem cells, including self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into mature colon cells. Additionally, when injected into mice, these cells initiated tumors that closely resemble human cancer. Karyotype analyses of parental and clonally derived tumor cells expressed many consistent (clonal) along with unique chromosomal aberrations, suggesting the presence of chromosomal instability in the cancer stem cells. Thus, this new model for cancer origin and metastatic progression includes features of both the hierarchical model for cancerous stem cells and the stochastic model, driven by the observation of chromosomal instability.

  20. A Rare Case of Endometrial Cancer Metastatic to the Sigmoid Colon and Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hubers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic endometrial cancer to the small bowel or colon has been described but is quite rare. We present a case of metastatic endometrial cancer with synchronous metastases to the colon and jejunum identified three years after surgical treatment of early stage endometrial cancer.

  1. DNA array analysis of the effects of aspirin on colon cancer cells: involvement of Rac1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C. H.; van Santen, Marije; van den Brink, Gijs R.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs show efficacy in the prevention of colon cancer. The mechanism by which they do this is unclear. We used a commercially available DNA microarray to study changes in gene expression in 1176 cancer related genes in the HT29 colon cancer cell line

  2. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colon cancer: myth or reality? A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Galdy, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A relationship between infective endocarditis and colon cancer was established in 1950, and Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated in 1970. However, this association and its pathogenesis still remain unclear. In this paper, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a history of colon cancer and infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. The role of S bovis as an aetiological agent in the development of colon cancer is intriguing but uncertain. S bovis infection should ...

  3. Up-regulation of CNDP2 facilitates the proliferation of colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Conglong; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yu, Honglan; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Kaitao; Yang, Ting; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Hanping

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytosolic nonspecific dipetidase (CN2) belongs to the family of M20 metallopeptidases. It was stated in previous articles that higher expression levels of CN2 were observed in renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer. Our study explored the correlation between CN2 and colon carcinogenesis. Methods We analysed the relationship between 183 patients clinicopathological characteristics and its CN2 expression. To detect the levels of CN2 in colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues...

  4. Prolapse of Intussusception through the Anus as a Result of Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ochiai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult intussusception is rare and most often associated with cancer. We report a case of intussuscepted sigmoid colon into the rectum protruding from the anus of a 47-year-old woman. The cause of the intussusception was sigmoid colon cancer. We removed the intussuscepted part of the sigmoid colon as well as the rectum and regional lymph nodes. The patient recovered uneventfully and there has been no evidence of recurrence of the cancer.

  5. Motility patterns and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal and nitrergic neurons in the proximal, mid- and distal-colon of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertí, E; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the patterns of spontaneous motility in the circular and longitudinal muscle strips and to characterize the distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and nitrergic neurons (nNOS) in the proximal, mid- and distal-colon of Sprague-Dawley rats...... of the AP and the major density was found in the mid-colon. Electrical field stimulation abolished LF but did not affect HF contractions. Our results indicate that HF contractions are due to the ICC network found associated with the submuscular plexus (ICC-SMP). The origin of LF contractions is still...

  6. An Apta-Biosensor for Colon Cancer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ahmadzadeh Raji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and implementation of an aptasensor using a modified KCHA10a aptamer. This aptasensor consists of a functionalized electrodes using various materials including 11-mercaptoandecanoic acid (11-MUA and modified KCHA10a aptamer. The HCT 116, HT 29 and HEp-2 cell lines are used in this study to demonstrate the functionality of aptasensor for colon cancer detection purposes. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry are used to verify the binding between the target cells and aptamer. The limit of detection (LOD of this aptasensor is equal to seven cancer cells. Based on the experimental results, the proposed sensor can be employed for point-of-care cancer disease diagnostics.

  7. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction is superior to laparoscopic total gastrectomy for proximal early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Hyun; Lee, Yoontaek; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2017-03-24

    Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) with double tract reconstruction (DTR) is known to reduce reflux symptoms, which is a major concern after proximal gastrectomy. The aim of this study is to compare retrospectively the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing LPG with DTR with those treated by laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). Ninety-two and 156 patients undergoing LPG with DTR and LTG for proximal stage I gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed for short- and long-term clinical outcomes. There were no significant differences in the demographics, T-stage, N-stage, and complications between the groups. The LPG with DTR group had a shorter operative time and lower estimated blood loss than the LTG group (198.3 vs. 225.4 min, p DTR group compared to in the LTG group in the first and second postoperative years (5.03 vs. 9.18% p = 0.004; and 3.45 vs. 8.30%, p = 0.002, respectively), as was the mean amount of vitamin B12 supplements 2 years after operation (0.1 vs. 3.1 mg, p DTR maintained comparable oncological safety and anastomosis-related late complications compared to LTG and is preferred over LTG in terms of preventing postoperative anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency.

  8. Radioimmunotoxin Therapy of Experimental Colon and Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2006-02-09

    To pursue the development of radiolabeled immunotoxins (RIT) for colon cancer, it was first necessary to identify an immunotoxin (IT) that could selectively kill colon cancer cell lines. Recently, our collaborators in the Vallera laboratory have observed that potent recombinant IT can be synthesized using recombinant single chain antibodies (sFv) spliced to truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) consisting of the first 390 amino acids of native DT. DT was chosen as a toxin because it is a catalytic bacterial toxin that is easily manipulated in genetic engineering studies. Also, the Vallera lab has developed new procedures for preparing the sFv fusion toxins from bacterial inclusion bodies such as DT and another good genetic engineering toxin pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) based on detergent refolding. This allows for enhanced yields and higher purity that is essential for generating the protein that will be needed for preparation of larger amounts of RIT for therapy. Many potential sFvs were considered for targeting colon cancer. The best results have been obtained with an sFv recognizing EpCam. EpCam, also known as ESA or EGP40, is a 40 kDa epithelial transmembrane glycoprotein found on the basolateral surface of simple, pseudostratified, and transitional epithelia. It has been found overexpressed on 81% of adenocarcinomas of the colon (Went et al. Human pathology 35:122, 2004). EpCam sliced to DT (DTEpCam) was highly potent in studies in which we measured its ability to inhibit the proliferation of the HT-29 and COLO 205 colon cancer cell lines since we measured its IC50 at 1-2 x 10-2 nM. Potency is important, but is also critical that DTEpCam is selective in its cytotoxicity against EpCam-expressing target colon cancer cells. The activity of DTEpCam was highly selective since irrelevant control IT that did not recognize any markers on cancer cells, did not show any activity against the same colon cancer cell lines. Also, blocking studies were performed in which DTEpCam was

  9. Radiosensitization effects of sorafenib on colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Kim, Mi-Sook; Jung, Won-Gyun; Jeong, Youn Kyoung [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Radiotherapy is a standard therapy in the adjuvant treatment of resected colon and rectum cancers, and its combination with chemotherapy has been shown to reduce local failure and distant metastasis still further, thereby improving the outcome of treatment. One potential chemotherapeutic agent for this, sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43-9006), is an oral multikinase inhibitor that blocks tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and induces tumor cell apoptosis by inhibiting serine/threonine kinases (c-RAF and mutant and wild-type BRAF) as well as the receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (VEGFR2 and VEGFR3), platelet- derived growth factor receptor , FLT3, and c-KIT. Sorafenib is currently used in clinics to treat patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. These findings provide a molecular evidence base for the use of chemoradiation to treat colon cancer, and in vivo modeling should be used to further assess its suitability for clinical applications.

  10. The relation between lymph node status and survival in Stage I-III colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J.; Roikjær, Ole; Jess, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study involved a large nationwide Danish cohort to evaluate the hypothesis that a high lymph node harvest has a positive effect on survival in curative resected Stage I-III colon cancer and a low lymph node ratio has a positive effect on survival in Stage III colon cancer. Method......: Analysis of overall survival was conducted using a nationwide Danish cohort of patients treated with curative resection of Stage I-III colon cancer. All 8901 patients in Denmark diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and treated with curative resection in the period 2003-2008 were identified from...... independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High lymph node count was associated with improved overall survival in colon cancer. Lymph node ratio was superior to N-stage in differentiating overall survival in Stage III colon cancer. Stage migration was observed....

  11. EGFR regulation of colon cancer stem-like cells during aging and in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Kanwar, Shailender S; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2012-04-01

    One of the most consistent pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract with advancing age is malignancy, particularly gastrointestinal cancers, the incidence of which increases sharply with aging. Although the reasons for the age-related rise in colorectal cancer are not fully understood, we hypothesize that aging increases susceptibility of the colon to carcinogen(s)/toxicant(s), leading to an increase in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that express cancer stem cell markers, in the colonic mucosa. The current study demonstrates that aging is associated with increased expression of several colon CSLC markers [CD44, CD166, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH-1)] and a higher proportion of cells expressing these markers. Aging is also accompanied by increased expression of miR-21 in colon. These increases are further increased in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Aging is also associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Inhibition of EGFR using the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab abrogated the age-related increase in CD166 and ALDH-1 as well as miRNA (miR)-21. Our results provide new evidence that aging and DMH are associated with increases in CSLC biomarkers and miR21, each of which have been linked to colorectal cancer. EGFR inhibition attenuates these changes, indicating a role for EGFR in age- and mutagen-associated changes in CSLCs.

  12. Cancer of the sigmoid colon and antibodies. A puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Antonelli, Maddalena; Cerrone, Paola; Bruno, Antoine; Costantino, Laila; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Rossi, Piero; Modica, Stella; Adorno, Gaspare

    2015-04-01

    In this work we describe the case report of a woman affected by cancer of the sigmoid colon and with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Case report with results: A meticulous medical history showed that the woman had been suffering from recurrent fetal loss. Then she had cardiac and coagulative problems. These data suggested a phospholipid syndrome. The patient had a medical history positive for a phospholipid syndrome and we think that this disease could explain the onset of the autoantibody. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of metallothionein in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic precancerous and cancerous model in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Christudoss

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that a decrease in the colonic MT mRNA expression, MT protein expression, and content in DMH-induced colonic cancer model is associated with the development of preneoplastic lesions and further progression to carcinoma in the colon results in a greater reduction in the levels of each of these parameters.

  14. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  15. Does obesity impact lymph node retrieval in colon cancer surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Jared H; Mathiason, Michelle A; Kallies, Kara J; Shapiro, Stephen B

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation of lymph nodes is important for the optimal treatment of colon adenocarcinoma. Few studies have assessed whether lymph node harvest is compromised by obesity. We hypothesized that lymph node retrieval in colon cancer resection would be reduced in obese patients. Patients undergoing resection for colon adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were reviewed retrospectively and stratified by body mass index (BMI). Lymph node harvest was evaluated. A total of 401 patients were included. Their mean age was 72.8 years, and 44% were men. Their mean BMI was 28.2 kg/m(2). Mean lymph node recovery among BMI groups was as follows: BMI less than 18.5 was 20.6; BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 was 25.1; BMI of 25 to 29.9 was 23.1; BMI of 30 to 34.9 was 22.4; BMI of 35 to 39.9 was 19.0; and BMI of 40 or greater was 21.1 nodes (P = .321). Surgical time increased with increasing BMI (P = .005). Adequacy of node harvest differed by stage (P = .007), left-sided versus right-sided resections (P = .001), and pathology technician (P = .001). Lymph node retrieval was not affected by BMI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with failure of enhanced recovery programs after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery: a single-center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Ihn, Myong Hun; Son, Il Tae; Park, Jin Taek; Lee, Jaebong; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-03-01

    Although enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) have been proven to be beneficial after laparoscopic colon surgery, they may result in adverse clinical outcomes following failure. This study analyzed risk factors associated with ERP failure after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. We analyzed the outcomes of 208 patients who underwent ERPs following laparoscopic colon cancer surgery between June 2007 and April 2013. The ERP included early oral feeding, early ambulation, and regular laxative administration. ERP failure was defined as postoperative hospital stay of more than 5 days related to postoperative complications, unplanned readmission within 30 days of surgery, or death. Surgical procedures included anterior resection (n = 101), right hemicolectomy (n = 90), and left hemicolectomy (n = 17). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.5 ± 2.3 days (range 3-24 days). ERP failure occurred in 36 patients (17.3%), with no mortality; reasons included ileus (n = 14), wound infection (n = 4), chylous drainage (n = 3), anastomotic bleeding (n = 3), pneumonia (n = 1), or readmission (n = 11) owing to delayed complications. Univariable analysis showed that ERP failure was associated with proximal colon cancer, side-to-side anastomosis, longer operation time, increased blood loss, and longer resected specimen length. Multivariable analysis showed that side-to-side anastomosis [odds ratio (OR) 4.534; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.902-10.811; P = 0.001] and increased blood loss (OR 1.004; 95% CI 1.001-1.008; P = 0.041) were independent risk factors for ERP failure. We showed that increased blood loss and side-to-side anastomosis in comparison with end-to-end anastomosis were independent risk factors associated with ERP failure after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This suggests that intraoperative elements may be important determinants to obtain successful postoperative recovery in the era of ERP.

  17. Morphoquantitative effects of acute diabetes on the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats Efeitos morfoquantitativos do diabetes agudo sobre os neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Montserrat D.P. Furlan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute diabetes on the density and size of the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats were investigated. The injection of streptozotocin was followed by a period of observation of seven days, during which the diabetic animals showed weight loss, excessive food and water intake, large urinary debt and hyperglicemia. The whole-mounts from the proximal colon were stained with the techniques of Giemsa and of the NADH-diaphorase, and the employment of these techniques made it possible to verify a decrease on the neuronal density and on the cell body size of the myenteric neurons in the colon of the diabetic rats. These observations were discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of the diabetes and the experimental protocol.Foram investigados os efeitos do diabetes agudo sobre a densidade e o tamanho dos neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos. À injeção de estreptozootocina seguiu-se um período de observação de sete dias, durante os quais os animais diabéticos apresentaram perda de peso, ingestão excessiva de alimento e água, grande débito urinário e hiperglicemia. Os preparados de membrana do colo proximal foram corados pelas técnicas de Giemsa e da NADH-diaforase. A aplicação dessas técnicas permitiu constatar uma redução da densidade neuronal e do tamanho do corpo celular dos neurônios mioentéricos no colo dos ratos diabéticos. Essas observações foram discutidas em termos da patofisiologia do diabetes e do protocolo experimental.

  18. Novel roles of DC-SIGNR in colon cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Heya; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xinsheng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhaohui; Yuan, Menglang; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Shuangyi; Zuo, Yunfei

    2017-01-21

    Tumor metastasis is an essential cause of the poor prognosis of colon cancer. DC-SIGNR is a C-type lectin that is frequently found on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. LSECtin, which is a homologue of DC-SIGNR, has been demonstrated to participate in colon cancer liver metastasis. Due to the similarities in the expression pattern and structure of the two proteins, we speculated that DC-SIGNR could also be involved in this process. Colon cancer cells were treated with the DC-SIGNR protein or control IgG, after which cell migration, invasion, and morphology were assayed. Xenograft mouse models were used to determine the role of DC-SIGNR in colon cancer liver metastasis in vivo. In addition, a human gene expression array was used to detect differential gene expression in colon cancer cells stimulated with the DC-SIGNR protein. The serum level of DC-SIGNR was examined in colon cancer patients by ELISA, and the significance of DC-SIGNR was determined. In our research, we investigated whether DC-SIGNR promotes colon cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Knocking down mouse DC-SIGNR decreased the liver metastatic potency of colon cancer cells and increased survival time. Expressing human DC-SIGNR enhanced colon cancer liver metastasis. Furthermore, DC-SIGNR conferred metastatic capability on cancer cells by upregulating various metallothionein isoforms. To validate the above results, we also found that the serum DC-SIGNR level was statistically higher in colon cancer patients with liver metastasis compared with those without metastasis. These results imply that DC-SIGNR may promote colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis and could serve as a promising therapeutic target for anticancer treatment.

  19. Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurant, Kristina L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Wolff, Roger K.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In this study we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were utilized. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk and CXCR1, and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/NSAID, cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% CI 1.18–2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28–2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer. PMID:22674296

  20. Isolated metachronous splenic metastasis from synchronous colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aker Fugen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare and there are only 13 cases reported in the English literature so far. Most cases are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually made by imaging studies during the evaluation of rising CEA level postoperatively. Case presentation A 76-year-old man underwent an extended left hemicolectomy for synchronous colon cancers located at the left flexure and the sigmoid colon. The tumors were staged as IIIC (T3N2M0 clinically and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. During the first year follow-up period, the patient remained asymptomatic with normal levels of laboratory tests including CEA measurement. However, a gradually rising CEA level after the 14th postoperative month necessitated further imaging studies including computed tomography of the abdomen which revealed a mass in the spleen that was subsequently confirmed by 18FDG- PET scanning to be an isolated metastasis. The patient underwent splenectomy 17 months after his previous cancer surgery. Histological diagnosis confirmed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with no capsule invasion. After an uneventful postoperative period, the patient has been symptom-free during the one-year of follow-up with normal blood CEA levels, although he did not accept to receive any further adjuvant therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this 14th case of isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is also the first reported case of splenic metastasis demonstrated preoperatively by 18FDG PET-CT fusion scanning which revealed its solitary nature as well. Conclusion Isolated splenic metastasis is a rare finding in the follow-up of colorectal cancer patients and long-term survival can be achieved with splenectomy.

  1. Explanation of colon cancer pathophysiology through analyzing the disrupted homeostasis of bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfeng, Duan; An, Chen; Shujia, Peng; Jikai, Yin; Tao, Yang; Rui, Dong; Kai, Tan; Yafeng, Chen; Jianguo, Lu; Xilin, Du

    2014-12-01

    The colon plays a key role in regulating the homeostasis of bile acids. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of colon cancer towards the homeostasis of bile acids. The free and conjugated bile acids were determined using ultraperformance LC (UPLC) coupled with ABI 4000 QTRAP triple quadrupole instruments. The results showed that the free bile acids in serum of patients with colon cancers tend to increase, and the conjugated bile acids tended to decrease, especially for taurolithocholate (TLCA) (p<0.001). The alteration of bile acids balance in colon cancers indicated the possibility of complicated diseases due to the disrupted balance of bile acids.

  2. Inhibition of autophagy induced by TSA sensitizes colon cancer cell to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Zhang, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for clinical cancer therapy. However, its application was limited due to lack of radiosensitivity in some cancers. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a classic histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) that specifically inhibits the biochemical functions of HDAC and is demonstrated to be an active anticancer drug. However, whether it could sensitize colon cancer to radiation is not clear. Our results showed that TSA enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells as determined by CCK-8 and clonogenic survival assay. Moreover, apoptotic cell death induced by radiation was enhanced by TSA treatment. Additionally, TSA also induced autophagic response in colon cancer cells, while autophagy inhibition led to cell apoptosis and enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells. Our data suggested that inhibition of cytoprotective autophagy sensitizes cancer cell to radiation, which might be further investigated for clinical cancer radiotherapy.

  3. Colon cancer and the consumption of red and processed meat: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetarian diet in order to prevent colon cancer. Incidence of colorectal cancer among South Africans. The 2010 statistics regarding the incidence of colorectal cancer among SAs issued by the National Cancer Registry, documented the lifetime risk for developing colorectal cancer among males and females as 1:114 and ...

  4. Induction of cancer stem cell properties in colon cancer cells by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobu Oshima

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered to be responsible for the dismal prognosis of cancer patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition and maintenance of CSC properties in cancer cells because of their rarity in clinical samples. We herein induced CSC properties in cancer cells using defined factors. We retrovirally introduced a set of defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4 into human colon cancer cells, followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium, not human embryonic stem cell medium. We then evaluated the CSC properties in the cells. The colon cancer cells transduced with the three factors showed significantly enhanced CSC properties in terms of the marker gene expression, sphere formation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. We designated the cells with CSC properties induced by the factors, a subset of the transduced cells, as induced CSCs (iCSCs. Moreover, we established a novel technology to isolate and collect the iCSCs based on the differences in the degree of the dye-effluxing activity enhancement. The xenografts derived from our iCSCs were not teratomas. Notably, in contrast to the tumors from the parental cancer cells, the iCSC-based tumors mimicked actual human colon cancer tissues in terms of their immunohistological findings, which showed colonic lineage differentiation. In addition, we confirmed that the phenotypes of our iCSCs were reproducible in serial transplantation experiments. By introducing defined factors, we generated iCSCs with lineage specificity directly from cancer cells, not via an induced pluripotent stem cell state. The novel method enables us to obtain abundant materials of CSCs that not only have enhanced tumorigenicity, but also the ability to differentiate to recapitulate a specific type of cancer tissues. Our method can be of great value to fully understand CSCs and develop new therapies targeting CSCs.

  5. Wheat bran decreases aberrant crypt foci, preserves normal proliferation, and increases intraluminal butyrate levels in experimental colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compher, C W; Frankel, W L; Tazelaar, J; Lawson, J A; McKinney, S; Segall, S; Kinosian, B P; Williams, N N; Rombeau, J L

    1999-01-01

    Dietary wheat bran protects against colon cancer, but the mechanism(s) of this effect is not known. Butyrate, produced by colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary polysaccharides, such as wheat bran, induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation in colon cancer cell lines. Whether similar effects occur in vivo is not well defined. We hypothesized that wheat bran's antineoplastic effects in vivo may be mediated in part by butyrate's modulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Male F344 rats were fed wheat bran-supplemented or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous fiber-free diet. Rats were treated with one dose of the carcinogen azoxymethane or vehicle with sacrifice after 5 days (tumor initiation); or two doses (days O and 7) with sacrifice after 56 days (tumor promotion). Study variables included fecal butyrate levels and the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and changes in crypt cell proliferation and apoptosis. During tumor initiation, wheat bran produced greater apoptosis (p = .01), a trend toward less proliferation, and preserved the normal zone of proliferation (p = .01). At tumor promotion, wheat bran decreased the number of ACF (proximal colon, p = .005; distal colon, p = .047) and maintained the normal proliferative zone. The fiber-free diet shifted the zone of proliferation into the premalignant pattern in both studies. Wheat bran produced significantly higher fecal butyrate (p = .01; .004, .00001) levels than the fiber-free diet throughout the tumor promotion study. Wheat bran increased apoptosis and controlled proliferation during tumor initiation and resulted in decreased ACF. Wheat bran's antineoplastic effects occurred early after carcinogen exposure, and were associated with increased fecal butyrate levels.

  6. The prognostic significance of extramural deposits and extracapsular lymph node invasion in colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al Sahaf, Osama

    2011-08-01

    The status of resected lymph nodes in colon cancer determines prognosis and further treatment. The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system has designated extramural nodules as nonnodal disease and classified them as extensions of the T category in the sixth edition and as site-specific tumor deposits in the seventh edition. Extracapsular lymph node extension is an established poor prognostic indicator in many cancers. Its significance in colon cancer has not been extensively investigated.

  7. Consumption of lycopene inhibits the growth and progression of colon cancer in a mouse xenograft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous study indicated that lycopene could significantly inhibit the proliferation of human colon cancer cells in vitro. However, the in vivo anticancer effects of lycopene against colon cancer have not been demonstrated yet. Therefore, this study investigated whether consumption of lycopene cou...

  8. DUODENAL 7-ETHOXYCOUMARIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACTIVITY IN COLON-CANCER PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CATS, A; KLEIBEUKER, JH; BOERSMA, W; DEVRIES, EGE; SLUITER, WJ; BOUMAN, JG; SLEIJFER, DT; MULDER, NH

    The biotransformation activity of the mono-oxygenase enzyme, 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (EOD), was investigated in the upper digestive tract of colon cancer patients, and compared with patients with and without neoplasia. The three groups studied comprised 23 control, 17 metastasized colon cancer

  9. ER-Stress-Induced Differentiation Sensitizes Colon Cancer Stem Cells to Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Colak, Selcuk; Heijmans, Jarom; van Lidth de Jeude, Jooske F.; Rodermond, Hans M.; Paton, James C.; Paton, Adrienne W.; Vermeulen, Louis; Medema, Jan Paul; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer stem cells (colon-CSCs) are more resistant to conventional chemotherapy than differentiated cancer cells. This subset of therapy refractory cells is therefore believed to play an important role in post-therapeutic tumor relapse. In order to improve the rate of sustained response to

  10. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 childr...

  11. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  12. High mortality rates after nonelective colon cancer resection : results of a national audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Grossmann, I.; Karsten, T. M.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    AimColon cancer resection in a nonelective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on nonelective resection. MethodData were obtained from

  13. Epsin is required for Dishevelled stability and Wnt signalling activation in colon cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Baojun; Tessneer, Kandice L; McManus, John; Liu, Xiaolei; Hahn, Scott; Pasula, Satish; Wu, Hao; Song, Hoogeun; Chen, Yiyuan; Cai, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yunzhou; Brophy, Megan L; Rahman, Ruby; Ma, Jian-Xing; Xia, Lijun; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-16

    Uncontrolled canonical Wnt signalling supports colon epithelial tumour expansion and malignant transformation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of and will provide new therapeutic targets for colon cancer. Epsins are ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins upregulated in several human cancers; however, the involvement of epsins in colon cancer is unknown. Here we show that loss of intestinal epithelial epsins protects against colon cancer by significantly reducing the stability of the crucial Wnt signalling effector, dishevelled (Dvl2), and impairing Wnt signalling. Consistently, epsins and Dvl2 are correspondingly upregulated in colon cancer. Mechanistically, epsin binds Dvl2 via its epsin N-terminal homology domain and ubiquitin-interacting motifs and prohibits Dvl2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Our findings reveal an unconventional role for epsins in stabilizing Dvl2 and potentiating Wnt signalling in colon cancer cells to ensure robust colon cancer progression. The pro-carcinogenic role of Epsins suggests that they are potential therapeutic targets to combat colon cancer.

  14. Colon cancer stem cells dictate tumor growth and resist cell death by production of interleukin-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todaro, Matilde; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Di Stefano, Anna B.; Cammareri, Patrizia; Vermeulen, Louis; Iovino, Flora; Tripodo, Claudio; Russo, Antonio; Gulotta, Gaspare; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    A novel paradigm in tumor biology suggests that cancer growth is driven by stem-like cells within a tumor. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of such cells from colon carcinomas using the stem cell marker CD133 that accounts around 2% of the cells in human colon cancer. The

  15. Vegetable and animal products as determinants of colon cancer risk in Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Verhoeven, D.; Sloots, L.; Veer, P. van 't

    1995-01-01

    To examine the relationship between colon cancer and food groups from vegetable or animal sources and their possible interactions with gender, we analyzed data from a Dutch case-control study. Dietary patterns were assessed for 232 colon cancer cases and 259 population controls. In multivariate

  16. Costunolide specifically binds and inhibits thioredoxin reductase 1 to induce apoptosis in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Weishan; Chen, Ruijie; Vladimir, Katanaev; Dong, Xidan; Zia, Khan; Sun, Xiangwei; Dai, Xuanxuan; Bao, Miao; Shen, Xian; Liang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. A natural sesquiterpene lactone, costunolide (CTD), showed inhibition of cancer development. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here, we have examined the therapeutic activity and novel mechanisms of the anti-cancer activities of CTD in colon cancer cells. Using SPR analysis and enzyme activity assay on recombinant TrxR1 protein, our results show that CTD directly binds and inhibits the activity of TrxR1, which caused enhanced generation of ROS and led to ROS-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Overexpression of TrxR1 in HCT116 cells reversed CTD-induced cell apoptosis and ROS increase. CTD treatment of mice implanted with colon cancer cells showed tumor growth inhibition and reduced TrxR1 activity and ROS level. In addition, it was observed that TrxR1 was significantly up-regulated in existing colon cancer gene database and clinically obtained colon cancer tissues. Our studies have uncovered the mechanism underlying the biological activity of CTD in colon cancer and suggest that targeting TrxR1 may prove to be beneficial as a treatment option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Developing the predictive model for the group at high risk for colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yi; Park, Il Soo; Kim, Su Young; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Jeong, Baek-Geun

    2006-09-01

    We developed the predictive model for the incidence of colon cancer by utilizing the health screening data of the National Health Insurance in Korea. We also explored the characteristics of the high risk group for colon cancer. The predictive model was used to determine those people who have a high risk for colon cancer within 2 years of their NHI health screening, and we excluded the people who had already been treated for cancer or who were cancer patient. The study population is the insured of the NHI, aged 40 or over and they had undergone health screening from the year 2000 to 2004, according to NHI health screening formula. We performed logistic regression analysis and used SAS Enterprise Miner 4.1. This study shows that there exists a higher rate of colon cancer in males than females. Also, for the population in their 60s, the incidence rate of colon cancer is much higher by 5.36 times than that for those people in their 40s. Amongst the behavioral factors, heavy drinking is the most important determinant of the colon cancer incidence (7.39 times in males and 21.51 times in females). Our study confirms that the major influencing factors for the incidence of colon cancer are drinking, lack of exercise, a medical history of colon polypus and a family history of colon cancer. As a result, we can choose the group that is at a high risk for colon cancer and provide customized medical information and selective management services according to their characteristics.

  18. Diabetes alone should not be a reason for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waalwijk, Maren A; van de Schans, Saskia A M; Haak, Harm R; Extermann, Martine; Dercksen, Wouter M W; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G

    2011-01-01

    With increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and colon cancer, the number of patients suffering from both diseases is growing, and physicians are being faced with complicated treatment decisions. To investigate the association between diabetes and treatment/course of stage III colon cancer and the association between colon cancer and course of diabetes. Additional information was collected from the medical records of all patients with both stage III colon cancer and diabetes ( n =201) and a random sample of stage III colon cancer patients without diabetes ( n =206) in the area of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry (1998-2007). Colon cancer patients without diabetes were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy compared with diabetic colon cancer patients (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7). After adjustment for age, this difference was borderline significant (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.6). Diabetic patients did not have: significantly more side-effects from surgery or adjuvant chemotherapy; more recurrence from colon cancer; significantly shorter time interval until recurrence; or a poorer disease-free survival or overall survival. Age and withholding of adjuvant chemotherapy were most predictive of all-cause mortality. After colon cancer diagnosis, the dose of antiglycaemic medications was increased in 22% of diabetic patients, resulting in significantly lower glycaemic indexes than before colon cancer diagnosis. Since diabetic patients did not have more side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy had a positive effect on survival for both patients with and without diabetes, diabetes alone should not be a reason for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy. Journal of Comorbidity 2011;1:19-27.

  19. [Synthesis of colon-specific prodrug of indomethacin and its inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ning-fu; Yang, Li-qun; Chen, Ru-fu; Cai, Xiang; Li, Le-qun; Li, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Quan-bo; Zhou, Jia-jia; Jiang, Zhi-peng

    2010-03-01

    To develop a colon-specific prodrug of Indomethacin microbially triggered, carry out in vitro/in vivo evaluation of drug release, and appraise its inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer. Indomethacin prodrugs were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR, and dissolution test simulating gastrointestinal tract was employed to screen the colon-specific prodrug. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of portal vein and peripheral blood in Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. Lastly, the inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer in nude mice was observed. The chemical structure characterized by FTIR and NMR demonstrated that six kinds of indomethacin-block-amylose with different drug loading (IDM-AM-1-6) were synthesized, among which IDM-AM-3 was degraded 1.3%, 9.3% and 95.3%, respectively, in simulated gastric fluid for 4 h, small intestine for 6 h, and colon for 36 h. The pharmacokinetic test of IDM-AM-3 showed that absorption was delayed significantly (P IDM regarding to portal vein. Additionally, its AUC(0-t) in peripheral blood was remarkably lower than that in Portal vein (P IDM (P IDM-AM-3 possesses advantage of sustained release in portal vein providing some experimental basis for colon-specific delivery system applied to sustained release in the portal vein.

  20. Stage dependent expression and tumor suppressive function of FAM134B (JK1) in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Wahab, Riajul; Smith, Robert A; Qiao, Bin; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to investigate sub-cellular location, differential expression in different cancer stages and functional role of FAM134B in colon cancer development. FAM134B expression was studied and quantified at protein and mRNA levels in cell lines using immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR. In vitro functional assays and an in vivo xenotransplantation mouse models were used to investigate the molecular role of FAM134B in cancer cell biology in response to FAM134B silencing with shRNA lentiviral particles. FAM134B protein was noted in both cytoplasm and nuclei of cancer cells. In cancer cells derived from stage IV colon cancer, FAM134B expression was remarkably reduced when compared to non-cancer colon cells and cancer cells derived from stage II colon cancer. FAM134B knockdown significantly (P colon cancer cells following lentiviral transfection. Furthermore, FAM134B suppression significantly increased (34-52%; P cancer suppressor gene in colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Superficial-type endobronchial metastases from colon cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurishima, Koichi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kagohashi, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Kunihiko; Tamura, Tomohiro; Shiozawa, Toshihiro; Ohara, Gen; Kawaguchi, Mio; Takayashiki, Norio; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-01

    Certain internal malignancies, including colon cancer, can develop endobronchial metastasis. The present study reports a case of colon cancer with superficial-type endobronchial metastases in a 76-year-old male. Chest computed tomography revealed small masses and infiltrates in each lung, with bilateral hilar lymph node swelling. Superficial endobronchial tumors in each of the bronchi were unexpectedly found by bronchoscopic examination. A biopsy specimen obtained from the endobronchial tumor was diagnosed as colon cancer. Superficial-type endobronchial metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare, however, such metastasis should be considered for patients who have a history of colon cancer. There should be no hesitation in performing a bronchoscopic biopsy as an additional examination.

  2. An 18-Year Nationwide Cohort Study on The Association Between Diverticulitis and Colon Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laura Q; Burcharth, Jakob; Andresen, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer in a large, nationwide cohort study. BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is a common disease, especially in the Western world. Previous articles have investigated the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer...... with diverticulitis were identified from the registers and matched by sex and age (± 1 year) with a ratio of 1:10 to people who did not have a registration of diverticulitis or diverticulosis. Main outcome was the event of colon cancer. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the effect of colonoscopies...... and treatment on the colon cancer rate after diverticulitis. RESULTS: A total of 445,456 people were included, of whom 40,496 had a diagnosis of diverticulitis. The incidence of colon cancer in the group with diverticulitis (4.3%) and the group without diverticulitis (2.3%) differed significantly (P

  3. Study of targeted-treatment on colon cancer cell via spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Da; Hsu, Hao Yun; Khaleel, Mai Ibrahim; Chan, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Yia-Chung; Wu, Chien-Hsun; Wu, Han-Chung

    2017-04-01

    We present the enhancement of targeted treatment on colon cancer cell via microscopic imaging ellipsometry (MIE). All spectroscopic MIE signals on 5μm×5μm area in visible range are captured within the modified Optrel MULTISKOP system. Colon cancer cells are cultured in Bottom-up Millicell EZ SLIDE 4-well structure under the environment (37°C, 10% CO2). Original single colon cancer cell, single colon cancer cell under untargeted-treatment, and single colon cancer cell under targeted-treatment are studied by specular-reflective mode and off-specular scattering mode in this experiment. Some polarization-related and phase-related MIE images are analyzed to reveal the improvement of targeted-treatment by observing changes in specular and off-specular reflectance and absorption.

  4. Classification of Colon Cancer Patients Based on the Methylation Patterns of Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonyoung Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse somatic mutations have been reported to serve as cancer drivers. Recently, it has also been reported that epigenetic regulation is closely related to cancer development. However, the effect of epigenetic changes on cancer is still elusive. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation data on colon cancer taken from The Caner Genome Atlas. We found that several promoters were significantly hypermethylated in colon cancer patients. Through clustering analysis of differentially methylated DNA regions, we were able to define subgroups of patients and observed clinical features associated with each subgroup. In addition, we analyzed the functional ontology of aberrantly methylated genes and identified the G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway as one of the major pathways affected epigenetically. In conclusion, our analysis shows the possibility of characterizing the clinical features of colon cancer subgroups based on DNA methylation patterns and provides lists of important genes and pathways possibly involved in colon cancer development.

  5. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  6. Field cancerization in the colon: a role for aberrant DNA methylation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Yu, Ming; Grady, William M

    2014-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and arises secondary to the progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal colon cells, which results in a polyp-to-cancer progression sequence. It is known that individuals with a personal history of colon adenomas or cancer are at increased risk for metachronous colon neoplasms. One explanation for this increased risk could be field cancerization, which is a phenomenon in which the histologically normal tissue in an organ is primed to undergo transformation. Epigenetic alterations appear to be promising markers for field cancerization. In this review, we discuss field cancerization in the colon and the data supporting the use of methylated DNA as a biomarker for this phenomenon.

  7. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, inhibits colon cancer cell growth and cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo but its role in colon cancer prevention remains to be characterized. This study tested the hypothesis that methylselenol inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells and tumors. We found that submicr...

  8. Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, K.; Drogan, D.; Boeing, H.; Jenab, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer

  9. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  10. Down-regulation of LRP1B in colon cancer promoted the growth and migration of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Peng; Gao, Chun; Chen, Ji; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhonghao; Xu, Ming; Shao, Jun; Zhang, Yunpeng; Xie, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Aberrant activation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling is one of the hallmarks of colon cancer. It is of great interest to study the mechanism for the regulation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling. In this study, it was found that LRP1B was down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of colon cancer cells. The molecular mechanism study revealed that LRP1B interacted with DVL2, inhibited the interaction between DVL2 and Axin, and negatively regulated beta-catenin/TCF signaling. Taken together, our study demonstrated the suppressive roles of LRP1B in the progression of colon cancer, implicating that restoring the function of LRP1B would be a promising strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Natural grape extracts regulate colon cancer cells malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Paola; Fabiani, Carlotta; Brizzolari, Andrea; Paroni, Rita; Casas, Josefina; Fabriàs, Gemma; Rossi, Dario; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Caretti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Natural dietary components are evolutionary-selected molecules able to control inflammation and cancerous transformation and progression. Because many studies assessed the beneficial properties of key molecules extracted from grapes, we aimed at investigating the properties of Liofenol™, a natural red wine lyophilized extract, devoid of alcohol and composed by a miscellaneous of components (polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins). We proved that the colon cancer cell line HCT116 responded to Liofenol™ treatment by reducing their proliferation, in association with an increase of p53 and p21 cell cycle gate keepers. Liofenol™ increased dihydroceramides, sphingolipid mediators involved in cell cycle arrest and reduced proliferation rate. We observed a strong induction of antioxidant response, with the activation of the transcriptional factor Nrf2, involved in redox homeostasis and differentiation, without altering tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Liofenol™ induced an important morphology change in HCT116 cells, migration inhibition, undifferentiated stem/stem-like cells markers downregulation, and E-cadherin downregulation, interested in epithelia to mesenchymal malignant transition. We conclude that lyophilized grape extract, at dose comparable to putative dietary doses, can activate molecular pathways, involving Nrf2 signaling and the modulation of structural and signaling sphingolipid mediators that cooperate in promoting differentiation and reducing proliferation of digestive tract cancer cells.

  12. Mast Cell Targeted Chimeric Toxin Can Be Developed as an Adjunctive Therapy in Colon Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of colitis with colorectal cancer has become increasingly clear with mast cells being identified as important inflammatory cells in the process. In view of the relationship between mast cells and cancer, we studied the effect and mechanisms of mast cells in the development of colon cancer. Functional and mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo and in vivo studies of cell interactions between mast cells and CT26 cells. Further evidence was reversely obtained in studies of mast cell targeted Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin. Experiments revealed mast cells could induce colon tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Cancer progression was found to be related to the density of mast cells in colonic submucosa. The activation of MAPK, Rho-GTPase, and STAT pathways in colon cancer cells was triggered by mast cells during cell-to-cell interaction. Lastly, using an Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin we constructed, we confirmed the promoting effect of mast cells in development of colon cancer. Mast cells are a promoting factor of colon cancer and thus also a potential therapeutic target. The Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin targeting mast cells could effectively prevent colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, these data may demonstrate a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of tumors.

  13. Hemorrhagic Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Postoperative Colon Cancer Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu Saito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemorrhagic cytomegalovirus (CMV colitis, occurring in a postoperative patient due to a weakened immune system. An 85-year-old woman with a medical history, including chronic renal failure treated with oral administration of prednisolone, underwent colectomy due to an ascending colon cancer. While the postoperative course was favorable, she exhibited acute severe abdominal pain and massive bloody discharge after 11 days of surgery. Her colonoscopic examination showed multiple longitudinal ulcers on the anastomosis. In addition to these endoscopic findings, her past medical history helped suggest CMV colitis. Because serological testing revealed positive CMV antigen, she was finally given a diagnosis of CMV colitis and received intravenous ganciclovir for the initial treatment. Hemorrhagic CMV colitis after colectomy is an important postoperative complication; we therefore present our case with diagnosis and treatment experience.

  14. Incisional hernias after open versus laparoscopic surgery for colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K.; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Scheike, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of incisional hernia. Furthermore, risk factors for incisional hernia formation are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of elective open versus laparoscopic surgery for colonic cancer on development of incisional hernia. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study included...... were performed. RESULTS: A total of 8489 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 8.8 (interquartile range 7.0-10.7) years. The incidence of incisional hernia was increased among patients operated on with open techniques compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery (7.3 vs. 5.2 %, p...... hernia formation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.89; p = 0.009). Other factors associated with increased risk of incisional hernia were wound infection...

  15. [Pancreatic-duodenectomy for invasive colon cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome. Case report.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Zamora-Valdés, D; Rodríguez-Zentner, H A; Tapia, H; Sánchez-Fernández, N; Gamboa-Domínguez, A; Medina-Franco, H; Chan-Núñez, C

    2009-01-01

    Despite the screening efforts in the general population and particularly in families with hereditary colon cancer, locally advanced colon cancer remains a common clinical problem. In block resection is considered mainstay therapy in these patients. The aim of this report is to present a case of right-sided colon cancer with a medullar phenotype invading the duodenum treated through in block resection. A case of a 54-year-old male with a family history of colon and pancreatic cancer with lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding is presented. Colonoscopy and computed tomography scan showed a tumor in the colonic hepatic flexure invading the duodenum. The patient underwent an in block resection of the right colon, duodenum, pancreas and antrum. The histopathological study showed a T4N0M0 adenocarcinoma invading the duodenum, pancreas and antrum with negative margins. His postoperative evolution was complicated with a pancreatic fistula, which resolved with conservative measures. In conclusion, in block resection is the treatment of choice for locally advanced colon cancer with invasion to duodenum and pancreas and should be performed in high-volume centers familiar with this type of procedures. Key words: pancreaticoduodenectomy, colon cancer, Lynch syndrome, pancreas, surgery, Mexico.

  16. Association Between Prognosis and Tumor Laterality in Early-Stage Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Safiya; Brennan, Kelly; Nanji, Sulaiman; Berry, Scott R; Booth, Christopher M

    2017-10-01

    Recent data have suggested that disease biology and outcome of colon cancer may differ between right-sided and left-sided tumors. However, the literature on the prognostic value of tumor laterality is conflicting. To explore differences in laterality based on disease characteristics and outcomes in a population-based cohort of early-stage colon cancer. This investigation was a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with early-stage colon cancer from the province of Ontario, Canada. Electronic records of treatment were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients with colon cancer who underwent resection between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2008. The date of the final analysis was October 20, 2016. The study population included a 25% random sample of all patients with resected stage I to III disease. Right-sided colon cancer was defined as any tumor arising in the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, or transverse colon. Left-sided colon cancer was defined as any tumor arising in the splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, or rectosigmoid colon. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) measured from the time of resection. This study identified 6365 patients with early-stage colon cancer (48.7% [3098 of 6365] female). Their median age was 72 years, and 51.7% (3291 of 6365) had right-sided disease. Stage distribution was 18.3% (1163 of 6365) stage I, 38.4% (2446 of 6365) stage II, and 43.3% (2756 of 6365) stage III. Patients with right-sided colon cancer were more likely to be older (median age, 73 vs 70 years; P stage III disease: the hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.14) for OS and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.97-1.24) for CSS. In this population-based cohort of early-stage resected colon cancer, disease laterality was not associated with long-term OS or CSS.

  17. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  18. MiR-495-3p facilitates colon cancer cell proliferation via Wnt/β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of colon cancer stem cells by inhibiting Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF1). Methods: ... cancer and is a potential target for prevention and treatment of cancer. ... therapy. At present, molecular targets have been investigated in the treatment of many types of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are proposed to be prospective ...

  19. Trametinib and TAS-102 in Treating Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Advanced, Metastatic, or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    RAS Family Gene Mutation; Stage III Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7

  20. Artificial neural networks for diagnosis and survival prediction in colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2005-01-01

    Abstract ANNs are nonlinear regression computational devices that have been used for over 45 years in classification and survival prediction in several biomedical systems, including colon cancer. Described in this article is the theory behind the three-layer free forward artificial neural networks with backpropagation error, which is widely used in biomedical fields, and a methodological approach to its application for cancer research, as exemplified by colon cancer. Review of the literature ...

  1. Asbestos and colon cancer: a weight-of-the-evidence review.

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    What is the evidence that exposure to asbestos causes colon cancer? This weight-of-evidence review considers epidemiologic evidence from cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, case-control studies of colon cancer, animal bioassays, and other corroborative evidence. The major evidence for a causal association at high exposure is a combined colorectal standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.5 for asbestos cohorts where the lung cancer SMR was greater than twofold. However, misdiagnosis may...

  2. Molecular Imaging of Colorectal Tumors by Targeting Colon Cancer Secreted Protein-2 (CCSP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeil Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A versatile biomarker for detecting colonic adenoma and colon cancer has yet to be developed. Colon cancer secreted protein-2 (CCSP-2 is a protein specifically expressed and secreted in colon adenomas and cancers. We developed a fluorescent imaging method based on CCSP-2 targeting for a more sensitive and specific detection of colorectal tumors. CCSP-2 expression was evaluated in human colon adenoma and colorectal specimens. Anti–CCSP-2 antibody was labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye, FPR-675, and molecular imaging of surgical human colorectal tumors was performed. Immunohistochemistry identified CCSP-2 expression in 87.0% of colorectal cancer specimens and 89.5% of colon adenoma specimens. Fluorescence imaging of surgical human colon specimens after spraying treatment with the probe permitted a clear distinction of cancer from paired normal colon tissue (target-to-background ratio, 4.09 ± 0.42; P < .001. CCSP-2 targeting imaging was also evaluated in patient-derived colon cancer xenograft mouse and liver metastasis murine models. CCSP-2–positive colon cancer xenografts and liver metastases were visualized by near-infrared fluorescence imaging after intravenous injection of the probe, which showed significantly higher fluorescence. Our results show that CCSP-2 is a promising marker for colorectal tumor detection in clinical settings and that a CCSP-2–targeting molecular imaging strategy might improve the diagnosis of colorectal tumors in metastatic or recurrent cancers and aid in early colonoscopic detection of premalignant lesions.

  3. Decorin in Human Colon Cancer: Localization In Vivo and Effect on Cancer Cell Behavior In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Marie C; Sainio, Annele O; Pennanen, Mirka M; Lund, Riikka J; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Sundström, Jari T T; Järveläinen, Hannu T

    2015-09-01

    Decorin is generally recognized as a tumor suppressing molecule. Nevertheless, although decorin has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant tissues, it has often remained unclear whether, in addition to non-malignant stromal cells, cancer cells also express it. Here, we first used two publicly available databases to analyze the current information about decorin expression and immunoreactivity in normal and malignant human colorectal tissue samples. The analyses demonstrated that decorin expression and immunoreactivity may vary in cancer cells of human colorectal tissues. Therefore, we next examined decorin expression in normal, premalignant and malignant human colorectal tissues in more detail using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for decorin. Our results invariably demonstrate that malignant cells within human colorectal cancer tissues are devoid of both decorin mRNA and immunoreactivity. Identical results were obtained for cells of neuroendocrine tumors of human colon. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines are also decorin negative, in accordance with the above in vivo results. Finally, we demonstrate that decorin transduction of human colon cancer cell lines causes a significant reduction in their colony forming capability. Thus, strategies to develop decorin-based adjuvant therapies for human colorectal malignancies are highly rational. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Acute fulminant colon cancer metastasis after renal transplantation Metástasis agudas fulminantes de cáncer de colon tras el trasplante renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Lin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 52-year-old male with no family history of colonic cancer, who was found to have advanced colonic cancer with metastases two months post renal transplantation. With this case, we highlight the possibility of acute fulminant cancer metastases within short period after renal transplantation and the importance of periodic colorectal cancer screening pre-transplant. To our knowledge, this case is not yet reported in the literature, especially with such presentation of acute fulminant colonic cancer metastases post renal transplantation.

  5. Proportion of Colon Cancer Attributable to Lifestyle in a Cohort of US Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background Many modifiable lifestyle factors have been associated with colon cancer risk, but less is known about their effect on disease when considered together. Estimating the proportion of colon cancer cases that could be prevented by the adoption of combined modifiable lifestyle behaviors will provide important insights into disease prevention. Methods In the Nurses’ Health Study, we defined a low-risk group according to a combination of six factors: body-mass index colon cancer cases among 81,092 over 24 years of follow-up. Compared to women in the lowest-risk category, the women at all other exposure levels had a hazard ratio of colon cancer of 1.81(95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.85). The score index was significantly and linearly related to an increasing risk of colon cancer (P-value for trend colon cancer was 0.37(95%CI: 0.09-0.60). When regular aspirin use(two tablets/week for 6 or more years) was included with the other low-risk behaviors, the PAR% increased to 0.43(95%CI: 0.14-0.65). Conclusions Beyond the known benefit from colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy, key behavior modifications and adherence to a healthy lifestyle could avoid approximately 37% of colon cancer cases among women. PMID:26092381

  6. Diseases preceding colon cancer. A case-control study among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A D; Sonnenberg, A; Wasserman, I H

    1994-11-01

    Patients with regular use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have a reduced mortality from colon cancer. As NSAID use is associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic exploration of patients on NSAID may lead to more efficient screening and frequent detection of colon cancer. A case-control study was conducted among 12,304 veterans with a colon cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1992. Four controls were matched by age, sex, and race to each case. The frequency distributions of previous discharge diagnoses in cases and controls were compared. Arterial embolism and thrombosis, spondylosis, peripheral vascular disease, angina, osteoarthrosis, and ischemic heart disease protected against future development of colon cancer. On the other hand, atrial fibrillation and flutter, as well as phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, were associated an increased occurrence of colon cancer after 5-10 years. The study contrasts diseases that are treated with aspirin with those that are treated with other anticoagulants. Both cause bleeding, but the reduced risk of colon cancer was seen only in conditions treated with aspirin. The difference between the two disease groups from the same VA patient population suggests that chronic use of NSAID truly protects against future development of colon cancer.

  7. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Zhai

    Full Text Available CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1.

  8. Association of family history with cancer recurrence and survival among patients with stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hollis, Donna; Saltz, Leonard B; Mayer, Robert J; Thomas, James; Schaefer, Paul; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Goldberg, Richard M; Warren, Robert S; Bertagnolli, Monica; Fuchs, Charles S

    2008-06-04

    A family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the influence of family history on cancer recurrence and survival among patients with established disease remains uncertain. To examine the association of family history of colorectal cancer with cancer recurrence and survival of patients with colon cancer. Prospective observational study of 1087 patients with stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (CALGB 89803) between April 1999 and May 2001. Patients provided data on family history at baseline and were followed up until March 2007 for disease recurrence and death (median follow-up, 5.6 years). In a subset of patients, we assessed microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in tumor specimens. Disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival according to the presence or absence of a family history of colorectal cancer. Among 1087 eligible patients, 195 (17.9%) reported a family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative. Cancer recurrence or death occurred in 57 of 195 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) with a family history of colorectal cancer and 343 of 892 patients (38%; 95% CI, 35%-42%) without a family history. Compared with patients without a family history, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) among those with 1 or more affected first-degree relatives were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) for disease-free survival, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.55-0.99) for recurrence-free survival, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.54-1.05) for overall survival. This reduction in risk of cancer recurrence or death associated with a family history became stronger with an increasing number of affected first-degree relatives. Compared with participants without a family history of colorectal cancer, those with 1 affected relative had a multivariate HR of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.57-1.04) for disease

  9. Deficiency in the 15 kDa Selenoprotein Inhibits Human Colon Cancer Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Tobe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, and is thought to provide protection against some forms of cancer. These protective effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, through selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins. Recent studies in a mouse colon cancer cell line have shown that the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15 may also play a role in promoting colon cancer. The current study investigated whether the effects of reversing the cancer phenotype observed when Sep15 was removed in mouse colon cancer cells, were recapitulated in HCT116 and HT29 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Targeted down-regulation of Sep15 using RNAi technology in these human colon cancer cell lines resulted in similarly decreased growth under anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions. However, the magnitude of reduction in cell growth was much less than in the mouse colon cancer cell line investigated previously. Furthermore, changes in cell cycle distribution were observed, indicating a delayed release of Sep15 deficient cells from the G0/G1 phase after synchronization. The potential mechanism by which human colon cancer cells lacking Sep15 revert their cancer phenotype will need to be explored further.

  10. Effect of colon cancer and surgical resection on skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity in colon cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Liptrot, Sarah; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Rennie, Michael J; Larvin, Mike; Lund, Jonathan N; Williams, John P

    2013-03-01

    Colon cancer (CC) patients commonly suffer declines in muscle mass and aerobic function. We hypothesised that CC would be associated with reduced muscle mass and mitochondrial enzyme activity and that curative resection would exacerbate these changes. We followed age-matched healthy controls and CC patients without distant metastasis on radiological imaging before and 6 weeks after hemi-colectomy surgery. Body composition was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mitochondrial enzyme activity and protein concentrations were analysed in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. In pre-surgery, there were no differences in lean mass between CC patients and age-matched controls (46.1 + 32.5 vs. 46.1 + 37.3 kg). Post-resection lean mass was reduced in CC patients (43.8 + 30.3 kg, P affected by surgery rather than cancer per se. PDH activity was however lower in cancer patients, suggesting that muscle mass and mitochondrial enzyme activity are not inextricably linked. This reduction in mitochondrial enzyme activity may well contribute to the significant risks of major surgery to which CC patients are exposed.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  12. FXR silencing in human colon cancer by DNA methylation and KRAS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ann M; Zhan, Le; Maru, Dipen; Shureiqi, Imad; Pickering, Curtis R; Kiriakova, Galina; Izzo, Julie; He, Nan; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Liang, Han; Kopetz, Scott; Powis, Garth; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue (n = 238), polyps (n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I-IV (n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ~12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

  13. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  14. Gastric Stump Cancer: More Than Just Another Proximal Gastric Cancer and Demanding a More Suitable TNM Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa-Pinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Considerable controversy persists about the biological behavior of gastric stump cancer (GSC. The aim of this study is to clarify if this cancer is just another proximal gastric cancer or if it emerges as a distinctive clinicopathologic entity. Methods. This review of a prospectively collected gastric cancer database identified 73 patients with GSC in a single institution between January 1980 and June 2012 and compared them with 328 patients with proximal gastric cancer (PGC and 291 patients with esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC. Results. Patients with GSC were predominantly males. Eighty-three percent of GSC penetrated the subserosal or the serosal layers. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved in GSC patients was significantly lower than in PGC patients or in EGJC patients. Cumulative survival curves were not different between GSC, PGC, or EGJC patients. Unlike that observed in PGC and in EGJC, no significant differences in cumulative survival according to the TNM staging system were observed in GSC cases. Conclusions. The outcome of patients with GSC displayed significant differences when compared to those with other proximal gastric cancers concerning the lack of survival association with the TNM staging system. Therefore a more suitable staging system should be designed for these unique cancers.

  15. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and behavioral pathways to risks of colon and rectal cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Masyn, Katherine E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Laden, Francine; Colditz, Graham A

    2010-09-01

    Neighborhood amenities and resources plausibly determine individual modifiable risk factors for colon and rectal cancer. Evidence on the associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and incident colon and rectal cancer is limited. The authors analyzed a prospective cohort of 111,129 women in the Nurses' Health Study with no history of cancer in 1986 followed to 2006. Neighborhood SES was based on Census-derived characteristics of block groups of residence. Cox models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted associations between neighborhood SES and incident colon and rectal cancer, and to examine for effect modification. For significant associations, path models were estimated with behavioral risk factors included as potential mediators. Neighborhood SES was unassociated with colon cancer among all women. However, among women with college or greater education, higher neighborhood SES was inversely related to colon cancer (P for trend = .01; P for interaction between neighborhood SES and education = .03). Path analysis suggested mediation by red meat intakes and body mass index (BMI). Higher neighborhood SES was inversely related to rectal cancer among all women (relative risk in highest quintile, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.93; P for trend = .08). Path analysis was consistent with mediation by multivitamin use and BMI. These findings suggest that living in a higher-SES neighborhood may protect against rectal cancer in women and colon cancer in higher-educated women, mediated by selected behavioral risk factors. Risk factor differences between colon and rectal cancer may account for discrepancies in estimated neighborhood effects by cancer site. Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  16. Perioperative functional activity of the alternative pathway of complement in patients with colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Qvist, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional capacity of the alternative pathway of complement in patients with cancer of the colon before, during, and after operation. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: One university and two district hospitals, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 28 patients having elective...... or emergency operations for colonic cancer. INTERVENTIONS: Measurements of C3b fixing capacity of the alternative complement pathway in serum before, during, and after operation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The functional capacity of the alternative pathway of complement, and changes during operation. RESULTS......: The functional capacity of the alternative pathway in patients with cancer of the colon was above normal (p

  17. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  18. Synchronous and Metachronous Colon Cancers in Patients with Gastric Cancer: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Jo Suh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the most common synchronous or metachronous cancer in patients with gastric cancer. I report two cases of synchronous and metachronous colon cancer with gastric cancer. Case 1: A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of gastric cancer, which had been diagnosed during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD screening. The recommended preoperative testing was colonofiberscopy (CFS. The CFS revealed a 3-cm ulcerofungating mass, located 20 cm from the anal verge. The pathological report showed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Consequently, we performed radical total gastrectomy and low anterior resection simultaneously. There was no recurrence during the 40-month follow-up of this individual on an out-patient basis. Case 2: A 71-year-old man who was treated with laparoscopically assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG due to early gastric cancer underwent regular follow-up examination with EGD and abdominopelvic computed tomography. A CFS performed 5 years after the LADG revealed a polypoid mass in the sigmoid colon. The pathological report showed a villous adenoma with adenocarcinoma in situ. The patient underwent a colonofiberscopic mucosectomy. At 36 months after the endoscopic mucosectomy, the patient remained free of recurrence.

  19. Terpenoids as anti-colon cancer agents - A comprehensive review on its mechanistic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-15

    Multistep model of colon carcinogenesis has provided the framework to advance our understanding of the molecular basis of colon cancer. This multistage process of carcinogenesis takes a long period to transform from a normal epithelial cell to invasive carcinoma. Thus, it provides enough time to intervene the process of carcinogenesis especially through dietary modification. In spite of the in-depth understanding of the colon cancer etiology and pathophysiology and its association with diet, colon cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Phytochemicals and their derivatives are gaining attention in cancer prevention and treatment strategies because of cancer chemotherapy associated adverse effects. Being the largest group of phytochemicals traditionally used for medicinal purpose in India and China, terpenoids are recently being explored as anticancer agents. Anticancer properties of terpenoids are associated with various mechanisms like counteraction of oxidative stress, potentiating endogenous antioxidants, improving detoxification potential, disrupting cell survival pathways and inducing apoptosis. This review gives a comprehensive idea of naturally occurring terpenoids as useful agents for the prevention of colon cancer with reference to their classes, sources and molecular targets. Based on the explored molecular targets further research in colon cancer chemoprevention is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low colonic glutathione detoxification capacity in patients at risk for colon cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Braak, C.C.M.; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colon carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process influenced by hereditary as well as environmental factors. The glutathione/glutathione S-transferase detoxification system in the colon is important for protection against carcinogens. We investigated the levels of glutathione/glutathione

  1. Food consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoli, E; Franceschi, S; Talamini, R; Barra, S; La Vecchia, C

    1992-01-21

    The relation between dietary factors and the risk of colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Pordenone province, North-eastern Italy, on 123 cases of colon cancer, 125 of rectal cancer and 699 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic or digestive disorders. Consistent positive associations were observed with more frequent consumption of bread (odds ratio, OR = 2.1 for colon and 2.2 for rectum for highest vs. lowest tertile), polenta (OR = 2.1 for colon, 1.9 for rectum), cheese (OR = 1.7 for colon, 1.8 for rectum) and eggs (2.5 for colon, 1.9 for rectum), whereas reduced ORs were observed in subjects reporting more frequent consumption of tomatoes (OR = 0.5 for colon and 0.4 for rectum). High consumption of margarine exerted a significant protection against cancer of the colon whereas high consumption of carrot spinach, whole-grain bread and pasta (favorably) and red meat (unfavorably) affected rectal cancer risk in particular. Thus the present study gives support for a protective effect associated with a fiber-rich or vegetable-rich diet, while it indicates that frequent consumption of refined starchy foods, eggs and fat-rich foods such as cheese and red meat is a risk factor for colo-rectal cancer.

  2. [Expression and Significance of PI-PLCε1 in Colon Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ran; Yang, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Li

    2017-11-01

    To study the expression and clinical significance of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase Cε1 (PI-PLCε1) in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of PI-PLCε1in the 42 cases of colon cancer tissues and their corresponding adjacent tissues. And the effects of tumor differentiation and tumor site on the expression PI-PLCε1 of colon cancer tissues were compared. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of PI-PLCε1in colon cancer tissue significantly lower than that in the adjacent tissue ( PPI-PLCε1gene of colon cancer tissue was not effected by tumor differentiation and tumor site ( P>0.05). The results of immuno-histochemistry showed that the positive expression rate of PI-PLCε1 protein in colon cancer tissue was significantly lower than that in the adjacent tissue ( PPI-PLCε1 protein was not effected by tumor differentiation ( P>0.05),but the expression was different in tumor site ( PPI-PLCε1 was reduced in colon tissue and barely to tumor differentiation.

  3. Colon cancer cell treatment with rose bengal generates a protective immune response via immunogenic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianzhong; Kunda, Nicholas; Qiao, Guilin; Calata, Jed F; Pardiwala, Krunal; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Maker, Ajay V

    2017-02-02

    Immunotherapeutic approaches to manage patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies are desired; however, mechanisms to incite tumor-specific immune responses remain to be elucidated. Rose bengal (RB) is toxic at low concentrations to malignant cells and may induce damage-associated molecular patterns; therefore, we investigated its potential as an immunomodulator in colon cancer. Murine and human colon cancer lines were treated with RB (10% in saline/PV-10) for cell cycle, cell death, and apoptosis assays. Damage-associated molecular patterns were assessed with western blot, ELISA, and flow cytometry. In an immunocompetent murine model of colon cancer, we demonstrate that tumors regress upon RB treatment, and that RB induces cell death in colon cancer cells through G2/M growth arrest and predominantly necrosis. RB-treated colon cancer cells expressed distinct hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), including enhanced expression of calreticulin and heat-shock protein 90 on the cell surface, a decrease in intracellular ATP, and the release of HMGB1. To confirm the ICD phenotype, we vaccinated immunocompetent animals with syngeneic colon cancer cells treated with RB. RB-treated tumors served as a vaccine against subsequent challenge with the same CT26 colon cancer tumor cells, and vaccination with in vitro RB-treated cells resulted in slower tumor growth following inoculation with colon cancer cells, but not with syngeneic non-CT26 cancer cells, suggesting a specific antitumor immune response. In conclusion, RB serves as an inducer of ICD that contributes to enhanced specific antitumor immunity in colorectal cancer.

  4. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on a-Lactalbumin and Sulindac treated colon cancer cells: ELF-EMF and colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Kivanc; Gokce, Burak; Aydemir, Isil; Ozbilgin, M. Kemal; Vatansever, H.Seda

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this research, we aimed to investigate the effects extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on proliferation and apoptosis during treatment of primary and metastatic colon cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Colon cell lines; COLO-320, COLO-741 and as control mouse fibroblast (STO) cells were cultured in 24 wells of tissue culture plate. Both COLO-320 and COLO-741 cells were treated with a-lactalbumin, sulindac and a-lactalbumin + sulindac. The cells from all grou...

  5. Chemopreventive effect of chalcone derivative, L2H17, in colon cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanmei; Chen, Minxiao; Chen, Wenbo; Hui, Junguo; Ji, Jiansong; Hu, Shuping; Zhou, Jianmin; Wang, Yi; Liang, Guang

    2015-11-09

    Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Chalcone and its derivatives are reported to exhibit anti-cancer effects in several cancer cell lines, including colon cancer cells. In addition, chalcones have advantages such as poor interaction with DNA and low risk of mutagenesity. In our previous study, a group of chalcone derivatives were synthesized and exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of the chalcone derivative, L2H17, in colon cancer cells. The cytotoxicities of L2H17 on various colon cancer cell lines were investigated by MTT and clonogenic assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis were performed to evaluate the molecular mechanism of L2H17-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. Also, scratch wound and matrigel invasion experiments were performed to estimate the cell migration and invasion after L2H17 treatment. Finally, we observed the anti-colon cancer effects of L2H17 in vivo. Our data show that compound L2H17 exhibited selective cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cells, via inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26.WT cells. Furthermore, L2H17 treatment decreased cell migration and invasion of CT26.WT cells. In addition, L2H17 possessed marked anti-tumor activity in vivo. The molecular mechanism of L2H17-mediated inhibition of tumor promotion and progression were function through inactivated NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways. All these findings show that L2H17 might be a potential growth inhibitory chalcones derivative for colon cancer cells.

  6. Development of an Anti-HER2 Monoclonal Antibody H2Mab-139 Against Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-01-09

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression has been reported in several cancers, such as breast, gastric, lung, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. HER2 is overexpressed in those cancers and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Trastuzumab, a humanized anti-HER2 antibody, provides significant survival benefits for patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancers and gastric cancers. In this study, we developed a novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), H 2 Mab-139 (IgG 1 , kappa) and investigated it against colon cancers using flow cytometry, western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that H 2 Mab-139 reacted with colon cancer cell lines, such as Caco-2, HCT-116, HCT-15, HT-29, LS 174T, COLO 201, COLO 205, HCT-8, SW1116, and DLD-1. Although H 2 Mab-139 strongly reacted with LN229/HER2 cells on the western blot, we did not observe a specific signal for HER2 in colon cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed sensitive and specific reactions of H 2 Mab-139 against colon cancers, indicating that H 2 Mab-139 is useful in detecting HER2 overexpression in colon cancers using flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analyses.

  7. Anticancer effect of linalool via cancer-specific hydroxyl radical generation in human colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Murata, Soichiro; Ito, Hiromu; Nakayama, Ken; Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Sano, Naoki; Nowatari, Takeshi; Villareal, Myra O; Nagano, Yumiko N; Isoda, Hiroko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-28

    To investigate the anticancer mechanisms of the monoterpenoid alcohol linalool in human colon cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of linalool on the human colon cancer cell lines and a human fibroblast cell line was examined using the WST-8 assay. The apoptosis-inducing effect of linalool was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry with Annexin V. Oxidative stress was investigated by staining for diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine, which is a cellular lipid peroxidation marker, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Sixteen SCID mice xenografted with human cancer cells were randomized into 3 groups for in vivo analysis: control and low-dose and high-dose linalool groups. The control group was administered tap water orally every 3 d. The linalool treatment groups were administered 100 or 200 μg/kg linalool solution orally for the same period. All mice were sacrificed under anesthesia 21 d after tumor inoculation, and tumors and organs were collected for immunohistochemistry using an anti-4-hydroxynonenal antibody. Tumor weights were measured and compared between groups. Linalool induced apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro, following the cancer-specific induction of oxidative stress, which was measured based on spontaneous hydroxyl radical production and delayed lipid peroxidation. Mice in the high-dose linalool group exhibited a 55% reduction in mean xenograft tumor weight compared with mice in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, tumor-specific lipid peroxidation was observed in the in vivo model. Linalool exhibited an anticancer effect via cancer-specific oxidative stress, and this agent has potential for application in colon cancer therapy.

  8. Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koushik, A.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Calle, E.E.; Cho, E.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Harnack, L.; Jacobs Jr., D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.F.; Marshall, J.R.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Sieri, S.; Virtanen, M.J.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer; however, in more recent studies associations have been less consistent. Statistical power to examine associations by colon site has been limited in previous studies. Methods Fruit and vegetable intakes

  9. MiR-495-3p facilitates colon cancer cell proliferation via Wnt/β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression protein was tested using Western blotting. β-catenin binding ability was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. MiRNA target gene was defined by luciferase assay. Results: Compared with normal colon cells and tissue, miR-495-3p is elevated in colon cancer cells and tissues, which regulate ...

  10. Disparities in quality of care for colon cancer between hospitals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.A.G.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Krijnen, P.; Lemmens, V.E.P.P.; Jansen-Landheer, M.L.E.A.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Siesling, Sabine; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aim of this study was to describe treatment patterns and outcome according to region, and according to hospital types and volumes among patients with colon cancer in the Netherlands. Methods: All patients with invasive colon carcinoma diagnosed in the period 2001–2006 were selected from

  11. Increased risk of colon cancer in men in the pre-diabetes phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitilo, Adedayo A; Berg, Richard L; Engel, Jessica M; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V; Williams, Gail; Doi, Suhail A

    2013-01-01

    Historically, studies exploring the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer lack accurate definition of date of DM onset, limiting temporal analyses. We examined the temporal relationship between colon cancer risk and DM using an electronic algorithm and clinical, administrative, and laboratory data to pinpoint date of DM onset. Subjects diagnosed with DM (N = 11,236) between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009 were identified and matched at a 5∶1 ratio with 54 365 non-diabetic subjects by age, gender, smoking history, residence, and diagnosis reference date. Colon cancer incidence relative to the reference date was used to develop Cox regression models adjusted for matching variables, body mass index, insurance status, and comorbidities. Primary outcomes measures included hazard ratio (HR) and number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH). The adjusted HR for colon cancer in men before DM onset was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.58, P = 0.0223) and the NNEH decreased with time, reaching 263 at DM onset. No such difference was observed in women. After DM onset, DM did not appear to alter colon cancer risk in either gender. Colon cancer risk is increased in diabetic men, but not women, before DM onset. DM did not alter colon cancer risk in men or women after clinical onset. In pre-diabetic men, colon cancer risk increased as time to DM onset decreased, suggesting that the effects of the pre-diabetes phase on colon cancer risk in men are cumulative.

  12. An 18-Year Nationwide Cohort Study on The Association Between Diverticulitis and Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laura Q; Burcharth, Jakob; Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer in a large, nationwide cohort study. Diverticulitis is a common disease, especially in the Western world. Previous articles have investigated the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer with inconclusive results. We conducted a population-based cohort study based on longitudinal Danish national registers with data from the period 1995 to 2012. Data were extracted from comprehensive Danish national registers containing information from both public and private hospitals. Patients with diverticulitis were identified from the registers and matched by sex and age (± 1 year) with a ratio of 1:10 to people who did not have a registration of diverticulitis or diverticulosis. Main outcome was the event of colon cancer. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the effect of colonoscopies and treatment on the colon cancer rate after diverticulitis. A total of 445,456 people were included, of whom 40,496 had a diagnosis of diverticulitis. The incidence of colon cancer in the group with diverticulitis (4.3%) and the group without diverticulitis (2.3%) differed significantly (P diverticulitis and cancer remained significant with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.20 (95% CI 2.08-2.32) (P diverticulitis, who had no colonoscopy, had an increased risk of colon cancer compared with those without both diverticulitis and colonoscopy with an OR of 2.72 (95% CI 2.64-2.94) (P diverticulitis and colon cancer. This raises several questions regarding the possible causal association and warrants further studies. Patients with diverticulitis should undergo endoscopic surveillance for colon cancer.

  13. Increased risk of colon cancer in men in the pre-diabetes phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedayo A Onitilo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historically, studies exploring the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and cancer lack accurate definition of date of DM onset, limiting temporal analyses. We examined the temporal relationship between colon cancer risk and DM using an electronic algorithm and clinical, administrative, and laboratory data to pinpoint date of DM onset. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed with DM (N = 11,236 between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009 were identified and matched at a 5∶1 ratio with 54 365 non-diabetic subjects by age, gender, smoking history, residence, and diagnosis reference date. Colon cancer incidence relative to the reference date was used to develop Cox regression models adjusted for matching variables, body mass index, insurance status, and comorbidities. Primary outcomes measures included hazard ratio (HR and number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH. RESULTS: The adjusted HR for colon cancer in men before DM onset was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.58, P = 0.0223 and the NNEH decreased with time, reaching 263 at DM onset. No such difference was observed in women. After DM onset, DM did not appear to alter colon cancer risk in either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Colon cancer risk is increased in diabetic men, but not women, before DM onset. DM did not alter colon cancer risk in men or women after clinical onset. In pre-diabetic men, colon cancer risk increased as time to DM onset decreased, suggesting that the effects of the pre-diabetes phase on colon cancer risk in men are cumulative.

  14. Contribution of extended family history in assessment of risk for breast and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin L; Whitman, Todd; Wood, Marie E

    2016-09-01

    Family history is important for identifying candidates for high risk cancer screening and referral for genetic counseling. We sought to determine the percentage of individuals who would be eligible for high risk cancer screening or genetic referral and testing if family history includes an extended (vs limited) family history. Family histories were obtained from 626 women at UVMMC associated mammography centers from 2001 to 2002. ACS guidelines were used to determine eligibility for high risk breast or colon cancer screening. Eligibility for referral for genetic counseling for hereditary breast and colon cancer was determined using the Referral Screening Tool and Amsterdam II screening criteria, respectively. All family histories were assessed for eligibility by a limited history (first degree relatives only) and extended history (first and second degree relatives). Four hundred ninety-nine histories were eligible for review. 18/282 (3.6 %) and 62/123 (12 %) individuals met criteria for high risk breast and colon cancer screening, respectively. 13/18 (72 %) in the high risk breast cancer screening group and 12/62 (19 %) in the high risk colon cancer screening group met criteria based upon an extended family history. 9/282 (1.8 %) and 31/123 (6.2 %) individuals met criteria for genetic counseling referral and testing for breast and colon cancer, respectively. 2/9 (22 %) of individuals in the genetic breast cancer screening group and 21/31 (68 %) individuals in the genetic colon cancer screening group met criteria based upon extended family history. This is one of the first studies to suggest that first degree family history alone is not adequate for identification of candidates for high risk screening and referral for genetic counseling for hereditary breast and colon cancer syndromes. A larger population is needed to further validate this data.

  15. Evaluation and SAR analysis of the cytotoxicity of tanshinones in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, An; Zhang, Fei-Long; Yeung, John H K; Li, Xu-Qin; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the anti-cancer actions of tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA, and six derivatives of tanshinone IIA on normal and cancerous colon cells. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis was conducted to delineate the significance of the structural modifications of tanshinones for improved anti-cancer action. Tanshinone derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the literature. The cytotoxicity of different compounds on colon cancer cells was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptotic activity of the tanshinones was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). Tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA both exhibited significant cytotoxicity on colon cancer cells. They are more effective in p53(+/+) colon cancer cell line. It was also noted that the anti-cancer activity of tanshinone I was more potent and selective. Two of the derivatives of tanshinone IIA (N1 and N2) also exhibited cytotoxicity on colon cancer cells. The anti-colon cancer activity of tanshinone I was more potent and selective than tanshinone IIA, and is p53 dependent. The derivatives obtained by structural modifications of tanshinone IIA exhibited lower cytotoxicity on both normal and colon cancer cells. From steric and electronic characteristics point of view, it was concluded that structural modifications of ring A and furan or dihydrofuran ring D on the basic structure of tanshinones influences the activity. An increase of the delocalization of the A and B rings could enhance the cytotoxicity of such compounds, while a non-planar and small sized D ring region would provide improved anti-cancer activity. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Colon cancer metastasis mimicking intraductal papillary neoplasm of the extra-hepatic bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamao, Takanobu; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Higashi, Takaaki; Takeyama, Hideyuki; Kaida, Takayoshi; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis of the primary cancer in cases with metastatic lesions is quite important because misdiagnosis may lead to the selection of incorrect adjuvant therapy and worse long-term outcomes after surgery. The metastatic sites associated with the dissemination of colon cancer are well known and normally predictable, which includes the lymphatic, haematogenous, or peritoneal regions, while other locations are quite rare. In this report, we present a case of colon cancer with an unusual metastatic pattern mimicking an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) present in the extra-hepatic bile duct with a cytokeratin (CK)-7-negative and CK-20-positive profile (intestinal type). In the case of this patient who had a history of colon cancer, immunohistochemical staining for the CKs was useful for distinguishing between primary IPNB and colon cancer metastases. We suspect that the metastatic pattern of this case of colon cancer that mimicked IPNB at the extra-hepatic bile duct developed incidentally via the bile stream. This is a rare case of colon cancer metastasis mimicking IPNB at the extra-hepatic bile duct. Our findings also suggest that there may be an incidental 4th metastatic route via the bile stream. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The Akt inhibitor ISC-4 synergizes with cetuximab in 5-FU-resistant colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Allen

    Full Text Available Phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4 is an Akt inhibitor with demonstrated preclinical efficacy against melanoma and colon cancer. In this study, we sought to improve the clinical utility of ISC-4 by identifying a synergistic combination with FDA-approved anti-cancer therapies, a relevant and appropriate disease setting for testing, and biomarkers of response. We tested the activity of ISC-4 and 19 FDA-approved anticancer agents, alone or in combination, against the SW480 and RKO human colon cancer cell lines. A synergistic interaction with cetuximab was identified and validated in a panel of additional colon cancer cell lines, as well as the kinetics of synergy. ISC-4 in combination with cetuximab synergistically reduced the viability of human colon cancer cells with wild-type but not mutant KRAS genes. Further analysis revealed that the combination therapy cooperatively decreased cell cycle progression, increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and decreased phospho-Akt in responsive tumor cells. The synergism between ISC-4 and cetuximab was retained independently of acquired resistance to 5-FU in human colon cancer cells. The combination demonstrated synergistic anti-tumor effects in vivo without toxicity and in the face of resistance to 5-FU. These results suggest that combining ISC-4 and cetuximab should be explored in patients with 5-FU-resistant colon cancer harboring wild-type KRAS.

  18. LRF inhibits p53 expression in colon cancer cells via modulating DAP5 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Wang, Peng; Feng, Fan; Li, Ming-Yang

    2017-10-01

    The p53 protein plays a critical role in suppression of tumour growth; its regulation is not fully understood. Leukaemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) promotes tumour cell growth. This study tests a hypothesis that LRF inhibits p53 expression in colon cancer cells. In this study, human colon cancer cell lines, LIM1215 and HCT116 cells, were used. The expression of LRF and p53 in the cells was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. We observed that the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) was detected in both LIM1215 and HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Activation of PAR2 increased the expression of LRF and inhibited the p53 expression in the cancer cells. We also detected a complex of LRF and DAP5, one of the p53 gene transcription factors. The interaction of LRF and DAP5 resulted in the repression of p53 expression in the colon cancer cells. In conclusion, PAR2 activation increases the expression of LRF in colon cancer cells, which interacts with DAP5 to repress the p53 expression. Leukaemia/lymphoma-related factor may be a novel target in the treatment of colon cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Overexpression of GRK3, Promoting Tumor Proliferation, Is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3, which belongs to a subfamily of kinases called GRKs, acts as a promoter mechanism in some cancer types. Our study found that GRK3 was significantly overexpressed in 162 pairs of colon cancer tissues than in the matched noncancerous mucosa (P<0.01. Based on immunohistochemistry staining of TMAs, GRK3 was dramatically stained positive in primary colon cancer (130/180, 72.22%, whereas it was detected minimally or negative in paired normal mucosa specimens (50/180, 27.78%. Overexpression of GRK3 was closely correlated with AJCC stage (P=0.001, depth of tumor invasion (P<0.001, lymph node involvement (P=0.004, distant metastasis (P=0.016, and histologic differentiation (P=0.004. Overexpression of GRK3 is an independent prognostic indicator that correlates with poor survival in colon cancer patients. Consistent with this, downregulation of GRK3 exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate, and impaired colon tumorigenicity in a xenograft model. Hence, a specific overexpression of GRK3 was observed in colon cancer, GRK3 potentially contributing to progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation and functions as a poor prognostic indicator in colon cancer and potentially represent a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  20. A new stochastic and state space model of human colon cancer incorporating multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wai Y; Yan, Xiao W

    2010-04-20

    Studies by molecular biologists and geneticists have shown that tumors of human colon cancer are developed from colon stem cells through two mechanisms: The chromosomal instability and the micro-satellite instability. The purpose of this paper is therefore to develop a new stochastic and state space model for carcinogenesis of human colon cancer incorporating these biological mechanisms. Based on recent biological studies, in this paper we have developed a state space model for human colon cancer. In this state space model, the stochastic system is represented by a stochastic model, involving 2 different pathways-the chromosomal instability pathway and the micro-satellite instability pathway; the observation, cancer incidence data, is represented by a statistical model. Based on this model we have developed a generalized Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters through the posterior modes of the parameters via Gibbs sampling procedures. We have applied this model to fit and analyze the SEER data of human colon cancers from NCI/NIH. Our results indicate that the model not only provides a logical avenue to incorporate biological information but also fits the data much better than other models including the 4-stage single pathway model. This model not only would provide more insights into human colon cancer but also would provide useful guidance for its prevention and control and for prediction of future cancer cases.

  1. Expression and clinical significance of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peifen; Guo, Wenjie; Yuan, Huaqin; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiaomin; Gu, Yanhong

    2014-04-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, encoded by gene PTPN11, has been identified as a tumor-promoting factor in several types of leukemia and is hyper-activated by other mechanisms in some solid tumors including gastric cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), etc. But few were reported on the expression and significances of SHP-2 in colon cancer. Here, we detect SHP-2 expression in colon cancer cells, colon cancer-induced by AOM+DSS in mice and 232 human colon cancer specimens, including 58 groups of self-matched adjacent peritumor tissues and normal tissues. We found that compared to the normal colon tissues, SHP-2 significantly decreased in tumor tissues (Pcolon tumor cells as well as mice colon tumors. And in humans samples, low SHP-2 expression showed a significantly correlation with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.05), late TNM stage (P=0.1666) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Cruz-Gil, Silvia; Gómez de Cedrón, Marta

    2015-01-01

    an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome...... of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive...... and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment....

  3. Metastatic colon cancer from extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as painless jaundice: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabi, Benjamin W; Carter, Jeffrey; Rong, Rong; Wang, Minhua; Corasanti, James G; Gibbs, John F

    2016-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare cancer of the biliary epithelium comprising only about 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. It is a highly aggressive malignancy and confers a dismal prognosis with majority of patients presenting with metastatic disease. Metastatic CCA to the colon is extremely rare with only few cases reported in the literature. We present a 61-year-old patient with incidental synchronous metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma from extra-hepatic CCA. Laboratory data revealed significant indirect hyperbilirubinemia and transaminitis. Imaging study showed intrahepatic bile ducts prominence without mass lesions. Incidentally, there was diffuse colonic thickening without mass lesions or obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed a common bile duct stricture. Brushings were consistent with CCA. Screening colonoscopy identified nodularity and biopsy and immunostaining were consistent with CCA metastasis to colon. The patient elected for palliative and comfort care. Metastatic CCA to the colon is a rare pattern of distant spread that may pose a diagnostic challenge. Some salient characteristics may assist in the differentiation of primary colon cancer and metastatic colon cancer from CCA. Little remains known about the pathogenic behavior of metastatic secondary colorectal cancer. And more so, the management approach to such metastatic cancer still remains to be defined. Screening colonoscopy in patients presenting with resectable CCA may alter management. Furthermore, whether patients with history of resected CCA may benefit from a more frequent screening colonoscopy remains to be validated.

  4. Diabetes, metformin use, and colon cancer: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study, using a population-based reimbursement database, was conducted for investigating the relationship between diabetes and colon cancer and assessing whether metformin had a protective effect...

  5. In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    .... mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways...

  6. Tumor-stroma ratio predicts recurrence in patients with colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Kjær-Frifeldt, Sanne; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents a new treatment approach to locally advanced colon cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) to predict disease recurrence in patients with locally advanced colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 65 patients with colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a phase II trial. All patients were planned for three cycles of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before surgery. Hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections from surgically resected primary tumors...... was 55%, compared to 94% in the group of patients with a high TSR. CONCLUSIONS: TSR assessed in the surgically resected primary tumor from patients with locally advanced colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides prognostic value and may serve as a relevant parameter in selecting...

  7. Magnetic gold nanoparticle-mediated small interference RNA silencing Bag-1 gene for colon cancer therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HUANG, WENBAI; LIU, ZHAN'AO; ZHOU, GUANZHOU; TIAN, AILING; SUN, NIANFENG

    ... function of colon cancer. We prepared and evaluated magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex, a gene therapy system, which can transfect cells efficiently, for both therapeutic effect and safety...

  8. Deletion of Chromosome 4q Predicts Outcome in Stage II Colon Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Brosens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 30% of all stage II colon cancer patients will relapse and die of their disease. At present no objective parameters to identify high-risk stage II colon cancer patients, who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, have been established. With traditional histopathological features definition of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients is inaccurate. Therefore more objective and robust markers for prediction of relapse are needed. DNA copy number aberrations have proven to be robust prognostic markers, but have not yet been investigated for this specific group of patients. The aim of the present study was to identify chromosomal aberrations that can predict relapse of tumor in patients with stage II colon cancer.

  9. Various functions of PBMC from colon cancer patients are not decreased compared to healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    -2 and its receptor proteins in T helper cells. The proliferative responses and IL-2 synthesis of PBMC have earlier been shown to be reduced in patients with colon cancer. Recently immune modulating agents have been demonstrated to increase the proliferative response of PBMC in vitro, probably...... by inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and induction of IL-2 mRNA expression. We have therefore studied the proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients to PWM and tested the effect of immune modulating agents, such as Serotonin, Sumatriptan, and Buspirone on these PBMC. We found...... no difference in levels of intracellular cAMP, IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2R mRNA expression, or proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients compared to healthy blood donors. There was no effect of the immune modulating agents on PBMC from colon cancer patients....

  10. Obesity in Teen Years Tied to Colon Cancer Risk in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167377.html Obesity in Teen Years Tied to Colon Cancer Risk ... 24, 2017 MONDAY, July 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity even in adolescence may raise the odds for ...

  11. Secreted Human Adipose Leptin Decreases Mitochondrial Respiration in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Nimri, Lili; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kirshtein, Boris; Rudich, Assaf; Schwartz, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis) were examined vis-à-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese) subjects decreased basal (40%, prespiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24073224

  12. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We investigated stage at diagnosis in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) among 15 274 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 1996-2004 nationwide in Denmark. The effect of SES on the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was analysed using logistic regression models....... A reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was seen in elderly rectal cancer patients with high income, living in owner-occupied housing and living with a partner. Among younger rectal cancer patients, a reduced risk was seen in those having long education. No social gradient was found...... among colon cancer patients. The social gradient found in rectal cancer patients was significantly different from the lack of association found among colon cancer patients. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis of a rectal, but not a colonic, cancer...

  13. Superficial‑type endobronchial metastases from colon cancer : A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kurishima, Koichi; SATOH, HIROAKI; KAGOHASHI, KATSUNORI; MIYAZAKI, KUNIHIKO; Tamura, Tomohiro; Shiozawa, Toshihiro; Ohara,Gen; KAWAGUCHI, MIO; TAKAYASHIKI, NORIO; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Certain internal malignancies, including colon cancer, can develop endobronchial metastasis. The present study reports a case of colon cancer with superficial-type endobronchial metastases in a 76-year-old male. Chest computed tomography revealed small masses and infiltrates in each lung, with bilateral hilar lymph node swelling. Superficial endobronchial tumors in each of the bronchi were unexpectedly found by bronchoscopic examination. A biopsy specimen obtained from the endobronchial tumor...

  14. SHMT1 1420 and MTHFR 677 variants are associated with rectal but not colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth Béla; Müller Judit; Schoket Bernadette; Rudnai Péter; Bíró Anna; Székely Éva; Réti Andrea; Adleff Vilmos; Pap Éva; Hitre Erika; Komlósi Viktor; Ottó Szabolcs; Kásler Miklós; Kralovánszky Judit; Budai Barna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Association between rectal or colon cancer risk and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) C1420T or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms was assessed. The serum total homocysteine (HCY), marker of folate metabolism was also investigated. Methods The SHMT1 and MTHFR genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively in 476 patients with rectal, 479 patients with colon cancer and in 461 and 478, respective controls matched fo...

  15. Prognostic importance of VEGF-A haplotype combinations in a stage II colon cancer population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, Sanne; Fredslund, Rikke; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic effect of three VEGF-A SNPs, -2578, -460 and 405, as well as the corresponding haplotype combinations, in a unique population of stage II colon cancer patients.......To investigate the prognostic effect of three VEGF-A SNPs, -2578, -460 and 405, as well as the corresponding haplotype combinations, in a unique population of stage II colon cancer patients....

  16. Up-regulation and clinical significance of serine protease kallikrein 6 in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Tae; Song, Eun Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kang, Min Ah; Kim, Jae Wha; Kim, Sang Jick; Yeom, Young Il; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Kyo Hyun; Lee, Hee Gu

    2011-06-15

    Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) encodes a trypsin-like serine protease that is up-regulated in several cancers, although the putative functions of KLK6 in cancer have not been elucidated. In the current study, overexpression of KLK6 was identified in colon cancer, and the possibility that KLK6 may be a suitable candidate as a tumor marker was examined. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels and protein up-regulation of KLK6 in colon cancer tissues was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathologic analyses. Cell proliferation, invasiveness, and antiapoptotic activity were determined in colon cancer cells that were transfected with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of KLK6. KLK6 mRNA was up-regulated significantly in tumor tissues compared with nontumor regions. KLK6 protein was strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas but was not expressed in normal mucosa or in premalignant dysplastic lesions. Sera from patients with colon cancer revealed an increase in KLK6 secretion (0.25 μg/mL; P = .031) compared with noncancer cells (0.19 μg/mL). Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of 143 patients with colon cancer revealed a significant correlation between KLK6 expression and Dukes disease stage (P = .005). High KLK6 expression was associated significantly with shorter overall (P = .001) and recurrence-free survival (P = .001). The rates of proliferation and invasiveness were decreased by 50% in cells that were transfected with KLK6 siRNA. The overexpression of KLK6 led to decreased activity of the E-cadherin promoter. KLK6 was up-regulated significantly in tissues and sera from patients with colon cancer and was associated closely with a poor prognosis, suggesting that KLK6 may be used as a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target for colon cancer. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  17. Efficacy of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading greater curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi

    2017-05-25

    For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.

  18. The Potential Use of N-Myristoyltransferase as a Biomarker in the Early Diagnosis of Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rajendra K.; Dimmock, Jonathan R.; Sujeet Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and a major cause of mortality in the Western world. Metastasis to lymph nodes and other gastrointestinal organs, especially to the liver and lungs, is most common and occurs in up to 25% of cancer patients when initially diagnosed. The majority of colon cancers develop from noncancerous adenomatous polyps on the lining of the colon which grow over the years to become cancerous. If detected early, the surgical resections of the growth,...

  19. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  20. Leuconostoc Spp. Bacteremia in a Patient with Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Avcikucuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leuconostoc species are opportunistic pathogens that rarely encountered as an infection agent. It has been reported that, this pathogen could cause infections especially in immunsupressive patients, after invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment. In this report, we aim to present a case with intrinsically vancomycin resistant Leuconostoc spp. that was isolated in blood culture. Fifty six years old male patient with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had been operated for sigmoid colon cancer one a half years ago. He was taken radiotherapy and chemotherapy right after the operation. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of stenosis in colostomy opening. Empiricial treatment was started for high fever. Gram positive coccus was reported in the blood culture(Bactec 9050, Becton-Dickinson, USA. The isolate was identified as Leuconostoc spp. with API 20 Strep (BioMerieux, French kit. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The isolate was found susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristine, while it was resistant to penicilin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin by the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden.

  1. CIP2A influences survival in colon cancer and is critical for maintaining Myc expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Wiegering

    Full Text Available The cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A is an oncogenic factor that stabilises the c-Myc protein. CIP2A is overexpressed in several tumours, and expression levels are an independent marker for long-term outcome. To determine whether CIP2A expression is elevated in colon cancer and whether it might serve as a prognostic marker for survival, we analysed CIP2A mRNA expression by real-time PCR in 104 colon cancer samples. CIP2A mRNA was overexpressed in colon cancer samples and CIP2A expression levels correlated significantly with tumour stage. We found that CIP2A serves as an independent prognostic marker for disease-free and overall survival. Further, we investigated CIP2A-dependent effects on levels of c-Myc, Akt and on cell proliferation in three colon cancer cell lines by silencing CIP2A using small interfering (si and short hairpin (sh RNAs. Depletion of CIP2A substantially inhibited growth of colon cell lines and reduced c-Myc levels without affecting expression or function of the upstream regulatory kinase, Akt. Expression of CIP2A was found to be dependent on MAPK activity, linking elevated c-Myc expression to deregulated signal transduction in colon cancer.

  2. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Irving

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer.

  3. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A.; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L.; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer. PMID:25288683

  4. Diagnosis of colon cancer differs in younger versus older patients despite similar complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ishay, Offir; Brauner, Eran; Peled, Zvi; Othman, Amira; Person, Benjamin; Kluger, Yoram

    2013-06-01

    Colon cancer is common, affecting mostly older people. Since age is a risk factor, young patients might not be given the same attention as older ones regarding symptoms that could imply the presence of colon cancer. To investigate whether young patients, i.e., under age 50, complain of symptoms for longer than older patients until the diagnosis of colon cancer is established. In this retrospective cohort study, patients were divided into two groups: or = 50 (group 2). All had undergone surgery for left or right-colon cancer during the 10 year period of the study from January 2000 through December 2009 at one medical center. Rectal and sigmoid cancers were excluded. Data collected included age, geander, quantity and quality of complaints, duration of complaints, in-hospital versus community diagnosis, pathological staging, the side of colon involved, and overall mortality. The primary outcome was the quality and duration of complaints. Secondary outcomes were the pathological stage at presentation and the mortality rate. The study group comprised 236 patients: 31 (13.1%) were or = 50. No significant difference was found in the quantity and quality of complaints between the two groups. Patients in group 1 (colon cancer later, at a more advanced stage. Alertness to patients' complaints, together with evaluation regardless of age but according to symptoms and clinical presentation are crucial. Large-scale population-based studies are needed to confirm this trend.

  5. Loco-regional recurrence from colon cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, Annika; Granath, Fredrik; Cedermark, Björn; Glimelius, Bengt; Holm, Torbjörn

    2007-02-01

    The survival after colon cancer surgery has not improved to the same extent as after rectal cancer treatment and studies on loco-regional recurrence after colon cancer surgery are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the problem of loco-regional recurrence after potentially curative resections for colon cancer, regarding incidence, risk factors, management, and outcome. All 1,856 patients submitted to potentially curative surgery for colon cancer in the Stockholm/Gotland region in Sweden between 1996 and 2000 were followed until January 2005 or until death. Follow-up data were prospectively collected. Risk factors for loco-regional recurrences were analyzed, treatment and outcome for patients with recurrence was studied. The cumulative 5-year incidence of loco-regional recurrence was 11.5%. Tumor locations in the right flexure and in the sigmoid colon, bowel perforation and emergent surgery were identified as independent risk factors for loco-regional recurrence. The risk also increased with increasing T- and N-stage. The median survival for all 192 patients with loco-regional recurrence was 9 months. Surgery was performed in 110 (57%) patients. In 23 (12%) patients a complete tumor clearance was achieved and the estimated 5-year survival in this group was 43%. Loco-regional recurrence from colon cancer is a significant clinical problem. A multidisciplinary treatment approach, including preoperative staging, a complete resection of the recurrence and more effective adjuvant treatments may improve the outcome.

  6. Elevated TATA-binding protein expression drives vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra A.S.; Lin, Justin J.; Walkey, Christopher J.; Leathers, Michael P.; Coarfa, Cristian; Johnson, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a central role in eukaryotic gene transcription. Given its key function in transcription initiation, TBP was initially thought to be an invariant protein. However, studies showed that TBP expression is upregulated by oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, depending on the cell type, small increases in cellular TBP amounts can induce changes in cellular growth properties towards a transformed phenotype. Here we sought to identify the specific TBP-regulated gene targets that drive its ability to induce tumorigenesis. Using microarray analysis, our results reveal that increases in cellular TBP concentrations produce selective alterations in gene expression that include an enrichment for genes involved in angiogenesis. Accordingly, we find that TBP levels modulate VEGFA expression, the master regulator of angiogenesis. Increases in cellular TBP amounts induce VEGFA expression and secretion to enhance cell migration and tumor vascularization. TBP mediates changes in VEGFA transcription requiring its recruitment at a hypoxia-insensitive proximal TSS, revealing a mechanism for VEGF regulation under non-stress conditions. The results are clinically relevant as TBP expression is significantly increased in both colon adenocarcinomas as well as adenomas relative to normal tissue. Furthermore, TBP expression is positively correlated with VEGFA expression. Collectively, these studies support the idea that increases in TBP expression contribute to enhanced VEGFA transcription early in colorectal cancer development to drive tumorigenesis. PMID:28415573

  7. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  8. Alternative splicing in colon, bladder, and prostate cancer identified by exon-array analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Kasper; Sørensen, Karina D.; Brems-Eskildsen, Anne Sofie

    2008-01-01

    from colon, urinary bladder, and prostate. We identified 2069 candidate alternative splicing events between normal tissue samples from colon, bladder, and prostate and selected 15 splicing events for RT-PCR validation, 10 of which were successfully validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Furthermore 23, 19......, and 18 candidate tumor-specific splicing alterations in colon, bladder, and prostate, respectively, were selected for RT-PCR validation on an independent set of 81 normal and tumor tissue samples. In total, seven genes with tumor-specific splice variants were identified (ACTN1, CALD1, COL6A3, LRRFIP2....... In conclusion, we identified and validated alternative splicing between normal tissue samples from colon, bladder, and prostate in addition to cancer-specific splicing events in colon, bladder, and prostate cancer that may have diagnostic and prognostic implications....

  9. Metastasis of colon cancer to medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, So-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Seung-Won; Kwak, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chul-Hee; Kang, Sung-Koo; Mok, Ji-Oh

    2014-10-01

    Metastasis to the primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report here a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 53-yr old man with a history of colon cancer. He showed a nodular lesion, suggesting malignancy in the thyroid gland, in a follow-up examination after colon cancer surgery. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland showed tumor cell clusters, which was suspected to be medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Using several specific immunohistochemical stains, the patient was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to MTC. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient is the first case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to MTC. Although tumor-tumor metastasis to primary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, we still should consider metastasis to the thyroid gland, when a patient with a history of other malignancy presents with a new thyroid finding.

  10. A cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus shows enhanced suppression of stem-cell like colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, So Young; Bang, Seo Young; Jeong, Su-Nam; Kang, Dae Hwan; Heo, Jeong

    2016-03-29

    Stem cell-like colon cancer cells (SCCs) pose a major challenge in colon cancer treatment because of their resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Oncolytic virus-based therapy has shown promising results in uncured cancer patients; however, its effects on SCCs are not well studied yet. Here, we engineered a cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV) as a potent biotherapeutic and investigated its therapeutic efficacy in terms of killing SCCs. CVV is an evolved Wyeth strain vaccinia virus (EVV) lacking the viral thymidine kinase. SCC models were established using human or mouse colon cancer spheres, which continuously expressed stemness markers. The cancer-favoring characteristics and different cytotoxic pathways for killing cancer cells successfully overrode general drug resistance, thereby killing colon cancer cells regardless of the presence of SCCs. Subcutaneously injected HT29 spheres showed lower growth in CVV-treated models than in 5-Fu-treated models. Intraperitoneally injected CT26 spheres induced tumor masses in the abdominal region. CVV-treated groups showed higher survival rates and smaller tumor mass formation, compared to 5-Fu-treated groups. Interestingly, the combined treatment of CVV with 5-Fu showed improved survival rates and complete suppression of tumor mass. The CVV developed in this study, thus, effectively suppresses SCCs, which can be synergistically enhanced by simultaneous treatment with the anticancer drug 5-Fu. Our novel CVV is highly advantageous as a next-generation therapeutic for treating colon cancer.

  11. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi, E-mail: hnakagam@ncc.go.jp [Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: kojokamo@ncc.go.jo [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  12. Down-regulation of GPR137 expression inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shen, Zhen; Liang, Xianjun; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Tiejun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) are highly related to oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. G protein-coupled receptor 137 (GPR137) was initially reported as a novel orphan GPR about 10 years ago. Some orphan GPRs have been implicated in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR137 in human colon cancer. Expression levels of GRP137 were analyzed in different colon cancer cell lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA was specifically designed to knock down GPR137 expression in colon cancer cells. Cell viability was measured by methylthiazoletetrazolium and colony formation assays. In addition, cell cycle characteristic was investigated by flow cytometry. GRP137 expression was observed in all seven colon cancer cell lines at different levels. The mRNA and protein levels of GPR137 were down-regulated in both HCT116 and RKO cells after lentivirus infection. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of GPR137 reduced the proliferation rate and colonies numbers. Knockdown of GPR137 in both cell lines led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. These results indicated that GPR137 plays an important role in colon cancer cell proliferation. A better understanding of GPR137's effects on signal transduction pathways in colon cancer cells may provide insights into the novel gene therapy of colon cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. [Fever as the presenting manifestation of colon cancer: a case series of 11 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoules, S; Carmoi, T; Klotz, C; Rapp, C; Perrot, G; Galeano, C; Algayres, J-P

    2013-03-01

    Fever happens frequently in colon cancer but it is rarely the presenting manifestation. We report a case series of patients with colon cancer revealed by fever in the three military hospitals in Paris. Of the 11 patients studied, seven were men and four were women, and their mean age was 70 years. Cancer was localized in the sigmoid colon (n=6), left colon (n=3) and right colon (n=2). Cancer staging (UICC TNM classification 2002) was respectively pTis (n=1), I (n=4), II (n=3) and III (n=3). Fever was the only reason for admission and two patients had a recurrent fever of unknown origin. All patients but one had bacterial infection. Blood cultures grew up in six cases, Escherichia coli (n=3), Streptococcus gallolyticus (ex bovis) (n=2) and anaerobic bacteria (n=1). There was one case of infective endocarditis caused by S. gallolyticus. Imaging showed a liver abscess (n=3) and a colon cancer complicated by an abscess (n=3). In seven patients, a familial history of colon cancer and symptoms of underlying colic disease were present (neglected rectal bleeding, iron deficiency anaemia, clinical evidence of an abdominal mass). Fever may reveal colon cancer at an early stage. Its main cause is a bacterial infection, such as bacteremia or abscess. Fever of unknown origin is a rare presentation. Detailed history, careful clinical examination and analysis of imaging contribute to recommend the prescription of colonoscopy. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Dietary factors and cancer of the colon and rectum in a population based case-control study in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Gao, Y; Ji, B

    1994-10-01

    The study was a population-based case control one, to compare possible difference in the risk factors between colonic and rectal cancer. This study showed that: (1) High intake of pork and saturated fat was an important risk factor for colon cancer, and only slightly related to rectal cancer. (2) Low consumption of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables, rhizome vegetables, sea weeds, legume vegetables, dietary fiber and some vitamins mainly derived from vegetables, e.g. vitamin c and carotene, was associated with an increased risk for both colonic and rectal cancer, and these factors were closer relationship with rectal cancer than colon cancer. (3) High intake of the fried and pickled foods significantly increase the risk of occurrence of these cancers. (4) The ratio of bowel cancer in first degree relatives of colon cancer cases was 2.9 times of control group (P 0.05) compared with control group.

  15. The incidence of colon cancer among patients diagnosed with left colonic or sigmoid acute diverticulitis is higher than in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jeremy; Thomopoulos, Theodoros; Usel, Massimo; Gjika, Ergys; Bouchardy, Christine; Morel, Philippe; Ris, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Considering the low incidence of colon cancer after an initial episode of colonic diverticulitis in some categories of patients, some authors suggested to exempt them from colonoscopy. However, this incidence has never been compared to that of a reference population, and predictors of cancer are still poorly investigated. We aimed to determine the 1-year incidence of colon cancer at the site of diverticulitis in patients diagnosed with left colonic or sigmoid acute diverticulitis, to compare this incidence to a reference population to state whether endoscopy is required or not, and to identify predicting factors of cancer to better target subpopulations needing that examination. All patients admitted at the University Hospitals of Geneva for left colonic or sigmoid acute diverticulitis were included. Patients with a previous history of colon cancer or non-available for follow-up were excluded. Demographic data, haemoglobin values, and the Hinchey score were documented. This cohort was matched with the Geneva Cancer Registry to look for cancer occurrence at the site of diverticulitis within 1 year. Predictors of cancer were assessed using univariate logistic regression and the risk of cancer by comparing observed cases to a reference population using standardized incidence ratios. The final cohort included 506 patients. Eleven (2.2 %) had a diagnosis of cancer at the site of diverticulitis within 1 year. The mean age was significantly different between patients with cancer and others. No predictor of cancer could be identified, except a trend for an increased risk with advancing age (p = 0.067). The standardized incidence ratios showed a 44-fold increased risk of cancer among the cohort compared to the reference population. Colonoscopy should be continued after an initial diagnosis of left colonic or sigmoid acute diverticulitis, irrespective of the clinical or radiological presentations.

  16. Clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with colon surveillance among patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulyak, Stephen J; Mandelson, Margaret T; Brentnall, Teresa A; Rutter, Carolyn M; Wagner, Edward H

    2004-02-01

    Substantial variability in the use of colon surveillance among colorectal cancer survivors has been reported. This study sought to examine trends in the use of colon surveillance among patients who have had colorectal cancer and to investigate factors associated with utilization. Health maintenance organization enrollees with a diagnosis of local or regional colon or rectal cancer between January 1993 and December 1999 were studied. Receipt of a colon examination by colonoscopy or by flexible sigmoidoscopy, together with barium contrast radiography of the colon was determined from automated clinical records, and rates of colon surveillance were estimated by using survival analysis. A total of 1002 patients with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer met inclusion criteria for the study. Colon examinations were performed in 61% of patients within 18 months of diagnosis and in 80% of patients within 5 years of diagnosis. The median time from diagnosis to first colon surveillance examination (14 months) was unchanged over the study period, but the interval between first and second surveillance examinations increased by 17 months (pcancer (relative risk=0.80; 95% CI[0.66, 0.97]) were less likely to undergo surveillance. Higher socioeconomic status (relative risk=1.29; 95% CI[1.03, 1.61]) and being married (relative risk=1.27; 95% CI[1.05, 1.53]) were associated with greater utilization. There was lower utilization among African American patients (relative risk=0.70; p=0.14) and increased utilization among other minorities (relative risk=1.47; p=0.06). There is substantial variability in the use of colon examination for surveillance in patients with a history of colorectal cancer, and clinical and sociodemographic factors appear to influence the likelihood of surveillance.

  17. Forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkam, Pradermchai; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Aniwan, Satimai; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Khemnark, Suparat; Sahakitrungruang, Chucheep; Pattanaarun, Jirawat; Khomvilai, Supakij; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Bhutani, Manoop S; Kullavanijaya, Pinit; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-03-14

    To evaluate feasibility of the novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope for staging of colon cancer beyond rectum as the first series. A retrospective study with prospectively entered database. From March 2012 to February 2013, a total of 21 patients (11 men) (mean age 64.2 years) with colon cancer beyond the rectum were recruited. The novel forward-viewing radial-array echoendoscope was used for ultrasonographic staging of colon cancer beyond rectum. Ultrasonographic T and N staging were recorded when surgical pathology was used as a gold standard. The mean time to reach the lesion and the mean time to complete the procedure were 3.5 and 7.1 min, respectively. The echoendoscope passed through the lesions in 13 patients (61.9%) and reached the cecum in 10 of 13 patients (76.9%). No adverse events were found. The lesions were located in the cecum (n = 2), ascending colon (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 2), descending colon (n = 2), and sigmoid colon (n = 14). The accuracy rate for T1 (n = 3), T2 (n = 4), T3 (n = 13) and T4 (n = 1) were 100%, 60.0%, 84.6% and 100%, respectively. The overall accuracy rates for the T and N staging of colon cancer were 81.0% and 52.4%, respectively. The accuracy rates among traversable lesions (n = 13) and obstructive lesions (n = 8) were 61.5% and 100%, respectively. Endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography had overall accuracy rates of 81.0% and 68.4%, respectively. The echoendoscope is a feasible staging tool for colon cancer beyond rectum. However, accuracy of the echoendoscope needs to be verified by larger systematic studies.

  18. The relationship of colorectal cancer with familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps in Khorramabad(2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh Ghanadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps with colorectal cancer incidence in khorramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients with definite diagnosis of colon cancer based on colonoscopy and pathology in 2012. The control group included 56 persons from outpatients without a history of gastrointestinal diseases admitted to the skin and eye clinics of shohada ashayer hospital, who were matched with the patients for age and gender. The two groups were studied in terms of familial history of gastrointestinal diseases in immediate relatives and personal history of colorectal polyps using a self-constructed questionnaire. Fisher exact test and odds ratio estimate was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 52.8±15.5 years old, and 56% were male. A significant relationship was found between familial history of gastric and colon cancers in immediate relatives and colorectal cancer incidence in the patients (p<0.05. The odds ratio estimate of colorectal cancer incidence in the individuals with a positive history of gastric cancer and colon cancers in immediate relatives were respectively 3.96(CI=1.44-6.61 and 6.75 (CI=2.4-11.1 times of the estimate in the control individuals. No significant relationship was found between a history of esophageal cancers in immediate relatives with colon cancer incidence in the patients (p=0.61. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between a history of colon polyps and colorectal cancer incidence (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results of the present study should be confirmed in the further studies with larger sample sizes, so that serious measures to control the cancer can be taken through developing comprehensive prevention programs based on screening.

  19. Relapsed Colon Cancer Patient Presenting With Hematuria 13 Years After Primary Tumor Resection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ho Huang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of postoperative colon cancer recurrence who presented with hematuria 13 years after resection of the primary colonic cancer. The patient was 72 years of age and underwent surgical resection of sigmoid colon cancer at another regional hospital in 1994. Since June 2007, this patient has complained of hematuria and bloody stool. On physical examination, tenderness and a hard, indurated mass was palpable in the lower mid-abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography showed a metastatic tumor at the lower midline peritoneum with invasion of the adjacent abdominal wall. Her serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated to 32 ng/dL. Histopathology revealed metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma in the jejunum and abdominal wall.

  20. Chemokine (C-C Motif Receptor 2 Mediates Dendritic Cell Recruitment to the Human Colon but Is Not Responsible for Differences Observed in Dendritic Cell Subsets, Phenotype, and Function Between the Proximal and Distal ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Most knowledge about gastrointestinal (GI-tract dendritic cells (DC relies on murine studies where CD103+ DC specialize in generating immune tolerance with the functionality of CD11b+/− subsets being unclear. Information about human GI-DC is scarce, especially regarding regional specifications. Here, we characterized human DC properties throughout the human colon. Methods: Paired proximal (right/ascending and distal (left/descending human colonic biopsies from 95 healthy subjects were taken; DC were assessed by flow cytometry and microbiota composition assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Colonic DC identified were myeloid (mDC, CD11c+CD123− and further divided based on CD103 and SIRPα (human analog of murine CD11b expression. CD103-SIRPα+ DC were the major population and with CD103+SIRPα+ DC were CD1c+ILT3+CCR2+ (although CCR2 was not expressed on all CD103+SIRPα+ DC. CD103+SIRPα- DC constituted a minor subset that were CD141+ILT3−CCR2−. Proximal colon samples had higher total DC counts and fewer CD103+SIRPα+ cells. Proximal colon DC were more mature than distal DC with higher stimulatory capacity for CD4+CD45RA+ T-cells. However, DC and DC-invoked T-cell expression of mucosal homing markers (β7, CCR9 was lower for proximal DC. CCR2 was expressed on circulating CD1c+, but not CD141+ mDC, and mediated DC recruitment by colonic culture supernatants in transwell assays. Proximal colon DC produced higher levels of cytokines. Mucosal microbiota profiling showed a lower microbiota load in the proximal colon, but with no differences in microbiota composition between compartments. Conclusions: Proximal colonic DC subsets differ from those in distal colon and are more mature. Targeted immunotherapy using DC in T-cell mediated GI tract inflammation may therefore need to reflect this immune compartmentalization. Keywords: CCR2, Dendritic Cells, Distal Colon, Human Gastrointestinal Tract

  1. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S; Rex, Douglas K; Goldberg, Michael J; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost-effective prescreening strategy for colon cancer is critical because of the impossibility of conducting colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (L(d)) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with nondiminutive/nonadvanced adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 patients with cancer. We found that the L(d) obtained from rectal colonocytes was well correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured L(d) is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential prescreening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy. ©2012 AACR

  2. [Case of Colon Metastasis from Early Gastric Cancer 4 Years after Laparoscopic Assisted Distal Gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Maezawa, Yukio; Kano, Kazuki; Satoyoshi, Tetsuta; Segami, Kenki; Nakajima, Tetsushi; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2016-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer(pathological T1bN1M0)in June 2011was admitted to the hospital because of abdominal pain in May 2015.A n abdominal CT scan showed ileus caused by a transverse colon tumor and ascending colon perforation.We performed emergency right hemicolectomy and diverting ileostomy.The postoperative pathological findings revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signetring cell carcinoma similar to the gastric cancer resected 4 years ago.Immunohistochemical findings showed that the colon tumor was positive for CK7, but negative for CK20 and expressed a gastric mucin phenotype.From these findings, the colon tumor was diagnosed as a metastasis from early gastric cancer.Colon metastasis from early gastric cancer is rare and the diagnosis is difficult in some cases.We herein report this case and discuss the clinical and pathologic features of colon metastasis from gastric cancer.

  3. Physical Activity and Risk of Colon Cancer in Diabetic and Nondiabetic US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Behrens, Gundula; Matthews, Charles E; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer in diabetic patients. We evaluated the association between physical activity and colon cancer in 25,753 patients with a self-reported history of diabetes and in 274,965 nondiabetic individuals from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were aged 50 to 71 years in 1995-1996. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed at baseline using a self-administered questionnaire. Follow-up for colon cancer incidence extended to December 31, 2011. During 13.0 years of follow-up, 480 diabetic patients and 4151 nondiabetic individuals had development of colon cancer. Among diabetic patients, compared with never/rarely engaging in physical activity, more than 7 h/wk of physical activity exhibited a reduced risk of colon cancer in the age- and sex-adjusted model (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.996; P=.16 for trend). This association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after additional control for other covariates (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.58-1.05; P=.29 for trend). By comparison, physical activity was inversely related to colon cancer risk in nondiabetic individuals (multivariate-adjusted HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.89; Pcolon cancer in diabetic patients, we found a statistically significant inverse relationship in the age- and sex-adjusted model, which was no longer statistically significant in the multivariate-adjusted model. A reduced risk was noted among nondiabetic individuals, irrespective of other covariates. Future studies with a larger number of participants are required to explore whether physical activity beneficially affects colon cancer risk among diabetic patients. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

  4. A rare case of ascending colon actinomycosis mimicking cancer

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    Zizi Diamanto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinomycosis is a rare inflammatory disease caused by an anaerobic bacterium that can rarely affect the large intestine. Case presentation We present a rare case of a cecum and ascending colon actinomycosis in a 72 years old woman, mimicking clinically a malignant inflammatory tumor of the right colon. The patient complained of right lower quadrant pain. Although our first thought was a peri-appendiceal abscess, CT scan suggested a right colon tumor. The patient underwent a right colectomy and the histological examination of the specimen revealed colon actinomycosis. Conclusions Preoperative diagnosis in colon actinomycosis is difficult to achieve. Treatment of choice is antibiotics administration. A review of the possible pathogenesis and therapeutic modalities is also presented.

  5. Case Report of Menopausal Woman Diagnosed with Endometrial Cancer after Colon Cancer with Germline Mutation in MSH6 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Choi, Min Chul; Jung, Sang Geun; Joo, Won Duk; Kim, Tae Hoen; Lee, Chan; Jang, Ja-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    We present a case of an endometrial cancer patient with germline mutation in MutS homolog 6 (MSH6), associated with Lynch syndrome. A 60-year-old Korean woman had a personal history of colon cancer 23 years ago. She also had a family history of endometrial cancer and colon cancer of her sisters and brothers. Immunohistochemistry was negative for MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and positive for MutS homolog 2 (MSH2). Based on these findings, she underwent genetic counseling and testing that revealed a frameshift germline mutation at MSH6 (c. 3261dupC).

  6. Sweets for a bitter end: lung cancer cell-surface protein glycosylation mediates metastatic colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Nguyen, Don X

    2015-02-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most predominant forms of cell-surface protein modifications, yet its deregulation in cancer and contribution to tumor microenvironment interactions remain poorly understood. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Reticker-Flynn and Bhatia characterize an enzymatic switch in lung cancer cells that triggers aberrant surface protein glycosylation patterns, adhesion to lectins on the surface of inflammatory cells, and subsequent metastatic colonization of the liver. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

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    Lagerstedt Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4 showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3 were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue.

  8. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. © 2015 UICC.

  9. Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use Among Veterans With Colon Cancer: Insights From a California Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Denise M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Perrin, Ruth; Zhang, Qiuying; Weichle, Thomas; Ferreira, M. Rosario; Lee, Todd; Benson, Al B.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ≥ 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed for 6 months after diagnosis. Results Among 601 veterans with colon cancer, 72% were initially diagnosed and treated in non-VA facilities. Among veterans with stage I to III cancer, those diagnosed and initially treated in VA facilities experienced similar colectomy rates as those at non-VA facilities. Stage III patients diagnosed and initially treated in VA versus non-VA facilities had similar odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In both settings, older patients had lower odds of receiving chemotherapy than their younger counterparts even when race and comorbidity were considered (age 76 to 85 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.46; age ≥ 86 years: OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73). Conclusion In California, older veterans with colon cancer used both VA and non-VA facilities for cancer treatment, and odds of receiving cancer-directed surgery and chemotherapy were similar in both systems. Among stage III patients, older age lowered odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both systems. Further studies should continue to explore potential health system effects on quality of colon cancer care across the United States. PMID:20406940

  10. Prolonged Sulforaphane Treatment Activates Extracellular-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling in Nontumorigenic Colon Cells but not Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  11. Predicting breast and colon cancer screening among English-as-a-second-language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Laura; Harvey, Erin; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the cancer screening behaviors of older ESL Chinese immigrant women. To explore predictors of colon and breast cancer screening in this population, 103 Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking immigrant women ages 50 years and older were recruited. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate screening behaviors, health literacy, and demographic characteristics. Eighty-five percent self-reported that they were current breast cancer screeners, and 75% were current colon cancer screeners. Recommendation from a physician, having a female physician, and high or moderate proficiency in English predicted current mammography screening. Physician recommendation, first language, and self-efficacy predicted use of colon cancer screening. Bivariate analyses also revealed an association between use of colon cancer screening and greater health literacy and longer residency in Canada. Important predictors of screening emerged that potentially informs interventions to increase cancer prevention among older Chinese immigrants. The essential role of physician recommendation was identified for both breast and colon cancer screening.

  12. Possible better long-term survival in left versus right-sided colon cancer - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Jess, Per

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer in Denmark and the western world. Recent studies indicate that there are differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer with regard to epidemiology, clinical manifestation, pathology and prognosis. The present systematic literature...

  13. Dietary folate intake and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    We studied the association between dietary folate and specific K-ras mutations in colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 448 colon and 160 rectal cancer patients and 3,048 sub-cohort members (55-69 years at baseline) were available

  14. Resveratrol Treatment Inhibits Proliferation of and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Miao; Zhong, Lu-Xing; Zhan, Zheng-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hao; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2016-04-04

    Resveratrol, a natural isolate from plant sources, has a long and important history in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study we investigated the effect of resveratrol on human colon cancer cell lines. We used the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for determination of colon cancer cell viability. Apoptosis induction was analyzed using the DeadEnd™ Colorimetric TUNEL System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The siRNA Transfection Reagent kit (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.) was used for the administration of COX-2 silencer RNA (siRNA) into the colon cancer cells. Primer Express® software for Real-Time PCR ver. 3.0 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) was used to prepare the primers for RT-PCR. The results revealed that exposure of colon cancer cells to resveratrol inhibited cell viability. Resveratrol exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on cell viability at 30 μM concentration after 48 h of exposure. We observed that 30-μM doses of resveratrol for 72 h led to 18, 29, and 34% reduction in the viability of HCA-17, SW480, and HT29 cells, respectively. It also significantly induced apoptosis in both of the tested carcinoma cell lines. The population of apoptotic cells in HCA-17 and SW480 cell lines after 48 h of resveratrol treatment was 59.8±4 and 67.2±4%, respectively, compared to 2.3±1% in the control cells. The colon cancer cells exposed to resveratrol showed significantly lower cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin receptor expression. Treatment of colon cancer cells with the inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, indomethacin, and administration of silencer RNA for cyclooxygenase-2 also produced similar results. These findings suggest that resveratrol treatment can be a promising strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

  15. Combination therapy targeting Raf-1 and MEK causes apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Romesh R; Yamakawa, Akio

    2012-11-01

    Members of the Ras protooncogene family are mutated in approximately 75% of colon cancers. The Raf kinases (Raf-1, b-Raf and a-Raf) directly interact with Ras and serve as mediators of mitogenic signals. Expression of the constitutively active alleles of Raf or Ras gene families results in oncogenesis in a number of model systems. Previous studies emphasized the importance of Raf-1 and b-Raf in preventing apoptosis in addition to their roles in cell growth. In the present study, we examined whether inhibition of the Raf-1 or b-Raf kinase decreases cell growth and increases apoptosis in colon cancer cells. c-Raf and b-Raf were depleted in colon cancer cell lines, such as HCT116, HT29 and Colo205, containing Ras or b-Raf mutations by RNA interference (RNAi). The results showed that colon cancer cells with activating Ras mutations undergo apoptosis following Raf-1 inhibition, as determined by cell cycle analysis and the release of cytochrome c. Moreover, in b-Raf mutant colon cancers, the inhibition of b-Raf as compared to Raf-1 is crucial for cancer cell death. There is increasing evidence for both MEK-independent Raf signaling and Raf-independent MEK signaling. Thus, we investigated whether targeting multiple points of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway with a MEK inhibitor and Raf RNAi increases cancer cell death. The results showed that combination therapy, inhibiting Raf and MEK kinases simultaneously, increased apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that combination therapy targeting the MAPK pathway at two distinct points, Raf kinase and MEK, has greater efficacy in increasing cancer cell death and is likely to improve therapeutic outcomes for patients.

  16. Nuclear localization of MUC1 extracellular domain in breast, head and neck, and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabassa, Martin E; Larrain, Marina T Isla; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Cermignani, Luciano; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Demichelis, Sandra O; Abba, Martin C; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, Maria Virginia

    2015-07-22

    The glycoprotein MUC1 is overexpressed and underglycosylated in cancer cells. MUC1 is translated as a single polypeptide that undergoes autocleavage into 2 subunits (the extracellular domain and the cytoplasmic tail), and forms a stable heterodimer at the apical membrane of normal epithelial cells. The MUC1 cytoplasmic tail localizes to the cytoplasm of transformed cells and is targeted to the nucleus. To study the expression of the MUC1 extracellular subunit in cell nuclei of neoplastic breast, head and neck, and colon samples. 330 primary tumor samples were analyzed: 166 invasive breast carcinomas, 127 head and neck tumors, and 47 colon tumors; 10 benign breast disease (BBD) and 40 normal specimens were also included. A standard immunohistochemical method with antigen retrieval was performed. Nuclear fractions from tissue homogenates and breast cancer cell lines (ZR-75, MDA-MB-231, MCF7, and T47D) were obtained and analyzed by Western blotting (WB). The anti-MUC1 extracellular subunit monoclonal antibody HMFG1 was used for immunohistochemistry. 37/166 breast cancer specimens, 5/127 head and neck cancer specimens, 2/47 colon cancer samples, and 3/10 BBD samples showed immunohistochemical staining at the nuclear level. No nuclear reaction was detected in normal samples. By WB, breast and colon cancer purified nuclear fractions showed reactivity at 200 kDa in 3/30 breast and 3/20 colon cancer samples as well as purified nuclear fractions obtained from breast cancer cell lines. This study shows that the MUC1 extracellular domain might be translocated to the cell nucleus in breast, head and neck, and colon cancer as well as BBD.

  17. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  18. Cáncer de colon recurrente: diagnóstico y tratamiento Recurrent colon cancer: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswell Enrique GonzálezRodiles Heredia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El cáncer recurrente es aquel que reaparece luego de un período de tiempo durante el cual no podía ser detectado. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los elementos diagnósticos más relevantes del cáncer de colon recurrente, así como las opciones más adecuadas de tratamiento. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo sobre el diagnóstico y los resultados del tratamiento de la recurrencia tumoral en 68 pacientes operados por cáncer de colon en un período de 16 años. RESULTADOS. Predominaron los pacientes mayores de 60 años, del sexo femenino; entre las localizaciones, el tumor primario en el colon sigmoides y ascendente, con estadificación en etapa II después de la operación inicial. Las recurrencias más frecuentes fueron la locorregional y la hepática, y su forma de presentación predominante, el tumor palpable. El método clínico y la ecografía abdominal fueron determinantes para el diagnóstico. El tratamiento quirúrgico con quimioterapia adyuvante fue el más efectivo en general, y en particular en la localización locorregional. La supervivencia alcanzó 2 años en el 30,9 % de los pacientes, con predominio de los que habían recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. A los 5 años había fallecido el 85,3 % de la serie. CONCLUSIONES. El diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento adecuado de la recurrencia tumoral requieren la actuación de un equipo médico multidisciplinario pues es la causa de muerte preponderante en los operados de cáncer de colon con intención curativa. Los 2 primeros años de seguimiento posoperatorio constituyen el período de mayor riesgo de recurrencias.INTRODUCTION. Recurrent cancer is that that reappears after a period of time during which it could not be detected. The objective of this study was to identify the most important diagnostic elements of recurrent colon cancer, as well as the most adequate treatment options. METHODS. An

  19. Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. McNabney

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance.

  20. Characteristics of Differently Located Colorectal Cancers Support Proximal and Distal Classification: A Population-Based Study of 57,847 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Yang

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that colorectal cancer be regarded as several subgroups defined according to tumor location rather than as a single entity. The current study aimed to identify the most useful method for grouping colorectal cancer by tumor location according to both baseline and survival characteristics.Cases of pathologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 to 2012 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and categorized into three groups: right colon cancer (RCC, left colon cancer (LCC, and rectal cancer (ReC. Adjusted hazard ratios for known predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS in colorectal cancer were obtained using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.The study included 57847 patients: 43.5% with RCC, 37.7% with LCC, and 18.8% with ReC. Compared with LCC and ReC, RCC was more likely to affect old patients and women, and to be at advanced stage, poorly differentiated or un-differentiated, and mucinous. Patients with LCC or ReC had better DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including stage III or IV disease, age ≤70 years and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. Conversely, patients with LCC or ReC had worse DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including age ˃70 years and mucinous adenocarcinoma.RCC differed from both LCC and ReC in several clinicopathologic characteristics and in DSS. It seems reasonable to group colorectal cancer into right-sided (i.e., proximal and left-sided (i.e., distal ones.

  1. Isolated varices over hepatic flexure colon indicating superior mesenteric venous thrombosis caused by uncinate pancreatic head cancer - a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yu-Pin; Lin, Chun-Jung; Su, Ming-Yao; Tseng, Jeng-Hwei; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Chen, Pang-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Very rare cases of varices involving right side colon were reported. Most of them were due to cirrhotic portal hypertension or other primary causes. No report case contributed to pancreatic cancer. Here, we reported a case of uncinate pancreatic cancer with the initial finding of isolated hepatic flexure colon varices. Following studies confirmed isolated varices involving hepatic flexure colon due to pancreatic cancer with occlusion of superior mesenteric vein. From this report, superior mes...

  2. In vitro and In vivo Studies on Stilbene Analogs as Potential Treatment Agents for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based upon the potential of resveratrol as a cancer chemopreventive agent, 27 stilbenes analogs were synthesized and tested against colon cancer cell line HT-29. Among these compounds, amino derivative (Z)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) aniline (4), (Z)-methyl 4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) benzoate (6) and (Z)-1...

  3. Colon cancer presenting as a hepatic mass in pregnancy: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A colonoscopic biopsy subsequently confirmed cancer of the colon. At laparotomy the cancer was found to be inoperable, and a defunctioning illeo- stomy was done and palliative chemotherapy planned. Discussion. Establishing a diagnosis of CRC presenting as a liver mass in pregnancy requires a high index of suspicion ...

  4. Pooled analyses of 13 prospective cohort studies on folate intake and colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-H.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S.-S.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Jacobs, E.J.; Leitzmann, M.; Mannisto, S.; Miller, A.B.; Potter, J.D.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Speizer, F.E.; Stevens, V.L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Terry, P.; Toniolo, P.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies of folate intake and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. We examined the relation with colon cancer risk in a series of 13 prospective studies. Methods: Study-and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) were estimated from the primary data using Cox proportional hazards

  5. Profiling the humoral immune response in colon cancer patients: diagnostic antigens from Streptococcus bovis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, H.; Scholler-Guinard, M.; Lasonder, E.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Willems, H.L.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The human bowel contains a large and dynamic bacterial population that is not only essential for intestinal health, but also critical for the development of diseases such as cancer. In this respect, the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus bovis has been associated with colon cancer for many years.

  6. Rhein induces apoptosis of HCT-116 human colon cancer cells via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhein, a major compound in rhubarb, has been found to have anti-tumor properties in many human cancer cells. However, the details about rhein suppressing the growth of human colon cancer cells remained elusive. In this paper, we explored the potential of rhein as a chemotherapeutic agent on HCT- 116 cells and ...

  7. microRNA-143 down-regulates Hexokinase 2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea Haarup; Jacobsen, Anders; Frankel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    and validated HK2 as a miR-143 target. Furthermore, our results indicate that miR-143 mediated down-regulation of HK2 affects glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells. We hypothesize that loss of miR-143-mediated repression of HK2 can promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells, contributing to the shift towards...

  8. Colon cancer and the consumption of red and processed meat: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colon cancer and the consumption of red and processed meat: an association that is medium, rare or well done? ... South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... The 2010 indicators of lifetime risk for developing colorectal cancer among South African (SA) males and females was 1:114 and 1:182 respectively, while its ...

  9. Various functions of PBMC from colon cancer patients are not decreased compared to healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The immune surveillance hypothesis suggests impaired immune responses to participate in development of cancer. This may partly be due to increased amounts of PGE2 and histamine, which inhibit cellular immunity. These effects are mediated by cAMP, which is increased and thereby may down-regulate I...... no difference in levels of intracellular cAMP, IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2R mRNA expression, or proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients compared to healthy blood donors. There was no effect of the immune modulating agents on PBMC from colon cancer patients....

  10. Diet and oxidative stress in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, E; Bartsch, H; Béréziat, J C; Camus, A M; McClinton, S; Eremin, O; Davidson, L; Boyle, P

    1994-08-01

    To study the changes in pro-oxidant-antioxidant status in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients as compared to respective controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. The pro-oxidant status was measured by analysing alkanes (ethane and pentane) in exhaled air and lipid peroxidation (as malonaldehyde) in blood samples. The antioxidant capacity was measured by studying blood glutathione concentration, vitamin concentrations and serum antioxidant capacity in liposomes in vitro. Aberdeen hospitals. Breast, prostate and colon cancer cases, and age- and sex-matched control patients (hospitalized for a benign disease). Breast cancer patients were females, prostate cancer patients were males and colon cancer patients were both males and females. Controls were age-matched to within 5 years, sex-matched and matched for smoking habits. The dietary study suggested a higher monoene and polyene fat intake in prostate cancer than in controls while in other cancer patients no significant differences were found. Breast and colon cancer patients tended to have lower vitamin intakes than controls. Pentane concentration in exhaled air increased in breast cancer patients as compared to respective controls. In serum total antioxidant capacity no significant differences were found. Both breast and colon cancer patients showed decreased C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acid concentrations in red blood cells while C22:6 concentration was elevated in breast cancer patients. Oxidative stress may be associated with malignant diseases, suggesting the importance of simultaneous analysis of pro- and antioxidation in the search of mechanistic parameters leading to the tumour formation.

  11. Subtotal Colectomy for Colon Cancer Reduces the Need for Subsequent Surgery in Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Seppälä, Toni T; Järvinen, Heikki J; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2017-08-01

    The risk of metachronous colorectal cancer is high after surgical resection for first colon cancer in Lynch syndrome. This study aimed to examine whether extended surgery decreases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer and improves long-term survival. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from a nationwide registry. Two hundred forty-two Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers who underwent surgery for a first colon cancer from 1984 to 2009 were included. Patients underwent standard segmental colectomy (n = 144) or extended colectomy (n = 98) for colon cancer. Patients were followed a median of 14.6 up to 25 years. Risk of subsequent colorectal cancer in either group, overall and disease-specific survival, and operative mortality were the primary outcomes measured. Subtotal colectomy decreased the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.52; p = 0.001), compared with segmental resection. Subsequent colorectal cancer decreased in MLH1 carriers. The MSH2 carriers showed no statistical difference, possibly because of their small number. Disease-specific and overall survival within 25 years did not differ between the standard and extended surgeries (82.7% vs 87.2%, p = 0.76 and 47.2% vs 41.4%, p = 0.83). The cumulative risk of subsequent colorectal cancer was 20% in 10 years and 47% within 25 years after standard resection and 4% and 9% after extended surgery. The cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal cancer was 7% within 25 years after subtotal colectomy with ileosigmoidal anastomosis. One patient died of postoperative septicemia within 30 days after segmental colectomy. Data on surgical procedures were primarily collected retrospectively. Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers may undergo subtotal colectomy to manage first colon cancer and avoid repetitive abdominal surgery and to reduce the remaining bowel to facilitate easier endoscopic surveillance. It provides no survival benefit, compared with segmental colon

  12. Bifidobacterium longum D2 enhances microbial degradation of long-chain arabinoxylans in an in vitro model of the proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, P; Van den Abbeele, P; Rivière, A; Possemiers, S; De Vuyst, L; Van de Wiele, T

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain arabinoxylans (LC-AX) are degraded in the colon by intestinal bacteria possessing AX-degrading enzymes, such as bifidobacteria. Enzymatic activity of intestinal bacterial might vary depending on the composition of the gut microbiota. To compare the enzymatic activities of the bacterial gut communities of two healthy individuals (donors D1 and D2), these bacterial communities were inoculated into in vitro model M-SHIME(®). Differences in xylanase activities and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles, in particular a DNA-band corresponding with Bifidobacterium longum, were found in the proximal colon vessel. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis demonstrated the presence of two different B. longum species in these bacterial communities, showing 99% gene sequence similarity with B. longum NCC2705 and B. longum. subsp. longum KACC 91563, respectively, further referred to as B. longum D1 and B. longum D2. When grown on LC-AX as the sole added energy source, B. longum D2 displayed significantly higher activities of β-xylanase (5.3-fold), β-xylosidase (2.9-fold), and α-arabinofuranosidase (1.5-fold), respectively, compared to B. longum D1. When B. longum D2 was inoculated in the M-SHIME, inoculated with the bacterial gut communities of the individual with low AX-degrading enzyme activities, the β-xylanase activity increased (1.5-fold) in the proximal vessel. We demonstrated the presence of differences in LC-AX degrading enzyme activities of the bacterial gut communities of two individuals in the in vitro M-SHIME model, which could be linked to the presence of a potent AX-degrading B. longum (D2) strain.

  13. [Effect of Weichang'an pill on intestinal digestion enzymes and the AQP4 concentration in proximal colon in IBS-D rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Zhang, Tongmao; Tang, Fang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of Weichang'an pill on the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) in model rats. Animal model of compound diarrhea was induced by a lactose enriched diet in the Wistar rat, combining with restraint stress. Twenty four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group and 60 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) Weichang'an pill group. The rate of weight increase, the incubation period of diarrhea and the diarrhea index were observed. Then 45 female Wistar rats randomly divided into five groups: control group, model group and Weichang'an pill groups of high, medium and low doses (80, 60, 40 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The indexes of thymus and spleen were calculated. The activities of LDH, MDH and disaccharidase in intestinal organization were inspected. Serum D-xylose content and the AQP4 concentration in proximal colon were detected. After taking Weichang'an pill for 4 days, the rate of weight increase in Weichang'an pill group was higher than the model group's. While the rate of diarrhea was lower significantly. So the best cycle of taking medicine was 4 days. The indexes of thymus and spleen of model group were decreased than that of control group. And the activities of LDH, MDH and disaccharidase in intestinal organization were also decreased. But the AQP4 concentration in proximal colon was increased. Compared with the model group, the indexes of thymus and spleen increased remarkably in the group of medium doses. Meanwhile, the activities of LDH, MDH and disaccharidase increased. But the AQP4 concentration didn't change. Weichang'an pill has the effect of antidiarrhea. It can adjust the sugar's catabolism through increasing the activity of intestinal digestive ferment.

  14. The role of obesity and related metabolic disturbances in cancers of the colon, prostate, and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Recent evidence indicates that obesity and related metabolic abnormalities are associated with increased incidence or mortality for a number of cancers, including those of the colon, prostate, and pancreas. Obesity, physical inactivity, visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia are relatively consistent risk factors for colon cancer and adenoma. Also, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of colon cancer. For prostate cancer, the relationship to obesity appears more complex. Obesity seems to contribute to a greater risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer but perhaps to a lower risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer. Furthermore, men with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at lower risk of developing prostate cancer. Long-standing type 2 diabetes increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by approximately 50%. Furthermore, over the past 6 years, a large number of cohort studies have reported positive associations between obesity and pancreatic cancer. Together with data from prediagnostic blood specimens showing positive associations between glucose levels and pancreatic cancer up to 25 years later, sufficient evidence now supports a strong role for diabetes and obesity in pancreatic cancer etiology. The mechanisms for these associations, however, remain speculative and deserve further study. Hyperinsulinemia may be important, but the role of oxidative stress initiated by hyperglycemia also deserves further attention.

  15. Artificial neural networks for diagnosis and survival prediction in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2005-08-06

    ANNs are nonlinear regression computational devices that have been used for over 45 years in classification and survival prediction in several biomedical systems, including colon cancer. Described in this article is the theory behind the three-layer free forward artificial neural networks with backpropagation error, which is widely used in biomedical fields, and a methodological approach to its application for cancer research, as exemplified by colon cancer. Review of the literature shows that applications of these networks have improved the accuracy of colon cancer classification and survival prediction when compared to other statistical or clinicopathological methods. Accuracy, however, must be exercised when designing, using and publishing biomedical results employing machine-learning devices such as ANNs in worldwide literature in order to enhance confidence in the quality and reliability of reported data.

  16. Artificial neural networks for diagnosis and survival prediction in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farid E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ANNs are nonlinear regression computational devices that have been used for over 45 years in classification and survival prediction in several biomedical systems, including colon cancer. Described in this article is the theory behind the three-layer free forward artificial neural networks with backpropagation error, which is widely used in biomedical fields, and a methodological approach to its application for cancer research, as exemplified by colon cancer. Review of the literature shows that applications of these networks have improved the accuracy of colon cancer classification and survival prediction when compared to other statistical or clinicopathological methods. Accuracy, however, must be exercised when designing, using and publishing biomedical results employing machine-learning devices such as ANNs in worldwide literature in order to enhance confidence in the quality and reliability of reported data.

  17. Postoperative medical complications are the main cause of early death after emergency surgery for colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L.H.; Bulow, S.; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2008-01-01

    Background: Only a few small studies have evaluated risk factors related to early death following emergency surgery for colonic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for death within 30 days after such surgery. Methods: Some 2157 patients who underwent emergency treatment...... for colonic cancer from May 2001 to December 2005 were identified from the national colorectal cancer registry. Thirty-day mortality rates were calculated and risk factors for early death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results: The overall 30-day mortality rate was 22.1 per cent...... no statistically significant influence on mortality. Conclusion: Emergency surgery for colonic cancer is still associated with an increased risk of death. There is a need for a system providing increased safety in the perioperative period Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  18. Resistin causes G1 arrest in colon cancer cells through upregulation of SOCS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Snahlata; Chouhan, Surbhi; Mohammad, Naoshad; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, is elevated in a number of pathological disorders, including cancer. The serum resistin level in colon cancer patients is elevated and correlates with tumor grade. However, the implications of increased resistin on colon cancer cells remain unclear. In the present study, we find that resistin binds to TLR4 on colon cancer cell membrane and initiates TLR4-MyD88-dependent activation of ERK. In addition, the upregulation of SOCS3 by ERK downregulates the JAK2/TAT3 pathway and causes the arrest of cells in G1 phase. Interestingly, we observe that resistin-exposed cells survive 5-fluorouracil treatment because of a decrease in drug uptake due to the arrest of cells in G1 phase. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Characterizing autofluorescence generated from endogenous porphyrins in cancerous tissue of human colon: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Lin, Lisheng; Li, Weihua; Yang, Changshun; Huang, Zheng; Xie, Shusen; Li, Buhong

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this case study was to explore the relationship between porphyrins and colon adenocarcinoma, and to examine the potential of porphyrin-induced fluorescence for the diagnosis of colon cancer. Further studies were carried on 8 cases ex vivo colon adenocarcinoma samples which exceptionally exhibited 635 nm fluorescence emission under 405 nm excitation. The time-resolved fluorescence spectra at 635 nm emission under 405 nm excitation were also measured and two-exponential decay fitting was performed to determine the fluorescence lifetime at 635 nm emission. Significant difference was observed between the spectra of normal and cancer tissues, which included an emission peak at 635 nm under the excitation wavelengths of 405 nm. There was also a significant difference between the fluorescence lifetimes of 635 nm emission of the normal tissue and cancer tissue (Pcolon cancers of certain patient populations.

  20. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lin [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Baoan, E-mail: wenyu811@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Qin, Shukui [Chinese PLA Cancer Center, The 81st PLA Hospital, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu (China); Li, Suyi; He, Xiangming [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Qiu, Shaomin; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Hong [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanjing Municipal Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210003, Jiangsu (China)

    2010-02-05

    Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

  1. Incidence of venous thromboembolic events in enhanced recovery after surgery for colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendler, M M I; Haidari, T A; Waage, J E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Both the Danish and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend prolonged thromboprophylaxis (PT) with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for 28 days postoperatively after elective surgery for colon cancer. The evidence relies on data from two randomized clinical...... trials (RCTs) that included not only colon cancers but also other abdominal cancers or benign colorectal diseases. Neither of those studies investigated the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) under enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). We aim to describe the risk of VTE and estimate the cost...... of preventing one case of VTE by PT under ERAS. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of 2230 patients undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer Stage I-III in the Capital Region of Denmark, 1 June 2008 to 31 December 2013. Patients who were discharged on postoperative day 28 or later, died during admission...

  2. Capecitabine treatment of HCT-15 colon cancer cells induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 colon carcinoma cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods: Phase-contrast microscopy was used for the examination of morphological changes while flow cytometry was employed for the analysis of cell cycle distribution, ...

  3. Human colonic fibroblasts regulate stemness and chemotherapy resistance of colon cancer stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, S.; Medema, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that cancers are heterogeneous and contain a hierarchical organization consisting of cancer stem cells and their differentiated cell progeny. These cancer stem cells are at the core of the tumor as they represent the clonogenic cells within a tumor. Moreover, these cells

  4. Does patient rurality predict quality colon cancer care?: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Christopher J; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Abraham, Anasooya; Markin, Abraham; Zhong, Wei; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary R; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2015-04-01

    More than 50 million people reside in rural America. However, the impact of patient rurality on colon cancer care has been incompletely characterized, despite its known impact on screening. Our study sought to examine the impact of patient rurality on quality and comprehensive colon cancer care. We constructed a retrospective cohort of 123,129 patients with stage 0 to IV colon cancer. Rural residence was established based on the patient medical service study area designated by the registry. The study was conducted using the 1996-2008 California Cancer Registry. All of the patients diagnosed between 1996 and 2008 with tumors located in the colon were eligible for inclusion in this study. Baseline characteristics were compared by rurality status. Multivariate regression models then were used to examine the impact of rurality on stage in the entire cohort, adequate lymphadenectomy in stage I to III disease, and receipt of chemotherapy for stage III disease. Proportional-hazards regression was used to examine the impact of rurality on cancer-specific survival. Of all of the patients diagnosed with colon cancer, 18,735 (15%) resided in rural areas. Our multivariate models demonstrate that rurality was associated with later stage of diagnosis, inadequate lymphadenectomy in stage I to III disease, and lower likelihood of receiving chemotherapy for stage III disease. In addition, rurality was associated with worse cancer-specific survival. We could not account for socioeconomic status directly, although we used insurance status as a surrogate. Furthermore, we did not have access to treatment location or distance traveled. We also could not account for provider or hospital case volume, patient comorbidities, or complications. A significant portion of patients treated for colon cancer live in rural areas. Yet, rural residence is associated with modest differences in stage, adherence to quality measures, and survival. Future endeavors should help improve care to this

  5. Does colon cancer ever metastasize to bone first? a temporal analysis of colorectal cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayed Isis W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well recognized that colorectal cancer does not frequently metastasize to bone. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish whether colorectal cancer ever bypasses other organs and metastasizes directly to bone and whether the presence of lung lesions is superior to liver as a better predictor of the likelihood and timing of bone metastasis. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on patients with a clinical diagnosis of colon cancer referred for staging using whole-body 18F-FDG PET and CT or PET/CT. We combined PET and CT reports from 252 individuals with information concerning patient history, other imaging modalities, and treatments to analyze disease progression. Results No patient had isolated osseous metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and none developed isolated bone metastasis without other organ involvement during our survey period. It took significantly longer for colorectal cancer patients to develop metastasis to the lungs (23.3 months or to bone (21.2 months than to the liver (9.8 months. Conclusion: Metastasis only to bone without other organ involvement in colorectal cancer patients is extremely rare, perhaps more rare than we previously thought. Our findings suggest that resistant metastasis to the lungs predicts potential disease progression to bone in the colorectal cancer population better than liver metastasis does.

  6. Coffee Intake, Recurrence, and Mortality in Stage III Colon Cancer: Results From CALGB 89803 (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan J.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Hu, Frank B.; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational studies have demonstrated increased colon cancer recurrence in states of relative hyperinsulinemia, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and increased dietary glycemic load. Greater coffee consumption has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased insulin sensitivity. The effect of coffee on colon cancer recurrence and survival is unknown. Patients and Methods During and 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy, 953 patients with stage III colon cancer prospectively reported dietary intake of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and nonherbal tea, as well as 128 other items. We examined the influence of coffee, nonherbal tea, and caffeine on cancer recurrence and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Patients consuming 4 cups/d or more of total coffee experienced an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for colon cancer recurrence or mortality of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.99), compared with never drinkers (Ptrend = .002). Patients consuming 4 cups/d or more of caffeinated coffee experienced significantly reduced cancer recurrence or mortality risk compared with abstainers (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.91; Ptrend = .002), and increasing caffeine intake also conferred a significant reduction in cancer recurrence or mortality (HR, 0.66 across extreme quintiles; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.93; Ptrend = .006). Nonherbal tea and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with patient outcome. The association of total coffee intake with improved outcomes seemed consistent across other predictors of cancer recurrence and mortality. Conclusion Higher coffee intake may be associated with significantly reduced cancer recurrence and death in patients with stage III colon cancer. PMID:26282659

  7. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  8. Hydrogen–water enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced inhibition of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Runtuwene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in cancer development. Hydrogen (H2 is a potent antioxidant and exhibits anti-inflammatory and potentially anticancer-like activities. This study aimed to investigate the role of H2 incombination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in cancer treatment both in vitro and in vivo using the colon 26 cell line. The survival rate was determined using the Kaplan–Meier survival test, and cell viability was assessed using cell viability imaging kit and the MTT assay, and activation of the cell apoptosis pathway (Phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK, Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and Caspase 3 were characterized by western blots. Hydrogen water administration improved the survival of mice with colon 26-induced cancer. Furthermore, hydrogen water enhanced cell apoptosis in cancer cells, resulting in a marked increase in the expression of p-AMPK, AIF and Caspase 3 in colon 26 cells. Hydrogen water also increased the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on colon 26 cells with spect to cell survival rate and anticancer functions. Additionally, high-content hydrogen water exhibited stronger antioxidative and anticancer activity than did the natural hydrogen water. In conclusion, high-content hydrogen water can inhibit colon cancer, particularly in combination with 5-fluorouracil.

  9. Case of a sigmoid colon cancer with metachronous metastases to the mesorectum and the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjimarcou Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Sigmoid colon cancer metachronous metastases commonly occur in the liver and lungs with sporadic reports also to the spleen, stomach, thyroid gland, abdominal wall and upper urinary tract. This is a rare case of metachronous metastases invading the mesorectum and the abdominal wall. Case presentation A 72-year-old female underwent sigmoidectomy for stage I (T2N0 M0 sigmoid colon cancer in May 2008. In June 2009, an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a tumor 2 cm in size at the lower anterior mesorectum and a second mass 2 cm in size at the anterior abdominal wall midline. Total colonoscopy showed no mucosal lesion. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was normal. A biopsy of the mesorectum tumor showed similar histologic characteristics with the primary tumor. Since no other site of recurrence was identified, an abdominoperineal resection was attempted. During the operation and after the removal of the incision recurrence, sinus bradycardia and signs of myocardial ischemia were noticed. A loop transverse colostomy was immediately perfomed and the operation was terminated. Postoperative cardiologic examination revealed an acute myocardium infract. Chemo-radiation of the mesorectum tumor and re-evaluation for surgical excision was decided. Conclusion Metachronous metastasis of the mesorectum from sigmoid colon cancer is extremely rare. Although patterns of lymphatic spread from rectal cancer to sigmoid colon have recently been demonstrated, there is no evidence of metachronous mesorectum invasion from sigmoid colon cancer. This could be the issue for future trials.

  10. [A Case of Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome Associated with Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis from Ascending Colon Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachi, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Tokura, Tomohisa; Iwama, Masahiro; Akaishi, Takanobu; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    We experienced a case of pseudo-Meigs syndrome associated with metachronous metastasis to the ovary from ascending colon cancer. A 65-year-old woman underwent curative surgery for ascending colon cancer at another hospital. A follow-up CT carried out 3 months after the surgery revealed a right ovarian tumor and a large amount of ascites. The patient was diagnosed with ovarian metastasis from ascending colon cancer with carcinomatous peritonitis. Palliative care was recommended, and she presented at our department for a second opinion. In spite of a large amount of ascites and pleural effusion, no disseminating tumor was detected on contrast-enhanced CT at our hospital, and we recommended that she undergo a diagnostic laparotomy. The laparotomy was negative for carcinomatous peritonitis and a right oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological findings indicated that the ovarian tumor was consistent with metastasis from ascending colon cancer. After the surgery, we initiated chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab and the symptoms were well controlled. A follow-up CT carried out 11 months after the surgery revealed a left ovarian tumor and increased ascites, and the patient underwent a left oophorectomy. Then, chemotherapy with the same regimen was administered for 12 months, and she did not develop any signs of recurrence for 27 months after the surgery. Ovarian metastasis from colon cancer may occasionally cause pseudo-Meigs syndrome, and it is important to be aware of the usefulness of oophorectomy for the control of ascites and pleural effusion.

  11. Effect of hydroxyapatite particle size, morphology and crystallinity on proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Sangeeta; Das, Mitun, E-mail: mitun@cgcri.res.in; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to chemically and physically characterize the synthesized Hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro and nanoparticles and to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAps on the in vitro growth of human colon cancerous cells HCT116. HAp powder was synthesized using three different routes to achieve micro and nanosized powders, with different morphologies and crystallinity. The synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the average crystallite size of HAp powder varies from 11 nm to 177 nm and respective crystallinity of powder found to be in the range of 0.12 and 0.92. The effect of these physico-chemical properties of HAp powders on human colon cancer HCT116 cells inhibition was determined in vitro. It was found that decreasing the HAp powder crystallite size between 11 nm and 22 nm significantly increases the HCT116 cell inhibition. Our results demonstrate that apart from HAp powder size their crystallinity and morphology also play an important role in cellular inhibition of human colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • Chemically synthesized hydroxyapatite micro and nano-particles with different morphologies and crystallinity. • In vitro cell–material interaction showed that hydroxyapatite nano-particles inhibit colon cancer cells. • Human colon cancer cell inhibition also depends on crystallinity and morphology of HAp powder.

  12. Salmonella Protein AvrA Activates the STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infection in humans can become chronic, which leads to low-grade persistent inflammation. These chronic infections increase the risk of several gastrointestinal diseases, including cancer. Salmonella AvrA is a multifunctional protein that influences eukaryotic cell pathways by regulating ubiquitination and acetylation. In an animal model, we have demonstrated that infection with AvrA-expressing Salmonella induces beta-catenin signals and enhances colonic tumorigenesis. Beta-catenin signaling is a key player in intestinal proliferation and tumorigenesis. The relative contributions of AvrA-induced proliferation and inflammation on tumorigenesis, however, are unknown. STAT3 is activated in chronically inflamed intestines in human inflammatory bowel diseases and in colitis-associated colon cancer. In the current study, mice were colonized with Salmonella AvrA-sufficient or AvrA-deficient bacterial strains. Then, inflammation-associated colon cancer was induced through the use of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium. We determined that AvrA-expressing bacteria activated the STAT3 pathway, which is predicted to enhance proliferation and promote tumorigenesis. Transcriptional activity of STAT3 and its target genes were upregulated by Salmonella expressing AvrA, thus promoting proliferation and intestinal tumorigenesis. Our findings provide new insights regarding a STAT3-dependent mechanism by which the specific bacterial product AvrA enhances the development of infection-associated colon cancer. These insights might suggest future biomarkers to risk assessment and early detection of infection-related cancer.

  13. Laparoscopic radical lymph node dissection for advanced colon cancer close to the hepatic flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Dai; Akiyama, Gaku; Sugihara, Takehiko; Magishi, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Sano, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    Complete mesocolic excision is currently recognized as a standard procedure for colon cancer. Gastroepiploic, infrapyloric, and superficial pancreatic head lymph node metastases in the gastrocolic ligament have been reported for colon cancer close to the hepatic flexure. We sought to investigate metastases in the gastrocolic ligament in colon cancer close to the hepatic flexure. This was a single-center retrospective study. All patients with T2 or deeper invasive colon cancer in the relevant tumor location who underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy or extended right hemicolectomy at our institution between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2015 were included. Lymph node dissection in the gastrocolic ligament was performed in 35 cases. Complications occurred in 11 patients (31%) and were grades I and II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Lymph node metastases in the gastrocolic ligament were found in only three patients (9%). Each metastasis was larger than 9 mm. Metastases in the gastrocolic ligament occurred in 9% of patients with T2 or deeper invasive colon cancer close to the hepatic flexure. Laparoscopy was feasible and useful during gastrocolic ligament resection. This study included a small sample and lacked an extended follow-up. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of this finding, particularly in terms of recurrence and long-term survival. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. A case report of thyroid gland metastasis associated with lung metastasis from colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nozawa, Keijiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Fukushima, Junichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland metastasis of malignant tumors is observed in 1.9% to 9.5% of histologically examined autopsy cases. Thyroid metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. Here we report a case of lung metastasis and thyroid gland metastasis following sigmoid colon cancer surgery. In 2000, a 58-year-old woman underwent a sigmoid colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. In 2005, a metastatic lung tumor was detected by chest CT. The patient underwent a partial thoracoscopic resection of the left lung in April 2005. On a CT scan taken 3 years and 4 months after the lung resection, a tumor mass was observed in the left lung and a low-absorption region with an unclear border was seen in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Thyroid aspiration cytology showed adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of thyroid gland metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was made. In April 2008 a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Following surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 and bevacizumab. Nevertheless a number of lung metastases and expressions of lung metastasis were subsequently observed. Histopathological examination revealed a number of metastases of differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the thyroid gland from colon cancer.

  15. SERUM ADIPOKINES AND ADIPOKINE RECEPTORS IN COLON CANCER PATIENTS WITH METABOLOC SYNDROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yunusova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study serum adipokine levels and AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and sOb-R expressions with respect to clinical-morphological parameters and the evidence of metaboloc syndrome (MS in patients with stage I–III colon cancer.Materials and methods. The study included 31 colon cancer patients having metabolic syndrome and patients having no metabolic syndrome. Serum levels of leptin, adiponektin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and soluble form of the leptin receptor was assessed by ELISA.Results and conclusion. The incidence of MS in colon cancer patients was 71 %. The relationship between the serum leptin level and gender and disease stage was revealed. The tendency toward increase in the leptin level in patients with MS was shown. The Ob-R level was higher in patients having no MS. The levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly higher in female colon cancer patients. Adiponectin receptors tended to increase in colon cancer patients with MS.

  16. Identification of new cancer biomarkers based on aberrant mucin glycoforms by in situ proximity ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Rita; Carvalho, Ana S; Conze, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are major secreted or membrane-bound molecules that, in cancer, show modifications in both the mucin proteins expression and in the O-glycosylation profile, generating some of the most relevant tumour markers in clinical use for decades. Thus far, the identification...... of these biomarkers has been based on the detection of either the protein or the O-glycan modifications. We therefore aimed to identify the combined mucin and O-glycan features, that is, specific glycoforms, in an attempt to increase specificity of these cancer biomarkers. Using in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA......) based on existing monoclonal antibodies directed to MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 mucins and to cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens Tn, Sialyl-Tn (STn), T, Sialyl-Le(a) (SLe(a) ) and Sialyl-Le(x) (SLe(x) ) we screened a series of 28 mucinous adenocarcinomas from different locations (stomach, ampulla...

  17. Excluding Lynch syndrome in a female patient with metachronous DNA mismatch repair deficient colon- and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Crobach (Stijn); Jansen, A.M.L. (Anne M. L.); Ligtenberg, M.J.L. (Marjolein J. L.); Koopmans, M. (Marije); M. Nielsen (Maartje); F.J. Hes (Frederik); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); T. van Wezel (Tom); H. Morreau (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPatients synchronously or metachronously presenting with ovarian and colon cancer can pose diagnostic challenges. A primary colon carcinoma can metastasize to one or both ovaries, two independent primary tumors can arise or an ovarian carcinoma can metastasize to the colon. Clinical and

  18. Colon cancer therapy: recent developments in nanomedicine to improve the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, J; Melguizo, C; Ortiz, R; Perazzoli, G; Cabeza, L; Alvarez, P J; Rodriguez-Serrano, F; Aranega, A

    2013-10-01

    The number of patients with colorectal cancer, the third most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the world, has increased markedly over the past 20 years and will continue to increase in the future. Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, currently used anticancer molecules are unable to improve the prognosis of advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer, which remains incurable. The transport of classical drugs by nanoparticles has shown great promise in terms of improving drug distribution and bioavailability, increasing tissue half-life and concentrating anticancer molecules in the tumor mass, providing optimal drug delivery to tumor tissue, and minimizing drug toxicity, including those effects associated with pharmaceutical excipients. In addition, colon cancer targeting may be improved by incorporating ligands for tumor-specific surface receptors. Similarly, nanoparticles may interact with key drug-resistance molecules to prevent a reduction in intracellular drug levels drug. Recently published data have provided convincing pre-clinical evidence regarding the potential of active-targeted nanotherapeutics in colon cancer therapy, although, unfortunately, only a few of these therapies have been translated into early-phase clinical trials. As nanotechnology promises to be a new strategy for improving the prognosis of colon cancer patients, it would be very useful to analyze recent progress in this field of research. This review discusses the current status of nanoparticle-mediated cancer-drug delivery, the challenges restricting its application, and the potential implications of its use in colon cancer therapy.

  19. Co-expression of CD133(+)/CD44(+) in human colon cancer and liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Antonia; Sebastian, Sinto; Ceglia, Pasquale; Centonze, Matteo; Divella, Rosa; Manzillo, Elvira Foglia; Azzariti, Amalia; Silvestris, Nicola; Montemurro, Severino; Caliandro, Cosimo; De Luca, Raffaele; Cicero, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Sergio; Russo, Antonio; Quaranta, Michele; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo

    2013-02-01

    Although relatively good therapeutic results are achieved in non-advanced cancer, the prognosis of the advanced colon cancer still remains poor, dependent on local or distant recurrence of the disease. One of the factors responsible for recurrence is supposed to be cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells, which are a population of cancer cells with ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate differentiated cells, thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence. This study globally approach the possible role of tissue-derived stem cells in the initiation of colon cancer and its metastatic process in the liver. Fresh surgical specimens from colon cancer, non-tumor tissue and liver metastasis were obtained directly from the operating room, examined, and immediately processed. CSCs were selected under serum-free conditions and characterized by CD44 and CD133 expression levels. CD133(+)/CD44(+) cell populations were then investigated in paraffin-embedded tissues and circulating tumor cells isolated from peripheral blood of the same group of colon cancer patients. Our data demonstrate that metastatic properties of cell populations from blood and liver metastasis, differently from primitive tumors, seem to be strictly related to the phenotype CD133 positive and CD44 positive. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dietary patterns associated with colon and rectal cancer: Results from the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, L.B.; Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.J.; Rashidkhani, B.; Männistö, S.; Krogh, V.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Pietinen, P.; Tan, F.; Virtamo, J.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: An analysis of dietary patterns or combinations of foods may provide insight regarding the influence of diet on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Objective: A primary aim of the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project was to develop and apply a common methodologic approach to

  1. Differential Impact of Anastomotic Leak in Patients With Stage IV Colonic or Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Rolff, Hans Christian; Krarup, Peter-Martin

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS: Patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer between 2009 and 2013 and underwent elective resection of their primary tumors were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality depending on the occurrence of anastomotic leak. Secondary outcomes were...... the administration of and time to adjuvant chemotherapy, metastasectomy rate, and risk factors for leak. RESULTS: Of the 774 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who were included, 71 (9.2%) developed anastomotic leaks. Anastomotic leak had a significant impact on the long-term survival of patients with colon...... cancer (p = 0.04) but not on those with rectal cancer (p = 0.91). Anastomotic leak was followed by the decreased administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colon cancer (p = 0.007) but not in patients with rectal cancer (p = 0.47). Finally, anastomotic leak had a detrimental impact...

  2. Galectin-8 expression decreases in cancer compared with normal and dysplastic human colon tissue and acts significantly on human colon cancer cell migration as a suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, N; Bronckart, Y; Camby, I; Legendre, H; Lahm, H; Kaltner, H; Hadari, Y; Van Ham, P; Yeaton, P; Pector, J-C; Zick, Y; Salmon, I; Danguy, A; Kiss, R; Gabius, H-J

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Galectins are β-galactoside binding proteins. This ability may have a bearing on cell adhesion and migration/proliferation in human colon cancer cells. In addition to galectins-1 and -3 studied to date, other members of this family not investigated in detail may contribute to modulation of tumour cell features. This evident gap has prompted us to extend galectin analysis beyond the two prototypes. The present study deals with the quantitative determination of immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 in normal, benign, and malignant human colon tissue samples and in four human colon cancer models (HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1) maintained both in vitro as permanent cell lines and in vivo as nude mice xenografts. The role of galectin-8 (and its neutralising antibody) in cell migration was investigated in HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1 cell lines. Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 and its overall ability to bind to sugar ligands (revealed glycohistochemically by means of biotinylated histochemically inert carrier bovine serum albumin with α- and β-d-galactose, α-d-glucose, and lactose derivatives as ligands) were quantitatively determined using computer assisted microscopy. The presence of galectin-8 mRNA in the four human colon cancer cell lines was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vitro, cellular localisation of exogenously added galectin-8 in the culture media of these colon cancer cells was visualised by fluorescence microscopy. In vitro galectin-8 mediated effects (and the influence of its neutralising antibody) on migration levels of living HCT-15, LoVo, CoLo201, and DLD-1 cells were quantitatively determined by computer assisted phase contrast microscopy. Results: A marked decrease in immunohistochemical expression of galectin-8 occurred with malignancy development in human colon tissue. Malignant colon tissue exhibited a significantly lower galectin-8 level than normal or

  3. Fra-1 is a key driver of colon cancer metastasis and a Fra-1 classifier predicts disease-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskit, Sedef; Schlicker, Andreas; Wessels, Lodewyk; Peeper, Daniel S

    2015-12-22

    Fra-1 (Fos-related antigen-1) is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of transcription factors. We previously showed that Fra-1 is necessary for breast cancer cells to metastasize in vivo, and that a classifier comprising genes that are expressed in a Fra-1-dependent fashion can predict breast cancer outcome. Here, we show that Fra-1 plays an important role also in colon cancer progression. Whereas Fra-1 depletion does not affect 2D proliferation of human colon cancer cells, it impairs growth in soft agar and in suspension. Consistently, subcutaneous tumors formed by Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells are three times smaller than those produced by control cells. Most remarkably, when injected intravenously, Fra-1 depletion causes a 200-fold reduction in tumor burden. Moreover, a Fra-1 classifier generated by comparing RNA profiles of parental and Fra-1-depleted colon cancer cells can predict the prognosis of colon cancer patients. Functional pathway analysis revealed Wnt as one of the central pathways in the classifier, suggesting a possible mechanism of Fra-1 function in colon cancer metastasis. Our results demonstrate that Fra-1 is an important determinant of the metastatic potential of human colon cancer cells, and that the Fra-1 classifier can be used as a prognostic predictor in colon cancer patients.

  4. Associations between red meat and risks for colon and rectal cancer depend on the type of red meat consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of specific red meat subtypes on colon cancer or rectal cancer risk. The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer. During follow-up (13.4 y), 644 cases of colon cancer and 345 cases of rectal cancer occurred among 53,988 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and 95% CIs. No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed.

  5. Metastases and Colon Cancer Tumor Growth Display Divergent Responses to Modulation of Canonical WNT Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Seth

    Full Text Available Human colon cancers commonly harbor loss of function mutations in APC, a repressor of the canonical WNT pathway, thus leading to hyperactive WNT-TCF signaling. Re-establishment of Apc function in mice, engineered to conditionally repress Apc through RNAi, resolve the intestinal tumors formed due to hyperactivated Wnt-Tcf signaling. These and other results have prompted the search for specific WNT pathway antagonists as therapeutics for clinically problematic human colon cancers and associated metastases, which remain largely incurable. This widely accepted view seems at odds with a number of findings using patient-derived material: Canonical TCF targets are repressed, instead of being hyperactivated, in advanced colon cancers, and repression of TCF function does not generally result in tumor regression in xenografts. The results of a number of genetic mouse studies have also suggested that canonical WNT-TCF signaling drives metastases, but direct in vivo tests are lacking, and, surprisingly, TCF repression can enhance directly seeded metastatic growth. Here we have addressed the abilities of enhanced and blocked WNT-TCF signaling to alter tumor growth and distant metastases using xenografts of advanced human colon cancers in mice. We find that endogenous WNT-TCF signaling is mostly anti-metastatic since downregulation of TCF function with dnTCF generally enhances metastatic spread. Consistently, elevating the level of WNT signaling, by increasing the levels of WNT ligands, is not generally pro-metastatic. Our present and previous data reveal a heterogeneous response to modulating WNT-TCF signaling in human cancer cells. Nevertheless, the findings that a fraction of colon cancers tested require WNT-TCF signaling for tumor growth but all respond to repressed signaling by increasing metastases beg for a reevaluation of the goal of blocking WNT-TCF signaling to universally treat colon cancers. Our data suggest that WNT-TCF blockade may be effective

  6. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (Pcolon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells.

  7. Optical diagnosis of colon and cervical cancer by support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Kurmi, Indrajit; Dey, Rajib; Das, Nandan K.; Pradhan, Sanjay; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-05-01

    A probabilistic robust diagnostic algorithm is very much essential for successful cancer diagnosis by optical spectroscopy. We report here support vector machine (SVM) classification to better discriminate the colon and cervical cancer tissues from normal tissues based on elastic scattering spectroscopy. The efficacy of SVM based classification with different kernel has been tested on multifractal parameters like Hurst exponent, singularity spectrum width in order to classify the cancer tissues.

  8. Application of colon interposition among the esophageal cancer patients with partial gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuqiang; Mao, Weimin; Yu, Huanming; Liang, Yixian; Wang, Jiane; Chen, Guoping

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal reconstruction with colon interposition is an alternative solution for the esophageal cancer patients who have partial gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of colon interposition among the esophageal carcinoma patients with partial gastrectomy. Under institutional review board approval, 32 esophageal carcinoma patients with a history of partial gastrectomy were included in this study. All the patients had been diagnosed and confirmed squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma by histopathological examination. Surgical approaches, complications and therapeutic results were analyzed in the current study. Thirty-two esophageal carcinoma patients (29 men, 3 women, median age 63.2 years) were included in this study. Isoperistaltic colon interposition was carried out on 14 patients; their 1-year and 2-year survival rate was 92.9% and 78.6%, respectively. Antiperistaltic colon interposition was carried out on 18 patients; their 1-year and 2-year survival rate was 88.9% and 77.8%, respectively. In which, cervical anastomotic leakage was observed on six patients. Colon interposition is an ideal surgical approach for the esophageal carcinoma patients who had partial gastrectomy. Isoperistaltic colon interposition is preferred, but antiperistaltic colon interposition has the advantage that a longer colon can be used.

  9. PPARδ deficiency disrupts hypoxia-mediated tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunshil; Koo, Jung Eun; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Hwang, Daniel H; Lee, Joo Young

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and closely linked to colon carcinogenesis. However, the role of PPARδ in colon cancer cells in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We found that expression of the tumor-promoting cytokines, IL-8 and VEGF, induced by hypoxia (colon cancer cells. Consequently, PPARδ-knockout colon cancer cells exposed to hypoxia and deferoxamine failed to stimulate endothelial cell vascularization and macrophage migration/proliferation, whereas wild-type cells were able to induce angiogenesis and macrophage activation in response to hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress induced transcriptional activation of PPARδ, but not its protein expression, in HCT116 cells. Exogenous expression of p300 potentiated deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation, while siRNA knockdown of p300 abolished hypoxia- and deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation. PPARδ associated with p300 upon hypoxic stress as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation studies. PI3K inhibitors or siRNA knockdown of Akt suppressed the PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxia and deferoxamine in HCT116 cells, leading to decreased expression of IL-8 and VEGF. Collectively, these results reveal that PPARδ is required for hypoxic stress-mediated cytokine expression in colon cancer cells, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and macrophage proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. p300 and the PI3K/Akt pathway play a role in the regulation of PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxic stress. Our results demonstrate the positive crosstalk between PPARδ in tumor cells and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A comparison of 12-gene colon cancer assay gene expression in African American and Caucasian patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Rangaswamy; Posey, James; Chao, Calvin Y; Lu, Ruixiao; Jadhav, Trafina; Javed, Ahmed Y; Javed, Awais; Mahmoud, Fade A; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Manne, Upender

    2016-06-18

    African American (AA) colon cancer patients have a worse prognosis than Caucasian (CA) colon cancer patients, however, reasons for this disparity are not well understood. To determine if tumor biology might contribute to differential prognosis, we measured recurrence risk and gene expression using the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay (12-gene assay) and compared the Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles between AA patients and CA patients with stage II colon cancer. We retrieved demographic, clinical, and archived tumor tissues from stage II colon cancer patients at four institutions. The 12-gene assay and mismatch repair (MMR) status were performed by Genomic Health (Redwood City, California). Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare Recurrence Score data and gene expression data from AA and CA patients (SAS Enterprise Guide 5.1). Samples from 122 AA and 122 CA patients were analyzed. There were 118 women (63 AA, 55 CA) and 126 men (59 AA, 67 CA). Median age was 66 years for AA patients and 68 for CA patients. Age, gender, year of surgery, pathologic T-stage, tumor location, the number of lymph nodes examined, lymphovascular invasion, and MMR status were not significantly different between groups (p = 0.93). The mean Recurrence Score result for AA patients (27.9 ± 12.8) and CA patients (28.1 ± 11.8) was not significantly different and the proportions of patients with high Recurrence Score values (≥41) were similar between the groups (17/122 AA; 15/122 CA). None of the gene expression variables, either single genes or gene groups (cell cycle group, stromal group, BGN1, FAP, INHBA1, Ki67, MYBL2, cMYC and GADD45B), was significantly different between the racial groups. After controlling for clinical and pathologic covariates, the means and distributions of Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles showed no statistically significant difference between patient groups. The distribution of

  11. Isolation and characterization of spheroid cells from the HT29 colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinlan; Ouyang, Nengyong; Teng, Hong; Yao, Herui

    2011-10-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (Cr-CSCs) are involved in the growth of colon cancer, but their specific role in tumor biology, including metastasis, is still unclear. Currently, methods for sorting Cr-CSCs are based on the expression of surface markers (e.g., CD133(+), CD44(+), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1(+))); however, the specificity of these markers for Cr-CSCs is uncertain. This study aimed to develop more effective ways of isolating and purifying Cr-CSCs. Suspension culture was used for isolation of Cr-CSCs. And spheroid cells were performed by side population technology, and the putative molecular marker analysis of colorectal cancer stem cell. Migration assay and chemoresistance experiment were conducted between the adherent cells and spheroid cells. HT29 colon cancer cells grew well in suspension culture. The percentage of CD44(+) cancer cell of spheroid cells was 68 times higher than that of adherent cells (89.5% vs. 1.3%), but there was no obvious difference in the percentage of CD133(+) cells (6.25% vs. 5.6%). Moreover, it is worth noting that the percent of CD133 (+)/CD44(+) cells remarkably rose (from 0.6% to 5.4%). The expression of ALDH1 was markedly increased (7.5% vs. 20.5%) for the spheroid cells than the adherent cells. The side population within the spheroid population dramatically increased from 0.2% to 6.3%. The resistance of spheroid cells to 5-FU was higher than that of adherent cells, as was their ability to migrate in the presence of SDF-1α. Suspension culture is an effective approach for enriching Cr-CSCs and can provide an inexhaustible supply of genetically stable colon cancer stem cells for targeted Cr-CSC studies. Spheroid cell models also enable the study of colon cancer chemoresistance and metastasis and may help to elucidate the role of cancer stem cells in colon cancer.

  12. Comparison of oncological outcomes of right-sided colon cancer versus left-sided colon cancer after curative resection: Which side is better outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae Ro; Kuk, Jung Kul; Kim, Taehyung; Shin, Eung Jin

    2017-10-01

    There are embryological origins, anatomical, histological, genetic, and immunological differences between right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Many studies have sought to determine the survival and prognosis according to tumor location. This study aimed to analyze outcomes between RCC and LCC. Between January 2000 and December 2012, data on 414 patients who underwent curative resection for RCC and LCC were retrieved from a retrospective database. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed and RCC was identified in 207 and LCC in 207 patients. On average, RCC exhibited a more advanced N stage, increased tumor size, more frequently poorly differentiated tumors, more harvested lymph nodes, and more positivity of lymphovascular invasion than LCC. With a median follow-up of 66.7 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for RCC and LCC were 82.1% and 88.7%, respectively, (P cancers, the DFS rates were 61.1% (RCC) and 81.9% (LCC; P colon cancer is needed.

  13. High interleukin-6 mRNA expression is a predictor of relapse in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Kirkeby, Lene T.; Olsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL6) in colon cancer tissue, and to examine if the risk of relapse is influenced by IL6 expression. Materials and Methods: Fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and normal adjacent tissues were taken from patients with colon cancer during surgery...... and stored at −80°C. mRNA expression for interleukin-6 was evaluated with reverse transcription real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival analyses were carried-out using a Cox competing risk regression model. Results: IL6 mRNA was significantly more highly expressed in tumor tissue compared...... for clinicopathological characteristics (Hazard Ratio=2.16, 95% CI=1.07-4.40; pInterleukin-6 is up-regulated in colon cancer tissue at the transcriptional level and is significantly associated with increased risk of relapse....

  14. High interleukin-6 mRNA expression is a predictor of relapse in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Kirkeby, Lene T; Olsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL6) in colon cancer tissue, and to examine if the risk of relapse is influenced by IL6 expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and normal adjacent tissues were taken from patients with colon cancer during surgery...... and stored at -80 °C. mRNA expression for interleukin-6 was evaluated with reverse transcription real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival analyses were carried-out using a Cox competing risk regression model. RESULTS: IL6 mRNA was significantly more highly expressed in tumor tissue compared...... for clinicopathological characteristics (Hazard Ratio=2.16, 95% CI=1.07-4.40; pInterleukin-6 is up-regulated in colon cancer tissue at the transcriptional level and is significantly associated with increased risk of relapse....

  15. γδ T cells as a potential tool in colon cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramutton, Thiranut; Buccheri, Simona; Dieli, Francesco; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells are capable of recognizing tumor cells and exert potent cellular cytotoxicity against a large range of tumors, including colon cancer. However, tumors utilize numerous strategies to escape recognition or killing by patrolling γδ T cells, such a downregulation of NKG2D ligands, MICA/B and ULBPs. Therefore, the combined upregulation of T-cell receptorand NKG2D ligands on tumor cells and induction of NKG2D expression on γδ T cells may greatly enhance tumor killing and unlock the functions of γδ T cells. Here, we briefly review current data on the mechanisms of γδ T-cell recognition and killing of colon cancer cells and propose that γδ T cells may represent a promising target for the design of novel and highly innovative immunotherapy in patients with colon cancer.

  16. CT assessment of early response to neoadjuvant therapy in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Dam, Claus; Lund-Rasmussen, Vera

    Objectives: Using multidetector computed tomography, we aimed to assess the early response of neoadjuvant drug therapy for locally advanced colon cancer. Methods: Computed tomography with IV contrast was acquired from 67 patients before and after up to three cycles of preoperative treatment. All...... patients had histologically confirmed colon cancer, a T4 or T3 tumour with extramural invasion ≥ 5 mm and no distant metastases or peritoneal nodules. The patients were treated with oxaliplatin and capecitabine. In addition, those with no mutations in the KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were also treated...... nodes following neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced colon cancer. NEC may induce not only tumour down-sizing, but may bring about a significant prolongation of disease-free survival and eventually improve overall survival. The shown early response to NEC leads to hope for improvement...

  17. Review article: loss of the calcium-sensing receptor in colonic epithelium is a key event in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogers, Ailín C

    2012-03-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed abundantly in normal colonic epithelium and lost in colon cancer, but its exact role on a molecular level and within the carcinogenesis pathway is yet to be described. Epidemiologic studies show that inadequate dietary calcium predisposes to colon cancer; this may be due to the ability of calcium to bind and upregulate the CaSR. Loss of CaSR expression does not seem to be an early event in carcinogenesis; indeed it is associated with late stage, poorly differentiated, chemo-resistant tumors. Induction of CaSR expression in neoplastic colonocytes arrests tumor progression and deems tumors more sensitive to chemotherapy; hence CaSR may be an important target in colon cancer treatment. The CaSR has a complex role in colon cancer; however, more investigation is required on a molecular level to clarify its exact function in carcinogenesis. This review describes the mechanisms by which the CaSR is currently implicated in colon cancer and identifies areas where further study is needed.

  18. Inadequate preoperative colonic evaluation for synchronous colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M P; Burgdorf, S K; Wilhelmsen, M

    2009-01-01

    synchronous lesions in 11-44%. The purpose of this study was to review all patients having surgery for CRC in our department since 2001, and to evaluate the extent of the perioperative colonic evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all patients operated for CRC between Jan. 2001 and Dec. 2007...... in our department were reviewed. Only patients with CRC were included. Information regarding pre-, per- and postoperative colonic evaluation were obtained and occurrences of SC were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 534 patients included 124 (23%) patients had an impassable stenosis. Full preoperative colonic...... evaluation (FPCE) were done in 305 (26%) patients without stenosis. In 36 patients 39 SC were diagnosed. Seven SC were diagnosed postoperatively, of which five patients never had a FPCE. Three of these five patients had an inoperable SC, one patient died due to anastomosis leakage following re...

  19. Effectiveness of a multimedia-based educational intervention for improving colon cancer literacy in screening colonoscopy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger, James P; Holubar, Stefan D; Pendlimari, Rajesh; Dozois, Eric J; Larson, David W; Cima, Robert R

    2010-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding colon cancer literacy in screening colonoscopy patients. We aimed to prospectively assess baseline colon cancer literacy and to determine whether a multimedia educational intervention was associated with improved colon cancer literacy. Colon cancer literacy was assessed in a convenience sample of colonoscopy patients before and after educational intervention. Statistically significant associations with colon cancer literacy scores were assessed by use of multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results are frequency (proportion), mean +/- SD, and odds ratio (OR (95% CI)). Seventy-three subjects participated: mean age, 57 +/- 12 years, 35 (48%) were women, 41 (57%) had a college degree, 43 (59%) had prior colonoscopy, 21 (29%) were accompanying family, and 16 (22%) were health care employees. Multivariate factors associated with a higher baseline colon cancer literacy score included health care employee status (7.9 (95% CI, 1.6-63); P = .02) and family colon cancer history (5.3 (95% CI, 1.3-25); P = .02). After multimedia education, mean scores improved from 53% +/- 23% to 88% +/- 12% (Delta = 35%; P colon cancer-related concepts is frequently observed in patients undergoing screening colonoscopy. Multimedia-based educational intervention was an effective, satisfying strategy for addressing cancer-specific knowledge deficit in laypersons.

  20. [A Case of Solitary Metastasis to the Small Intestine from Sigmoid Colon Cancer after Treatment of Seven Multiple Cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Keiichi; Maeshiro, Tsuyoshi; Yanai, Keiko; Fujita, Hanako; Machida, Masaki; Moriyama, Takafumi; Koseki, Takayoshi; Kudo, Hiroki; Inada, Kentaro; Takahama, Yukiko; Seyama, Yasuji; Wada, Ikuo; Miyamoto, Sachio; Umekita, Nobutaka; Tanizawa, Toru

    2016-11-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had undergone a Hartmann's operation for sigmoid colon cancer 2 years ago was hospitalized because she experienced small bowel obstruction several times. She had a treatment history of 6 other cancers, including 5 gastrointestinal tract cancers. However, the obstruction was relieved by conservative therapy each time. In September 2015, she was hospitalized for ileus. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that the lumen of intestine was partially dilated. Subsequently, a long tube was inserted, but the dilatation of the small intestine was not fully recovered. She was diagnosed with small intestinal obstruction due to adhesion, and she underwent an operation in October 2015. During the laparotomy, she was diagnosed with adhesion due to an intestinal tumor, and a partial intestinal resection, including the entire tumor, was performed. Because the tumor appearance and histological findings were very similar to those of sigmoid colon cancer, the tumor was diagnosed as a solitary metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer to the small intestine. Generally, peritoneal dissemination causes metastasis of colon cancer to the small intestine. However, this is a rare case because the lymphatic system or extra-wall invasion was the most likely cause of metastasis. Ileus repeating the improvement exacerbation, an examination must be performed while considering possible intestinal tumors, especially for a patient previously treated for multiple gastrointestinal cancers.

  1. Downregulation of SREBP inhibits tumor growth and initiation by altering cellular metabolism in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yang-An; Xiong, Xiaopeng; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Napier, Dana L; Vallee, Emma; Li, Austin T; Wang, Chi; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark; Gao, Tianyan

    2018-02-15

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) belong to a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes required for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Three SREBP isoforms, SREBP1a, SREBP1c, and SREBP2, have been identified in mammalian cells. SREBP1a and SREBP1c are derived from a single gene through the use of alternative transcription start sites. Here we investigated the role of SREBP-mediated lipogenesis in regulating tumor growth and initiation in colon cancer. Knockdown of either SREBP1 or SREBP2 decreased levels of fatty acids as a result of decreased expression of SREBP target genes required for lipid biosynthesis in colon cancer cells. Bioenergetic analysis revealed that silencing SREBP1 or SREBP2 expression reduced the mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, as well as fatty acid oxidation indicating an alteration in cellular metabolism. Consequently, the rate of cell proliferation and the ability of cancer cells to form tumor spheroids in suspension culture were significantly decreased. Similar results were obtained in colon cancer cells in which the proteolytic activation of SREBP was blocked. Importantly, knockdown of either SREBP1 or SREBP2 inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo and decreased the expression of genes associated with cancer stem cells. Taken together, our findings establish the molecular basis of SREBP-dependent metabolic regulation and provide a rationale for targeting lipid biosynthesis as a promising approach in colon cancer treatment.

  2. Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis Initiated by the H1047R Mutant PI3K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Yueh

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is critical for multiple important cellular functions, and is one of the most commonly altered pathways in human cancers. We previously developed a mouse model in which colon cancers were initiated by a dominant active PI3K p110-p85 fusion protein. In that model, well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinomas developed within the colon and initiated through a non-canonical mechanism that is not dependent on WNT signaling. To assess the potential relevance of PI3K mutations in human cancers, we sought to determine if one of the common mutations in the human disease could also initiate similar colon cancers. Mice were generated expressing the Pik3caH1047R mutation, the analog of one of three human hotspot mutations in this gene. Mice expressing a constitutively active PI3K, as a result of this mutation, develop invasive adenocarcinomas strikingly similar to invasive adenocarcinomas found in human colon cancers. These tumors form without a polypoid intermediary and also lack nuclear CTNNB1 (β-catenin, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumor initiation mediated by the PI3K pathway. These cancers are sensitive to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition indicating dependence on the PI3K pathway. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment demonstrated reduction in cellular proliferation and inhibition of PI3K signaling.

  3. IL-4-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todaro, Matilde; Perez Alea, Mileidys; Scopelliti, Alessandro; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Cancer stem cells are thus likely to be responsible for maintaining or spreading a cancer, and may be the most relevant targets for cancer therapy. The CD133 glycoprotein was recently

  4. Promotion of aberrant crypt foci and cancer in rat colon by thermolyzed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X M; Stamp, D; Minkin, S; Medline, A; Corpet, D E; Bruce, W R; Archer, M C

    1992-07-01

    We have previously shown that thermolyzed protein (casein) cooked with fat in the diet of the rat promotes the growth of aberrant crypt foci (putative precursors of colon cancer) assessed at 100 days. To determine how thermolysis affects this promotion, we examined thermolysis conditions, quantity of thermolyzed protein in the diet, and duration of thermolysis. To determine whether the previous finding of promotion of aberrant crypt foci corresponds to promotion of cancers assessed much later, we carried out promotion studies until colon cancers appeared. F344 rats were given an initiating dose of azoxymethane and were then randomly allocated to groups receiving diets differing in their quantity and quality of casein. The groups were examined for aberrant crypt foci and tumors in the colon. Aberrant crypt foci were promoted by diets containing thermolyzed casein (180 degrees C, 2 hours). Promotion increased with increasing level of thermolyzed casein in the diet (to 20%) and with increasing thermolysis time (to 4 hours). The number of animals with polyps and cancers was higher in the animals receiving thermolyzed protein (2 hours), 16/23 versus 9/26 (P less than .05) and 10/26 versus 3/27 (P less than .05), respectively. The number of aberrant crypts per focus and the number of large aberrant crypt foci were higher in the tumor-bearing animals. Thermolyzed casein promotes early colonic precursor lesions in a dose-dependent and thermolysis time-dependent manner; thermolyzed casein also promotes colon cancer. The promoter formed on thermolysis could be involved in colon cancers associated with diets cooked at elevated temperatures, such as can occur with high-fat diets.

  5. Miltirone induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hu, Tao; Shen, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Li, Long-Fei; Chan, Ruby Lok-Yi; Li, Ming-Xing; Wu, William Ka-Kei; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2016-04-15

    To study the characteristics of miltirone-induced anti-colon cancer effects. Cell viability was detected using MTT assay. LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) leakage was detected using CytoTox96® non-radioactive cytotoxicity kit. Apoptosis was detected by FCM (flow cytometry). Caspase activation was determined by chemiluminescence or western blotting. AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) expression in the cell fraction was determined by western blotting. ROS (reactive oxygen species), MMP (mitochondrial membrane potential) and mitochondrial mass were determined by confocal microscope. Intracellular calcium was detected by both FCM and confocal microscope. To determine the roles of ROS and Ca(2+) in the pro-apoptotic activity of miltirone, colon cancer cells were pretreated with kinds of antioxidants, dicoumarol, calpeptin or BAPTA-AM in some cases. Miltirone exhibited potent cytotoxicity on colon cancer cells with a better selectivity than that of dihydrotanshinone. The pro-apoptotic activity of miltirone was p53- and ROS-dependent. In detail, miltirone induced direct mitochondrial damage, including significant decrease of mitochondrial ROS, MMP, mass and increase of intracellular ROS and Ca(2+). NQO1 (quinone oxidoreductase1) was supposed to be a defender for the cytotoxicity induced by miltirone in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, miltirone induced time- and concentration-dependent translocation of AIF and activation of caspases. In this study, ROS- and p53-dependent apoptosis induced by miltirone on colon cancer cells was firstly revealed. Strong positive feedback between mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of intracellular Ca(2+) was suggested to be the characteristic of the anti-colon cancer activity of miltirone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive capacity of three comorbidity indices in estimating mortality after surgery for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert B; Chatla, Chakrapani; Bumpers, Harvey L; Waterbor, John W; McGwin, Gerald; Funkhouser, Ellen; Coffey, Christopher S; Posey, James; Manne, Upender

    2009-09-10

    Although, for patients with cancer, comorbidity can affect the timing of cancer detection, treatment, and prognosis, there is little information relating to the question of whether the choice of comorbidity index affects the results of studies. Therefore, to compare the association of comorbidity with mortality after surgery for colon cancer, this study evaluated the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27), the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) Comorbidity Index, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The study population consisted of colon cancer patients (N = 496) who underwent surgery at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital from 1981 to 2002. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were obtained using the method of Cox proportional hazards for the three comorbidity indices in predicting overall and colon cancer-specific mortality. The point estimates obtained for comorbidity and other risk factors across the three models were compared. For each index, the highest comorbidity burden was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (ACE-27: HR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.15; NIA/NCI: HR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.61; CCI: HR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.88) as well as colon cancer-specific survival. For the other risk factors, there was little variation in the point estimates across the three models. The results obtained from these three indices were strikingly similar. For patients with severe comorbidity, all three indices were statistically significant in predicting shorter survival after surgery for colon cancer.

  7. [Cancer of the colon and cholelithiasis: bile bacteria, composition of the stones and the bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafà, M; Sarli, L; Dotti, C; Bonilauri, E; Cavalieri, S; Peracchia, A

    1989-01-01

    Our recent studies have shown a significant association between lithiasic biliary disease and colorectal cancer. This could be due to the existence of risk factors common to both disease or to a cause-effect correlation between them. This latter hypothesis is supported by the observation in gallstone patients of the increase of biliary and fecal concentrations in secondary biliary acids. These could have co-carcinogenic effect on the colon. With a view to singling out further elements which might help us to understand more clearly the possible cause-effect correlation between cholelithiasis and colon cancer, we examined 12 patients affected by both diseases. In these, we evaluated the composition of the gallbladder stones, by means of spectrophotometry and diffractometry. Bile samples were taken from the gallbladder and used to examine the lipidic composition and the cholesterol saturation index according to Carey. In addition bacteriological examinations were carried out. The results were compared with those of 10 patients with cholelithiasis but not cancer, 10 with cancer but not cholelithiasis and 10 with neither. Analysis of the results did not reveal significant differences in gallstone and bile composition between colon cancer patients with concomitant gallstones and control groups. However, in cancer patients with gallstones a higher incidence of bile bacteria (35.7%) was observed than in the other groups. Bile bacteria were observed more frequently in right colon cancer patients who had pigment stones in 75% of the cases. The results seem to evidence peculiarities in patients with a cancer of right colon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Trolox induces inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Guang Yang; Xiang-An Tian; Xiao-Yan Li; Jian-Guo Huang; Nai-Qing Liu; Qin-Li Sun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of trolox on human colon cancer cell lines was investigated. The results revealed that trolox treatment caused inhibition of cell growth in T84 and HCT-15 colon cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was significant at 50 µM of trolox after 48 hours in both cell lines. Trolox treatment promoted expression of p38 and inhibited expression of survivin and Akt. It also induced cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 and ultimately induced apoptosis in...

  9. Perforated Sigmoid Colon Cancer within an Irreducible Inguinal Hernia: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kai Hsiung; Yu, Chih Yung; Kao, Chien Chang; Tsai, Shih Hung; Huang, Guo Shu; Chang, Wei Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2010-04-15

    A perforated sigmoid colon cancer within an inguinal hernia is extremely rare. This unexpected finding is usually discovered during surgery and causes an unavoidable septic evolution. Here, we describe the case of an 84-year-old man who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and a painful, enlarged, left scrotum. A CT showed a left, incarcerated, inguinal hernia containing a perforated sigmoid adenocarcinoma (which was confirmed by histopathology). The possibility of an irreducible inguinal hernia in association with perforated sigmoid colon cancer should be considered in the array of diagnoses. A pre-operative CT scan would be helpful in facilitating an accurate diagnosis.

  10. Computed tomography assessment of early response to neoadjuvant therapy in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Claus; Lund-Rasmussen, Vera; Pløen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Using multidetector computed tomography, we aimed to assess the early response of neoadjuvant drug therapy for locally advanced colon cancer. METHODS: Computed tomography with IV contrast was acquired from 67 patients before and after up to three cycles of preoperative treatment. All...... patients had histologically confirmed colon cancer, a T4 or T3 tumour with extramural invasion ≥ 5 mm and no distant metastases or peritoneal nodules. The patients were treated with oxaliplatin and capecitabine. In addition, those with no mutations in the KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were also treated...

  11. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    -1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  12. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...... of manual workers has been the driving force behind the dramatic increase in the Norwegian incidence of colon cancer. This development resulted in a reversal of the socio-economic gradient from the classic European pattern with the highest incidence in the upper socio-economic groups to an American pattern...

  13. Pathogenesis of morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2011-01-01

    were analysed prospectively from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented by data from the medical records. We studied in detail the time course of morbidity and reasons for prolonged stay (> 3 days). RESULTS: Seventeen (16.3%) patients had one or more complications. Surgical complications......AIM: Analysis of the nature and time course of early complications after laparoscopic colonic surgery is required to allow rational strategies for their prevention and management. METHOD: One hundred and four consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery...

  14. Comparative Study of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Tumor Marker in Stomach and Colon Cancer Patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Gul, Bushra; Ali, Sajid; Bashir, Shumaila; Mahmood, Nourin; Ahmad, Jamshed; Nawaz, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality rate, cancer has become an alarming threat to the human population worldwide. Since cancer is a progressive disorder, timely diagnosis would be helpful to prevent/stop cancer from progressing to severe stage. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, most of the time, tumors are diagnosed with endoscopy and biopsy; therefore rare studies exist regarding the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GIT) carcinomas based on tumor markers, especially CEA. This study made a comparative analysis of CEA in admitted hospitalized stomach and colon cancer patients diagnosed as GIT with biopsy. In this study, a total of 66 cases were included. The level of CEA was determined in the blood of these patients using ELISA technique. Out of 66 patients, the level of CEA was high in 59.1% of the total, 60.7% in colon cancer patients and 57.9 % in stomach cancer patients. Moreover, the incidence of colorectal and stomach cancer was greater in males as compared to females. Patients were more of the age group of 40- 60 and the level of CEA was comparatively higher in patients (51.5%) with histology which was moderately differentiated, than patients with well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumor histology. CEA level was high in more than 50% of the total patients. Moreover, CEA exhibited higher sensitivity for colon than stomach cancer.

  15. The role of the CpG island methylator phenotype on survival outcome in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Joo; Min, Byung Hoon; Ryu, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-03-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)- high colorectal cancers (CRCs) have distinct clinicopathologi-cal features from their CIMP-low/negative CRC counterparts. However, controversy exists regarding the prognosis of CRC according to the CIMP status. Therefore, this study examined the prognosis of Korean patients with colon cancer according to the CIMP status. Among a previous cohort pop-ulation with CRC, a total of 154 patients with colon cancer who had available tissue for DNA extraction were included in the study. CIMP-high was defined as ≥3/5 methylated mark-ers using the five-marker panel (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). CIMP-high and CIMP-low/neg-ative cancers were observed in 27 patients (17.5%) and 127 patients (82.5%), respectively. Multivariate analysis adjust-ing for age, gender, tumor location, tumor stage and CIMP and microsatellite instability (MSI) statuses indicated that CIMP-high colon cancers were associated with a significant increase in colon cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 8.69; p=0.02). In microsatellite stable cancers, CIMP-high cancer had a poor survival outcome compared to CIMP-low/negative cancer (HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.02 to 8.27; p=0.04). Re-gardless of the MSI status, CIMP-high cancers had poor sur-vival outcomes in Korean patients. (Gut Liver, 2015;9202-207).

  16. Pattern of tumour growth of the primary colon cancer predicts long-term outcome after resection of liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelt, Lidewij; Sasor, Agata; Ansari, Daniel; Andersson, Roland

    2016-10-01

    To identify significant predictive factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after liver resection for colon cancer metastases, with special focus on features of the primary colon cancer, such as lymph node ratio (LNR), vascular invasion, and perineural invasion. Patients operated for colonic cancer liver metastases between 2006 and 2014 were included. Details on patient characteristics, the primary colon cancer operation and metastatic disease were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed to select predictive variables for OS and DFS. Median OS and DFS were 67 and 20 months, respectively. 1-, 3- and 5-year OS were 97, 76, and 52%. 1-, 3- and 5-year DFS were 65, 42, and 37%. Multivariate analysis showed LNR to be an independent predictive factor for DFS but not for OS. Other identified predictive factors were vascular and perineural invasion of the primary colon cancer, size of the largest metastasis and severe complications after liver surgery for OS, and perineural invasion, number of liver metastases and preoperative CEA-level for DFS. Traditional N-stage was also considered to be an independent predictive factor for DFS in a separate multivariate analysis. LNR and perineural invasion of the primary colon cancer can be used as a prognostic variable for DFS after a concomitant liver resection for colon cancer metastases. Vascular and perineural invasion of the primary colon cancer are predictive for OS.

  17. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer/home.php...

  18. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Jie, E-mail: tongrensj163@163.com [Department of Administrative, Tongren Hospital, No. 786 Yuyuan Road, Changning District, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-07

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. - Highlights: • AR-42 is anti-proliferative against primary/established colon cancer cells. • AR-42 induces significant apoptotic death in primary/established colon cancer cells. • Ceramide production mediates AR-42-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. • AR-42 oral administration potently inhibits SW-620 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  19. Caveolin-1-Mediated Expression and Secretion of Kallikrein 6 in Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Henkhaus

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Kallikreins are secreted proteases that may play a functional role and/or serve as a serum biomarker for the presence or progression of certain types of cancers. Kallikrein 6 (KLK6 has been shown to be upregulated in several types of cancers, including colon. The aims of this study were to elucidate pathways that influence KLK6 gene expression and KLK6 protein secretion in the HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Our data indicate a central role for caveolin-1 (CAV-1, the main structural protein of caveolae, in both KLK6 gene expression and protein secretion. Sucrose gradient subcellular fractionation reveals that CAV-1 and KLK6 colocalize to lipid raft domains in the plasma membrane of HCT116 cells. Furthermore, we show that CAV-1, although it does not directly interact with the KLK6 molecule, enhances KLK6 secretion from the cells. Deactivation of CAV-1, through SRC-mediated phosphorylation, decreased KLK6 secretion. We also demonstrate that, in colon cancer cells, CAV-1 increased the amount of phosphorylated AKT in cells by inhibiting the activity of the AKT-negative regulators PP1 and PP2A. This study demonstrates that proteins such as CAV-1 and AKT, which are known to be altered in colon cancer, affect KLK6 expression and KLK6 secretion.

  20. GC-MS based metabolomics of colon cancer cells using different extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; Palazoglu, Mine; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2017-09-15

    The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer enforces the development of novel methodologies and protocols to deepen in the molecular mechanisms that govern disease pathophysiological events. The aim of this work is to deepen in the optimum metabolite extraction protocol from adherent mammalian cells of colon cancer for high throughput metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS results showed that metabolic information obtained from colon cancer cells was highly dependent on metabolite extraction selection, which at the same time is extremely influenced by the analytical platform. A further purpose of this investigation is to uncover an unexplored portion of HT-29 colon cancer cells metabolome, complementary to other already explored by CE-MS and LC-MS methods. At this respect, a total of 150 metabolites were identified in HT-29 colon cancer cells by GC-MS. The extraction protocol with acetonitrile-isopropanol-water was the most appropriate for fatty acids and related pathways analysis. Most of the metabolites involved in pathways of amino acids, glutathione, amino sugars and other polar metabolites were better extracted with acidified water, although water extraction showed the best overall reproducibility. Although pathways involving nitrogenous bases could be investigated using organic or aqueous extracts, a higher number of metabolites involved in these pathways were identified in the aqueous extracts. In addition, metabolite extraction protocol was observed to be crucial for the determination of potentially interesting clusters of metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro effects of extracts of extra virgin olive oil on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Mavilia, Carmelo; Fabbri, Sergio; Romani, Annalisa; Ieri, Francesca; Tanini, Annalisa; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancer. Recent interest has been focused on the biological activity of phenolic compounds present in extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that EVOO components have positive effects on metabolic parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet function, and antimicrobial activity. We have investigated the possible interactions between 2 extracts of extra virgin olive oil and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in an in vitro model of colon cancer. The qualification and quantification of the components of the 2 samples tested showed that phenolic compounds-hydroxytyrosol, secoiridoids, and lignans-are the major represented compounds. EVOO extracts were tested on a colon cancer cell line engineered to overexpress ERβ (HCT8-β8). By using custom made Oligo microarray, gene expression profiles of colon cancer cells challenged with EVOO-T extracts when compared with those of cells exposed to 17β-estradiol (17β-E2). This study demonstrated that the EVOO extracts tested showed an antiproliferative effect on colon cancer cells through the interaction with estrogen-dependent signals involved in tumor cell growth. Specifically, the ability of EVOO extracts to inhibit cell proliferation was superimposable to the activation of the ERβ receptor, similar to what was observed after 17β-E2 challenge.

  2. MicroRNAs as Regulator of Signaling Networks in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, William C.; Yang, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of regulating gene expression translationally and/or transcriptionally. A large number of evidence have demonstrated that miRNAs have a functional role in both physiological and pathological processes by regulating the expression of their target genes. Recently, the functionalities of miRNAs in the initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance of tumors have gained increasing attentions. Particularly, the alteration of miRNA profiles has been correlated with the transformation and metastasis of various cancers, including colon cancer. This paper reports the latest findings on miRNAs involved in different signaling networks leading to colon cancer metastasis, mainly focusing on miRNA profiling and their roles in PTEN/PI3K, EGFR, TGFβ, and p53 signaling pathways of metastatic colon cancer. The potential of miRNAs used as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets in colon cancer is also discussed. PMID:26064956

  3. Characterization of side population cells isolated from the colon cancer cell line SW480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Binghong; Ma, Li; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Caiquan; Cheng, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many types of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including colon cancer cell lines. This study aimed to identify cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the SP of the colon cancer cell line SW480. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, clone formation, proliferation, invasion ability, cell cycle, chemosensitivity and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. The expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein transporters and stem cell-related genes were examined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The human colon cancer cell lines SW480, Lovo and HCT116 contain 1.1 ± 0.10, 0.93 ± 0.11 and 1.33 ± 0.05% SP cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SP cells could differentiate into SP and NSP cells. SP cells had a higher proliferation potency and CFE than NSP cells. Compared to NSP cells, SP cells were also more resistant to CDDP and 5-FU, and were more invasive and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA and protein expression of ABCG2, MDR1, OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, CD44 and CD133. SP cells isolated from human colon cancer cell lines harbor CSC properties that may be related to the invasive potential and therapeutic resistance of colon cancer.

  4. HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via geranylgeranylation and RhoA activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haidari, Amr A.; Syk, Ingvar; Thorlacius, Henrik, E-mail: henrik.thorlacius@med.lu.se

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Simvastatin blocked CCL17-induced and CCR4-dependent RhoA activation in HT29 cells. • CCL17/CCR4-mediated migration of colon cancer cells was antagonised by simvastatin. • Cell migration recovered by adding Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. • Targeting HMG-CoA reductase might be useful to inhibit colon cancer metastasis. - Abstract: Background: Simvastatin is widely used to lower cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases, although accumulating evidence suggests that statins, such as simvastatin, also exert numerous anti-tumoral effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration. Methods: Migration assays were performed to evaluate CCL17-induced colon cancer cell (HT-29) chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth and apoptosis were assessed using a proliferation assay and annexin V assay, respectively. Active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using a G-LISA assay. Results: We found that simvastatin dose-dependently decreased CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Simvastatin had no effect on colon cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis. Inhibition of beta chemokine receptor 4, CCR4, reduced CCL17-evoked activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Moreover, administration of mevalonate reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Interestingly, co-incubation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) antagonized the inhibitory impact of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17. Moreover, we observed that simvastatin decreased CCL17-induced activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Administration of mevalonate and GGPP reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-provoked RhoA activation in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings show for the first time that HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via

  5. Isolated metastasis of colon cancer to the scapula: is surgical resection warranted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesti Jill K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant metastases from colon cancer spread most frequently to the liver and the lung. Risk factors include positive lymph nodes and high grade tumors. Isolated metastases to the appendicular skeleton are very rare, particularly in the absence of identifiable risk factors. Case report The patient was a 55 year old male with no previous personal or family history of colon cancer. Routine screening revealed a sigmoid adenocarcinoma. He underwent resection with primary anastomosis and was found to have Stage IIA colon cancer. He declined chemotherapy as part of a clinical trial, and eight months later was found to have an isolated metastasis in his right scapula. This was treated medically, but grew to 12 × 15 cm. The patient underwent a curative forequarter amputation and is now more than four years from his original colon surgery. Discussion Stage IIA colon cancers are associated with a high five year survival rate, and chemotherapy is not automatically given. If metastases occur, they are likely to arise from local recurrence or follow lymphatic dissemination to the liver or lungs. Isolated skeletal metastases are quite rare and are usually confined to the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated scapular metastasis in a patient with node negative disease. The decision to treat the recurrence with radiation and chemotherapy did not reduce the tumor, and a forequarter amputation was eventually required. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of adequately analyzing the stage of colon cancer and offering appropriate treatment. Equally important is the early involvement of a surgeon in discussing the timing of the treatment for recurrence. Perhaps if the patient had received chemotherapy or earlier resection, he could have been spared the forequarter amputation. The physician must also be aware of the remote possibility of an unusual presentation of metastasis in order to pursue

  6. Complex of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in Colon Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascio, Sandra, E-mail: sac131@pitt.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1040 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Fondazione Ri.Med, via Bandiera, Palermo 90133 (Italy); Finn, Olivera J., E-mail: sac131@pitt.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1040 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We previously reported that CIN85, an 85 KDa protein known to be involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis through its interaction with Cbl, associates with MUC1 in tumor cells. MUC1/CIN85 complex also regulates migration and invasion of tumor cells in vitro. Here, we examined specifically human colon carcinoma tissue microarrays (TMA) by immunohistochemistry for the expression of MUC1 and CIN85 and their potential role in cancer progression and metastasis. We detected a significant increase in expression of both MUC1 and CIN85 associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. We further investigated if Cbl could also be present in the MUC1/CIN85 complex. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that Cbl co-localized both with CIN85 and with MUC1 in a human colon cancer cell line. To begin to investigate the in vivo relevance of MUC1 overexpression and association with CIN85 and Cbl in cancer development and progression, we used human MUC1 transgenic mice that express MUC1 on the colonic epithelial cells, treated with azoxymethane to initiate and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. MUC1.Tg mice showed higher tumor incidence and decreased survival when compared with wild-type mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, the association of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl was detected in colon tissues of AOM/DSS-treated MUC1 transgenic mice. MUC1/CIN85/Cbl complex appears to contribute to promotion and progression of colon cancer and thus increased expression of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in early stage colon cancer might be predictive of poor prognosis.

  7. Association Among Blood Transfusion, Sepsis, and Decreased Long-term Survival After Colon Cancer Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquina, Christopher T; Blumberg, Neil; Becerra, Adan Z; Boscoe, Francis P; Schymura, Maria J; Noyes, Katia; Monson, John R T; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the potential additive effects of blood transfusion and sepsis on colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival after colon cancer surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with infectious complications and increased risk of cancer recurrence through systemic inflammatory effects. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested an association among sepsis, subsequent systemic inflammation, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, no study has investigated the association among transfusion, sepsis, and disease-specific survival in postoperative patients. The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were queried for stage I to III colon cancer resections from 2004 to 2011. Propensity-adjusted survival analyses assessed the association of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, sepsis, and 5-year colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Among 24,230 patients, 29% received a transfusion and 4% developed sepsis. After risk adjustment, transfusion and sepsis were associated with worse colon cancer disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.30; (+)sepsis: HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.44-2.35; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.87-2.76], cardiovascular disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33; (+)sepsis: HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.31; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.58-2.63], and overall survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29; (+)sepsis: HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.48-2.09; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.36, 95% CI 2.07-2.68] relative to (-)transfusion/(-)sepsis. Additional analyses suggested an additive effect with those who both received a blood transfusion and developed sepsis having even worse survival. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with shorter survival

  8. [Liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer in terms of differences in their clinical parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, V; Emingr, M; Skála, M; Pálek, R; Troup, O; Novák, P; Vyčítal, O; Skalický, T; Třeška, V

    2016-02-01

    From the clinical point of view, rectal cancer and colon cancer are clearly different nosological units in their progress and treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse and clarify the differences between the behaviour of liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer. The study of these factors is important for determining an accurate prognosis and indication of the most effective surgical therapy and oncologic treatment of colon and rectal cancer as a systemic disease. 223 patients with metastatic disease of colorectal carcinoma operated at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital in Pilsen between January 1, 2006 and January 31, 2012 were included in our study. The group of patients comprised 145 men (65%) and 117 women (35%). 275 operations were performed. Resection was done in 177 patients and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the total of 98 cases. Our sample was divided into 3 categories according to the location of the primary tumor to C (colon), comprising 58 patients, S (c. sigmoideum) in 61 patients, and R (rectum), comprising 101 patients. Significance analysis of the studied factors (age, gender, staging [TNM classification], grading, presence of mucinous carcinoma, type of operation) was performed using ANOVA test. Overall survival (OS), disease-free interval (DFI) or no evidence of disease (NED) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, which were compared with the log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. As regards the comparison of primary origin of colorectal metastases in liver regardless of their treatment (resection and RFA), our study indicated that rectal liver metastases showed a significantly earlier recurrence than colon liver metastases (shorter NED/DFI). Among other factors, a locally advanced finding, further R2 resection of liver metastases and positivity of lymph node metastases were statistically significant for the prognosis of an early recurrence of the primary colon and sigmoid tumor. Furthermore, we proved that in patients with

  9. Operative outcome of colon interposition in the treatment of esophageal cancer: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Christian Daniel; Binnebösel, Marcel; Schneider, Mark; Ophoff, Kerstin; Schumpelick, Volker; Jansen, Mark

    2010-04-01

    In patients with esophageal cancer and a history of gastric surgery, colonic interposition is the treatment of choice. Our aim was to review our experience with this technique and to identify possible predictors of the clinical outcome. Between 1986 and 2006, 43 patients underwent esophageal reconstruction accomplished by colon interposition in our surgical department. Data from these patients were collected consecutively and reviewed retrospectively. Colon interposition was performed isoperistaltically in 15 patients and was performed in 28 patients anisoperistaltically. In 18 patients, the right colon was used for interposition, whereas in 25 patients, the left colon was used. The mean survival time was 23+/-29 months. Artificial ventilation more than 24h, tumor differentiation grade III, the presence of major complications, and the presence of multivisceral resection had a significant negative influence on the operative outcome of colon interposition for esophageal replacement. Colon interposition for esophageal replacement provides a satisfactory operative outcome with high complication rates. Therefore, it should be reserved as a treatment of second choice for cases in which the stomach is not available. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediagnostic alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer survival: The Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Robinson, Jamaica R; Campbell, Peter T; Win, Aung Ko; Figueiredo, Jane C; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2017-05-15

    Although previous studies have noted an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among moderate to heavy alcohol consumers in comparison with nondrinkers, the relation between alcohol consumption and CRC survival remains unclear. Cases of incident invasive CRC diagnosed between 1997 and 2007 were identified via population-based cancer registries at 4 study sites in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Study participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire on prediagnostic behaviors, including wine, beer, and liquor consumption, at the baseline. Prospective follow-up for survival was conducted for 4966 CRC cases. Cox regression was used to compare nondrinkers with individuals who consumed, on average, 1 or more servings of alcohol per day in the years preceding their CRC diagnosis with respect to overall and disease-specific survival. Separate analyses by beverage type, stratified by patient and tumor attributes, were also performed. All models were adjusted for the age at diagnosis, sex, study site, year of diagnosis, smoking history, body mass index, and education. Prediagnostic beer and liquor consumption was not associated with CRC survival; however, higher levels of wine consumption were modestly associated with a better prognosis overall (CRC-specific hazard ratio [HR], 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.03; overall HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94). Similar patterns were noted in stratified analyses. These findings suggest that prediagnostic wine consumption is modestly associated with more favorable survival after CRC. Cancer 2017;123:1035-43. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. DNA Topoisomerase I-Targeted Chemotherapy of Human Colon Cancer in Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Beppino C.; Stehlin, John S.; Wall, Monroe E.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Nicholas, Allan W.; Liu, Leroy F.; Silber, Robert; Potmesil, Milan

    1989-11-01

    Drug development is needed to improve chemotherapy of patients with locally advanced or metastatic colon carcinoma, who otherwise have an unfavorable prognosis. DNA topoisomerase I, a nuclear enzyme important for solving topological problems arising during DNA replication and for other cellular functions, has been identified as a principal target of a plant alkaloid 20 (S)-camptothecin. Significantly increased concentrations of this enzyme, compared to that in normal colonic mucosa, were found in advanced stages of human colon adenocarcinoma and in xenografts of colon cancer carried by immunodeficient mice. Several synthetic analogs of camptothecin, selected by tests with the purified enzyme and tissue-culture screens, were evaluated in the xenograft model. Unlike other anticancer drugs tested, 20(RS)-9-amino-camptothecin (9-AC) induced disease-free remissions. The overall drug toxicity was low and allowed for repeated courses of treatment.

  12. Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-09-28

    Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule's performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases.

  13. Single vaginal metastasis from cancer of the right colon: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal metastases of colonic origin are exceedingly rare. When present, the prognosis is poor, and most individuals do not survive past 40 months. Surgical excision and radiotherapy have been used to treat this type of lesion. Ccase: A 67-year-old woman went to the Oncology Surgery Service with complaints of vaginal discharge and local pain. On physical examination, a 2.5 cm nodular lesion was found in the vagina. She had undergone a right hemicolectomy for a right colon cancer three months earlier. Punch biopsy was performed, and histological examination of the specimen showed metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, she underwent both radical wide excision and localized adjuvant radiotherapy. Four years later, the patient is asymptomatic, with no signs of local or systemic recurrence. Despite the rarity of this entity and its usually poor outcome, surgical treatment for isolated vaginal metastases of colonic origin is an appropriate therapeutic option with effective local control associated with low morbidity.

  14. Synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in colon cancer with normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synuclein gamma (SNCG, initially identified as a breast cancer specific gene, is aberrantly expressed in many different malignant tumors but rarely expressed in matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of SNCG in colon cancer particularly in the patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels. Methods SNCG levels were assessed immunohistochemically in cancer tissues from 229 colon adenocarcinoma patients with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Correlations between SNCG levels and clinicopathologic features, preoperative serum CEA level, and clinical outcome were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Results SNCG levels in colon adenocarcinoma were closely associated with intravascular embolus and tumor recurrence but independent of preoperative serum CEA levels. SNCG expression was an independent prognostic factor of a shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (P P = 0.001, P = 0.001, 0.002 for 97 patients with normal preoperative serum CEA level. Conclusions Our results suggest for the first time that SNCG is a new independent predicator for poor prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma, including those with normal CEA levels. Combination of CEA with SNCG improves prognostic evaluation for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

  15. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  16. Survival for colon and rectal cancer in Estonia: role of staging and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Soplepmann, Jaan; Suuroja, Tiit; Melnik, Priit; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2012-04-01

    International comparisons have indicated low colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in Estonia, compared to other European countries. The objective of this paper is to analyse long-term survival as well as staging and treatment patterns of CRC in Estonia. The analysis included all incident cases of CRC diagnosed in Estonia in 1997 (n = 546), identified through the Estonian Cancer Registry and followed up for 10 years after diagnosis. Staging and treatment data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Relative survival rate (RSR) was used to estimate the outcome. The 5-year RSR was 51% for colon cancer and 38% for rectal cancer; the corresponding 10-year RSR was 50% and 39%. We observed no excess mortality for early disease. For stages II and III, the survival was markedly higher in colon cancer (5-year RSR 79% and 66%, respectively) compared to rectal cancer (66% and 30%, respectively). Around 30% of cases were diagnosed with distant disease. Among radically operated colon and rectal cancer patients, the 10-year RSR was 90% and 70%, respectively. Most patients with available pathological information had one to four lymph nodes examined. Survival has notably improved for colon cancer, but not for rectal cancer in Estonia. High proportion of cases with distant metastasis at first diagnosis along with inadequate staging and low proportion of patients treated with curatively intended surgery and appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have contributed to this outcome. Progress could be achieved by earlier diagnosis and implementing higher standards for staging and treatment. These conclusions are likely to be relevant also for other Eastern European countries.

  17. Triptolide downregulates Rac1 and the JAK/STAT3 pathway and inhibits colitis-related colon cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Jin, Haifeng; Xu, Ruodan

    2009-01-01

    ability to block progress of colitis to colon cancer, and its molecular mechanism of action are investigated. A mouse model for colitis-induced colorectal cancer was used to test the effect of triptolide on cancer progression. Treatment of mice with triptolide decreased the incidence of colon cancer...... formation, and increased survival rate. Moreover, triptolide decreased the incidence of tumors in nude mice inoculated with cultured colon cancer cells dose-dependently. In vitro, triptolide inhibited the proliferation, migration and colony formation of colon cancer cells. Secretion of IL6 and levels of JAK......Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., is a potential treatment for autoimmune diseases as well a possible anti-tumor agent. It inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, its...

  18. Aberrant crypt foci and colon cancer: comparison between a short- and medium-term bioassay for colon carcinogenesis using dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant crypt foci (ACF in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents are considered to be the earliest hallmark of colon carcinogenesis. In the present study the relationship between a short-term (4 weeks and medium-term (30 weeks assay was assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH in the rat. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg twice a week for 2 weeks and killed at the end of the 4th or 30th week. ACF were scored for number, distribution pattern along the colon and crypt multiplicity in 0.1% methylene-blue whole-mount preparations. ACF were distinguished from normal crypts by their larger size and elliptical shape. The incidence, distribution and morphology of colon tumors were recorded. The majority of ACF were present in the middle and distal colon of DMH-treated rats and their number increased with time. By the 4th week, 91.5% ACF were composed of one or two crypts and 8.5% had three or more crypts, while by the 30th week 46.9% ACF had three or more crypts. Thus, a progression of ACF consisting of multiple crypts was observed from the 4th to the 30th week. Nine well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were found in 10 rats by the 30th week. Seven tumors were located in the distal colon and two in the middle colon. No tumor was found in the proximal colon. The present data indicate that induction of ACF by DMH in the short-term (4 weeks assay was correlated with development of well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the medium-term (30 weeks assay.

  19. Childhood cancer in small geographical areas and proximity to air-polluting industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan A; López-Hernández, Fernando A; Cárceles-Álvarez, Alberto; Fuster-Soler, José L; Sotomayor, Diana I; Ramis, Rebeca

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric cancer has been associated with exposure to certain environmental carcinogens. The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between environmental pollution and pediatric cancer risk. We analysed all incidences of pediatric cancer (industrial facilities was codified in order to analyse the spatial distribution of cases of cancer in relation to industrial areas. Focal tests and focused Scan methodology were used for the identification of high-incidence-rate spatial clusters around the main industrial pollution foci. The crude rate for the period was 148.0 cases per 1,000,0000 children. The incidence of pediatric cancer increased significantly along the period of study. With respect to spatial distribution, results showed significant high incidence around some industrial pollution foci group and the Scan methodology identify spatial clustering. We observe a global major incidence of non Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) considering all foci, and high incidence of Sympathetic Nervous System Tumour (SNST) around Energy and Electric and organic and inorganic chemical industries foci group. In the analysis foci to foci, the focused Scan test identifies several significant spatial clusters. Particularly, three significant clusters were identified: the first of SNST was around energy-generating chemical industries (2 cases versus the expected 0.26), another of NHL was around residue-valorisation plants (5 cases versus the expected 0.91) and finally one cluster of Hodgkin lymphoma around building materials (3 cases versus the expected 2.2) CONCLUSION: Results suggest a possible association between proximity to certain industries and pediatric cancer risk. More evidences are necessary before establishing the relationship between industrial pollution and pediatric cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified proteomic biosignatures of breast cancer in proximal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Stephen A.; He, Jianbo; Lu, Ming; Souda, Puneet; Saxton, Romaine E.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Chang, Helena R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We have begun an early phase of biomarker discovery in three clinically important types of breast cancer using a panel of human cell lines: HER2 positive, HER2 negative and hormone receptor positive and triple negative (HER2−, ER−, PR−). We identified and characterized the most abundant secreted, sloughed, or leaked proteins released into serum free media from these breast cancer cell lines using a combination of protein fractionation methods before LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 249 proteins were detected in the proximal fluid of 7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of a selected group of high abundance and/or breast cancer specific potential biomarkers including thromobospondin 1, galectin-3 binding protein, cathepsin D, vimentin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, CD44, and EGFR from the breast cancer cell lines and in their culture media were further validated by Western blot analysis. Interestingly, mass spectrometry identified a cathepsin D protein single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by alanine to valine replacement from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Comparison of each cell line media proteome displayed unique and consistent biosignatures regardless of the individual group classifications demonstrating the potential for stratification of breast cancer. Based on the cell line media proteome, predictive Tree software was able to categorize each cell line as HER2 positive, HER2 negative and hormone receptor positive and triple negative based on only two proteins, muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and keratin 19. In addition, the predictive Tree software clearly identified MCF-7 cell line overexpresing the HER2 receptor with the SNP cathepsin D biomarker. PMID:22934887