WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximal caries detection

  1. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  2. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  3. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  5. Extraoral imaging for proximal caries detection: Bitewings vs scanogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 extraoral imaging modalities with an intraoral bitewing radiograph for proximal caries detection. Three modalities of Cranex TOME scanograms, x-ray film and DenOptix photostimulable phosphor plates with and without digital enhancement, were compared with Insight intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection. Nine observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 45 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a 5-point confidence scale. The ground truth was determined from histological sections. Responses were evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A z ). Repeated measures ANOVA (at alpha = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences among modalities ( P = .041). Paired t tests with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that Insight was superior to only unenhanced digital scanograms ( P = .003). Mean A z scores (+/-SD) were 0.73 (+/-0.08) for Insight, 0.65 (+/-0.06) for screen/film scanogram, 0.64 (+/-0.04) for unenhanced digital scanogram, and 0.66 (+/-0.07) for enhanced digital scanogram. The performances of film-based and enhanced digital scanograms were not statistically different from Insight film for proximal caries detection. Unenhanced digital scanograms exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than Insight film.

  6. Transillumination and HDR Imaging for Proximal Caries Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R; Litzenburger, F

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to develop an in vitro model for the validation of near-infrared transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection, to enhance NIRT with high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI), and to compare both methods, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) as a reference standard. Both proximal surfaces of 53 healthy or decayed permanent human teeth were examined using the Diagnocam (DC) (KaVo) and NIRT with HDRI (NIRT-HDRI). NIRT was combined with HDRI to improve the diagnostic performance by reducing under- and overexposed image areas. For NIRT-HDRI, an exposure series was captured and merged into a single HDR image. A classification was applied according to lesion depth. All surfaces were assessed twice by 2 trained examiners, and additionally with µCT for validation. The Kappa statistic was used to calculate inter-rater reliability and agreement between DC and NIRT-HDRI. Inter-rater reliability (weighted Kappa, wκ) showed very good agreement for the DC (0.90) and NIRT-HDRI (0.96). The overall agreement (wκ) was almost perfect (0.85). In the individual categories (0 to 4), the agreement (simple Kappa) ranged from almost perfect (category 4) to moderate (1 and 2) to substantial (categories 0 and 3). Sensitivity and specificity of sound surfaces, enamel, and dentin caries ranged from 0.57 to 0.99 and were similar for both methods in the different categories. NIRT-HDRI had a higher sensitivity for sound surfaces and enamel caries, as well as a higher specificity for dentin caries. Regarding the obtained images, HDRI allowed for the detection of caries within a greater range of luminance levels, resulting in a more detailed visualization of structures without under- or overexposure. However, HDRI this did not improve the diagnostics significantly. Distinguishing between a processed demineralized enamel and dentin lesions appears to be a problem specific to NIRT and cannot be balanced using HDRI.

  7. Proximal caries lesion detection using the Canary Caries Detection System: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Janja; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah; Mathews, Sapna M; Okoye, Linda O; Ehler, Benjamin R; Louden, Christopher; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the Canary System (CS) to detect proximal caries lesions in vitro, and compared it with conventional methods: International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and bitewing radiography (BW). Visible proximal surfaces of extracted human teeth were assessed by ICDAS-II before setting them in five manikin mouth models. Then contacting proximal surfaces in mouth models were assessed by BW and CS. Histological validation with polarized-light microscopy served as a gold standard. Pairwise comparisons were performed on area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the three methods, and corrected using Bonferroni's method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared using a test of proportions and AUC values were compared using DeLong's method. The CS presented significantly higher sensitivity (0.933) than ICDAS-II (0.733, P = 0.01) and BW (0.267, P proximal lesions than ICDAS-II and BW, although without significantly higher specificity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  9. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  10. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Berkhout, W.E.R.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Martins, M.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. Methods: 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial

  11. A new screening method to detect proximal dental caries using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; Jung, Eun-Ha; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Jung, Hoi-In; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the screening performance of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to detect proximal caries using both fluorescence loss and red fluorescence in a clinical situation. Moreover, a new simplified QLF score for the proximal caries (QS-Proximal) is proposed and its validity for detecting proximal caries was evaluated as well. This clinical study included 280 proximal surfaces, which were assessed by visual-tactile and radiographic examinations and scored by each scoring system according to lesion severity. The occlusal QLF images were analysed in two different ways: (1) a quantitative analysis producing fluorescence loss (ΔF) and red fluorescence (ΔR) parameters; and (2) a new QLF scoring index. For both quantitative parameters and QS-Proximal, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were calculated as a function of the radiographic scoring index at the enamel and dentine caries levels. Both ΔF and ΔR showed excellent AUROC values at the dentine caries level (ΔF=0.860, ΔR=0.902) whereas a relatively lower value was observed at the enamel caries level (ΔF=0.655, ΔR=0.686). The QS-Proximal also showed excellent AUROC ranged from 0.826 to 0.864 for detecting proximal caries at the dentine level. The QS-Proximal, which represents fluorescence changes, showed excellent performance in detecting proximal caries using the radiographic score as the gold standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  13. In vitro assessment of cone beam local computed tomography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Sajitha M; Mol, André; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel J

    2007-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of local computed tomography (LCT) and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection and depth assessment. An in vitro model was used consisting of 20 extracted posterior teeth with 18 caries lesions. Local computed tomography slices were reconstructed in axial and parasagittal planes from 100 basis projections. Conventional radiographs were also acquired. Eight observers determined the presence and depth of caries lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and weighted kappa statistics were used. Local computed tomography had a mean A(z) score of 0.82 (SD = 0.07) and conventional radiography of 0.79 (SD = 0.08; analysis of variance: P > .05). Interobserver agreement was moderate. The mean kappa for depth assessment was 0.68 (SD = 0.06) for LCT and 0.47 (SD = 0.08) for conventional radiography (analysis of variance: P proximal caries detection. Local computed tomography was more accurate for assessing caries lesion depth.

  14. Comparison between Two Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shafagh Motlagh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations.

  15. The Comparison between Two Different Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations

  16. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344 of 76 children (4-12 years old were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen. Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm. The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  17. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Matos, Ronilza; Celiberti, Paula; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344) of 76 children (4-12 years old) were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen). Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm). The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  18. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Nikneshan; Fatemeh Mashhadi Abbas; Sedigheh Sabbagh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. Aim: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Settings and Design: Diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods...

  19. The influence of display modalities on proximal caries detection and treatment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Véra L S A; Gonzaga, Amanda K G; Pontual, Andrea A; Bento, Patrícia M; Ramos-Perez, Flávia M M; Filgueira, Pedro T D; Melo, Daniela P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of digital radiographic display on caries detection and choice of treatment among undergraduate students. Forty images of extracted human teeth were acquired using a PSP digital system. The proximal surfaces were evaluated for the presence of proximal caries and choice of treatment by 36 undergraduate students, divided into three groups according to the semester they were taking. The images were evaluated in two forms of image display: laptop, and printed on acetate viewed on a lightbox. The accuracy of the different forms of image display on caries detection was evaluated by means of ROC curve analysis and its effect by mixed linear regression. Residue analysis was used to verify the adequacy of the treatment of choice for the chosen diagnosis. There was no significant effect either for the display modalities (p=0.058) or for the different undergraduate student groups (p=0.991). The Az was 0.539 for printed images and 0.516 for laptop. The decisions based on treatment of choice were consistent with the scores achieved for caries detection. Accuracy of caries detection using a laptop was comparable to accuracy using printed images. Treatment decision was not affected by image display modality. The semester of the dentistry course that undergraduate students were taking did not significantly increase the accuracy of their proximal caries detection.

  20. Assessing the Performance of the Laser Fluorescence Technique in Detecting Proximal Caries Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation and restoration in demineralized proximal areas is always considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the laser fluorescence (LF technique in detection of proximal cavities.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students were evaluated. The selected patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to inner half of enamel or outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs (BW. DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen device was used to determine the presence or absence of caries cavities in suspected proximal surfaces. Orthodontic elastic separators were then placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the laser fluorescence technique were calculated versus the reference standard. The ROC curve was drawn and the best cut-off to determine the presence or absence of proximal cavities was determined.Results: Using DIAGNOdent pen, the optimal cut-off for detecting proximal cavities was 18. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen for diagnosing proximal caries cavities were 100 per cent, 97.3 per cent and 97.7 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen in detecting proximal caries cavities, it can be used as a valuable supplement in restorative treatment planning.

  1. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Piipari, Liina; Sämpi, Noora; Korhonen, Maria; Pesonen, Paula; Joensuu, Tiina; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars ( n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ = 0.67 for initial and κ = 0.91 for manifested caries lesions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  2. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Laitala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV and bitewing (BW radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n=2,103 of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ=0.67 for initial and κ=0.91 for manifested caries lesions. Conclusions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  3. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Berkhout, W E R; Sanderink, G C H; Martins, M; van der Stelt, P F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial resolutions of: (1) the Digora FMX at 7.8 lp mm(-1); (2) the Digora Optime at both 7.8 lp mm(-1) and 12.5 lp mm(-1); and (3) the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) and 20 lp mm(-1), respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed. The A(z) value for the radiographs scanned with the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) is significantly lower than those for the other series of radiographs (P = 0.000). For SPP radiographs, an increased theoretical spatial resolution per se is not related to an improved detection of proximal caries.

  4. Validity of digital imaging of fiber-optic transillumination in caries detection on proximal tooth surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Laitala, M.-L. (Marja-Liisa); Piipari, L. (Liina); Sämpi, N. (Noora); Korhonen, M. (Maria); Pesonen, P. (Paula); Joensuu, T. (Tiina); Anttonen, V. (Vuokko)

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results DIFOTI detecte...

  5. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mepparambath, Ratheesh; S Bhat, Sham; K Hegde, Sundeep; Anjana, G; Sunil, M; Mathew, Sherryl

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Background and objective: Proximal caries detection is of great importance because of the rapid rate of caries progression and the difficulty in determining the absence or presence of a lesion in primary dentition. Although, various methods for caries diagnosis offer good diagnostic performances, they provide varying sensitivities for detecting proximal carious lesions. The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography at detect...

  6. Accuracy of extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT) for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harase, Yuichi; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the difference in the accuracy of proximal caries detection by extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT), intraoral TACT, and film radiographs. Eighty proximal surfaces of 40 extracted human maxillary teeth were used. A digital sensor was the image receptor for TACT. Film radiographs were acquired using Insight film. Nine basis images were acquired to reconstruct TACT slices. Seven observers scored the presence or absence of proximal caries using the 3 imaging modalities. The true presence of caries and its depth were determined using the sectional images obtained by micro CT. Among the image modalities and observers, possible differences in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA indicated no statistically significant differences between observers (P = .845), modalities (P = .657), and observer-modality combinations (P = .593). Within the limited range of this study, extraoral TACT was not statistically different from intraoral TACT or film radiographs for proximal caries detection. This suggests that extraoral TACT may have some clinical utility for caries diagnosis and that further study may be warranted.

  7. The effect of image enhancements and dual observers on proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin M; Mol, Andre; Zandona, Andrea; Tyndall, Don

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the use of certain image enhancements and dual observers had an effect on the detection of caries, dentin extension, and cavitation. Seven observers viewed unenhanced and enhanced images taken on photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP) and Schick 33 sensors and were asked to determine whether proximal caries lesions, dentin extension, and cavitation were present. Pairs of observers also evaluated the unenhanced PSP images and recorded their confidence. Micro-computed tomography was used as the gold standard. For caries lesion detection, PSP outperformed Schick sensors, although the differences are most likely not clinically significant. Observers (single and dual) and filters had no effect on any of the diagnostic tasks. Schick sensors and unfiltered images were more specific for dentin extension. Caries detection was statistically greater with the PSP plate, but both detectors allowed for high accuracy. Expensive software or time-consuming consultations did not improve outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Near infrared transillumination compared with radiography to detect and monitor proximal caries: A clinical retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo; Perneger, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert; Vazquez, Lydia

    2018-03-01

    To compare near infrared transillumination device, DIAGNOcam (DC) and bitewing radiography (BW) for the detection of proximal caries. This retrospective analysis of DC and BW images of 18 students in dental medicine who had consented to the anonymous use of their dental record. The data included BW and DC images performed for a check-up in 2013, and corresponding follow-up images performed in 2015. Two observers rated 376 proximal surfaces on a 4-level dentin lesion scale and reached a unanimous rating for each surface. Calculated measures of agreement for each assessment method over time provided the reproducibility of the information obtained by each method. Agreement between 2013 and 2015 within each method was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, BW: 0.86, DC: 0.90). Agreement between DC and BW was similar for dentin lesion detection, but was low for enamel caries detection; DC detected more enamel caries than BW. Agreement between DC and BW was modest (0.33 in 2013 and 0.36 in 2015), chiefly because DC identified more enamel caries. This study shows that DC is as reliable as BW to detect proximal dentin lesions. DC detects proximal enamel lesions at an earlier stage than BW. DC enables clinicians to differentiate lesions limited to the enamel from lesions that have reached the enamel dentin junction. Regular monitoring with DC should help provide individualized preventive measures and early non-invasive caries management. The early detection of enamel lesions with near infrared transillumination can help clinicians undertake early non invasive treatments to prevent or slow down the progression of initial proximal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, B; Kamburoglu, K; Uçok, O; Yüksel, S P; Ozen, T; Avsever, H

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard. Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability. Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries.

  10. Performance of RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Mol, A; Ludlow, J B

    2001-03-01

    A high-resolution charge-coupled device was used to compare the diagnostic performances obtained with Trophy's new RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film with respect to caries detection. Three acquisition modes of the Trophy RVGui sensor were compared with Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film. Images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth were evaluated by 6 observers. The presence or absence of caries was scored by means of a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each surface was determined through ground-section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (A(Z)) were assessed through analysis of variance. The mean A(Z) scores were 0.85 for film, 0.84 for the high-resolution caries mode, and 0.82 for both the low resolution caries mode and the high-resolution periodontal mode. These differences were not statistically significant (P =.70). The differences among observers also were not statistically significant (P =.23). The performance of the RVGui sensor in high- and low-resolution modes for proximal caries detection is comparable to that of Ektaspeed Plus film.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital receptors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal caries. Material and methods. Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs were digitized using a digital camera and a scanner. Five observers scored the images for the presence and depth of caries. Histopathologic sections were the gold standard. Kappa agreement coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results. Kappa agreement coefficients between the camera and the scanner and also between each one with the gold standard in detecting the depth of caries were 0.504, 0.557 and 0.454, respectively. In detection of caries, the indexes were 0.571, 0.553 and 0.527, respectively. Conclusion. Diagnostic accuracy of camera images in caries detection was more than that of scanned images, but there was also a moderate consistency between them. The consistency of detecting the presence of caries was more than that of detecting their depths. It seems that both digital cameras and scanners can be used interchangeably.

  12. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations.

  13. Effect of Zooming, Colorization, and Contrast Conversion on Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Different enhancements have been used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiographic images in digital systems. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the effects of these enhancement options on dental caries has not been determined. Objectives This study evaluated the effects of software enhancements of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion on the accuracy of proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods In this diagnostic in vitro trial study, 42 non-cavitated and restoration-free extracted permanent molars and premolars were selected and mounted onto 14 blocks in contact with each other. Radiographic images were obtained from the teeth in similar standardized condition using the paralleling technique. The images were shown without any enhancement or with using the options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion. Depth of proximal caries was determined by a radiologist using four-scaled criteria. The diagnostic accuracy of digital images that had undergone different enhancements was calculated by the chi-square test. Results The diagnostic odds of the original digital images were lower than 20 (5.7. By using the enhancement options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion, the diagnostic odds of the enamel proximal caries had a score of less than 20. The score was higher than 20 for proximal caries located in the outer and inner half of the dentin. Conclusions The enhancement options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion did not significantly influence the diagnostic accuracy of digital images in enamel caries, but they enhanced caries diagnosis/progression in the outer and inner half of the dentin.

  14. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  15. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepparambath, Ratheesh; S Bhat, Sham; K Hegde, Sundeep; Anjana, G; Sunil, M; Mathew, Sherryl

    2014-01-01

    Proximal caries detection is of great importance because of the rapid rate of caries progression and the difficulty in determining the absence or presence of a lesion in primary dentition. Although, various methods for caries diagnosis offer good diagnostic performances, they provide varying sensitivities for detecting proximal carious lesions. The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography at detecting proximal caries in primary teeth. One Hundred and one primary maxillary and mandibular molars without obvious cavities of children between the age group of 3 and 10 years were included. The teeth were first subjected to DIAGNOdent examination followed by bitewing radiography. The specificity and sensitivity of the systems were calculated. At the dentin caries (D3) level, the sensitivity of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography was 78.5%; at the enamel caries (D1 and D2) level it was 39.12% and for the sound teeth (D0) it was found to be 76.52%. A strong association was observed between the DIAGNOdent and the bitewing radiograph (p proximal caries in primary teeth. But when seen at the each caries level, the DIAGNOdent is more accurate at the D0 and D3 threshold. How to cite this article: Mepparambath R, Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Anjana G, Sunil M, Mathew S. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):163-167.

  16. The detection accuracies for proximal caries by cone-beam computerized tomography, film, and phosphor plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-ling; Qu, Xing-min; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for the detection of noncavitated proximal caries and to compare the detection accuracies of 2 CBCT imaging systems with those based on plain-film radiographs and phosphor-plate images. Test radiographs of 39 noncavitated unrestored human permanent teeth were obtained with film, phosphor-plate, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems. Seven observers used a 5-level scale to evaluate test images for the presence of proximal caries. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the areas under the ROC curves (A(z) values) for the observers, and modalities were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. The mean A(z) values for film, phosphor plates, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems were 0.541, 0.523, 0.528, and 0.525, respectively (P = .763). For detecting subtle noncavitated proximal caries, the detection accuracy with the CBCT images was little better than chance performance and was similar to that with phosphor plate- and film-based intraoral images. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  18. Intraoral versus extraoral bitewing radiography in detection of enamel proximal caries: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Ela, Walaa Hussein; Farid, Mary Medhat; Mostafa, Mostafa Saad El-Din

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of digital intraoral and extraoral bitewing (EO BW) radiography in the detection of enamel proximal caries regardless of their ability to separate contacts. Artificial caries with different degrees of decalcification was induced in 80 human sound premolars and molars using formic acid. Intraoral radiographs were taken with photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), using the paralleling bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing radiographs were obtained using Sirona digital panoramic X-ray unit (Sirona Siemens, Bensheim, Germany). In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed by 2 observers twice. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value for each observer and reading were calculated. Spearman's test showed a strong positive correlation between the duration of demineralization and histological grading of carious teeth surfaces. For the three radiographic techniques, intraobserver reliability was strong to excellent. Moreover, interobserver agreement was strong. The differences between all detection methods were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing using CMOS sensor had the highest sensitivity while EO BW had the highest specificity in the detection of incipient proximal caries. Within the limits of the ex vivo design, the difference in diagnostic accuracy between the three radiographic techniques was not significant. EO BW could be used in the detection of enamel proximal caries with results comparable with intraoral bitewing with PSP plate and CMOS sensor.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Solmaz Valizadeh; Mohammad Amin Tavakoli; Tara Zarabian; Farzad Esmaeili

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital recep-tors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal car-ies. Materials and methods Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs wer...

  20. A comparison between conventional radiography and digitized image accuracy in proximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangnoosh M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Computer Sciences, in radiology, like other fields, is of high importance. It should"nalso be noted that the accuracy of the technique and work conditions affects the radiographs information"nconsiderably. There for, in order to get more accurate diagnostic information, it seems necessary to investigate"ndifferent digitized radiographic techniques and to compare them with the conventional technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digitized radiographic"nimages by three digitization techniques in proximal caries detection."nMaterial and Methods: In this research study, sixty extracted human canines, premolars and molars were"nmounted in blocks and imaged on E-Kodak film, similar to bitewing radiographs. Ten bitewing radiographs"nwere then scanned at 600 d.p.i with flat bed scanner and a digital camera, then digitized at 300 d.p.i with"nanother digital camera. The digitized images were displayed randomly on a high-resolution monitor. Six"nobservers assessed the caries status of 120 proximal surfaces by conventional and digitized images. The"nobserver's scores were compared with the results of the macroscopic examination. Reliability of each"ntechnique was calculated. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests."nResults: No significant differences were detected between different techniques in intact proximal surfaces and"nenamel caries diagnosis. However, digital techniques were more sensitive in dentin caries detection (P<0.05."nConclusions: When conventional film images are digitized, medium resolution (300 d.p.i seems to be"nsufficient. At this resolution the file size is decreased and there is no significant loss of the information"nnecessary for caries diagnosis.

  1. Film tomography compared with film and digital bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, I; Toraman Alkurt, M; Altunkaynak, B

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of conventional tomography for proximal caries detection compared with conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiography. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs, digital intraoral radiographs and conventional tomograms were obtained of the teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (A(z)) was analysed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated using a t-test. The statistical analysis of A(z) scores has shown no significant difference for three imaging modalities (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreement (P>0.05). This study has demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of conventional tomograms is comparable to that of conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection.

  2. Detection accuracy of proximal caries by phosphor plate and cone-beam computerized tomography images scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Zu-Yan; Ma, Xu-Chen; Li, Gang

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether the spatial resolution has an impact on the detection accuracy of proximal caries in flat panel CBCT (cone beam computerized tomography) images and if the detection accuracy can be improved by flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution when compared to digital intraoral images. The CBCT test images of 45 non-restored human permanent teeth were respectively scanned with the ProMax 3D and the DCT Pro scanners at different resolutions. Digital images were obtained with a phosphor plate imaging system Digora Optime. Eight observers evaluated all the test images for carious lesion within the 90 proximal surfaces. With the histological examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The areas under the ROC curves were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the CBCT images and between CBCT and digital images when only proximal enamel caries was detected (p = 0.989). With respect to the detection of proximal dentinal caries, significant difference was found between CBCT and digital images (p proximal caries in flat panel CBCT images. The flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution did not improve the detection accuracy of proximal enamel caries compared to digital intraoral images. CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolutions could not be used for proximal caries detection.

  3. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-12-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection.

  4. Detection and treatment of proximal caries lesions: Milieu-specific cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Paris, Sebastian; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries lesions are highly prevalent, concentrated in high-risk groups, and often affect proximal tooth surfaces. Choosing a caries detection method determines the available treatment options: radiographically detected early lesion stages might receive non-, micro-, or invasive treatments, whilst visually tactile detected lesions are often advanced and mostly require invasive treatment. Thus, the choice of detection method impacts on patients via the applied treatment. We compared the cost-effectiveness of combinations of detections and treatments of proximal lesions in different populations which did or did not receive prevention during adolescence. These cost-effectiveness comparisons of different detection-treatment combinations should aid clinical decision making and improve resource allocation. A Markov-model was constructed to follow a proximal posterior surface in a 12-year-old German over his lifetime. Prevalence, validity and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. Microsimulations were performed to evaluate costs (Euro) per tooth-retention-time (years). For populations with low risk, radiographic detection plus non-invasive treatment without (270 Euro, 61.5 years) and with prevention (312 Euro, 63.0 years), as well as radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment and prevention (373 Euro, 64.0 years) were cost-effective. For populations with high risk, radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment without (427 Euro, 58.5 years) and with prevention (436 Euro, 61.0 years) were cost-effective. Combinations involving invasive treatments had limited cost-effectiveness. Caries detection methods should be evaluated regarding the cost-effectiveness resulting from their use in different populations. Caries detection methods are usually evaluated regarding their validity compared to a gold standard. We demonstrate that the cost-effectiveness stemming from using different detection methods additionally depends on the

  5. Comparison of proximal caries detection in primary teeth between laser fluorescence and bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virajsilp, V; Thearmontree, A; Aryatawong, S; Paiboonwarachat, D

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this in vitro study were to: (1) compare the accuracy of a laser fluorescence system (DIAGNOdent) in proximal caries diagnosis in primary teeth with that of bitewing radiography, using the histological examination as a gold standard; and (2) evaluate the reliability of the DIAGNOdent examination. Included were 107 extracted primary molars without obvious cavities on proximal surfaces. The teeth were examined by 2 examiners using DIAGNOdent directly on the lesions (without contact; ie, proximal surfaces were not in contact with other teeth) and indirectly (with contact; ie, proximal surfaces were in contact with adjacent teeth). To simulate contacting teeth, the studied surface was set adjacent to a sound surface in a wax base. The contacting teeth were also diagnosed using bitewing radiography. Results of the diagnoses were compared with a histological gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each diagnostic system. Inter- and intraexaminer reliabilities of DIAGNOdent were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC). At the dentine caries (D3) level, the sensitivities of bitewing radiography (with contacting teeth) and DIAGNOdent with and without contacting teeth (direct application) were 0.41, 0.85 and 0.93, respectively, and the specificities were 1, 0.89, and 0.87, respectively. Both inter- and intraexaminer reliabilities using DIAGNOdent with and without contacting teeth (direct application) were very high (ICC=0.97 to 0.99). The reliability of DIAGNOdent is very high and its diagnostic validity (sum of sensitivity and specificity) is higher than that of bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth.

  6. Comparison of diagnostic ability of storage phosphor plate in detecting proximal caries with direct measurement by stereomicroscope: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhannair Vivek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2, (time of exposure 0.4 s. Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicroscope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  7. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  8. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intra oral bitewing, extra oral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and digital con- ventional panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extra oral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (P<0.05.Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the sur- faces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths. The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value among the five techniques were not statisti- cally significant.Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extra oral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intra oral radi- ographs.

  9. Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburoglu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Yüksel, S; Ozen, T

    2012-09-01

    To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. 80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography.

  10. Detection of proximal secondary caries at cervical class II-amalgam restoration margins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Rodrigues, J A; Seemann, R; Lussi, A

    2012-06-01

    To compare the performance of LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) with two different wedge-shaped tips to conventional bitewing radiography (BW) for detecting proximal secondary caries at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations in vitro. Seventy-five molars with class II amalgam restorations were selected. Depending on the marginal filling extension, data was subdivided into a crown group (C), when the filling ended in enamel, and into a root group (R), when the filling ended beyond the cementum-enamel junction. Bayesian analysis including calculation of the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was performed. Furthermore, Spearman correlations between caries and cofactors, such as presence of plaque or stain, occlusal ditching, marginal gap size, filling overhangs, and shortfalls, were calculated. Additionally, for group R the correlation coefficient between LFpen measurements and lesion depth was calculated. Histology served as gold standard. In group C both at the D1 and D3 levels, LFpen with two different tips showed a better performance than bitewing radiography (AUC at D1: 0.83/0.79 (LFpen) and 0.63 (BW); at D3: 0.66/0.66 (LFpen) and 0.53 (BW)). In group R, the respective AUC values were 0.53/0.56 (LF) and 0.59 (BW). A significant medium correlation was observed for occlusal ditching and proximal caries. Stain accumulation at the restoration margins especially in combination with filling overhangs interfered with LFpen readings, resulting in false positive measurements. Compared to BW, LFpen enhances the detection of secondary caries lesions at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations that do not extend below the cementum-enamel junction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Shimasadat; Mehralizadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya; Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar; Soltani, Parisa

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  12. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  13. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Faghihian, Reyhaneh; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Pproximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the surfaces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths). The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value) among the five techniques were not statistically significant. Improved interproximal panoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs.

  14. The Efficiency of Operating Microscope Compared with Unaided Visual Examination, Conventional and Digital Intraoral Radiography for Proximal Caries Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peker, Ilkay; Toraman Alkurt, Meryem; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods. The study was based on 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth. The teeth were examined with unaided visual examination, operating microscope, conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs. Then, true caries depth was determined by histological ex...

  15. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri, Shimasadat [Dept. of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrailzadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya [School of Dentistry, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar [Dept. of Research, School of Dentistry, Isfahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, Parisa [Dental Students Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy (p>0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  16. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  17. Comparison of direct digital and conventional radiography for the detection of proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprichard, K K; Potter, B J; Russell, C M; Schafer, T E; Adair, S; Weller, R N

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of direct digital radiography and traditional dental radiography for the detection of proximal surface dental caries in the mixed dentition. 15 quadrants of extracted teeth, arranged from the primary canine to permanent first molar, were imaged using direct digital (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY, USA) and conventional films (D-speed and E-speed Plus; Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA). Five pediatric dentists viewed the images and scored the 270 proximal surfaces for presence of caries on a 5 point scale and extent of caries on a 4 point scale. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the viewer's performance for detecting proximal caries using the 3 different image receptor types. Experienced examiners were significantly more accurate in diagnosis of proximal surface caries using either D-speed or E-speed Plus films than they were using the direct digital receptor. The mean areas under the ROC curve (Az) for the viewers were 0.7595 for D-speed film, 0.7557 for E-speed Plus film, and 0.5928 for the direct digital receptor. The results also indicated that selected viewers' accuracy increased when viewing the direct digital images a second time. CCD based direct digital radiography was not as accurate as conventional film images for the purpose of diagnosing proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition. However, the results imply that with increased experience, direct digital images may be as accurate as conventional film based images for diagnosis.

  18. Comparing the performance of storage phosphor plate and Insight film images for the detection of proximal caries depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, K; Parker, M E; Nortje, C J; Sanderink, G C H

    2009-11-01

    To compare proximal caries depth between conventional film images, unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. Bitewing radiographs were taken on 100 patients presenting for Conservative and Periodontal treatment. Only one bitewing was taken on a patient either the right or left hand side of the patient A DenOptics storage phosphor plate and size 3 Kodak Insight film were simultaneously placed into a Rinn bitewing holder. The Insight film was placed behind the phosphor plate. Both were simultaneously exposed to radiation. The unenhanced phosphor plate images were copied four times. Contrast and brightness were either increased or decreased on the copied images. A five point scale was chosen for proximal caries depth: 0--sound, 1--caries in enamel, 2--caries reaching dentino-enamel junction, 3--caries into dentine, 4--caries in a restored area. The bitewing images were evaluated by 4 clinicians. Images with technical errors were excluded from the study. Altogether 1848 tooth surfaces were evaluated of which 136 surfaces were excluded due to technical errors. The results show that for the detection of proximal caries there is no significant difference in accuracy between unenhanced storage phosphor plate and Kodak Insight film images (p > 0.001). When decreasing both contrast and brightness there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy (p > 0.001) between unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. More surfaces were analyzed for caries into the dentine on the enhanced images when both contrast and brightness were increased. Although contrast-enhanced and brightness-enhanced images retween conventional film, unenhanced and enhanced images.

  19. Effect of data compression on proximal caries detection: observer performance with DenOptix photostimulable phosphor images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, T; Ludlow, J B; Tyndall, D A; Platin, E; Abreu, M

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect of lossy image compression on caries detection. Null hypothesis states no difference in caries detection efficacy among observers using original digital images versus images compressed at various rates of compression. Digital images of 41 extracted posterior teeth were obtained with a storage phosphor DenOptix (Gendex DenOptix Imaging system) system. Images were exported in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and compressed with Joint Photographic Experts Group File Interchange Format (JFIF), as provided by the software of the imaging system. The compressions options JFIF100%, JFIF75% and JFIF50% resulted in reducing the image size to 1:2, 1:11 and 1:16, respectively. Eight observers evaluated the presence or absence of caries on a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each proximal surface was determined by ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under the curves (Az) were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean Az scores were 0.85 for original/uncompressed images, and 0.89 for JFIF100%, 0.88 for JFIF75% and 0.88 for JFIF50% images. These differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.26). Differences between observers were also not statistically significant (P = 0.12). JFIF compression at the level of 1:16 can be used without significant deterioration in diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection.

  20. Effect of tube potential and image receptor on the detection of natural proximal caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogur, Elif; Baksı, B Güniz; Orhan, Kaan; Paksoy, S Candan; Dogan, Salih; Erdal, Yılmaz S; Mert, Ali

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth at three different tube potentials using Ektaspeed films, storage phosphor plates (SPPs), and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Fifty-three extracted human primary molars with natural proximal caries were radiographed with three different imaging modalities--Digora Optime SPP system, RVGui CCD system, and Ektaspeed films--at 50-, 65-, and 70-kV tube potentials. Three observers scored the resultant images for the presence or absence of caries. The definitive diagnosis was determined by stereomicroscopic assessment. The diagnostic accuracy for each imaging modality was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A(z)). Differences among the A(z) values were assessed using two-way ANOVA and t tests. Kappa was used to measure inter- and intra-observer agreement. Higher accuracy was found for SPPs compared to film and CCD images at all tube potentials. Accuracy was significantly different only at 50-kV tube setting in favor of SPPs (p proximal caries since further advantages include the elimination of chemical processing, image enhancement, and a better low-contrast detectability performance.

  1. In vitro comparison of four different dental X-ray films and direct digital radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Meryem Torman; Peker, Ilkay; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of different speeds of conventional intraoral films and a direct digital system for proximal caries detection. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs and direct digital radiographs were obtained from the teeth. Three observers independently assessed 96 proximal surfaces, each observer had 10 years of experience. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (Az) was analyzed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated by using ANOVA analysis. The statistical analysis of Az scores exhibited no significant difference for the five imaging modalities (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreements (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that the diagnostic performance of E- and F-speed films and direct digital radiography are similar for proximal caries detection.

  2. Detection of proximal caries in conventional and digital radiographs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbach, Maria Ivete; Veeck, Elaine Bauer; da Costa, Nilza Pereira

    2008-01-01

    To compare digital images to conventional film radiography in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Fifty-one molars and 24 premolars were studied and divided in groups of three teeth. They were fixed in silicone and radiographed using InSight film (Kodak) and the digital systems Digora (Soredex), DenOptix (Gendex) and CygnusRay MPS (Progeny). Twenty-five radiographs were obtained in each modality and four proximal surfaces were analyzed in each radiograph. Radiographs were interpreted individually by one observer at three different sessions for each imaging modality. Caries lesions were classified according to their depth: (0) absent; (1) restricted to enamel; (2) reaching the dentino-enamel junction; and (3) reaching the dentin. The teeth were sectioned and ground in order to obtain the gold standard and were examined histologically by stereomicroscopy. The Kendall test was employed and showed a good intra-observer agreement among the three evaluations implemented. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were all calculated, and there were no significant differences observed among the four imaging modalities studied (ANOVA, pdetection of proximal caries.

  3. Task-specific enhancement filters in storage phosphor images from the Vistascan system for detection of proximal caries lesions of known size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Casanova, Marcia Spinelli; Frydenberg, Morten; Wenzel, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to compare original 8-bit images from the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system with images enhanced with specific filters for detection of proximal caries lesions and, further, to analyze the mutual sensitivity of the filtered images for different lesion sizes. One hundred sixty approximal noncavitated surfaces were radiographed using the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system. Original and enhanced (Fine, Caries1, and Caries2 filters) images were assessed by 6 observers who recorded the presence/absence of proximal carious lesions. Microscopy served to detect and measure true lesion size. One hundred one surfaces were sound, and 59 had lesions. The sensitivity of the Fine filter images was significantly higher than the Caries1 and Caries2 filter modalities (P Caries1 and Caries2 modalities. Both the Fine filter and the original images had a significantly higher specificity than the Caries2 modality (P Caries2 modality (P Caries1 modality (P detection of shallow carious lesion, because it showed less observer variability. The task-specific enhancement filters, Caries1 and Caries2, were less accurate than the original and Fine filter images and cannot be recommended for detection of the lesion sizes included in this study.

  4. Accuracy of extraoral bite-wing radiography in detecting proximal caries and crestal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micah; Dadul, Tenzin; Langlais, Robert; Russell, David; Ahmad, Mansur

    2018-01-01

    Extraoral bite-wing (EB) radiography is an imaging technology used in dentistry. The authors conducted an in vivo study comparing the accuracy of intraoral bitewing (IB) radiographs and EB radiographs for proximal caries and bone loss diagnosis. The authors recruited 116 patients who received IB radiographs to receive EB radiographs. The 5 calibrated authors made a consensus radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries and crestal bone loss. For this study, they assumed IB radiographs as the criterion standard. Next, they obtained EB radiographs for the 116 patients and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive rates against each patient's IB radiograph. The patients' EB radiographs revealed a significantly greater number of caries and crestal bone loss findings compared with their IB radiographs. The EB radiographs had a high to excellent sensitivity and moderate to low specificity of caries and crestal bone loss findings, respectively. Considering IB radiographs to be the criterion standard, the false-positive rate for EB radiographs was moderate for caries and high for bone loss diagnosis. The EB radiographs, which generate fewer images of overlapping proximal surfaces, have the advantage of detecting more carious lesions and bone loss findings than the IB radiographs do, but with the disadvantage of more false-positive diagnoses. Further research is needed to evaluate if the false-positive findings represent true carious lesions and bone loss. EB radiography is a promising technology, which has several advantages over traditional IB radiography. Clinicians should be aware of false-positive diagnosis of caries and bone loss with EB radiography. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66{+-}0.11 for HRC, 0.78{+-}0.02 for HSC, 0.76{+-}0.04 for HRE, 0.77{+-}0.04 for HRP, and 0.71{+-}0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs. Materials and methods. This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent. The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test. Results. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively. Conclusion. The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images.

  7. Effect of Filtration and Thickness of Cross-Sections of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images on Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Nazeri, Rahman; Ghaiour, Marzieh

    2017-07-01

    When a patient has cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images based on the treatment plan, it is possible to use these images for evaluation of caries, and there is no need for new radiographs, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of filtration and thickness of CBCT cross-sections on detection of proximal caries. In this in-vitro study, 100 teeth were placed in the dental sockets of a dry skull, and were fixed in normal proximal contacts. CBCT images were taken and were evaluated by two observers on the panoramic view at 1-, 3- and 5-mm-thick cross-sections, with the use of filtrations 0, 1 and 2. Afterwards, the samples were sectioned and underwent a histological evaluation. McNemar's test was used to compare the findings on CBCT images and histological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different cross-sections. The maximum AZ-value was achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2. However, the differences between 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1 were not significant (P=0.728 and 0.868, respectively). The minimum AZ-value was achieved at 5-mm thickness/filtration 0. Although CBCT is not sufficiently effective in detecting caries, the best cross-sections for detection of proximal caries were achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2, 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1.

  8. Effect of Filtration and Thickness of Cross-Sections of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images on Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a patient has cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images based on the treatment plan, it is possible to use these images for evaluation of caries, and there is no need for new radiographs, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA principle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of filtration and thickness of CBCT cross-sections on detection of proximal caries.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 100 teeth were placed in the dental sockets of a dry skull, and were fixed in normal proximal contacts. CBCT images were taken and were evaluated by two observers on the panoramic view at 1-, 3- and 5-mm-thick cross-sections, with the use of filtrations 0, 1 and 2. Afterwards, the samples were sectioned and underwent a histological evaluation. McNemar’s test was used to compare the findings on CBCT images and histological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different cross-sections.Results: The maximum AZ-value was achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2. However, the differences between 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1 were not significant (P=0.728 and 0.868, respectively. The minimum AZ-value was achieved at 5-mm thickness/filtration 0.Conclusions: Although CBCT is not sufficiently effective in detecting caries, the best cross-sections for detection of proximal caries were achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2, 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Dehghani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries.Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated.Results: Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5-44.4% but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8-62.8%; PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05.Conclusions: Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor.Keywords: Dental Caries; Diagnostic Imaging; Radiography, Dental, Digital

  10. Alternative erasing times of the DenOptix system plate: performance on the detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Daniela P; Pontual, Andrea A; Almeida, Solange M; Campos, Paulo F; Tosoni, Guilherme M

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the DenOptix system for detection of proximal caries using alternative erasing times for the photostimulable phosphor plates. Human teeth were X-rayed with phosphor plates using different erasing times. Five observers evaluated the images for the presence of caries by scoring the proximal surfaces of each tooth. Mean pixel intensity analyses were also carried out. The erasing times were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Analysis of variance for differences among erasing times and pixel intensity values was performed, followed by linear regression analysis for correlation between these variables. The mean ROC curve for each erasing time varied from 0.61 to 0.66 (not significant). Analysis of variance did not show any significant effect of the erasing times on the pixel intensity values of the images (P > .05). Erasing times for DenOptix phosphor plates from 20 to 130 s were satisfactory for diagnosis of proximal caries, and their use is therefore feasible in clinical practice.

  11. The Efficiency of Operating Microscope Compared with Unaided Visual Examination, Conventional and Digital Intraoral Radiography for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Peker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods. The study was based on 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth. The teeth were examined with unaided visual examination, operating microscope, conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs. Then, true caries depth was determined by histological examination. The extent of the carious lesions was assessed by three examiners independently. One way variance of analysis (ANOVA and Scheffe test were performed for comparison of observers, and the diagnostic accuracies of all systems were assessed from the area under the ROC curve (Az. Results. Statistically significant difference was found between observers (P<.01. There was a statistically significant difference between operating microscope-film radiography, operating microscope-RVG, unaided visual examination-film radiography, and unaided visual examination-RVG according to pairwise comparison (P<.05. Conclusion. The efficiency of operating microscope was found statistically equal with unaided visual examination and lower than radiographic systems for proximal caries detection.

  12. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, W E R; Verheij, J G C; Syriopoulos, K; Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard resolution dimensions, and vice versa. 90 extracted human premolars were mounted in groups of 5 in plaster blocks, containing 4 test teeth and 1 non-test tooth. Two blocks at a time were placed in a jig to simulate a bitewing radiograph. Radiographs were taken using four digital systems (Planmeca Dixi 2; Gendex Visualix HDI; Dürr Vistascan; Digora Optime), each at two resolution settings. Next, the teeth were sectioned and a total of 65 surfaces were incorporated in the study. Additionally, the bicubic interpolation method was applied to reduce the high-resolution original images and to enlarge the standard resolution images. The original, reduced and enlarged images were randomly shown to five observers in two random sessions. The observers were asked to assess caries depth on a 4-point scale. The observers' scores were compared with the results from a histological examination. Data were analysed using the statistical theory for multivariate discrete data. Cohen's kappa was used to determine the agreement with the gold standard. None of the comparisons between the spatial resolution settings, or the comparisons between increased or reduced image size and the original image sizes, showed significant differences in the probability of caries detection (chi2=26.59, df=26, P approximately 0.50). The four digital systems used in this study differ significantly in the probability of caries detection (chi2=41.55, df=24, PCaries diagnosis does not improve when using high-resolution settings compared with the standard settings. The use of bicubic convolution interpolation for zooming has no detectable effect on caries diagnosis and therefore is recommended to use when enlarging or reducing

  13. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Barzegari, Rasool; Tabatabai, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Results: Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5–44.4%) but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8–62.8%); PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor. PMID:28828014

  14. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Barzegari, Rasool; Tabatabai, Hosein; Ghanea, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries. Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5-44.4%) but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8-62.8%); PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor.

  15. In Vitro Comparison of D and F Speed Intraoral Radiographic Films in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliehsadat Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of fast films is one of the major factors contributing to dose reduction. However, the diagnostic ability of fast film must be determined before current use of the films. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of D and F speed films in the diagnosis of proximal caries.Materials & Methods: Eighty proximal surfaces in 40 extracted unrestored premolars were undergone radiography in standardized conditions using D- and F-speed flowdental intraoral films. True caries diagnosis was based on histological assessment of the surfaces after sectioning the teeth. Two observers read the radiographs using a four-point scale to record their diagnosis. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and areas under the ROC Curves (Az was microscopical assessed by pairwise comparison of ROC Curve.Results: D and F speed films had a mean Az of 0.934 and 0.920 respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.548 Difference between observers was also not statistically significant.Conclusion: The efficiency of the new F-Speed films was not statistically different from that D Speed films in caries detection. This film shows the ability of reducing patient’s dose while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  16. Proximal caries lesion detection in primary teeth: does this justify the association of diagnostic methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussaneli, D G; Restrepo, M; Boldieri, T; Albertoni, T H; Santos-Pinto, L; Cordeiro, R C L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the performance of visual exam with use of the Nyvad criteria (visual examination - (VE)), interproximal radiography (BW), laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent Pen-DDPen), and their association in the diagnosis of proximal lesions in primary teeth. For this purpose, 45 children (n = 59 surfaces) of both sexes, aged between 5 and 9 years were selected, who presented healthy primary molars or primary molars with signs suggestive of the presence of caries lesions. The surfaces were clinically evaluated and coded according to the Nyvad criteria and immediately afterwards with the DDPen. Radiographic exam was performed only on the surfaces coded with Nyvad scores 2, 3, 5, or 6. Active caries lesions and/or those with discontinuous surfaces were restored, considering the depth of lesion as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve were calculated for each technique and its associations. Visual exam with Nyvad criteria presented the highest specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve values. The DDPen presented the highest sensitivity values. Association with one or more methods resulted in an increase in specificity. The performance of visual, radiographic, and DDpen exams and their associations were good; however, the clinical examination with the Nyvad criteria was sufficient for the diagnosis of interproximal lesions in primary teeth.

  17. Inter- and intraexaminer reliability of bitewing radiography and near-infrared light transillumination for proximal caries detection and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzenburger, Friederike; Heck, Katrin; Pitchika, Vinay; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Jost, Fabian N; Hickel, Reinhard; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Welk, Alexander; Lederer, Alexander; Kühnisch, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the inter- and intraexaminer reliability of digital bitewing (DBW) radiography and near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection and assessment in posterior teeth. From a pool of 85 patients, 100 corresponding pairs of DBW and NIRT images (~1/3 healthy, ~1/3 with enamel caries and ~1/3 with dentin caries) were chosen. 12 dentists with different professional status and clinical experience repeated the evaluation in two blinded cycles. Two experienced dentists provided a reference diagnosis after analysing all images independently. Statistical analysis included the calculation of simple (κ) and weighted Kappa (wκ) values as a measure of reliability. Logistic regression with a backward elimination model was used to investigate the influence of the diagnostic method, evaluation cycle, type of tooth, and clinical experience on reliability. Altogether, inter- and intraexaminer reliability exhibited good to excellent κ and wκ values for DBW radiography (Inter: κ = 0.60/ 0.63; wκ = 0.74/0.76; Intra: κ = 0.64; wκ = 0.77) and NIRT (Inter: κ = 0.74/0.64; wκ = 0.86/0.82; Intra: κ = 0.68; wκ = 0.84). The backward elimination model revealed NIRT to be significantly more reliable than DBW radiography. This study revealed a good to excellent inter- and intraexaminer reliability for proximal caries detection using DBW and NIRT images. The logistic regression analysis revealed significantly better reliability for NIRT. Additionally, the first evaluation cycle was more reliable according to the reference diagnoses.

  18. Detection of proximal caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and laser fluorescence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yoo, Min-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro validity of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) for assessing proximal caries in extracted premolars, using digital radiography as reference method. A total of 102 extracted premolars with similar lengths and shapes were used. A single operator conducted all the examinations using three different detection methods (bitewing radiography, QLF-D, and DIAGNOdent). The bitewing x-ray scale, QLF-D fluorescence loss (ΔF), and DIAGNOdent peak readings were compared and statistically analyzed. Each method showed an excellent reliability. The correlation coefficient between bitewing radiography and QLF-D, DIAGNOdent were -0.644 and 0.448, respectively, while the value between QLF-D and DIAGNOdent was -0.382. The kappa statistics for bitewing radiography and QLF-D had a higher diagnosis consensus than those for bitewing radiography and DIAGNOdent. The QLF-D was moderately to highly accurate (AUC = 0.753 - 0.908), while DIAGNOdent was moderately to less accurate (AUC = 0.622 - 0.784). All detection methods showed statistically significant correlation and high correlation between the bitewing radiography and QLF-D. QLF-D was found to be a valid and reliable alternative diagnostic method to digital bitewing radiography for in vitro detection of proximal caries.

  19. A clinical comparison of extraoral panoramic and intraoral radiographic modalities for detecting proximal caries and visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Glenn L; Noujeim, Marcel; Langlais, Robert P; Moore, William S; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare extraoral panoramic bitewings (BWs) to intraoral photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate BWs for the detection of proximal surface caries and to establish if there was any difference between extraoral BWs, intraoral BWs and panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts. Extraoral panoramic and intraoral BW images were acquired on each of 20 patients, resulting in 489 total non-restored, readable surfaces that were evaluated by 4 observers. The ANOVA analysis to determine diagnostic variability between and within each subject was utilized. The surfaces included in the study extended from the distal of each canine to the last posterior contact in each arch with non-readable proximal surfaces excluded (i.e.surfaces where over half the enamel layer was overlapped or where those surfaces were not visible in one or both modalities). The statistical analysis indicated that the overall mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curves across all observers for the intraoral BWs and extraoral panoramic BWs were 0.832 and 0.827, respectively, and the difference of 0.005 was not significant at p = 0.7781. The percentage of non-readable proximal surfaces across the three modalities was 4.1% for intraoral BWs, 18.3% for extraoral panoramic BWs and 51.5% for the standard panoramic images. The investigators concluded there was no significant difference in posterior proximal surface caries detection between the modalities. Extraoral panoramic BWs were much better than panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts, 81.7% vs 48.5%, but below the 95.9% value for intraoral BWs.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Senior Dental Students in Yazd About of Detection the Proximal Caries on Panoramic Radiographs Compared to Detection of Experts in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Romoozi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.

  1. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  2. Diagnostic performance of the visual caries classification system ICDAS II versus radiography and micro-computed tomography for proximal caries detection: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, P; Rahiotis, C; Stamatakis, H; Kakaboura, A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to compare the visual caries classification system ICDAS II with conventional (CR) and digital radiography (DR) for diagnosis of non-cavitated caries on free proximal surfaces, (b) to examine the potential of micro-computed tomography (MCT) to substitute histological examination for the in vitro caries assessment. Both proximal surfaces of 20 teeth received classification separately by two examiners by means of the diagnostic modalities examined. The teeth were sectioned and assessed for depth of the lesion. The modalities were compared in terms of degree of inter-examiner agreement, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value and validity. Two diagnostic thresholds were applied: no caries versus all caries scores (D1), and no dentin caries versus dentin caries (D3). The weighted kappa values for inter-examiner reproducibility for all diagnostic modalities were 0.51-0.81. Visual examination (ICDAS II) reached significant higher sensitivity (0.92-0.96) and negative predictive value (0.9-1) than radiography. Likewise, the radiographic modalities presented significantly higher specificity (0.93-1) and positive predictive values (0.92-1) than the ICDAS II criteria. The overall accuracy performance of radiographic modalities was related to the diagnostic threshold. MCT did not agree with histological validation at each disease severity scale. The ICDAS II criteria are a promising tool for caries diagnosis on free proximal surfaces. DR and CR radiography present comparable performance. Furthermore, MCT is not capable of constituting a reliable alternative to histological examination for caries research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Bhumireddy, Jayachandra Reddy; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.'s criteria. A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Methods: Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. Results: A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.′s criteria. Conclusions: A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  5. Detection of proximal caries in vitro using standard and task-specific enhanced images from a storage phosphor plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; Berkhout, W E R; Syriopoulos, K; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-01-01

    Eight dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to all caries lesions and to lesions into dentine in digital images from a storage phosphor plate system. The images were processed in four different ways: (1) the default algorithm of the standard imaging system (DF); (2) an algorithm correcting for attenuation and visual response (AV), and two proprietary caries-specific enhancement algorithms (3) K1, and (4) K2, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves between differently processed radiographs for the categories of all caries lesions and caries into dentine. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, W.E.R.; Verheij, H.G.C.; Syriopoulos, K.; Li, G.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard

  7. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Methods: Sixty extracted molars including 30 teeth with carious lesions and 30 sound teeth were randomly selected. Class II cavities were prepared in all teeth and carious dentin was intentionally left in the gingival floor of cavities in 30 carious teeth. All cavities were restored with composite resin. The teeth were mounted in wax blocks (three teeth per block) and examined for caries using (DIAGNOdent kaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany). Digital radiographs using DIGORA photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained from all teeth using the parallel technique and were evaluated by 4 observers. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate sensitivity and specificity values of the two diagnostic techniques. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for DIAGNOdent results and based on that, the cutoff points were determined. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values at the cut-off point of 10.5 were 0.622±0.038 and 0.822±0.077 for DIAGNOdent and 0.591±0.093 and 0.891±0.083 for digital radiography, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.7 for DIAGNOdent. Weighted kappa revealed moderate to almost perfect intra-observer agreement (0.46-0.99). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DIAGNOdent was calculated to be 0.88. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was noted in diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Thus, DIAGNOdent may be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for detection of secondary proximal caries beneath composite restorations.

  8. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  9. Resin infiltration of natural proximal caries lesions regarding different stages of disease in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Büchting, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Resin infiltration provides a treatment option for non-cavitated proximal caries lesions. Although further demineralisation of early non-cavitated lesions can be hampered by this treatment, it is uncertain; weather caries infiltration of cavitated lesions is possible. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the performance of resin infiltration regarding proximal caries lesions (n=72) differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. METHOD...

  10. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  11. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...... (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained...... caries detection method has good overall performance. Furthermore, although the identified studies had high heterogeneity and risk of bias, the use of detailed and validated indices seems to improve the accuracy of the method....

  12. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  13. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106...... primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth...... and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open...

  14. Resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions differing in ICDAS codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Sebastian; Bitter, Kerstin; Naumann, Michael; Dörfer, Christof E; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    2011-04-01

    Resin infiltration of non-cavitated proximal caries lesions has been shown to inhibit further demineralization. However, the effect of resin infiltration in cavitated lesions is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate infiltration patterns of proximal caries lesions differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal caries lesions with and without cavitations (ICDAS codes 2-5) were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and resin infiltrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three sections from each lesion were prepared and analyzed using a dual-fluorescence staining technique and confocal microscopy. The dimensions of the demineralized and cavitated lesions areas, as well as the resin-infiltrated parts within these lesions, were measured. The demineralized parts were infiltrated from 73% to 100% (median values) but the cavities were filled only negligibly (0-5%). Teeth that had an ICDAS code of 5 showed a significantly lower percentage infiltration/filling of lesions compared to teeth with ICDAS codes of 2 and 3. It was concluded that under in vitro conditions the tested infiltrant penetrates most parts of the demineralized enamel but is not capable of filling up cavities and therefore the efficacy of caries infiltration, particularly in lesions with larger cavitations, might be impaired. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces.

  16. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J

    1996-10-01

    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  17. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, K R; Luna, L E; Promisiero, L; Cortes, A; Cuevas, S; Reyes, J F; Torres, C E; Martignon, S

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth were then sectioned and the selected surfaces histologically classified using a stereomicroscope (×5). Intrareproducibility values (weighted kappa statistics) for the ICDAS for both primary and permanent teeth were >0.9, and for the radiographs between 0.6 and 0.8. Interreproducibility values for the ICDAS were >0.85, for the radiographs >0.6. For both primary and permanent teeth, the accuracy of each examiner (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for the ICDAS was ≥0.85, and for the radiographs ≥0.45. Corresponding data were achieved when using pooled data from the 3 examiners for both the ICDAS and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open for inspection, the ICDAS is a more reliable and accurate method than the radiograph for detecting and estimating the depth of the lesion in both primary and permanent teeth. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Reliability of Logicon caries detector in the detection and depth assessment of dental caries: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit R Behere; Shailesh M Lele

    2011-01-01

    Background: Digital radiography has so far not resulted in improved rates of proximal caries detection. Historically, automated caries detection tools have been largely academic. Opinions regarding the performance of the only such commercially available tool, viz., Logicon caries Detector (LCD) have been equivocal. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of LCD in the detection and depth assessment of proximal caries. Materials and Methods: Digital images were obtained of 100...

  19. Comparative study of a wireless digital system and 2 PSP digital systems on proximal caries detection and pixel values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Pontual, Andrea; de Melo, Daniela Pita; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the radiographic image quality of 2 photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate systems with a radiographic system against a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) system. Using the 3 digital systems, 160 approximal surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions. Using a 5-point scale, 6 observers scored the resulting images for the presence of caries. The presence of caries was validated histologically, and the image receptors were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The digital systems were used to take radiographs of an aluminum step wedge for objective analysis with pixel density measurements. The mean pixel values were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn multiple comparison test (P < 0.01). The performance of the new CMOS system was comparable to the PSP plate systems and radiographic film.

  20. Restorative treatment thresholds for proximal caries in dental PBRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudate, N; Sumida, F; Matsumoto, Y; Manabe, K; Yokoyama, Y; Gilbert, G H; Gordan, V V

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-square tests, and associations between the decision to intervene and dentist, practice, and patient characteristics were analyzed via logistic regression. The proportion of dentists who indicated surgical intervention into enamel was significantly higher in the high-caries-risk scenario (73.8%, N = 138) than in the low-caries-risk scenario (46.5%, N = 87) (p caries-risk scenario, gender of dentist, city population, type of practice, conducting caries-risk assessment, and administering diet counseling were significant factors associated with surgical enamel intervention. However, for a low-caries-risk scenario, city population, type of practice, and use of a dental explorer were the factors significantly associated with surgical enamel intervention. These findings demonstrate that restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries differ by caries risk. Most participants would restore lesions within the enamel for high-caries-risk individuals.

  1. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  2. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Proximal Caries in Dental PBRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudate, N.; Sumida, F.; Matsumoto, Y.; Manabe, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Gilbert, G.H.; Gordan, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-square tests, and associations between the decision to intervene and dentist, practice, and patient characteristics were analyzed via logistic regression. The proportion of dentists who indicated surgical intervention into enamel was significantly higher in the high-caries-risk scenario (73.8%, N = 138) than in the low-caries-risk scenario (46.5%, N = 87) (p dentist, city population, type of practice, conducting caries-risk assessment, and administering diet counseling were significant factors associated with surgical enamel intervention. However, for a low-caries-risk scenario, city population, type of practice, and use of a dental explorer were the factors significantly associated with surgical enamel intervention. These findings demonstrate that restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries differ by caries risk. Most participants would restore lesions within the enamel for high-caries-risk individuals (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01680848). PMID:23053847

  3. A Review of Emerging Technologies for the Detection and Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    specificity for detecting caries on visible surfaces of teeth, the detection of proximal carious lesions has been shown to be only around 0.30 meaning...radiography as an adjunct to visual examination generally allows for a more sensitive detection of proximal and occlusal caries lesions, provides a...study has shown that radiographic caries detection is best suited for detecting proximal lesions that are cavitated and lesions extending into dentin

  4. Visual-tactile versus radiographic caries detection agreement in caries-active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, André V; Ramos, Mario D; Astorga, Fernando; Shugars, Daniel A; Bader, James D

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to determine a) the extent of agreement between visual-tactile caries examination (VTE) and radiographic examination (RE) in detecting presumptive caries lesions on occlusal and proximal surfaces of posterior teeth of UNC Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial participants; and b) the additional caries diagnostic yield obtained by adding RE to VTE. Data consisted of surface-level visual-tactile and radiographic classification of disease (cavitated and noncavitated caries lesions) or nondisease (sound surfaces). Participants (n = 114, adults with ≥12 erupted teeth and 1-10 caries lesions) received baseline VTE by a trained and calibrated examiner, and had interproximal radiographs obtained within 7 months before or after the VTE. Radiographs were assessed independently by two trained and calibrated examiners masked with respect to VTE results. The diagnostic threshold was surface-level disease/nondisease status. Kappa statistics provided an estimate of VTE-RE agreement on diseased surfaces. The additional diagnostic yield of the RE over VTE was calculated as the additional lesions detected radiographically as a percentage of the total number of lesions detected by VTE. Four-hundred ninety-four (51 occlusal, 433 proximal) lesions were detected; of these, 81 (2 occlusal, 79 proximal) lesions were detected by both VTE and RE. Kappa statistics were 0.18 (all surfaces), 0.04 (occlusal), and 0.18 (proximal). The additional diagnostic yield was 69 percent (all surfaces), 55 percent (occlusal), and 71 percent (proximal). There is poor agreement between VTE and RE to detect caries in posterior teeth of caries-active adults. However, an RE performed within 7 months of a VTE adds caries diagnostic yield in a clinical trial, especially on proximal surfaces. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  6. Detection of caries with local CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daatselaar, A N; Tyndall, D A; van der Stelt, P F

    2003-07-01

    An in vitro observer study of the detection of interproximal caries by local CT. Detection of caries by means of conventional two-dimensional (2D) digital radiography and by two CT modalities was compared. Ground truth was obtained from histological examination of the sectioned teeth. Twenty-three extracted teeth (46 surfaces) were placed in groups of six in two dry mandibles. The observers (n=10) scored the proximal surfaces for the presence of caries on a 1-5 confidence scale. Data analysis used analysis of variance (a General Linear Model). Observer and method were entered into the model as within-subject variables and lesion depth was entered as a between-subjects variable. The analysis showed observer, method and lesion depth effects as well as several interaction effects to be significant. Observers performed significantly better with the vertically reformatted CT slices than with conventional radiographs (P=0.025). Furthermore, there were significant differences between observers, and several interactions were found to be significant. This means that although the reformatted slices performed best overall, this performance differed significantly depending on observer and on lesion depth. Vertically reformatted CT slices obtained with local CT performed significantly better than conventional 2D digital radiographs in visually detecting caries. Axial slices did not perform better than conventional radiographs. When vertically reformatted slices are used, local CT is a promising tool for the detection of interproximal caries.

  7. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  8. Interproximal contact points and proximal caries in posterior primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Paul J; Schwartz, Stephane

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the risk of proximal caries in posterior primary teeth is higher when interproximal contact points are closed than when they are open. A cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 286 children aged 24 to 72 months (mean age 54 months +/- 16 months). Children with any permanent dentition were excluded. Caries (defined as a lesion halfway through enamel or further) was assessed radiographically by a single dentist. The open/closed nature of contact points was assessed by a different dentist through resistance to dental floss. Data concerning known risk factors and indicators for caries were also collected. Analyses were performed at the level of the contact point, comparing the same contact points in different children. Multiple logistic regression was used to asses the relationship between open/closed status and caries status for each posterior contact point. In 7 of the 8 contact points examined, the odds for caries were significantly increased when contact points were dosed. This research suggests that the risk for proximal caries in the posterior primary dentition is raised if contact points are dosed compared to those that are open.

  9. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  10. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  11. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  12. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H

    2013-02-01

    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries by digital radiographs: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Qu, Xin-min; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the diagnostic accuracy of proximal dental caries in digital radiographs was similar when obtained in in vivo and in vitro conditions. Thirty-nine noncavitated teeth were collected from 11 subjects who had part of upper or lower jaws excised owing to cyst or neoplasm. Before operation, radiographs of the teeth involved were taken with the digital imaging system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), and after operation, the same extracted teeth were mounted in plaster blocks and exposed with the same digital imaging system. The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histologic validation of the lesions. Six observers evaluated all of the radiographs according to a 5-category scale. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Repeated-measure analysis of variance was used for the statistical analysis. There were no significant differences between digital radiographs taken in in vivo and in vitro conditions for diagnosis of proximal dental caries (P = .286). Detection accuracy of proximal dental caries obtained from an in vitro study can be considered to be representative of diagnostic accuracy of proximal dental caries obtained in the real clinical situation. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries-influence of experience and gender of the dental staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, Margrit-Ann; Carstens, S; Braisch, U; Rahman, A; Herz, M; Jablonski-Momeni, A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experience and gender on the radiographic detection of proximal caries lesions and on therapeutic decisions. A survey of 220 examiners (students and employees at three universities and dentists in the field) was taken using a standardized written questionnaire concerning radiographic diagnosis and therapy planning. An expert opinion of four dentists was determined as radiographic reference. A mixed effect logistic regression model was used for statistical evaluation and the odds ratio and p values were calculated (α = 0.05). Examiners with experience had an almost four times greater chance of a correct assessment, if proximal caries lesion was present or not, than examiners with low experience (OR 3.7 (95% CI 2.4-5.8)). No gender-specific differences were discovered (OR women vs. men 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.4)). There was a relationship between the severity of the burnout effect on the x-ray and false positive caries diagnosis. Overall, 43% of respondents would plan invasive treatment in the enamel on a patient at low risk of caries and 78% on a high-risk patient. The results showed that the more experienced practitioners would be more likely to postpone restorative therapy on proximal caries until the lesion reached a later stage. The results of this study suggest that examiner's experience influences the radiographic diagnosis of proximal lesions. No gender-specific differences could be found. Examiner's professional experience is an important factor when radiography is included for detection and treatment planning of proximal lesions.

  15. Reliability of Logicon caries detector in the detection and depth assessment of dental caries: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Rohit R; Lele, Shailesh M

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has so far not resulted in improved rates of proximal caries detection. Historically, automated caries detection tools have been largely academic. Opinions regarding the performance of the only such commercially available tool, viz., Logicon caries Detector (LCD) have been equivocal. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of LCD in the detection and depth assessment of proximal caries. Digital images were obtained of 100 proximal tooth surfaces using the Kodak RVG 5000 sensor and analyzed by three observers. The images were then analyzed by the principal investigator using the LCD software. The teeth were then sectioned and magnified photographic images were obtained which were taken as the gold standard. All the grades were entered in proformas and the data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Five parameters of reliability were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of LCD for the grade No caries were 33, 96, 73, 82, and 81%, respectively; for the grade Enamel caries were 5, 97, 33, 80, and 79%, respectively; and for the grade Dentin caries were 100, 96, 50, 100, and 96%, respectively. In conclusion, LCD appears to be more reliable in ruling out (both enamel and dentin) caries than in detecting caries.

  16. Computer-aided proximal caries diagnosis: correlation with clinical examination and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam University, School of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Scheetz, James P.; Aarman, Allan G. [University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, Louisville (United States)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the performance of the LOGICON Caries Detector using RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors, by comparing results of each detector to the results of clinical and histological examinations. Pairs of extracted teeth were radiographed, and a total of 57 proximal surfaces, which included both carious and non-carious situations, were analyzed. The RVG-4 produced 8-bit images, while the RVG-ui unit produced 12-bit images, which were taken in the high sensitivity mode. The images produced by the LOGICON were evaluated by a trained observer using both automated and manual caries detection software modes. Ground sections of the teeth established the actual absence or existence of caries. LOGICON-aided caries detection and depth discrimination of the RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors were equally inconsistent irrespective of whether the LOGICON software was set to the automated or manual mode. Sensitivity ranged from 50% to 57% for caries penetration of the enamel-dentin junction. Care needs to be taken when using LOGICON in conjunction with RVG images as an adjunct for treatment planning dental caries. Even when applied by a trained observer, substantial discrepancies exist between the results of the LOGICON software-guided evalutation using RVG images and histologic examination.

  17. Accuracy of dental radiographs for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Embase, Cochrane Central and grey literature, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. Diagnostic reviews were searched using the Medion database.Study selectionStudies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of primary carious lesions under clinical (in vivo) or in vitro conditions were included. The outcome of interest was caries detection using radiographs. The study also assessed the effect of the histologic lesion stage and included articles to assess the differences between primary or permanent teeth, if there had been improvements recently due to technical advances or radiographic methods, or if there are variations within studies (between examiners or applied radiographic techniques).Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was done by one reviewer first, using a piloted electronic spreadsheet and repeated independently by a second reviewer. Consensus was achieved by discussion. Data extraction followed guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions. Dentine lesions and cavitated lesions were analysed separately.Results947 articles were identified with the searches and 442 were analysed full text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included. All studies were published in English. 24 studies were in vivo and 93 studies were in vitro. Risk of bias was found to be low in 23 and high in 94 studies. The pooled sensitivity for detecting any kind of occlusal carious lesions was 0.35 (95% CI : 0.31/40) and 0.41 (0.39/0.44) in clinical and in vitro studies respectively while the pooled specificity was 0.78 (0.73/0.83) and 0.70 (0.76/0.84). For the detection of any kind of proximal lesion the sensitivity in the clinical studies was 0.24 (CI 0.21/0/26) and

  18. Comparison of different caries detectors for approximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Bozdemir

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The ability of bitewing radiography to identify sound surfaces was better than that of the other methods. The LF device was the most sensitive tool for detecting approximal surfaces with caries, followed by the LED device.

  19. Pragmatic RCT on the Efficacy of Proximal Caries Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Balbach, A; Schikowsky, C; Bitter, K; Paris, S

    2016-05-01

    Proximal caries infiltration has been shown to be efficacious in hampering caries lesion progression when performed by dentists working in a university setting. The aim of this randomized split-mouth, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions being performed by several dentists in private practices, in combination with individualized oral hygiene plus noninvasive measures compared with these alone. In this study, 87 children and young adults (with 238 pairs of proximal caries lesions radiographically extending into the inner half of the enamel [E2] or the outer third of the dentin [D1]) were randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments. Test lesions were infiltrated, and a mock treatment was performed in control lesions by 5 German private practitioners. All patients received instructions for a noncariogenic diet, flossing and fluoridation, and individualized noninvasive interventions. The primary outcome was radiographic lesion progression (pairwise comparison) evaluated independently by 2 evaluators who were blinded to treatment allocation. After approximately 10 mo (mean ± SD 307 ± 43 d), 92 of 148 lesion pairs in 24 of 38 treated patients who were at high caries risk could be re-evaluated clinically as well as radiographically using individualized bitewing holders, as at baseline; 186 of 204 lesion pairs in 70 of 77 patients (35 of 38 high-risk patients) could be evaluated after 18 mo (mean 542 ± 110 d). No unwanted effects were observed. After 10 mo, progression was recorded in 2 of 92 test lesions (2%) and in 22 of 92 control lesions (24%) (P= 0.001, McNemar/Obuchowski test; relative risk reduction, 91; 95% confidence interval, 62%-98%). After 18 mo, lesion progression was recorded in all included patients in 10 of 186 test lesions (5%) and in 58 of 186 control lesions (31%) (P< 0.001; relative risk reduction, 83; 95% confidence interval, 67%-91%). Thus, resin infiltration seems to be

  20. The effect of wavelet and discrete cosine transform compression of digital radiographs on the detection of subtle proximal caries. ROC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, R K W; Richter, A; d'Hoedt, B

    2008-01-01

    The study compared diagnostic performances of 2 different image compression methods: JPEG (discrete cosine transform; Joint Photographic Experts Group compression standard) versus JPEG2000 (discrete wavelet transform), both at a compression ratio of 12:1, from the original uncompressed TIFF radiograph with respect to the detection of non-cavitated carious lesions. Therefore, 100 approximal surfaces of 50 tooth pairs were evaluated on the radiographs by 10 experienced observers using a 5-point confidence scale. Observations were carried out on a standardized viewing monitor under subdued light conditions. The proportion of diseased surfaces was balanced to approximately 50% to avoid bias. True caries status was assessed by serial ground sectioning and microscopic evaluation. A non-parametric receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed non-significant differences between the 3 image modalities, as computed from the critical ratios z not exceeding +/-2 (JPEG/JPEG2000, z = -0.0339; TIFF/JPEG2000, z = 0.251;TIFF/JPEG, z = 0.914). The mean area beneath the curve was highest for TIFF (0.604) followed by JPEG2000 (0.593) and JPEG (0.591). Both intra-rater and inter-rater agreement were significantly higher for TIFF (kappa(intra) = 0.52; kappa(inter) = 0.40) and JPEG2000 images (kappa(intra) = 0.49; kappa(inter) = 0.38) than for JPEG images (kappa(intra) = 0.33; kappa(inter) = 0.35). Our results indicate that image compression with typical compression algorithms at rates yielding storage sizes of around 50 kB is sufficient even for the challenging task of radiographic detection of non-cavitated carious approximal lesions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Costs and effectiveness of treatment alternatives for proximal caries lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Schwendicke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Invasive therapy of proximal caries lesions initiates a cascade of re-treatment cycles with increasing loss of dental hard tissue. Non- and micro-invasive treatment aim at delaying this cascade and may thus reduce both the health and economic burden of such lesions. This study compared the costs and effectiveness of alternative treatments of proximal caries lesions. METHODS: A Markov-process model was used to simulate the events following the treatment of a proximal posterior lesion (E2/D1 in a 20-year-old patient in Germany. We compared three interventions (non-invasive; micro-invasive using resin infiltration; invasive using composite restoration. We calculated the risk of complications of initial and possible follow-up treatments and modelled time-dependent non-linear transition probabilities. Costs were calculated based on item-fee catalogues in Germany. Monte-Carlo-microsimulations were performed to compare cost-effectiveness of non- versus micro-invasive treatment and to analyse lifetime costs of all three treatments. RESULTS: Micro-invasive treatment was both more costly and more effective than non-invasive therapy, with ceiling-value-thresholds for willingness-to-pay between 16.73 € for E2 and 1.57 € for D1 lesions. Invasive treatment was the most costly strategy. Calculated costs and effectiveness were sensitive to lesion stage, patient's age, discounting rate and assumed initial treatment costs. CONCLUSIONS: Non- and micro-invasive treatments have lower long-term costs than invasive therapy of proximal lesions. Micro-invasive therapy had the highest cost-effectiveness for treating D1 lesions in young patients. Decision makers with a willingness-to-pay over 16.73 € and 1.57 € for E2 and D1 lesions, respectively, will find micro-invasive treatment more cost-effective than non-invasive therapy.

  2. Costs and effectiveness of treatment alternatives for proximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Stolpe, Michael; Dörfer, Christof Edmund; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Invasive therapy of proximal caries lesions initiates a cascade of re-treatment cycles with increasing loss of dental hard tissue. Non- and micro-invasive treatment aim at delaying this cascade and may thus reduce both the health and economic burden of such lesions. This study compared the costs and effectiveness of alternative treatments of proximal caries lesions. A Markov-process model was used to simulate the events following the treatment of a proximal posterior lesion (E2/D1) in a 20-year-old patient in Germany. We compared three interventions (non-invasive; micro-invasive using resin infiltration; invasive using composite restoration). We calculated the risk of complications of initial and possible follow-up treatments and modelled time-dependent non-linear transition probabilities. Costs were calculated based on item-fee catalogues in Germany. Monte-Carlo-microsimulations were performed to compare cost-effectiveness of non- versus micro-invasive treatment and to analyse lifetime costs of all three treatments. Micro-invasive treatment was both more costly and more effective than non-invasive therapy, with ceiling-value-thresholds for willingness-to-pay between 16.73 € for E2 and 1.57 € for D1 lesions. Invasive treatment was the most costly strategy. Calculated costs and effectiveness were sensitive to lesion stage, patient's age, discounting rate and assumed initial treatment costs. Non- and micro-invasive treatments have lower long-term costs than invasive therapy of proximal lesions. Micro-invasive therapy had the highest cost-effectiveness for treating D1 lesions in young patients. Decision makers with a willingness-to-pay over 16.73 € and 1.57 € for E2 and D1 lesions, respectively, will find micro-invasive treatment more cost-effective than non-invasive therapy.

  3. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  4. Radiographic caries detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Tzschoppe, Markus; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review aimed at evaluating the accuracy of radiographic caries detection for different lesions at different locations. Studies reporting on the accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of radiographic detection of natural primary caries lesions under clinical or in vitro conditions were included. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Analyses were performed separately for occlusal and proximal lesions, with further discrimination between any kind of lesions, dentine lesions, and cavitated lesions. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central) and grey literature were systematically searched, complemented by cross-referencing from bibliographies. From 947 identified articles, 442 were analyzed full-text. 117 studies (13,375 teeth, 19,108 surfaces) were included, the majority of them reporting on permanent teeth and having high risk of bias. The detection of any kind (i.e. also initial) lesions had low sensitivities (pooled DOR [95% CI]: 0.24 [0.21/0.26] to 0.42 [0.31/0.34]), but moderate to high specificities (0.70 [0.76/0.84] to 0.97 [0.95/0.98]). For dentine lesions, sensitivities were higher (from 0.36 [0.24/0.49] for proximal to 0.56 [0.53/0.59] for occlusal lesions), and specificities ranged between 0.87 [0.85/0.89] and 0.95 [0.94/0.96]. No studies reported on cavitated occlusal lesions, whilst for cavitated proximal lesions, sensitivities increased above 0.60, whilst sensitivities remained high (above 0.90). Radiographic caries detection is highly accurate for cavitated proximal lesions, and seems also suitable to detect dentine caries lesions. For detecting initial lesions, more sensitive methods could be considered in population with high caries risk and prevalence. Radiographic caries detection is especially suitable for detecting more advanced caries lesions, and has limited risks for false positive diagnoses. For

  5. Effectiveness of sealing active proximal caries lesions with an adhesive system: 1-year clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Abuchaim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapeutic sealant to arrest non-cavitated proximal carious lesion progression. The study population comprised 44 adolescents who had bitewing radiographs taken for caries diagnosis. Non-cavitated lesions extending up to half of dentin thickness were included in the sample. In the experimental group (n = 33, the proximal caries-lesion surfaces were sealed with an adhesive (OptiBond Solo, Kerr after tooth separation. The control group (n = 11 received no treatment, except for oral hygiene instructions including use of dental floss. Follow-up radiographs were taken after one year and were analyzed in comparison with baseline radiographs. In a blind study setting, visual readings were performed by two examiners, blinded to whether the examined radiograph was baseline or follow-up, and whether it concerned a test or control lesion. The efficacy of sealing treatment was evaluated by the McNemar test (0.05. About 22% of the sealed lesions showed reduction, 61% showed no change and 16% showed progression. For the control lesions, the corresponding values were 27%, 36% and 36% respectively. The number of lesions that showed reduction and no changes were merged and therefore 83.3% of the sealed lesions and 63.6% of the control lesions were considered clinically successful. No statistical significance was detected (p > 0.05. In the course of 1 year, sealing proximal caries lesions was not shown to be superior to lesion monitoring.

  6. Elastomeric impression as a diagnostic method of cavitation in proximal dentin caries in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the elastomeric impression after temporary tooth separation as a method of cavitation detection in proximal caries lesions in primary molars with outer half dentin radiolucency. Fifty-one children (4-10 years old, presenting radiolucency in the outer half of the dentin at the proximal surfaces of primary molars and proximal anatomic contact with the adjacent tooth (without restoration/cavitated caries lesion were enrolled in the study. Temporary tooth separation was performed with an orthodontic rubber ring placed around the contact point during 2-3 days. Thereafter, impression of the proximal surfaces was made. The elastomeric impressions were classified as "non-cavitated" or "cavitated" surfaces. Visual inspection after tooth separation was considered as the gold standard. Examiner reliability of visual inspection after tooth separation was determined (kappa 0.92. Impression examination was repeated every 5 participants to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. The frequency of cavitated lesions was 65%, and 67% of those were inactive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.88% (95%CI 0.73-0.95, 0.89% (95%CI 0.67-0.97, 0.94% (95%CI 0.79-0.98 and 0.80% (95%CI 0.58-0.92, respectively. Impression examination showed total agreement regarding cavitation. The evaluation of elastomeric impression after tooth separation is a useful clinical resource in cavitation detection for clinicians and researchers when visual inspection is doubtful.

  7. Noninvasive cross-sectional imaging of proximal caries using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hisaichi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Toru; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of swept-source optical coherent tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal caries in posterior teeth in vivo. SS-OCT images and bitewing radiographs were obtained from 86 proximal surfaces of 53 patients. Six examiners scored the locations according to a caries lesion depth scale (0-4) using SS-OCT and the radiographs. The results were compared with clinical observations obtained after the treatment. SS-OCT could detect the presence of proximal caries in tomograms that were synthesized based on the backscatter signal obtained from the proximal carious lesion through occlusal enamel. SS-OCT showed significantly higher sensitivity and larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than radiographs for the detection of cavitated enamel lesions and dentin caries (Student's t -test, p proximal lesions in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Radiographic assessment of proximal caries: A comparison between film-based and dexis digital imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama N Kalappanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Kodak Ektaspeed film and Dexis digital imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal canes in 210 proximal surfaces from 105 extracted human teeth (20 premolars and 85 molars, 129 of which were carious. Ground teeth were evaluated histologically. The images were assessed by an observer. ANOVA revealed that groups differ in scoring patterns with f-value of 26.72 and p < 0.01. The mean caries score by histologic assessment was significantly (p < 0.01 more when compared with the scores obtained by conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods. The mean score for conventional radiographic method was slightly more than Dexis digital radiographic method, but the difference was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05. Both the radiographic methods were less accurate in detecting proximal canes confined to enamel, but as the lesion depth was increased to dentin, the rate of caries detection increased dramatically. It was concluded that both conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods under estimated canes depth when compared with histologic method. Lastly, conventional film radiographs and Dexis digital radiographs did not perform significantly different from each other in the detection of canes.

  9. Radiographic diagnosis of incipient proximal caries: an ex-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto, José Moreira; dos Santos, Rosenês Lima; Sampaio, Maria Carmeli Correia; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Passos, Isabela Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare visual clinical and radiographic examinations to the histological analysis for proximal caries diagnosis in extracted permanent molars and premolars. The relationship between clinical aspects and carious lesions was also evaluated. Eighty-eight proximal surfaces (44 freshly extracted teeth) were longitudinally sectioned with a 370-microm diamond disk, thinned with wet silicon carbide paper and observed with a stereomicroscope at x40 magnification. Sensitivity and specificity were 65.6% and 83.3% for clinical examination and 29.7% and 95.8% for radiographic examination, respectively. Kappa values ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. The white spots corresponded to lesions restricted to enamel, while the dark spots corresponded to lesions that reached the dentinoenamel junction. In most cases, cavitation corresponded to dentin lesions. It may be concluded that interproximal radiographic examination is not a reliable method for detection of incipient proximal carious lesions.

  10. Clinical detection of caries in the primary dentition with and without bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B; Seow, W K; Kazoullis, S; Ford, D; Holcombe, T

    2009-03-01

    Inadequate detection of caries in the primary dentition due to non-use of bitewing radiography is commonly encountered in paediatric practice. The present study investigated the increased benefits of using bitewing radiography in addition to the visual-tactile examination technique for detection of primary dentition caries in a non-fluoridated community, and determined the prevalence of "hidden" occlusal caries in the primary dentition. Primary teeth were scored for caries at the restorative threshold using a visual-tactile technique followed by bitewing radiographic examination in a sample of 611 schoolchildren aged 6.4 +/- 0.5 yrs to 12.1 +/- 0.8 yrs residing in a non-fluoridated city. Overall, at the restorative threshold, the visual-tactile technique could detect 62 per cent of occlusal caries compared to 74 per cent for bitewing radiography (p caries was 12 per cent. In contrast, for primary molar proximal surface caries, the visual-tactile technique could detect only 43 per cent of caries compared with 91 per cent for bitewing radiography (p detection rate of proximal surface caries substantially. It is recommended that bitewing radiography be included as part of the routine examination of children with proximal surfaces that cannot be visualized.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography, conventional and digital radiographs in detecting interproximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Y; Shamloo Mahmoudi, N; Aghdasi, M M; Eslami Manouchehri, M; Rahimian, R; Valizadeh, S; Vasegh, Z; Azizi, Z

    2015-01-01

    Presently, various imaging methods are available for the disclosure of proximal caries. Some recent studies have attempted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of available modalities, but they have shown variable results. Aim: This study was carried out to recognize and examine the correctness of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), regular radiographs and the nondirect digital system in the disclosure of interproximal caries. Materials and Method: In this observational tryout study, forty-two extracted non-cavitated, unrestored person molar and premolar teeth were placed in the blocks with proximal surfaces in touch. Then they were appraised by CBCT, formal radiographs and the nondirect digital system for the disclosure of interproximal caries. Four oral and maxillofacial radiologists used a 4-point scale to assess the pictures for the existence or absence of proximal caries. Caries depth was specified by histological examination. The gathered data were assessed by SPSS software using Weighted Kappa and Friedman test. Results: Statistics demonstrated that the accuracy of the indirect digital system was somewhat better than conventional systems. The accuracy of the indirect digital system was better than cone beam system, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The digital system was better than CBCT in the disclosure of proximal caries. The formal radiography fell in between the two other systems without a statistically significant deviation in detecting caries. Thus, CBCT is not advised to detect proximal caries because of the higher radiation dose.

  12. Histological comparison of pulpal inflammation in primary teeth with occlusal or proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Despoina; Day, Peter; High, Alex; Duggal, Monty

    2009-01-01

    A number of clinical and histological studies have investigated caries-related changes in the primary tooth pulp, but the effect of caries site, as a clinical variable, has not been previously considered. This study sought to compare inflammatory changes within the pulp of primary molars according to the location of the caries lesion (occlusal or proximal). Eighty-three primary molars were extracted under general anaesthesia for caries and/or orthodontic reasons, and were split immediately after removal and fixed in 10% formalin. Teeth were then decalcified, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination using light microscopy. Caries depth was measured using a graticle, and the site of the caries lesion noted as occlusal or proximal. Samples were further classified into one of five subgroups according to the observed degree of pulpal inflammation. Key findings were that where caries depth was less than 50% of the total dentine thickness, there were no significant differences in inflammatory status according to caries site. In contrast, marked inflammatory changes were significantly more likely throughout the coronal pulp of teeth with proximal caries compared to teeth with occlusal caries where caries depth was equal to, or greater than, 50% of the total dentine thickness (P = 0.017, Fisher's exact test). Primary teeth with proximal carious lesions extending more than 50% through the dentine thickness appear to have more extensive inflammatory pulpal changes than teeth with occlusal caries of a similar depth. This finding has clinical implications and may help inform treatment decisions in the management of primary teeth with deep carious lesions.

  13. Laser fluorescence detection of occlusal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioli, Matthew B; Bouschlicher, Murray R; Hillis, Stephen L

    2002-08-01

    This study compared six diagnostic methods with a histologic standard, including diode laser fluorescence, caries detection dye, and an operating microscope. Diagnosis groups included: visual only (VO); visual and bitewing radiograph (VX); visual, bitewing radiograph and explorer (VXE); Global Protege operating microscope at x10 (S); caries detection dye (CDD); diode laser fluorescence (DLF). Three examiners individually evaluated five independent sites on 29 extracted human molars using the above methods. Teeth were sectioned and evaluated histologically. Response Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to descriptively and inferentially assess the relationship between occlusal caries and the six diagnostic methods. In this in vitro study, the resulting AUCs (areas under the ROC curve) showed that the DLF method appeared to be superior, when compared to traditional methods (VO, VX, VXE) and caries detection dye. While caries detection with DLF ranked higher than use of an operating scope, they were not statistically different although the difference tended toward significance (P = 0.0511). Furthermore, the AUC for CDD would be ranked lower in accuracy than the other diagnostic methods tested and could result in over treatment of sound teeth. DLF use offers improved detection of suspected hidden caries that have not become radiographically evident.

  14. Performance of digital radiography with enhancement filters for the diagnosis of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belém, Manuella Dias Furtado; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Ferreira-Santos, Rívea Inês; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement filters are potentially supposed to improve the diagnostic performance of digital images. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the performance of digital radiography with and without enhancement filters for the detection of induced proximal caries lesions. The total sample consisted of 120 sound human teeth (40 premolars, 80 molars). Enamel subsurface demineralization was induced in one of the proximal surfaces of 60 teeth. Standardized radiographs of all teeth were acquired after the demineralization phase using the Digora-Optime® system. Four radiologists examined the digital radiographs and applied the following filters provided by the Digora® for Windows 2.6 package: Negative, Sharpen and both (Negative plus Sharpen). Validation of radiographic diagnosis was carried out by Knoop cross-sectional micro-hardness profiling on the proximal surfaces. Intraobserver agreement was estimated using Kappa statistics (k). Sensitivity, specificity and over-all accuracy were compared using ANOVA/Tukey test (α = 5%). Intraobserver agreement ranged from good to very good/optimal (k: 0.65-0.83). Although not statistically significant, the highest sensitivity (0.68 ± 0.22) and accuracy (0.76 ± 0.16) values were observed using the Sharpen filter as opposed to the Negative filter, which presented the lowest performance indices (0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.70 ± 0.10, respectively). Specificity ranged from 0.84 to 0.85, considering all imaging modalities (p > 0.05). Insofar as the Sharpen filter had the highest performance indices, it may be considered a useful adjunct for detecting subtle proximal caries lesions.

  15. Performance of digital radiography with enhancement filters for the diagnosis of proximal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Dias Furtado Belém

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement filters are potentially supposed to improve the diagnostic performance of digital images. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the performance of digital radiography with and without enhancement filters for the detection of induced proximal caries lesions. The total sample consisted of 120 sound human teeth (40 premolars, 80 molars. Enamel subsurface demineralization was induced in one of the proximal surfaces of 60 teeth. Standardized radiographs of all teeth were acquired after the demineralization phase using the Digora-Optime® system. Four radiologists examined the digital radiographs and applied the following filters provided by the Digora® for Windows 2.6 package: Negative, Sharpen and both (Negative plus Sharpen. Validation of radiographic diagnosis was carried out by Knoop cross-sectional micro-hardness profiling on the proximal surfaces. Intraobserver agreement was estimated using Kappa statistics (k. Sensitivity, specificity and over-all accuracy were compared using ANOVA/Tukey test (α = 5%. Intraobserver agreement ranged from good to very good/optimal (k: 0.65–0.83. Although not statistically significant, the highest sensitivity (0.68 ± 0.22 and accuracy (0.76 ± 0.16 values were observed using the Sharpen filter as opposed to the Negative filter, which presented the lowest performance indices (0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.70 ± 0.10, respectively. Specificity ranged from 0.84 to 0.85, considering all imaging modalities (p > 0.05. Insofar as the Sharpen filter had the highest performance indices, it may be considered a useful adjunct for detecting subtle proximal caries lesions.

  16. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS FOR PROXIMAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS – A CLINICAL STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the presented study is to compare the effectiveness of the diagnosis with a dental microscope, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOcam and X-ray examination in proximal caries diagnosis. Material and methods: Thirty-eight adult patients were examined. They were first examined with a dental mirror and a probe, under magnification 6.4 times. After that a diagnosis with DIAGNOcam was performed. Bitewing X-ray images were administered. The data from the three diagnostic methods was compared using SPSS 16 package of Windows. The lesions that were diagnosed as involving dentin were then excavated which served as a confirmation of the diagnosis. Results: The results of the study showed that dentinal lesions were detected with a high degree of correlation with all three diagnostic methods. The visual examination seriously underestimated lesions involving only enamel. In these cases there was a good correlation between laser fluorescence and X-ray data. Conclusions: Based on the conducted study we could conclude that the diagnosis of proximal caries with DIAGNOcam is equivalent to X-ray, both being more accurate in cases with early lesions, compared to visual diagnosis.

  17. Accuracy of digital panoramic regarding interproximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi Pour D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography."nMaterials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95% was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard."nResults: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5% and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%, respectively."nConclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

  18. Agreement among dentists' restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Tim J; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Brad Rindal, D; Firestone, Allen R; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists' self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agreement among dentists’ restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Tim J.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Rindal, D. Brad; Firestone, Allen R.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists’ self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Methods Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Results Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Conclusions Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. Clinical implications These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. PMID:23743181

  20. Detection of Caries Around Amalgam Restorations on Approximal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M B; Cordeiro, R C L; Ferreira-Zandona, A G

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro performance of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) visual examination, bitewing radiography (BW), and the DIAGNOdent 2190, a pen-type laser fluorescence device (LFpen), in detecting caries around amalgam restorations on approximal surfaces. Approximal surfaces (N=136) of permanent posterior teeth (N=110) with Class II amalgam restorations were assessed twice by two experienced examiners using ICDAS, BW, and LFpen. The occurrence of proximal overhangs was also evaluated. The teeth were histologically prepared and assessed for caries extension. Different cutoff limits for the LFpen were used. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reproducibility showed moderate to good agreement for all the methods (weighted κ/intraclass correlation coefficient=0.40 to 0.87). The specificities at D1 (all visible lesions affecting enamel) and D3 (lesions extended into dentin) were, respectively, 0.41 and 0.82 for ICDAS, 0.70 and 0.82 for BW, and 0.77-0.89 and 0.88-0.94 for LFpen. The sensitivities were 0.80 and 0.52 for ICDAS, 0.56 and 0.51 for BW, and 0.04-0.23 and 0.01-0.02 for LFpen at D1 and D3, respectively. At the D1/D3 thresholds, the accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values were similar and statistically higher for ICDAS (0.65/0.68 and 0.633/0.688) and BW (0.64/0.68 and 0.655/0.719), respectively; whereas, LFpen presented lower accuracy (0.37-0.44/0.49-0.52) and Az (0.390-0.454/0.345-0.395) values. The occurrence of overhangs (26.8%) was shown to be irrelevant in determining the presence of secondary caries. The ICDAS and BW methods presented the best performance in detecting caries lesions affecting enamel and dentin on approximal surfaces of amalgam restorations.

  1. Dental Flossing and Proximal Caries in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Katharina Morant Holanda; Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Romualdo, Priscilla Coutinho; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Paula E Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Küchler, Erika Calvano

    To evaluate in a systematic review whether the use of dental floss in primary teeth is associated with a reduction in incidence of proximal caries. Searches were performed using the following databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Web of Science, Bireme, Scopus and The Cochrane Library. Only 5 studies were eligible for inclusion. The quality assessment and bias control of the studies were carried out based on the Fowkes and Fulton Guideline. The study concept was first registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Flossing was professionally performed in one study and self-reported (by parents or by the children) through questionnaires in all other 4 studies. In the first study, the authors concluded that daily interdental flossing resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of proximal caries in deciduous teeth during a 20-month period. Two cross-sectional studies found that the use of interdental floss did not show any relevant association with the prevalence of caries; one study found that a higher the frequency of flossing was associated with higher caries experience, and the other found an association between severe caries and the use of dental floss, independently of the flossing frequency. There is only one study in the current literature showing evidence of an association between the use of dental floss and proximal caries reduction on primary dentition. However, the use of dental floss should never be discouraged. Healthy habits acquired in childhood continue throughout adult life, with numerous oral- and general-health benefits.

  2. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's tooth...

  3. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  4. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  5. ICDAS II CRITERIA (INTERNATIONAL CARIES DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benin DİKMEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS is a clinical scoring system which allows detection and assessment of caries activity. ICDAS was developed for use in clinical research, clinical practice and for epidemiological purposes. A recent review of caries detection criteria systems found that there were inconsistencies among the research criteria for caries measuring systems. There is a need to an uniform system which allows comparison of data collected in different researches. ICDAS allows detection of caries process at every stage and characterization of the caries activity status of lesion. Later, the criteria were modified and ICDAS II created. The aim of this review is to inform about the ICDAS II and make a comparison between ICDAS II criteria and other caries detection systems.

  6. High dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years: case-control study of distal and proximal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Abreu, Mauro H N G

    2013-06-07

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a high degree of dental caries severity is associated with the distal and proximal determinants of caries in a group of Brazilian adults aged 35 to 44 years. A population-based case-control study was conducted using two groups-a case group with high caries severity (DMFT ≥ 14) and a control group without high caries severity (DMFT caries severity was associated with regular visits to the dentist, low income, use of private/supplementary dental service and not petitioning the authorities for community benefits. The results of the study underscore the importance of considering distal and proximal factors in the assessment of the severity of dental caries. Greater caries severity persists among low-income families and among groups with a low degree of social cohesion.

  7. An artificial multilayer perceptron neural network for diagnosis of proximal dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Karina Lopes; de Souza Barbosa, Flávio; Felippe Filho, Waldir Neme

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate if the application of an artificial intelligence model, a multilayer perceptron neural network, improves the radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries. One hundred sixty radiographic images of proximal surfaces of extracted human teeth were assessed regarding the presence of caries by 25 examiners. Examination of the radiographs was used to feed the neural network, and the corresponding teeth were sectioned and assessed under optical microscope (gold standard). This gold standard served to teach the neural network to diagnose caries on the basis of the radiographic exams. To gauge the network's capacity for generalization, i.e., its performance with new cases, data were divided into 3 subgroups for training, test, and cross-validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve allowed comparison of efficacy between network and examiner diagnosis. For the best of the 25 examiners, the ROC curve area was 0.717, whereas network diagnosis achieved an ROC curve area of 0.884, indicating a sizeable improvement in proximal caries diagnosis. Considering all examiners, the diagnostic improvement using the neural network was 39.4%.

  8. Grey-scale reversed radiographic display in the detection of approximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the influence of grey-scale reversal of digital radiographic images on the detection of proximal caries. Five observers assessed digital bitewing radiographs (Sidexis((R)), Sirona) of 320 unrestored surfaces of extracted posterior teeth embedded in 20 models, simulating pairing of maxillary and mandibular arches, using a six-category caries rating scale. Images were displayed in normal [N] and inverse [IN] mode at different image sizes (display ratio: 1:1, 1:2, 1:7) on a cathode-ray tube monitor (Nokia 446 XS) and a TFT display (Panasonic LC 50 S). Validation standard was defined as histological lesion depth. Validity was expressed as areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) calculated for two levels of histological caries penetration: presence of caries and presence of a dentine lesion. The factors 'inverse display', 'image size on-screen' 'display type' and 'disease cut-off' were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA. Inverse image display significantly influenced the diagnostic validity (P=0.014), but a reduced accuracy was only seen at the lowest image size (AUC (SE): [N] 0.64 (0.02); [IN] 0.62 (0.02)). At the validation threshold 'dentine caries' approximal caries detection deteriorated when using grey-scale reversal (AUC (SE): [N] 0.71 (0.02); [IN] 0.69 (0.02)). In conclusion, grey-scale reversal of digital radiographs did not optimise approximal caries detection and aggravated the detectability of dentinal lesions.

  9. The Comparison of Dentine Thickness Under Proximal Caries Between Bitewing Radiographs and Tooth Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi K

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Carious lesions are usually found by dentists, using bitewing radiographs, and according to the depth of the lesions, the treatment plan is designed. At the present, this technique is the most accepted one and is used generally. But it is not a perfect technique and there are some errors in determining of depth of proximal carious lesions. These errors are mainly related to the use of new high-speed films with broad density and lower voltages. In this study, dentin thickness under proximal caries in bitewing radiography was compared with its real thickness, in tooth structure. Twenty-four teeth samples with proximal caries were used. Before and after removal of carious lesions bitewing radiographs were taken and then each tooth was sectioned occlusogingivally and the thickness of dentine under proximal caries and on bitewing radiographs were measured under microscope with 0.01 mm accuracy. Mean value of dentine thickness in tooth structure was 41% of its mean thickness in bitewing radiographs, showing 59% difference (reduction. Therefore, more care should be taken in using standard technique and interpreting of bitewing radiographs by clinicians. Clinical examinations also should be performed in ideal conditions, and patients should be clinically and radiographically examined every six months.

  10. In vitro study of caries detection through sound dentin using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Takeshige, Fumio; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of proximal surface caries detection using a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent, through the sound dentin surrounding the cavity wall after removal of occlusal caries. Extracted sound human molars were ground to prepare horizontal and vertical dentin plates 1.4 mm thick. Extracted carious human molars were reduced in thickness horizontally from the occlusal surfaces until exposure of the dentin caries. The dentin plate was placed on the carious tooth. Before and after gradual thinning of the dentin plate from approximately 1.4 mm to 0.2 mm thick, the dentin caries was measured 10 times through the plate by the laser fluorescence device with a cone-shaped tip or a broad tip. When the dentin plate was reduced to less than 0.3 mm thick (using a combination of a horizontal plate and cone-shaped tip) or 0.2 mm thick (using the other combinations), the values measured with the laser fluorescence device were significantly larger than the values before reducing the thickness of the dentin. Based on these results, the device offers potential use as one of the screening tests for proximal surface caries detection through sound dentin when the sound dentin between tip and caries is thin.

  11. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  12. Randomized controlled clinical trial on proximal caries infiltration: three-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Bitter, K; Paris, S

    2012-01-01

    We report the 3-year efficacy of resin infiltration (Icon, pre-product; DMG, Hamburg) to arrest progression of proximal non-cavitated caries lesions as compared with placebo treatment. In 22 young adults, 29 lesion pairs with radiographic extensions into the inner half of enamel up to the outer third of dentin were included (split-mouth design). All subjects received risk-related instructions for diet, flossing and fluoridation. No unwanted effects could be observed. Radiographically 1/26 test lesions (4%) and 11/26 control lesions (42%) had progressed (p = 0.002, McNemar). After 3-year follow-up, infiltration of proximal caries lesions can be said to be efficacious to reduce lesion progression. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2......-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal...

  14. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  15. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  16. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent and caries detector dye in detection of residual caries in prepared cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Jafari, Marzieh

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between DIAGNOdent laser and caries detector dye in detection of the remaining caries in restorative cavities. The sample consisted of 100 cavities prepared in patients referring to the Department of Restorative Dentistry of Mashhad Dental School. After confirming caries absence by tactile examination, the presence of any residual caries was determined by a laser fluorescence (LF) device (DIAGNOdent Pen) and then by caries detector dye. The data were analyzed through McNemar test. When the cut off value was considered as ≥13, both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye found 54 cavities as without caries and 12 cavities as carious. There were 32 teeth diagnosed as decayed only by the dye and two cases that were diagnosed as having residual caries only by the DIAGNOdent. The McNemar test revealed a significant difference in the diagnosis of residual caries between the two methods (p laser fluorescence and tactile examination in residual caries detection (p > 0.05). Both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye can be considered as adjuncts for detecting residual caries in prepared cavities. However, the use of laser fluorescence device can provide results that are more consistent with tactile examination, while relying on caries detector dye may result in excessive removal of tooth tissue, and thus increase the risk of pulpal exposure. Incomparision with caries detector dye, Residual caries detection by DIAGNOdent Pen is more consistent with tactile examination.

  17. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  18. Clinical safety, quality and effect of resin infiltration for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarabulsi, M B; Alkilzy, M; Petrou, M A; Splieth, C

    2014-03-01

    Resin infiltration of proximal lesions is a new approach to stop caries progression. The aim of this clinical trial was to assess its safety and quality, as well as the therapeutic effect. In 47 children, adolescents and young adults, ten dentists applied the infiltration material ICON (DMG, Germany) on initial proximal lesions according to the manufacturer's instruction. One lesion with radiographic extension into enamel or the outer third of dentin per participant was allocated for the treatment. The clinical safety and quality of resin infiltration were assessed 1 week, 6 months and 12 months after the treatment and the evaluation of the therapeutic effect was analysed by pair-wise radiographs. The clinical safety and quality of the infiltration were assessed in 45 individuals after 12 months. The test surfaces showed no relevant changes in clinical status, plaque accumulation or gingival status (p > 0.05). A high quality of infiltration was found for the marginal adaptation. In contrast to the improvement of colour at the one-week recall (p = 0.005), the infiltrated surfaces showed a statistically significant increase in the discoloration within the following year (p = 0.014). Out of the 43 lesions which could be assessed radiographically, only two lesions showed progression to a different score (4.7%). Resin infiltration can be considered a safe and effective treatment to reduce progression of initial proximal caries.

  19. Sealing distal proximal caries lesions in first primary molars: efficacy after 2.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, S; Tellez, M; Santamaría, R M; Gomez, J; Ekstrand, K R

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of proximal caries in primary molar teeth is high in many countries. (1) To study by means of a split-mouth design the 1- and 2.5-year efficacy of sealing proximal lesions vs. flossing instructions (control) on primary molar teeth. (2) To assess children's behaviour and pain perception during the procedure. Ninety-one 4- to 6-year-old children from Bogotá, Colombia participated. Participants had to have at least two proximal lesions scored according to the following radiographic classification system: radiolucency (1) in enamel outer half, (2) restricted to enamel-dentine junction, or (3) restricted to dentine outer third. Baseline, 1- and 2.5-year follow-up bitewing radiographs were taken. Test and control lesions were randomly selected. After temporary separation test lesions were sealed (adhesive). Parents/caregivers received a flossing leaflet for their children. Progression of the lesions was assessed by means of independent reading of conventional bitewing radiographs. One-year (n = 73) test vs. control lesion progression was 27.4 vs. 50.7%, respectively (p caries baseline data. More than 88% of the participants presented positive to definitively positive behaviour and very low or low pain intensity at both first and second appointments. The sealing technique was superior to flossing instructions both after 1 and 2.5 years of follow-up and the majority of the participants had no anxiety or pain during the treatment. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Materials and Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. Results: The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0

  1. Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Goodini, Mostafa; Ehsani, Sara; Mohseni, Hadis; Azimi, Fateme; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2015-10-01

    Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images. Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods. The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.159-0.849) (P = 0.006). Also, the computer program diagnosed 97% of

  2. Evaluation of final-year dental students concerning therapeutic decision making for proximal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bervian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the radiographic criteria used by final-year dental students when defining the need for restorative treatment for proximal caries, as well as investigating potentially associated factors in this therapeutic decision. A questionnaire with two schematic diagrams presenting five levels of proximal lesion penetration was administered to students attending the six private and three public dental schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Absolute and relative frequencies were described and inferential statistics involving Chi-square and McNemar tests and simple logistic regression were carried out to assess variations in therapeutic decisions related to patient dentition (deciduous/permanent and gender, age and dental school (public/private. Of the 346 dental students assessed, 28.6% (99/346 indicated restorative treatment for lesions restricted to the enamel in deciduous teeth and 38.2% (132/346 indicated the same for permanent teeth, revealing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001. Student gender and age were not associated with the therapeutic decision; however, a significant difference between dental schools was found when comparing restorative criteria in deciduous (p < 0.001 and permanent molars (p < 0.001. The odds of restorative decision in permanent teeth when the caries lesion was restricted to the enamel was 72% higher for students graduating from private schools compared to public schools (Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-2.90. These data demonstrate a large variation between the therapeutic decisions regarding proximal caries reported by final-year dental students and suggest that deep reflection is needed on the part of faculty in order to provide an evidence-based education.

  3. Evaluation of final-year dental students concerning therapeutic decision making for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervian, Juliane; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Brusco, Larissa Corrêa; Rosa, Francinne Miranda da

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the radiographic criteria used by final-year dental students when defining the need for restorative treatment for proximal caries, as well as investigating potentially associated factors in this therapeutic decision. A questionnaire with two schematic diagrams presenting five levels of proximal lesion penetration was administered to students attending the six private and three public dental schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Absolute and relative frequencies were described and inferential statistics involving Chi-square and McNemar tests and simple logistic regression were carried out to assess variations in therapeutic decisions related to patient dentition (deciduous/permanent) and gender, age and dental school (public/private). Of the 346 dental students assessed, 28.6% (99/346) indicated restorative treatment for lesions restricted to the enamel in deciduous teeth and 38.2% (132/346) indicated the same for permanent teeth, revealing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). Student gender and age were not associated with the therapeutic decision; however, a significant difference between dental schools was found when comparing restorative criteria in deciduous (p caries lesion was restricted to the enamel was 72% higher for students graduating from private schools compared to public schools (Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-2.90). These data demonstrate a large variation between the therapeutic decisions regarding proximal caries reported by final-year dental students and suggest that deep reflection is needed on the part of faculty in order to provide an evidence-based education.

  4. Evaluation of Diagnodent Accuracy in Detecting Approximal Caries in Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of caries lesions on approximal surfaces of posterior teeth is difficult, since wide contact points hamper direct visual inspection. Due to the importance of the early detection of dental caries, the aim of this study is to compare the performance of different methods (visual, bitewing radiography and DIAGNOdent in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. Methods: Thirty six children were selected from patients referred to the pediatric dentistry department of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Two examiners evaluated 229 approximal surfaces of primary molars using: visual inspection, radiography and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent for the presence of proximal caries. The surfaces were evaluated by 2 other examiners for the presence of white spots or cavitations. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (percentage of correct diagnosis were calculated for each method. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (A z was calculated for DIAGNOdent device. The inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC values for laser Fluorescence and agreement coefficient for visual and radiographic methods.Results: At white-spot threshold, a DIAGNOdent device presented better performance. At cavitation threshold the radiographic method demonstrated higher sensitivity than visual inspection and DIAGNOdent device .In this threshold, all methods presented high specificities Conclusions: A DIAGNOdent device performs better in white spot threshold. However, radiography shows better performance in detecting more advanced approximal caries lesions.

  5. A clinical study comparing digital radiography and near-infrared transillumination in caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stephen C; Stahl, Jonathan Miles; Lien, Wen; Slack, Casey M; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of detecting proximal carious lesions utilizing a new near-infrared transillumination (NIRTI) system (CariVu, Dexis) to traditional digital bitewing radiography (BWXR). Thirty patients received four posterior BWXRs and all premolars and molars were individually imaged with the NIRTI device. Sixty-seven proximal carious lesions were classified based on their depth into enamel or dentin for both BWXR and NIRTI images. The caries depth classification between the two systems were strongly correlated (r s  = 0.66; Spearman range: 0.60-0.79 = strong) and significant (P proximal caries. The NIRTI system could serve as an adjunct diagnostic system that could be used in high-caries risk programs where patients are closely monitored with regimented follow-up appointments. NIRTI could also be beneficial with pregnant or pediatric patients, and in situations where radiography may not be available such as remote humanitarian missions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influence of the number of basis images and projection array on caries detection using tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Tyndall, D A; Ludlow, J B; Nortjé, C J

    2002-01-01

    to determine if the number of basis images and spatial distribution of the projection array used for TACT slice generation influence observer performance in caries detection. In the first experiment, 2, 4, 8 and 12 basis projections of each of 40 teeth were acquired using a CMOS digital radiography sensor. Projections were distributed radially in space using a 20 degree angular disparity. TACT slices were generated from the four subgroups of images, presented to eight observers, and viewed on a high-resolution monitor. Observers scored the presence/absence of caries using a 5-point confidence scale. Gold standard was histological examination of tooth sections. ROC curves measured observer diagnostic performance. ANOVA tested for significant differences between observers and experimental conditions. In the second experiment, the number of basis projections judged to be satisfactory for TACT slice generation was used. Horizontal and vertical linear arrays of projections were compared to the circular projection array. There was a statistically significant difference between the numbers of basis projections in the detection of both occlusal (P=0.006) and proximal caries (P=0.005). No significant difference was found between projection arrays in the detection of either occlusal (P=0.065) or proximal (P=0.515) caries. The number of TACT basis projections significantly influences caries detection. Eight or more images should be used. Either linear-vertical, linear-horizontal or circular arrays of basis projections may be used for TACT slice generation in caries detection tasks.

  7. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  8. High Dental Caries among Adults Aged 35 to 44 Years: Case-Control Study of Distal and Proximal Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. N. G. Abreu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether a high degree of dental caries severity is associated with the distal and proximal determinants of caries in a group of Brazilian adults aged 35 to 44 years. A population-based case-control study was conducted using two groups—a case group with high caries severity (DMFT ≥ 14 and a control group without high caries severity (DMFT < 14. The sample comprised adults from metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil (180 cases and 180 controls matched for gender and age. The exam was performed by calibrated dentists using the DMFT index. The statistical analysis used the Mann-Whitney test and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression (the conditional backward stepwise method. The mean DMFT was 8.4 ± 3.9 in the control group and 20.1 ± 4.5 in the case group. High caries severity was associated with regular visits to the dentist, low income, use of private/supplementary dental service and not petitioning the authorities for community benefits. The results of the study underscore the importance of considering distal and proximal factors in the assessment of the severity of dental caries. Greater caries severity persists among low-income families and among groups with a low degree of social cohesion.

  9. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  10. Diagnostic Methods for Dental Caries Used by Private Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... of using radiographs for examining occlusal caries. For proximal caries detection, significant differences were observed between specialist and general dentists. The percentage of specialist dentists admitting to always using a dental RG for detecting proximal caries was higher than that reported by general ...

  11. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. Methods: This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax® (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral “panoramic bitewing” images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Results: Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53–0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48–0.57). Conclusions: The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose. PMID:26670605

  12. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalaas, Laurence; Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax(®) (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral "panoramic bitewing" images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53-0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48-0.57). The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose.

  13. [An experimental study on the penetration abilities of resin infiltration into proximal caries lesions in primary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Hong; Ge, Li-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Chi, Xue-Qian; Hou, Feng-Chun; Chen, Hui-Zhen

    2012-11-01

    To compare the penetration abilities of resin infiltration into proximal lesions in primary molars with those of adhesive in vitro. Thirty-two extracted or exfoliated primary molars showing proximal white spot lesions were selected. Roots of the teeth were removed, and the crowns were cut across the white spot lesions perpendicular to the surface. Cut surfaces were examined (by stereo microscopy) and classified with respect to histological lesion extension (C1-C4): lesions confined to the outer half on enamel (C1), lesions confined to the inner half on enamel (C2), lesions confined to the outer half on dentin (C3), lesions extending into the inner half of dentin (C4). Corresponding lesion halves were etched for 120 s with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and were subsequently treated with either adhesive or resin infiltration. Specimens were observed with laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) in dual fluorescence mode. In confocal microscopic images, lesion depth and penetration depth of the resin infiltration or the adhesive in corresponding halves were measured, and penetration percentages were calculated respectively. Differences of the data between two groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Variations of histological caries extensions were detected with Kruskal-Wallis H test. At the same grading level (C1-C3) in histological caries extension, penetration depths of the resin infiltration group and the adhesive group were 240 (230, 260) µm vs 190 (150, 210) µm, 405 (300, 523) µm vs 180 (160, 200) µm, and 590 (430, 640) µm vs 180 (160, 200) µm respectively. There was significant statistical difference in the data between two groups (P caries extension, percentage penetrations of the resin infiltration group and the adhesive group were [100.0% (96.2%, 100.0%)], [99.1% (95.7%, 100.0%)], [82.0% (81.1%, 92.2%)] and [79.2% (68.4%, 87.5%)], [41.8% (29.1%, 74.5%)], [30.2% (29.2%, 39.6%)], respectively. The difference between the above data was also

  14. A pilot study of a modified radiographic technique for detecting early proximal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, M; Zarch, H H; Movagharipour, F; Ahrari, F

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation in demineralized proximal areas has been considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of a modified radiographic technique for the detection of proximal cavities. The sample consisted of 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students. The patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to the inner half of enamel or the outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs, and there was doubt regarding the presence or absence of cavities in the approximal areas. The suspected surfaces were then examined by secondary bitewing radiographs which were taken after pressing radiopaque material into the proximal areas. Finally, orthodontic elastic separators were placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination, thus detecting any proximal cavity (reference standard). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the modified bitewing radiography were calculated against the reference standard. Overall, 7 surfaces presented caries cavities according to the reference standard. All proximal radiolucencies observed in the inner half of enamel and 46% of those extended to the outer third of dentine were not cavitated when evaluated by direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of bitewing radiography with opaque material for detecting proximal cavities (n = 7) were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively. The tested radiographic technique displayed good validity in this pilot study for detecting proximal cavities in posterior teeth and should be further investigated. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2010-08-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed for proximal surfaces.

  16. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of different display types in detection of recurrent caries under restorations by using CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoĝlu, İsmail H; Eren, Hakan; Yavuz, Yasemin; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    To assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of CBCT images using seven different display types in the detection of recurrent caries. Our study comprised 128 extracted human premolar and molar teeth. 8 groups each containing 16 teeth were obtained as follows: (1) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling without caries; (2) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling without caries; (3) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling without caries; (4) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling without caries; (5) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling with caries; (6) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling with caries; (7) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling with caries; and (8) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling with caries. Teeth were imaged using 100 × 90 mm field of view at three different voxel sizes of a CBCT unit (Planmeca ProMax(®) 3D ProFace™; Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). CBCT TIFF images were opened and viewed using custom-designed software for computers on different display types. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer, reading and restoration were compared using z-tests against Az = 0.5. The significance level was set at p = 0.05. We found poor and moderate agreements. In general, Az values were found when software and medical diagnostic monitor were utilized. For Observer 2, Az values were statistically significantly higher when software was used on medical monitor [p = 0.036, p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, for normal-resolution mode (0.200 mm(3) voxel size), high-resolution mode (0.150 mm(3) voxel size) and low-resolution mode (0.400 mm(3) voxel size), respectively]. No statistically significant differences were found among other display types for all modes (p > 0.05). In general, no difference was found among 3 different voxel sizes (p > 0.05). In general, higher Az values were

  18. Validation of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) for the detection of approximal caries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae-Youn; Kang, Si-Mook; Kim, Hee Eun; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-05-01

    Detection of approximal caries lesions can be difficult due to their anatomical position. This study aimed to assess the ability of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) in detecting approximal caries, and to compare the performance with those of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) and digital radiography (DR). Extracted permanent teeth (n=100) were selected and mounted in pairs. The simulation pairs were assessed by one calibrated dentist using each detection method. After all the examinations, the teeth (n=95) were sectioned and examined histologically as gold standard. The modalities were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for enamel (D1) and dentine (D3) levels. The intra-examiner reliability was assessed for all modalities. At D1 threshold, the ICDAS II presented the highest sensitivity (0.80) while the DR showed the highest specificity (0.89); however, the methods with the greatest AUC values at D1 threshold were DR and QLF-D (0.80 and 0.80 respectively). At D3 threshold, the methods with the highest sensitivity were ICDAS II and QLF-D (0.64 and 0.64 respectively) while the method with the lowest sensitivity was DR (0.50). However, with regard to the AUC values at D3 threshold, the QLF-D presented the highest value (0.76). All modalities showed to have excellent intra-examiner reliability. The newly developed QLF-D was not only able to detect proximal caries, but also showed to have comparable performance to the visual inspection and radiography in detecting proximal caries. QLF-D has the potential to be a useful detection method for proximal caries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo validation of near-infrared light transillumination for interproximal dentin caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, Jan; Söchtig, Friederike; Pitchika, Vinay; Laubender, Rüdiger; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this clinical study were to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared light transillumination (NILT) as a novel X-ray-free method for proximal dentin caries detection and to compare this method to established diagnostic methods. A total of 127 interproximal dentin caries lesions without any cavity within visible dentin in posterior teeth from 85 consecutively selected patients were included. Visual and radiographic diagnoses and laser fluorescence measurements were available. NILT images were obtained, and a dentin lesion was predicted if a demineralisation involved the enamel-dentin junction (NILT-EDJ) or a shadow in dentin was detectable (NILT-dentin). Included lesions were opened and validated (reference standard). The statistical analyses included descriptive analyses and calculations of sensitivity, specificity and Az values. The diagnostic accuracy with respect to the reference standard was 1.6% for visual inspection, 66.7% for laser fluorescence, 96.1% for digital radiography, 29.1% for NILT-dentin and 99.2% for NILT-EDJ. Bitewings (Az 0.984) and NILT-EDJ (Az 0.992) performed equally. Given the lack of true negatives in the study, the diagnostic accuracy of NILT achieved the same level as bitewings for the detection of proximal dentin caries. This study might indicate that NILT could reduce the usage of bitewings.

  20. In vivo performance of two devices for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdemir, Esin; Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Ozsevik, A Semih; Ata Cebe, M; Aktan, Ali Murat

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the performance of light-emitting diode (LED)- and laser fluorescence (LF)-based devices with that of visual inspection (VI) in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. A total of 156 occlusal surfaces were investigated. Each occlusal surface was assessed with LED- and LF-based devices after a VI was performed. Pit and fissure opening was applied to the occlusal surfaces in which opacity or discoloration was distinctly visible after airdrying. The inter-examiner reliability of caries examination was assessed using the weighted κ statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of occlusal caries diagnosis using these methods were calculated according to the appropriate thresholds. Acceptable inter-examiner agreement was found for the LED- and LF-based devices and VI (κ=0.61, κ=0.76, and κ=0.87, respectively). Higher specificity values were achieved at a T2 threshold for the LF-based device (0.76 and 0.80) and at a T1 threshold for the LED-based readings (0.60 and 0.62) and VI (0.90 and 0.93) for both observers. With regard to VI, higher sensitivity values were found at both thresholds for the two observers in comparing the three caries detection methods (0.98 at T1 and 0.96 at T2). The accuracy values for T1 were higher than those for the T2 values, for all three caries detection methods. Caries lesions may be detected more accurately than clinically sound areas by both caries detection devices.

  1. A comparative study of high-resolution cone beam computed tomography and charge-coupled device sensors for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S M; Lee, J T; Hodges, R J; Chang, T-L; Elashoff, D A; White, S C

    2009-10-01

    Conventional radiographic imaging of teeth underestimates the presence of caries. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of high-resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images and conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) images for detecting proximal and occlusal caries. Non-restored, extracted human permanent premolar and molar teeth were mounted and then imaged with a 3DX Accuitomo and a CCD. We selected 92 occlusal and 100 proximal surfaces for raters to score. Of these, 36 and 25, respectively, had lesions extending into dentin. Using a five-step confidence scale, eight practising dentists evaluated the images for the presence of caries in dentin using both modalities. Actual presence and extent of caries was established with microCT imaging. For proximal surface lesions extending into dentin, the average sensitivity score using 3DX images (0.61) was almost twice that of CCD images (0.33) and the difference was significant. The specificity values for both systems were high and not significantly different from each other. For occlusal surfaces, raters detected significantly more lesions in the enamel or dentin when using the 3DX images than when using CCD images. However, the raters also had significantly lower average specificity scores for the 3DX images compared with the CCD images for lesions at both depths. Practising dentists were able to improve their detection of proximal-surface caries extending into the dentin, but not occlusal caries, using 3DX high-resolution cone beam CT images compared with CCD images.

  2. Caries Detection around Restorations Using ICDAS and Optical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Michele Baffi; Eckert, George Joseph; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Ferreira-Zandona, Andrea Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Secondary caries is the major reason for replacement of restorations in operative dentistry. New detection methods and technology have the potential to improve the accuracy for diagnosis of secondary carious lesions. This in vitro study evaluated the performance of the ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) visual criteria and optical devices for detecting secondary caries around amalgam and composite resin restorations in permanent teeth. A total of 180 extracted teeth with Class I amalgam (N = 90) and resin composite (N = 90) restorations were selected. Two examiners analyzed the teeth twice using the visual criteria (ICDAS), laser fluorescence (LF), light-emitting diode device (MID), quantitative light-induced fluorescence system (QLF), and a prototype system based on the Fluorescence Enamel Imaging technique (Professional Caries Detection System, PCDS). The gold standard was determined by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. High-reproducibility values were shown for all methods, except for MID in the amalgam group. For both groups the QLF and PCDS were the most sensitive methods, whereas the other methods presented better specificity (p light-induced fluorescence and a novel method based on Fluorescence Enamel Imaging technique may be effective for evaluating secondary caries around composite resin restorations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dental students’ and lecturers’ perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastian Lara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. Methods: A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants’ perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject’s final perception. Associations between the subjects’ degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Results: Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; P<0.001 and 8.40, 3.31, and 0.01 respectively. Conclusion: Topics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations.

  4. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    and in vivo studies of medium and high quality. The direct costs for examinations and restorative care were extracted from the costs of the Public Dental Service in Sweden (2006). RESULTS: The diagnostic costs per true-positive finding were dependent on the occurrence of occlusal caries and increased......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected...

  5. Diagnostic performance of a new red light LED device for approximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Ciucchi, Philip; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Hug, Isabelle; Emerich, Marta; Lussi, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test a newly developed LED-based fluorescence device for approximal caries detection in vitro. We assembled 120 extracted molars without frank cavitations or fillings pairwise in order to create contact areas. The teeth were independently assessed by two examiners using visual caries detection (International Caries Detection and Assessment System, ICDAS), bitewing radiography (BW), laser fluorescence (LFpen), and LED fluorescence (Midwest Caries I.D., MW). The measurements were repeated at least 1 week later. The diagnostic performance was calculated with Bayesian analyses. Post-test probabilities were calculated in order to judge the diagnostic performance of combined methods. Reliability analyses were performed using kappa statistics for nominal data and intraclass correlation (ICC) for absolute data. Histology served as the gold standard. Sensitivities/specificities at the enamel threshold were 0.33/0.84 for ICDAS, 0.23/0.86 for BW, 0.47/0.78 for LFpen, and 0.32/0.87 for MW. Sensitivities/specificities at the dentine threshold were 0.04/0.89 for ICDAS, 0.27/0.94 for BW, 0.39/0.84 for LFpen, and 0.07/0.96 for MW. Reliability data were fair to moderate for MW and good for BW and LFpen. The combination of ICDAS and radiography yielded the best diagnostic performance (post-test probability of 0.73 at the dentine threshold). The newly developed LED device is not able to be recommended for approximal caries detection. There might be too much signal loss during signal transduction from the occlusal aspect to the proximal lesion site and the reverse.

  6. Dental students' and lecturers' perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Juan Sebastian; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Shitsuka, Caleb; Wen, Chao Lung; Haddad, Ana Estela

    2015-01-01

    It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants' perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject's final perception. Associations between the subjects' degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; Pdetection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations.

  7. Radiographic detection of approximal caries: a comparison between senior dental students and senior dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Patricia A; Brooks, Sharon L; Hasson, Hana; Kerschbaum, Wendy E; Eklund, Stephen A

    2003-01-01

    Dental hygienists do not legally (or definitively) diagnose caries, but they often are responsible for preliminary interpretation of bitewing (BW) radiographs taken during prophylaxis appointments. Given this custom of practice, it is important to understand whether there is a difference between the capabilities of dental hygienists and dentists in interpreting BWs based on education and clinical experience. This study compared proximal carious lesion classification from BWs by senior dental students and senior dental hygiene students. Volunteers (40 dental [D] and 54 dental hygiene [DH] students) classified proximal carious lesions from BWs of 96 extracted teeth, which were mounted in wax to simulate quadrants of the mouth. A soft tissue equivalent was placed in front of the mounted teeth before x-ray exposure. Films were developed automatically and mounted into six sets point scale. The teeth were sectioned vertically and evaluated clinically at 5x magnification with an explorer. The "gold standard" of carious lesion classification was then compared to the students' classifications. All students detected 54% of the carious lesions and correctly identified lack of caries 80.5% of the time. There were no differences between the two groups of students in terms of sensitivity, but dental students showed higher specificity (p = 0.0006). Permitting dental hygienists to make preliminary interpretations of caries from BWs in the dental office appears to be an acceptable practice.

  8. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    /QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION...... GRADE: Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence....

  9. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  10. Influence of moisture and plaque on the performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting caries lesions in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Daniela G; Gimenez, Thaís; Morais, Caroline C; De Benedetto, Monique S; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental plaque and moisture on performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting occlusal and proximal caries lesions in primary teeth. Fifty-five occlusal and 58 proximal sites on primary molars were evaluated using a DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen) device. For the drying time study, the evaluations were performed in: (I) moist teeth; (II) teeth dried for 3 s, or (III) dried for 15 s. For the plaque study, the evaluations were done in sites: (I) without plaque; (II) with plaque, and (III) after cleaning. Evaluation of the teeth sections in stereomicroscope was the reference standard method. LF pen values, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared. The values obtained after 15 s of drying were higher than those obtained with moist teeth or dried for 3 s at both occlusal and proximal surfaces. However, there was no change in the performance in detecting caries lesions. With regard to the presence of plaque, there was no significant change in the readings of the device, but specificity was decreased in occlusal surfaces with plaque. At proximal surfaces, however, no significant differences were observed. In conclusion, the moisture conditions do not influence significantly the performance of the LFpen, but the presence of plaque can affect its performance in detecting occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth.

  11. Efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries in primary molars: 1-year follow-up of a split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Jorge, R C; Souza, I P R; Soviero, V M

    2017-10-08

    The main purpose of this split month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was evaluate the efficacy of caries infiltration in controlling the progression of non-cavitated proximal lesions in primary molars. Anxiety and time required for the caries infiltration was also evaluated. Fifty healthy children, 5 to 9 years, presenting two primary molars with proximal caries lesions (1/2 of the enamel or outer 1/3 of dentin), were included. Lesions were randomly allocated to the test group (fluoridated toothpaste + flossing + infiltration) or to the control group (fluoridated toothpaste + flossing). Caries risk was based on the Cariogram model. The main outcome after 1-year radiographic follow up was assessed by an independent blinded examiner A facial image scale (FIS) was applied to assess dental anxiety and time required to perform the infiltration was recorded. Of the sample, 92.9% corresponded to high or medium caries risk. In 42 patients (1-year follow up), caries progression was observed in 11.9% (5/42) of the test lesions compared with 33.3% (14/42) of the control lesions (p Caries infiltration of proximal caries lesions in primary molars is significantly more efficacious than standard therapy alone (fluoride toothpaste + flossing). Caries infiltration is an applicable and well-accepted method be used in children, representing a promising micro-invasive approach.

  12. [Establishment and evaluation of a computer-based software system for detection of initial approximal caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Ye, Wei-ping; Li, Yu-jing; Yu, Yang

    2006-03-01

    To establish and evaluate a computer-based software system (caries diagnosing system, CDS): CDS for better detection of initial approximal caries based on the performance of radiography. A total of 190 approximal surfaces from 95 extracted posterior teeth were examined by bite-wing radiography. After analysing and extracting the approximal lesion's characteristics of X-ray performance, using Matlab and VC language, the CDS was established. Then the proximal surfaces of these teeth were detected automatically by CDS, and scored by naked eyes of 8 experienced dentists for the extent of lesions. The histological appearance of sectioned teeth was used as the gold standard to assess sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and reproducibility. The sensitivity of CDS was 0.728, Pearson's correlation was 0.722, better than that of optic estimation. The reproducibility of CDS was good too. The CDS can report the lesion site and extension, its diagnostic level is better than that of optic estimation, it is an reasonably sensitive and accurate method for the detection of initial approximal caries in present clinic practice, and a tool of providing objective data.

  13. Can we trust visual methods alone for detecting caries in teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Eileen R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesElectronic Databases searched in PubMed, Embase and Scopus. Unpublished literature was traced through OpenSIGLE, annals of IADR/AADR (International and American Associations for Dental Research) and ORCA (European Organisation for Caries Research) from 2003-2014. Studies were limited to English.Study selectionStudies involving visual inspection for detection of primary coronal caries lesions in primary or permanent human teeth were considered. All papers needed to include a clearly defined reference standard and the reporting of absolute numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives and false negatives or a presentation of sufficient data to calculate these figures. Reference methods considered appropriate were histologic evaluation, operative intervention, direct visual inspection after temporary tooth separation and radiography. For studies with the same data set only the most complete study was included. Articles that reported caries detection using artificial caries, root caries or recurrent decay adjacent to restorations were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection for inclusion was performed independently by two reviewers and disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Data were collected by two reviewers on structured tables. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. A meta-analysis was performed. The following information was extracted; reference standard method, setting (clinical or laboratory), type of teeth (primary or permanent), surface evaluated (smooth, proximal or occlusal), sample size, examiner's experience. Also recorded were visual scoring systems. Studies that did not report any criteria were classified as 'with no criteria'. If authors used criteria with no reference to previously published studies they were classified as 'own criteria'. The PRISMA guideline was followed to report the review and the QUADAS-2 checklist (Quality assessment of studies of diagnostic performance included

  14. Evaluation of proximal caries in images resulting from different modes of radiographic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, C R G; Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Poleti, M L; Rubira-Bullen, I R F; Ferreira, O; Capelozza, A L A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of observers in diagnosing proximal caries in digital images obtained from digital bitewing radiographs using two scanners and four digital cameras in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and tagged image file format (TIFF) files, and comparing them with the original conventional radiographs. In total, 56 extracted teeth were radiographed with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) in a Kaycor Yoshida X-ray device (Kaycor X-707; Yoshida Dental Manufacturing Co., Tokyo, Japan) operating at 70 kV and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.40 s. The radiographs were obtained and scanned by CanonScan D646U (Canon USA Inc., Newport News, VA) and Genius ColorPage HR7X (KYE Systems Corp. America, Doral, FL) scanners, and by Canon Powershot G2 (Canon USA Inc.), Canon RebelXT (Canon USA Inc.), Nikon Coolpix 8700 (Nikon Inc., Melville, NY), and Nikon D70s (Nikon Inc.) digital cameras in JPEG and TIFF formats. Three observers evaluated the images. The teeth were then observed under the microscope in polarized light for the verification of the presence and depth of the carious lesions. The probability of no diagnosis ranged from 1.34% (Insight film) to 52.83% (CanonScan/JPEG). The sensitivity ranged from 0.24 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.53 (Insight film), the specificity ranged from 0.93 (Nikon Coolpix/JPEG, Canon Powershot/TIFF, Canon RebelXT/JPEG and TIFF) to 0.97 (CanonScan/TIFF and JPEG) and the accuracy ranged from 0.82 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.91 (CanonScan/JPEG). The carious lesion diagnosis did not change in either of the file formats (JPEG and TIFF) in which the images were saved for any of the equipment used. Only the CanonScan scanner did not have adequate performance in radiography digitalization for caries diagnosis and it is not recommended for this purpose.

  15. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader Dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-10-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries.

  16. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  17. Influence of the condition of the adjacent tooth surface on fluorescence measurements for the detection of approximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, A; Zimmerli, B; Hellwig, E; Jaeggi, T

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the status of the adjacent tooth surface has an influence on the signal of a new laser fluorescence (LF) device for the detection of approximal caries. Seventy-eight teeth were selected from a pool of extracted permanent human molars, frozen at -20 degrees C until use. Before being measured the teeth were defrosted, cleaned, and any calculus removed. As a control, a defined approximal surface of each tooth was measured with the LF device holding the tip with the detecting- and the reverse-side on it, but without a neighboring tooth contacting the surface. The proximal site under examination was then placed adjacent to a tooth, which had deep dentinal caries, a composite restoration, a provisional ZnO-Eugenol restoration, or a ceramic restoration. The adjacent tooth with the ZnO-Eugenol restoration, the composite restoration, and the dentinal caries all demonstrated a statistically significant increase of LF readings on sound tooth surfaces. Teeth with enamel or dentinal caries were only slightly (and not statistically significantly) influenced by the different types of neighboring surfaces compared with the control LF readings. It can be concluded that caries detection of approximal tooth surfaces with the new LF system might be influenced by the condition of the adjacent tooth surface.

  18. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsiriwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A(z)) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p valuedetection of secondary caries.

  19. Detecting Secondary Caries Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, F; Askar, H; Paris, S; Schwendicke, F

    2016-02-01

    Secondary caries lesions are the main late complication of dental restorations, limiting their life span and generating costs by repeated reinterventions. Accurate detection of secondary lesions is crucial for estimating the true burden of the disease and allocating appropriate treatments. We aimed to assess the accuracy of detection methods for secondary caries lesions. Clinical or in vitro studies were included that investigated the accuracy of 5 detection methods--visual, tactile, radiography, laser fluorescence, quantitative light-induced fluorescence--of natural or artificially induced secondary lesions, as verified against an established reference test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, as well as diagnostic odds ratios were calculated and publication bias assessed. From 1,179 screened studies, 23 were included. Most studies were performed in vitro, on permanent posterior teeth, and had high risk of bias or applicability concerns. Lesions were on proximal (14 studies) or other surfaces and adjacent to amalgam (16 studies) or tooth-colored materials. Visual (n = 11), radiographic (n = 13), and laser fluorescence detection (n = 8) had similar sensitivities (0.50 to 0.59) and specificities (0.78 to 0.83), with visual and laser fluorescence assessment being more accurate on nonproximal surfaces and adjacent to composites, respectively. Tactile assessment (n = 7) had low accuracy. Light-induced fluorescence (n = 3) was sensitive on nonproximal surfaces but had low specificities. Most analyses seemed to suffer from publication bias. Despite being a significant clinical and dental public health problem, detection of secondary caries lesions has been assessed by only a few studies with limited validity and applicability. Visual, radiographic and laser-fluorescence detection might be useful to detect secondary lesions. The validity of tactile assessment and quantitative light-induced fluorescence remains unclear at present.

  20. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez an...

  1. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M; Raggio, D P; Deery, C; Ricketts, D N; Ekstrand, K R; Mendes, F M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference standard; and 4) reported sufficient data about sample size and accuracy of methods. The data were used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristics curve. Heterogeneity of the studies was also assessed. A total of 102 manuscripts (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained specificity was higher. We also observed moderate to high heterogeneity and evidence of publication bias in most papers. Moreover, studies employing widely recognized visual scoring systems presented significantly better accuracy as compared to studies that used their own criteria. In conclusion, visual caries detection method has good overall performance. Furthermore, although the identified studies had high heterogeneity and risk of bias, the use of detailed and validated indices seems to improve the accuracy of the method. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  2. Estimation of Remnant Dentin Thickness under Proximal Caries Using Digital Bitewing Radiography: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Afsa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In restorative dentistry, it is essential to estimate the amount of remnant tooth structure after caries removal to make the best treatment plan. The present study was aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between the real thickness of remnant dentin under carious lesion and the radiographical measurement from photostimulable phosphor plates (PSPs. Methods: a whole number of 68 unrestored permanent human molar and premolar teeth with 82 proximal carious surfaces were mounted in an artificial arch. Digital bitewing radiographs with PSPs were taken, carious lesions were removed and radiographic imaging was repeated. Teeth were sectioned mesiodistally in two parts and thickness of remnant tooth structure to pulp was measured. Measurements of remnant dentin under caries from radiographic images and teeth structures were compared. Result: The mean measurements of remnant dentin on primary radiographs were statistically different from the measurements on teeth structures. The mean thickness of remnant dentin on tooth structure was around 30% less than what measured on radiographic image. Conclusion: The real thickness of remnant dentin under caries is about 70% of its thickness measured on digital bitewing radiographs prepared by PSPs as image receptor.

  3. Estimation of Remnant Dentin Thickness under Proximal Caries Using Digital Bitewing Radiography: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Afsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In restorative dentistry, it is essential to estimate the amount of remnant tooth structure after caries removal to make the best treatment plan. The present study was aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between the real thickness of remnant dentin under carious lesion and the radiographical measurement from photostimulable phosphor plates (PSPs. Methods: a whole number of 68 unrestored permanent human molar and premolar teeth with 82 proximal carious surfaces were mounted in an artificial arch. Digital bitewing radiographs with PSPs were taken, carious lesions were removed and radiographic imaging was repeated. Teeth were sectioned mesiodistally in two parts and thickness of remnant tooth structure to pulp was measured. Measurements of remnant dentin under caries from radiographic images and teeth structures were compared. Result: The mean measurements of remnant dentin on primary radiographs were statistically different from the measurements on teeth structures. The mean thickness of remnant dentin on tooth structure was around 30% less than what measured on radiographic image. Conclusion: The real thickness of remnant dentin under caries is about 70% of its thickness measured on digital bitewing radiographs prepared by PSPs as image receptor.

  4. Efficacy of Application of Pseudocolor Filters in the Detection of Interproximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zangooei Booshehry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of application of an image processing mode of a colorizer on the efficacy of the detection of interproximal carious lesions viewed in direct digital radiography. Materials and methods. A total of 102 proximal surfaces of extracted human premolars on direct digital images were evaluated by three observers with and without the application of pseudocolor filter. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. The kappa value agreement ratios were calculated. Results. Sensitivity and specificity values for normal digital and colorized images were 66.7%, 60%, 80.5%, and 50%, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of images (P = 0.12. Conclusion. In this study application of pseudocolor filter on digital radiographic images failed to result in significantly improved caries detection.

  5. Efficacy of application of pseudocolor filters in the detection of interproximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangooei Booshehry, Maryam; Davari, Abdolrahim; Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Rashidi Nejad, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of application of an image processing mode of a colorizer on the efficacy of the detection of interproximal carious lesions viewed in direct digital radiography. A total of 102 proximal surfaces of extracted human premolars on direct digital images were evaluated by three observers with and without the application of pseudocolor filter. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. The kappa value agreement ratios were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity values for normal digital and colorized images were 66.7%, 60%, 80.5%, and 50%, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of images (P = 0.12). In this study application of pseudocolor filter on digital radiographic images failed to result in significantly improved caries detection.

  6. Diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under composite restorations of primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Vali Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: DIAGNOdent showed a greater accuracy in detecting secondary caries under primary molar restorations, compared to radiographs. Although DIAGNOdent is an effective method for detecting caries under composite restorations, it is better to be used as an adjunctive method alongside other detecting procedures.

  7. Accuracy of digital subtraction radiography in combination with a contrast media in assessment of proximal caries depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Esmaeili

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Radiography is used to diagnose the demineralization process and carious lesions; however, conventional radiography and direct digital images do not show these lesions when the amount of demineralization is less than 40%. Digital subtraction radiography has recently been used to improve the diagnostic quality of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the caries depth estimated by digital subtraction radiography in combination with barium sulfate in diagnosing proximal dental caries with histopathologic evaluation. Materials and methods. In this study 30 molars and premolars (24 demineralized lesions with cavity, 8 without cavity were studied. Direct digital images were taken (kVp: 68, mA: 8; t: 0.12 for premolars and t: 0.16 for molars whereas the position of X-ray tube and CCD receptor and teeth was fixed. To prepare the second images 135 gr/L barium sulfate was used. The images obtained with the same exposure and geometry and then subtracted. The depth of the lesions in direct digital and subtracted images were assessed and compared with the depth measured in histopathologic assessments. Results. The mean depths (± SD of the lesions were 1.80 ± 0.77 mm in direct digital radiography, 2.32 ± 0.76 mm in subtracted images after barium sulfate treatment, and 2.51 ± 0.43 mm in histopathologic sections. The statistical difference between direct digital radiography and the other methods was significant (P < 0.05. However, the differences were not statistically significant between subtracted images and histopathologic sections. The average intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.7241 (CI: 95%. Conclusion. The present study has demonstrated that digital subtraction radiography images have the potential to measure the depth of proximal caries with no significant difference with histopathologic evaluation.

  8. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Diagnostic agreement between radiologists, dentists and dental students for radiographic detection of approximal caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Uribe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess intraobserver and interobserver agreement for radiographic detection of approximal caries among radiologists, dentists and senior dental students. Materials and methods: 75 standardized bitewing radiographs were examined by four maxillofacial radiologists, four dentists and four senior dental students. Iinterobserver agreement was calculated using a weighted Kappa Cohen test. Two weeks later, the examiners re-evaluated 10% of the sample under the same conditions and intraobserver agreement weighted Kappa Cohen test was calculated. Results: The interobserver Kappa value was 0.68 (good for the dentist-student pair, 0.51 (moderate for the student-radiologist and 0.62 (good for the dentist-radiologist pair. All these differences were significant. The intraobserver agreement Kappa values obtained were 0.56 (moderate for students (p=0.46, 0.46 (moderate for dentists (p<0.05 and 0.68 (good for radiologists. Conclusion: The agreement for proximal caries detection by dental students, dentists and radiologists was moderate to good.

  10. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  11. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Yong; Wang, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Dong; Xiao, Bai

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries. There are few reports that studied the relationship between S. mutans, bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth. This study aimed to detect S. mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth. Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth. According to their dental tooth (DT), 142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT ≥ 1) and a non-caries group (DT = 0). With specific primers for S. mutans and 16S rRNA, the total number of S. mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S. mutans (P = 0.118) and medians of S. mutans (P = 0.115). The ratio of S. mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population. The ratios of S. mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population. These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  12. Effect of Different Tube Potential Settings on Caries Detection using PSP Plate and Conventional Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Daniela Pita; Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Melo, Saulo Leonardo Sousa; De Farias, Julyanna Filgueiras GonçAlves; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; De Almeida, Solange Maria

    2015-04-01

    To compare intraoral Phosphor Stimulable Plate digital system and intraoral film using different tube settings on incipient proximal caries detection. Five blocks, with five teeth each, were radiographically examined using phosphor plates and F-speed films. The images were acquired in 07 different tube potentials from 50-80 kV. The films were digitized. Three oral radiologists scored the images for the presence of caries using a 5-point rating scale. The areas under ROC curve were calculated. The influence of tube kilovoltage was verified by ANOVA and pair wise comparisons performed using Tukey test. Mean ROC curve areas varied from 0.446-0.628 for digital images and 0.494-0.559 for conventional images. The tube setting of 70 kV presented the best result both for digital and conventional images. Considering the image type separately, 70 kV scored highest followed by 75 and 65 kV for digital images (p=0.084). For conventional image modality, even though 70 kV presented the best result, it did not differ significantly from 80 kV, not differing from 60 and 55 kV, which did not differ from 75, 65 and 50 kV (p=0.53). Phosphor plate digital images seem to be more susceptible to tube setting potential variations then digitized film images.

  13. Is non-cavitated proximal lesion sealing an effective method for caries control in primary and permanent teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Soviero, Vera Mendes; da Silva Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly; Lenzi, Michele; Ferreira, Daniele Masterson T P; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of sealing non-cavitated proximal caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Only controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of sealing on non-cavitated proximal caries with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were included in the study. The primary outcome should be arrestment/progression of proximal caries evaluated by bitewing radiographs. A risk of bias evaluation based on the Cochrane Collaboration common scheme for bias was carried out for each study. The meta-analysis was performed on the studies considered low risk of bias and with pair-wise visual reading results through RevMan software. A comprehensive search was performed in the Systematic Electronic Databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, IBI Web of Science, Lilacs, SIGLE, and on website Clinical trials.gov, through until June 2013. From 967 studies identified, 10 articles and 3 studies with partial results were assessed for eligibility. However three articles were excluded and our final sample included 10 studies. According to the risk of bias evaluation, six studies were considered "high" risk of bias, and four "low" risk of bias. The forest plot of the meta-analysis showed low heterogeneity (I(2)=29%) and a favourable outcome for the Infiltrant. The chance of caries progression when this technique was used was significantly lower (p=0.002) compared with Placebo. Our results suggest that the technique of sealing non-cavitated proximal caries seems to be effective in controlling proximal caries in the short and medium term. Further long-term randomized clinical trials are still necessary to increase this evidence. Contemporary dentistry is focused in minimally invasive approaches that prevent the destruction of sound dental tissues next to carious lesions. This paper searches for evidence of the efficacy of sealing/infiltrating non

  14. Monitoring caries risks before the window of infection and later caries increment: a caries prediction study on rapid detection of Streptococcus mutans using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yoshinobu; Sakayori, Takaharu; Hirata, SoIchiro; Ishii, Takuo; Tachino, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-quantitative enumeration system has been developed for the detection of Streptococcus mutans in saliva. Using two kinds of species-specific monoclonal antibodies, this system can quickly detect salivary S. mutans within 30 min and classify the results into three levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of this test kit in determining risk for the development of caries. Saliva samples collected during a compulsory dental examination from 56 children aged 18-months were tested. The children were classified into 3 groups according to the level of salivary S. mutans determined. After 18 months, 36 of the children underwent a second examination to investigate whether there was a correlation between salivary S. mutans level at the first examination and subsequent increment in caries. The results showed a good correlation between the two. This indicates that salivary S. mutans level before the window of infection is an indicator of caries risk and can be quickly detected using this test kit. This rapid test should be particularly useful in assessing risk of future caries in very young children.

  15. Alternative methods to visual and radiographic examinations for approximal caries detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abogazalah, Naif; Ando, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    .... Two recent meta-analyses evaluated the performance of visual examination and radiography for carious lesion detection, and reported low sensitivity but high specificity for early approximal caries detection...

  16. Evaluating a Team-Based Learning Method for Detecting Dental Caries in Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang E.; Kim, Junhyck; Anderson, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the team-based learning environment facilitated the competency of third year dental students in caries detection and activity assessment. Corresponding data were achieved using digital radiographs to determine the carious lesions in three clinical cases. The distribution of the caries evaluations…

  17. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  18. Optimal camera and illumination angulations for detection of interproximal caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalla, W; Lennon, A M; van der Veen, M H; Stookey, G K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find the optimal illumination and camera angulations for interproximal use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). A multiaxis optical bench was developed and interproximal tooth assemblies were investigated using a modified version of QLF. Extracted human premolars without caries (n = 8) and with interproximal D1, D2 and D3 caries (n = 20) were selected. Tooth-pair models without caries and with interproximal caries of matching size, location, and shape were imaged with varying camera and illumination directions from buccal (0 degrees) to occlusal (90 degrees) to lingual (180 degrees) in steps of 30 degrees using a PC and framegrabber and examined for observed presence. Interproximal lesions could be detected in all teeth, but observed presence was dependent on camera angulation (p caries could be detected with the camera in the 90 degree position. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Accuracy of Proximal Caries Depth Measurements: Comparison of Two Computed Cone Beam Tomography and Storage Phosphor Plate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Şener

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of NewTom 9000 [cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT], Accu-I-Tomo [limited CBTC (LCBCT] and Digora Optime [storage phosphor plate (SPP] imaging systems in assessing the depths of defects with different shapes and sizes on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty out of 50 incisive teeth with sound proximal surfaces were divided into three equal groups. Mechanical defects of different sizes and depths were created on their proximal surfaces and teeth were placed in acrylic blocks with approximal contacts. Radiographs of the blocks were obtained with CBCT, LCBCT and SPP systems. The depth measurements of 60 artificial defects were performed by 3 radiologists in the digital radiographs. The gold standard (true measure was defined as the mean of the 2 observers' measurements on the microscopic sections. Results from imaging systems and true depths were compared using Bland-Altman plots. The agreement was determined with intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Maximum deviation from the true length in axial and sagittal slices of CBCT system was 2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-0.60] and 1.5 mm (95% CI 0.30-2.30 respectively while the deviation of LCBCT was 0.66 mm (95% CI 0.53-2.22 and 0.37 mm (95% CI 0.50-2.25. The deviation from truth for SPP was 0.66 mm (95% CI 0.33-2.25. Correlation among observers was 0.487 and 0.700 respectively, for CBCT axial and sagittal slices; while it was 0.979 and 0.985 for LCBCT and 0.979 for SPP. Conclusion: Images obtained with the Accu-I-Tomo LCBCT system were more accurate than Newtom CBCT and Digora SPP system for measurement of caries lesion depth. Correlation among observers was higher for LCBCT and SPP systems compared with CBCT system.

  20. Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charuakkra, Arnon; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Pongsirwet, Surawut; Verochana, Karune; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries. One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05). The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value. Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.

  1. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  2. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., feeders, loaders/muckers, track equipment, trucks, roof bolting machines, and mobile bridge conveyors... which you rely. Include experiences, data, models, calculations, studies and articles, and standard... outreach and/or training in the area of proximity detection (e.g., red zone warning materials). How often...

  3. Clinical evaluation of near-infrared light transillumination in approximal dentin caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gokhan; Guzel, Kadriye Gorkem Ulu

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to compare conventional caries detection techniques, pen-type laser fluorescence device, and near-infrared light transillumination method in approximal dentin caries lesions. The study included 157 patients, aged 12-18, without any cavity in the posterior teeth. Two calibrated examiners carried out the assessments of selected approximal caries sites independently. After the assessments, the unopened sites were excluded and a total of 161 approximal sites were included in the study. When both the examiners arrived at a consensus regarding the presence of dentin caries, the detected lesions were opened with a conical diamond burr, the cavity extent was examined and validated (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, accuracy, and area under the ROC curve (Az) values among the caries detection methods were calculated. Bitewing radiography and near-infrared (NIR) light transillumination methods showed the highest sensitivity (0.83-0.82) and accuracy (0.82-0.80) among the methods. Visual inspection showed the lowest sensitivity (0.54). Laser fluorescence device and visual inspection showed nearly equal performance. Near-infrared light transillumination can be used as an alternative method to approximal dentin caries detection. Visual inspection and laser fluorescence device alone should not be used for approximal dentin caries.

  4. Use of laser fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, George K.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1998-04-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent oral disease in spite of remarkable progress made during the past half- century to reduce its prevalence. Conventional procedures for caries detection are unable to detect the lesions until they are well advanced and involve about one-third of the thickness of enamel. Laboratory research on alternative caries detection methods based upon alterations in the conductance and optical properties associated with enamel demineralization has shown significant promise in recent years. Of these alternative measures, quantitative laser/light fluorescence appears to show the greatest promise for the detection of dental caries at a much earlier stage of development than is currently possible. A clinical trial was initiated in 150 children to evaluate, compare and validate several caries detection methods; in addition to the conventional diagnostic procedure, these detection methods involved quantitative light fluorescence, electrical conductivity, and direct digital radiography. Although the clinical trial is not yet complete, early results suggest the possibility for the earlier detection of dental caries with these alternative methods.

  5. Caries detection and diagnostics with near-infrared light transillumination: clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söchtig, Friederike; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the function and potential of diagnosing caries lesions using a recently introduced near-infrared (NIR) transillumination technique (DIAGNOcam, KaVo). The study included 130 adolescents and adults with complete permanent dentition (age > 12). All patients underwent visual examination and, if necessary, bitewing radiographs. Proximal and occlusal surfaces, which had not yet been restored, were photographed by a NIR transillumination camera system using light with a wavelength of 780 nm rather than ionizing radiation. Of the study patients, 85 showed 127 proximal dentin caries lesions that were treated operatively. A cross table shows the correlation of radiography and NIR transillumination. Based on our practical clinical experiences to date, a possible classifi cation of diagnosis is introduced. The main result of our study was that NIR light was able to visualize caries lesions on proximal and occlusal surfaces. The study suggests that NIR transillumination is a method that may help to avoid bitewing radiographs for diagnosis of caries in everyday clinical practice.

  6. Caries Detection Methods Based on Changes in Optical Properties between Healthy and Carious Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Karlsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservative, noninvasive or minimally invasive approach to clinical management of dental caries requires diagnostic techniques capable of detecting and quantifying lesions at an early stage, when progression can be arrested or reversed. Objective evidence of initiation of the disease can be detected in the form of distinct changes in the optical properties of the affected tooth structure. Caries detection methods based on changes in a specific optical property are collectively referred to as optically based methods. This paper presents a simple overview of the feasibility of three such technologies for quantitative or semiquantitative assessment of caries lesions. Two of the techniques are well-established: quantitative light-induced fluorescence, which is used primarily in caries research, and laser-induced fluorescence, a commercially available method used in clinical dental practice. The third technique, based on near-infrared transillumination of dental enamel is in the developmental stages.

  7. Radiographic and laser fluorescence methods have no benefits for detecting caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F M; Novaes, T F; Matos, R; Bittar, D G; Piovesan, C; Gimenez, T; Imparato, J C P; Raggio, D P; Braga, M M

    2012-01-01

    Clinical guidelines advise that dentists take radiographs in children to detect caries lesions missed by visual inspection; however, due to the current low caries prevalence in most countries, we hypothesized that the adjunct methods of caries detection would not significantly improve the detection of primary molar lesions in comparison to visual inspection alone. We evaluated the performance of visual inspection, alone or in combination with radiographic and laser fluorescence pen (LFpen) methods, in detecting occlusal and approximal caries lesions in primary molars. Two examiners evaluated children who had sought dental treatment with these diagnostic strategies. The reference standard involved the temporary separation of approximal and operative interventions for occlusal surfaces. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and utility of diagnostic strategies were calculated. Simultaneous combined strategies increased sensitivities but decreased specificities. Furthermore, no differences were observed in accuracy and utility, parameters more influenced by caries prevalence. In conclusion, adjunct radiographic and laser fluorescence methods offer no benefits to the detection of caries in primary teeth in comparison to visual inspection alone; hence, present clinical guidelines should be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sequential Test Selection by Quantifying of the Reduction in Diagnostic Uncertainty for the Diagnosis of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to determine the presence or absence of a certain disease, multiple diagnostic tests may be necessary. Performance of these tests can be sequentially evaluated. Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the contribution of the test in each step, in reducing diagnostic uncertainty when multiple tests are sequentially used for the diagnosis. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study Methods: Radiographs of seventy-three patients of the Department of Dento-Maxillofacial Radiology of Hacettepe University Faculty of Dentistry were assessed. Panoramic (PAN, full mouth intraoral (FM, and bitewing (BW radiographs were used for the diagnosis of proximal caries in the maxillary and mandibular molar regions. Diagnostic performance of radiography was sequentially evaluated by using the reduction in diagnostic uncertainty. Results: FM provided maximum diagnostic information for ruling in potential in the maxillary and mandibular molar regions in the first step. FM provided more diagnostic information than BW radiographs for ruling in the mandibular region in the second step. In the mandibular region, BW radiographs provided more diagnostic information than FM for ruling out in the first step. Conclusion: The presented method in this study provides the clinicians with a solution for the decision of the sequential selection of diagnostic tests for the correct diagnosis of the presence or absence of a certain disease.

  9. Effect of pit and fissure sealants on caries detection by a fluorescent camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Rosenfeld, Dalia; Peikes, Daniel; Guzy, Gerald; Rosivack, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sealant placement on the detection of caries by a fluorescent camera (FC), the Spectra caries detector. In a laboratory study, FC images and readings were obtained from 31 extracted teeth, before and following application of clear sealants (Shofu Clear or Delton unfilled), or opaque sealants (3M Clinpro or Delton FS). Teeth were then sectioned and examined for enamel or dentine caries. Using each tooth's true caries diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of the FC measurements in detecting dentine caries was calculated. In the clinical study, FC readings were obtained from 41 molars in children prior to and following application of clear sealants. Following application of Shofu or Delton unfilled there were reductions in the mean FC readings of 10% (p=0.5) and 8.2% (p=0.009), respectively. Application of two opaque sealants, 3M or Delton FS significantly reduced mean FC readings 16.2% and 20.8% (psealants there was a significant loss of sensitivity in detecting dentinal caries. Clear sealant application caused an insignificant loss of detection sensitivity. Following application of clear sealants to children's molars there was a small (4.01%) but significant (psealants with little loss of sensitivity. Although lesions can be seen through opaque sealants, loss of sensitivity precludes accurate lesion assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth using swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yukie; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Wada, Ikumi; Miyashin, Michiyo; Takagi, Yuzo; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a detecting tool for occlusal caries in primary teeth. At the in vitro part of the study, 38 investigation sites of occlusal fissures (noncavitated and cavitated) were selected from 26 extracted primary teeth and inspected visually using conventional dental equipment by six examiners without any magnification. SS-OCT cross-sectional images at 1330-nm center wavelength were acquired on the same locations. The teeth were then sectioned at the investigation site and directly viewed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) by two experienced examiners. The presence and extent of caries were scored in each observation. The results obtained from SS-OCT and conventional visual inspections were compared with those of CLSM. Consequently, SS-OCT could successfully detect both cavitated and noncavitated lesions. The magnitude of sensitivity for SS-OCT was higher than those for visual inspection (sensitivity of visual inspection and SS-OCT, 0.70 versus 0.93 for enamel demineralization, 0.49 versus 0.89 for enamel cavitated caries, and 0.36 versus 0.75 for dentin caries). Additionally, occlusal caries of a few clinical cases were observed using SS-OCT in vivo. The results indicate that SS-OCT has a great detecting potential for occlusal caries in primary teeth.

  11. The influence of amalgam fillings on the detection of approximal caries by cone beam CT: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczyk, T; Dyszkiewicz Konwińska, M; Owecka, M; Krzyżostaniak, J; Surdacka, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this CBCT investigation on the detection of caries was to assess the influence of artefacts produced by the presence of amalgam fillings located in the vicinity. 102 non-cavitated pre-molar and molar teeth were placed in blocks of silicone with approximal contacts consisting of 3 sound or carious teeth and 1 mesial-occlusal-distal amalgam-filled tooth in-between. Radiographs of all the teeth were recorded using the CBCT system (NewTom™ 3G; QR Srl, Verona, Italy; field of view, 9 inches). Data from the CBCT unit were reconstructed and sectioned in the mesiodistal tooth plane. Images were evaluated twice by two observers, using a five-step confidence scale. After the CBCT examination, the teeth were individually sectioned in the mesiodistal direction with a diamond saw. Using a light microscope at ×40 magnification, the true morphological status of all approximal surfaces was established. Sensitivity of the CBCT for the detection of caries on surfaces located proximally and distally to an amalgam filing ranged from 0.27 to 0.30 for enamel and from 0.47 to 0.56 for dentin. Specificity values for enamel proximal and distal lesions were 0.48 and 0.53, respectively, for enamel and 0.33 to 0.38, respectively, for proximal and distal dentin cases. Intra-observer reliability was 0.84, and interobserver reliability was 0.49. Owing to its low specificity, scans from a CBCT examination should not be used to determine the presence of demineralization of the tooth surface when amalgam fillings are present in the region of interest.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of the Enamel Caries Which Were Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... that occlusal caries were more easily detected than proximal caries by visual examination;[33] therefore, for better identification and reproducibility, lesions in the occlusal and smooth surfaces were selected for this study. [Downloaded free from http://www.njcponline.com on Wednesday, June 28, 2017, ...

  13. Sensitive detection of aggregated prion protein via proximity ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Maria; Wik, Lotta; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Comoy, Emmanuel; Linné, Tommy; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2014-01-01

    The DNA assisted solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) provides a unique opportunity to specifically detect prion protein (PrP) aggregates by investigating the collocation of 3 or more copies of the specific protein. We have developed an SP-PLA that can detect PrP aggregates in brain homogenates from infected hamsters even after a 10(7)-fold dilution. In contrast, brain homogenate from uninfected animals did not generate a detectable signal at 100-fold higher concentration. Using either of the 2 monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies, 3F4 and 6H4, we successfully detected low concentrations of aggregated PrP. The presented results provide a proof of concept that this method might be an interesting tool in the development of diagnostic approaches of prion diseases.

  14. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  15. A comparison of Kodak Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed plus dental X-ray films for the detection of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Monsour, P A; Moule, A J; Basford, K E

    2002-03-01

    Using the fastest dental X-ray film available is an easy way of reducing exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the diagnostic ability of fast films for the detection of proximal surface caries must be demonstrated before these films will become universally accepted. Extracted premolar and molar teeth were arranged to simulate a bitewing examination and radiographed using Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray films. Three different exposure times were used for each film type. Six general dentists were used to determine the presence and depth of the decay in the proximal surfaces of the teeth radiographed. The actual extent of the decay in the teeth was determined by sectioning the teeth and examining them under a microscope. There was no significant difference between the two films for the mean correct diagnosis. However, there was a significant difference between the means for the three exposure times used for Ultraspeed film. The practitioners used were not consistent in their ability to make a correct diagnosis, or for the film for which they got the highest correct diagnosis. Ektaspeed Plus dental X-ray film is just as reliable as Ultraspeed dental X-ray film for the detection of proximal surface decay. The effect of underexposure was significant for Ultraspeed, but not for Ektaspeed Plus. Patient exposure can be reduced significantly with no loss of diagnostic ability by changing from Ultraspeed X-ray film to Ektaspeed Plus X-ray film.

  16. Caries detection under composite restorations by laser fluorescence and digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kositbowornchai, Suwadee; Sukanya, Chotikpanich; Tidarat, Tangkittikasem; Chanoggarn, Thongsombat

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the potential of DIAGNOdent readings in detecting carious lesions under composite resin restorations in comparison with digital radiography. One hundred extracted third molars were visually selected: 50 with and 50 without carious lesions. Class I occlusal cavities were prepared. In the carious group, caries were left on the floor of cavities before composite resin restoration. The occlusal surface relevant to the caries position in the carious group and a counterfeit point in the non-carious group were marked for DIAGNOdent reading. Teeth were fixed in a plaster box. Digital radiographs were taken and examined by four observers. Definitive diagnosis of caries was based on a histological assessment. Diagnostic accuracy for each method was expressed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Differences between the areas under the ROC curves were assessed using the McNemar test. The respective sensitivity (95 % confidence interval (%CI)) and specificity (95 %CI) of DIAGNOdent were 0.74 (0.66-0.83) and 0.84 (0.76-0.92). The respective average diagnostic performance values for digital radiographs assessed by four observers were 0.54 (0.36-0.72) and 0.77 (0.65-0.86). The respective ROC values for DIAGNOdent and digital radiographs based on four observers were 0.79 and 0.65. Cohen's kappa statistic revealed a moderate to substantial agreement among interobserver reliabilities (k = 0.60-0.77). There were no statistically significant differences between DIAGNOdent and digital radiographs for the detection of dental caries under composite restoration (p value > 0.05). DIAGNOdent was developed to detect caries on occlusal surfaces and was tested for caries adjacent to filling materials. This study demonstrated the use of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under old composite restorations.

  17. Clinical evaluation of near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT as an interproximal caries detection tool in a large sample of patients in a private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study has been carried out in order to evaluate in vivo the diagnostic performance of near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT compared to digital radiographic examination (RE in the detection of class II carious lesions. Methods: A total of 114 patients were included, and 2957 proximal surfaces were considered. Surfaces were imaged by means of NIRT and radiographed with a photostimulable phosphor system. NIRT and radiographic images were observed by two blinded operators. Their diagnoses were compared with those made while visiting the patients, when visual-tactile, radiographic and NIRT data were matched by expert operators to obtain the reference diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity and inter-observer consistency were calculated. Results: Throughout the visits, 395 caries were detected. When investigating without clinical information and in a blind manner, RE performed significantly better than NIRT regarding sensitivity analysis (0.591 vs. 0.456, p<0.001, and NIRT performed significantly better than RE regarding specificity analysis (0.980 vs 0.933, p<0.001. However, NIRT showed sensitivity similar to RE when only enamel caries were concerned. With regard to the agreement between the two observers, NIRT performed significantly better than RE (0.901 for RE analysis, 0.989 for NIRT analysis, P<0.001. A high probability of false positives for enamel caries (95% from 0.699 to 0.791 was observed in RE. NIRT was very likely to detect and correct the erroneous positive diagnosis of enamel carious lesions obtained using RE (95% CI for probability from 0.938 to 0.979. Conclusions: NIRT should be used in caries diagnosis in combination with radiographic images. In fact, NIRT can help to correct a false positive diagnosis of enamel caries. Furthermore, NIRT could be used to detect caries in patients for whom non-urgent radiographic exposition is contraindicated and to monitor enamel caries in medically treated patients. Finally, thanks

  18. In vitro performance of different methods in detecting occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J; Zakian, C; Salsone, S; Pinto, S C S; Taylor, A; Pretty, I A; Ellwood, R

    2013-02-01

    Early caries detection is essential for the implementation of preventive, therapeutic and intervention strategies within general dental practice. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro performance of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), digital photographs scored with ICDAS (ICDAS photographs), fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), SoproLife(®) camera and two implementations of quantitative light-induced fluorescence a commercial (QLF-Inspektor Research systems) and a custom (QLF-Custom) system, to detect early and intermediate occlusal lesions. One hundred and twelve permanent extracted teeth were selected and assessed with each detection method. Histological validation was used as a gold standard. The detection methods were compared by means of sensitivity, specificity, areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves for enamel and dentine levels and with the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient against histology. For any enamel or dentine caries detection, the AUROC curves ranged from 0.86 (OCT) to 0.98 (ICDAS and ICDAS photographs, SoproLife(®) camera) and at the dentine level from 0.83 (OCT) to 0.96 for FOTI. The correlations with histology ranged between 0.65 (OCT) and 0.88 (ICDAS and FOTI). Under in vitro conditions, the assessed detection methods showed excellent intra-examiner reproducibility. All the methods were strongly correlated with histology (pclinical practice for detection and assessment of lesion depth. Other methods may be useful in monitoring caries lesion behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of caries status among schoolchildren according to decayed-missing-filled teeth/decayed-extract-filled teeth index, International Caries Detection and Assessment System, and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajendra Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection and evaluation of dental caries is of epidemiological importance. Its early detection is important to commence appropriate treatment planning. Cavitated, noncavitated, and initial lesions of dental caries can be detected by various indices. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the caries experience in schoolchildren using decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT/decayed-extracted-filled teeth (deft, International Caries Detection and Assessment System-II (ICDAS-II, and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST systems. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological survey was carried out among 1550 schoolchildren (37,644 teeth between the age ranges of 4 and 14 years. American Dental Association type III examination was performed using plane mouth mirrors and community periodontal index probes using DMFT/deft, ICDAS II, and CAST indices. Results: Out of 37,644 teeth examined, 2,718 teeth had shown caries. Caries experience with DMFT/deft index was 5.54%. Highest score of DMFT was observed in deciduous dentition period (59.02%. Overall prevalence of dental caries with ICDAS and CAST system was 6.7% and 6.95%, respectively. The highest percentage of noncavitated lesions (ICDAS - 2.26% and CAST - 3.9% and greater prevalence of caries among deciduous teeth (ICDAS - 53.2% and CAST - 58.7% was observed with both ICDAS and CAST systems. Conclusion: A high prevalence of noncavitated lesions and less number of sealants and restorations indicates the lack of awareness for prevention and treatment of oral diseases, which suggests a strong need for preventive and operative treatments.

  20. Hybrid approach for detection of dental caries based on the methods FCM and level sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Marwa; Ben Ali, Ramzi; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for detection of dental caries that is a bacterial disease that destroys the tooth structure. In our approach, we have achieved a new segmentation method that combines the advantages of fuzzy C mean algorithm and level set method. The results obtained by the FCM algorithm will be used by Level sets algorithm to reduce the influence of the noise effect on the working of each of these algorithms, to facilitate level sets manipulation and to lead to more robust segmentation. The sensitivity and specificity confirm the effectiveness of proposed method for caries detection.

  1. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Heini; Vähänikkilä, Hannu; Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2013-12-06

    Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad's, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman's correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad's method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman's correlation coefficient was also the weakest. To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only.

  2. Evaluation of the diagnostic advantage of intraoral D and E film for detecting interproximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Fatemeh Ezoddini; Davari, Abdolrahim; Goodarzipour, Daryoush; Goodarzipour, Koorosh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2004-11-15

    Clinicians strive to reduce the exposure of patients to X-ray radiation in an effort to decrease its harmful effects on the body. A potential strategy for achieving this goal is the use of high-speed films that require less exposure to radiation to generate a diagnostic image. There are two film types commonly used in intraoral radiography: high speed or "Ekta-speed" film (Type E) and normal speed or Ultra-speed film (Type D). Type E film requires nearly half of the exposure time that is required by Type D films to produce an acceptable diagnostic image; however, the diagnosis quality and usability of these film types are under question. The purpose of this research is to compare the diagnostic quality of Type E with Type D film when used to diagnose proximal caries. In this study 40 pairs of extracted maxillary premolar teeth were chosen and divided into four groups of 10 pairs. Cavities were made on proximal surfaces at different depths (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm) for each group. Bitewing radiographs were then taken on each pair of teeth using Type E film and then again using Type D film. Radiographs were evaluated by two oral radiologists and two operative dentistry specialists who recorded the perceived diagnostic depth of the prepared cavities. Our data showed both Type D and E films are suitable for use in diagnosing proximal caries, and despite a minor discrepancy between them no significant difference was found with regard to their value in diagnosing proximal caries.

  3. In vitro performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence device and bitewing radiographs for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Feltrin de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: LFpen presented better reproducibility for primary and permanent teeth and higher accuracy in detecting caries lesions at D1 threshold than BW for permanent teeth. LFpen should be used as an adjunct method for approximal caries detection.

  4. Dental caries detection by optical spectroscopy: a polarized Raman approach with fibre-optic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, A. C.-T.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Hewko, M.; Sowa, M. G.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.

    2006-09-01

    Incipient dental caries lesions appear as white spots on the tooth surface; however, accurate detection of early approximal lesions is difficult due to limited sensitivity of dental radiography and other traditional diagnostic tools. A new fibre-optic coupled spectroscopic method based on polarized Raman spectroscopy (P-RS) with near-IR laser excitation is introduced which provides contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient caries. Changes in polarized Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Demineralization-induced morphological/orientational alteration of enamel crystallites is believed to be responsible for the reduction of Raman polarization anisotropy observed in the polarized Raman spectra of caries lesions. Supporting evidence obtained by polarized Raman spectral imaging is presented. A specially designed fibre-optic coupled setup for simultaneous measurement of parallel- and cross-polarized tooth Raman spectra is demonstrated in this study.

  5. Application of International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) systems in child cancer patients: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Fernández, A; Oñate Sánchez, R E; Fernández Miñano, E; Iniesta López-Matencio, P; Ortiz Ruiz, A J

    2017-06-01

    Leukaemia represents 30-40% of all paediatric malignant tumours and is the main cause of death in patients aged <15 years. One of the main complications in these patients is infection, which may often occur in the oral cavity. Chemotherapy-related oral health problems may be reduced by oral healthcare strategies based on the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CABRA). A case is reported of a 14-year-old girl treated for leukaemia who presented with established dental caries lesions which were classified and treated according to ICDAS and CABRA protocols. After three, no new caries was observed. ICDAS and CAMBRA provide useful and effective guidance for the avoidance of dental and systemic problems. Their introduction into standard practice could reduce the legal difficulties derived from dental treatment in these patients.

  6. Linear polarization detection of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the early detection of the application of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zeng, Nan; Yang, Lifeng

    2010-11-01

    Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an important functional OCT. By extracting the polarization properties from PS-OCT signals we can obtain more information about the structural and optical features of tissues or materials. Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide. The primary caries detection and the structure transformation of the enamel and dentin between sound and broken teeth are given serious attention by dentists. In this paper, using our Fourier-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (FD-PS-OCT) setup by three incident linear polarization states and two detection states, we can get the 9 Mueller matrix elements from M11to M33 of the decay areas of the artificial caries measured. We also applied our polarized sensitive Monte Carlo program in the simulation of the PS-OCT detection process. We used a sphere-cylinder scattering model as an approximation of anisotropic tissues to describe the optical properties of tooth. By comparing the Mueller matrix elements of both experimental and simulation results, especially the diagonal elements (M11, M22 and M33), we reach the point that the main structural change of the caries that affects its scattering features is the expanded diameter of the enamel rods and dentinal tubules caused by the acid corrosion due to caries lesion.

  7. Detection and proportion of very early dental caries in independent living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools for early caries detection by field health care providers working in

  8. On-chip Raman spectrometer for the detection of early dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, N.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Choo-Smith, L.P.; Baclig, A.C.; Caspers, P.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Driessen, A.; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus

    We measured Raman spectra of extracted human teeth using an integrated arrayed-waveguide-grating spectrometer fabricated in silicon-oxynitride technology. The results represent a step towards the realization of compact, hand-held, integrated spectrometers for the detection of early dental caries.

  9. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, M

    2001-01-01

    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication

  10. Pen-type laser fluorescence device versus bitewing radiographs for caries detection on approximal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhang, M; Wollenweber, N; Singh-Hüsgen, P; Danesh, G; Zimmer, S

    2016-11-04

    The accurate detection of approximal caries is generally difficult. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the pen-type laser fluorescence device (LF pen) to detect approximal carious lesions in comparison to bitewing radiographs (BW). Three hundred forty-one tooth surfaces were diagnosed in 20 patients with an average age of 26.70 (±2.82) years. Each test tooth was sequentially assessed by a single calibrated examiner using visual inspection, BW, and the LF pen. Radiographs were used as the gold standard to calculate an appropriate cut-off. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for cut-off limits of 15, measured by the LF pen were compared using the chi 2 test (McNemar test). For approximal caries at D3 level, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LF pen at a cut-off value of 15 (96.8 and 83.0 %) and for visual inspection (99.3 and 4.3 %). Within the limitations of this study, dentin caries on approximal surfaces could be detected equally well by the LF pen as by the bitewing radiographs. Therefore, the LF pen can be recommended as an alternative to radiographs for the detection of approximal caries in a regular dental practice setting. DRKS00004817 on DRKS on 12 th March 2013.

  11. Factors that influence data quality in caries experience detection: A multilevel modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Mutsvari (Timothy); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); M.J. García-Zattera; L. Diya (Luwis); D. Declerck (Dominique)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCaries experience detection is prone to misclassification. For this reason, calibration exercises which aim at assessing and improving the scoring behavior of dental raters are organized. During a calibration exercise, a sample of children is examined by the benchmark scorer and the

  12. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  13. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature...

  14. A comparison of Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film and the Siemens Sidexis digital imaging system for caries detection using receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, D A; Ludlow, J B; Platin, E; Nair, M

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of proximal caries detection comparing enhanced and unenhanced Siemens Sidexis CCD-based digital images with Ektaspeed Plus films utilizing receiver operating characteristic analysis. Sixty extracted teeth (24 posterior and 36 anterior) were imaged under identical standardized geometric and exposure conditions. Six observers, using a 5-point confidence scale, rated 120 proximal surfaces for the presence or absence of carious lesions by means of three image modalities: (1) observer enhanced and (2) unenhanced Sidexis displays, and (3) Ektaspeed Plus films. The ground truth was determined by microscopic analysis of ground sections. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated with calculated areas (AZ) analyzed with analysis of variance for effect of reader, reading, and modality. Analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences among readers, readings and modalities (mean square values of 0.012, 0.005, 0.004, F ratios of 13.604, 5.329, 5.100; p = values of 0.001, 0.043, and 0.030, respectively). Post-hoc paired comparisons of modalities using Tukey's statistic demonstrated that only film and enhanced Sidexis images were different from each other (p = 0.024). AZ scores were 0.7650, 0.7499, and 0.8008 respectively, for unenhanced Sidexis, enhanced Sidexis, and Ektaspeed Plus film. Unenhanced digital Sidexis images were equivalent to film for the detection of proximal caries in this in vitro study. Observer enhanced Sidexis images exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than the unenhanced digital and film images.

  15. A comparative evaluation of DIAGNOdent with visual and radiography for detection of occlusal caries: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of dental caries is fundamental to the practice of dentistry. Despite the fact that dental caries has declined considerably, it is still a problem of great importance. The reduction in caries prevalence has not occurred uniformly for all the surfaces. The greatest reduction was observed at lesions located on smooth surfaces, so that occlusal caries are most common in children. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of DIAGNOdent in detecting occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 teeth were subjected for visual, radiographic, and DIAGNOdent examinations. All the three methods were compared to histology which is a gold standard. Results: The result obtained showed that DIAGNOdent is superior to visual and radiographic methods in diagnosing occlusal caries.

  16. In vitro detection of secondary caries associated with composite restorations on approximal surfaces using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Hug, Isabel; Stich, Herman; Seemann, Rainer; Lussi, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the DIAGNOdent pen laser fluorescence device (LFpen) in comparison with visual examination (VE), bitewing radiographs (BW) and visual examination combined with bitewing radiographs (VEBW) in detecting secondary approximal caries associated with composite restorations. In total, 60 approximal surfaces from 43 permanent molars with composite restorations were assessed twice by two examiners using the LFpen, VE, BW and VEBW. After histological preparation and hardness measurements, the sample was assigned to either a crown or root caries group, depending on the location of the lesions as the gold standard. For crown caries at D1, the highest values of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the LFpen at a cutoff value of 18 (1.00) and for the VEBW (0.89). At D3 (cutoff of 30), the LFpen showed the highest values of sensitivity and specificity. For root caries, the LFpen and VEBW showed the highest values of specificity (0.54), sensitivity (0.81) and accuracy (0.69). The Spearman rank correlation coefficients for crown/root caries with histology were 0.54/0.37 (LFpen), 0.29/0.10 (BW), 0.29/0.18 (VE) and 0.23/0.37 (VEBW). For the LFpen, the ICC varied from 0.80 (interexaminer) to 0.97 (intraexaminer B); the kappa value was 0.19 for BW and 0.35 for VE (interexaminer). Intraexaminer kappa values for BW were 0.25 (A) and 0.29 (B), and those for VE were 0.31 (A) and 0.32 (B). The LFpen device exhibited a performance comparable to that of conventional methods but with higher interexaminer reproducibility. Therefore, the LFpen should be considered an auxiliary method for the detection of secondary approximal caries associated with composite restorations.

  17. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14 μm) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  18. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xingmin, E-mail: quxingmin@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Gang, E-mail: kqgang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Zuyan, E-mail: zhangzy-bj@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Xuchen, E-mail: kqxcma@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A{sub z}) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A{sub z} values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  19. Comparison of diagnostic performance on approximal caries detection among Swedish and Chinese senior dental students using analogue and digital radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minston, William; Li, Gang; Wennberg, Rikard; Näsström, Karin; Shi, Xie-Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate diagnostic performance on approximal caries detection among Swedish and Chinese dental students using analogue and digital radiographs in vitro. Additionally, to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two image modalities for approximal caries detection. 46 extracted premolars and molars were mounted in blocks and exposed with two intra-oral systems, one CCD based digital radiographs and one with conventional films. 10 Swedish and 10 Chinese senior dental students diagnosed the approximal sites of the teeth exposed with the digital and analogue images. A 5 point diagnosis confidence scale was applied for caries registration for all the observers. Subsequently, the teeth were sectioned and histo-pathologically analyzed in order to obtain a gold standard. The data were analyzed in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of the two radiographic methods and for the two groups of students for enamel and dentinal caries detection, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for dentinal caries detection compared with enamel caries detection for both Chinese and Swedish students and for both imaging modalities (px-ray systems were equally accurate. Chinese and Swedish students showed similar outcomes in their performance for approximal caries detection.

  20. An In Vitro Comparison of Different Diagnostic Methods in Detection of Residual Dentinal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Unlu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of different diagnostic methods in detection of residual dentinal caries in excavated cavities. Fifty extracted molar with deep dentinal carious lesions were excavated using a slow-speed handpiece. All cavities were assessed by laser fluorescence(LF device, electronic caries monitor(ECM, and caries detector dye(CDD by three independent observers blindly. The measurements were repeated after two weeks. Specimens containing dentin slices 150 μm in thickness were prepared for histological analyses. The existence and absence of carious dentin was determined using a lightmicroscope. The average intraobserver accuracy was 1.00 (perfect agreement for CDD, 0.86 (excellent agreement for ECM, and 0.50 (good agreement for LF. The average interobserver accuracy values were 0.92 (excellent agreement, (0.36 marginal agreement and 0.48 (good agreement, for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. The average specificity was 0.60 for CDD, 73% for ECM, and 0.50 for LF. The average sensitivity was 0.55 for CDD, 0.85 for LF, and 0.47 for ECM. The average accuracy values were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.81 for CDD, ECM, and LF, respectively. LF had the greatest sensitivity and accuracy values of any of the methods tested. As a conclusion, LF device is appeared to most reliable method in detection of remain caries in cavity. However, because of its technical sensitivity it may susceptible to variations in measurements. To pay attention to the rule of usage and repeated measurements can minimize such variations in clinical practice. It was concluded that LF is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection.

  1. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical Marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART approach has been in existence for a while, the reasons for the poor performance of multisurface ART restorations are not very clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on survival of proximal ART restorations. Settings: Two rural divisions in Kenya were selected for the study. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Material and Methods: The 804 children in the study had their baseline- and 2-year dental plaque levels documented. Each child received one proximal restoration in a primary molar using ART approach, together with trained and pre-tested operators/assistants, three glass ionomer cements (GIC-brands and two tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years. Post-restorative bite-wing radiographs taken soon after restoration were also evaluated. Statistical analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14 computer programme was used and results tested using Pearson′s correlation, Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis and Multiple Logistic regression models tests. Results: At baseline and after 2 years, the mean cumulative survival and plaque index changed from 94.4% to 30.8% and 2.34 (Standard Deviation, or SD of 0.46 to 1.92 (SD 2.1 respectively, with higher plaque indices associated with higher restoration failures. Of the 507 radiographs evaluated, 48 (9.5%, 63 (12.4% and 9 (1.8% restorations had residual caries (RC, cervical marginal-gaps (CMG and both RC/CMG respectively. Survival of the restorations with RC/CMG was significantly lower (p = 0.003 compared to those with RC or without RC. Conclusion: Low survival of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal-gaps.

  3. Performance of laser fluorescence devices and visual examination for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Charland, Daniel; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of a laser fluorescence tool DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and two light-emitting diode fluorescence tools--Spectra Caries Detection Aid (AIR TECHNIQUES, Melville, NY), and SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator in daylight and blue florescence mode (SOPRO, ACTEON Group, La Ciotat, France)--in comparison to the caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS-II) in detection of caries lesions. In 100 subjects (age 23.4+/-10.6 years), 433 posterior permanent unrestored teeth were examined. On the occlusal surfaces, up to 1066 data points for each assessment method were available for statistical evaluation, including 1034 ICDAS scores (intra-examiner kappa=0.884). For the SOPROLIFE tool, a new caries-scoring system was developed. Per assessment tool each average score for one given ICDAS code was significantly different from the one for another ICDAS code. Normalized data linear regression revealed that both SOPROLIFE assessment tools allowed for best caries score discrimination followed by DIAGNOdent and Spectra Caries Detection Aid. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve calculations showed the same grading sequence when cutoff point ICDAS codes 0-1-2 were grouped together. Sensitivity and specificity values at the same cutoff were calculated (DIAGNOdent 87/66, Spectra Caries Detection Aid 93/37, SOPROLIFE 93/63, SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence 95/55.)

  4. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  5. Clinical performance of fluorescence-based methods for detection of occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Regina Antunes PONTES

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the performance of fluorescence-based methods (FBMs, compared to visual inspection after histological validation, in detecting and assessing the activity status of occlusal carious lesions in primary teeth. One examiner evaluated 50 primary molars close to exfoliation in 24 children. Teeth were assessed using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF and pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen. After exfoliation, histological validation was performed. Teeth were cut and sections were evaluated for lesion depth and activity status (after utilization of a pH indicator under a stereomicroscope. Parameters related to the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions at two thresholds (initial and dentin lesions were calculated. Regarding the activity status, lesions were classified into sound+inactive or active, and the area under the ROC curve and the diagnostic odds ratio values of the methods were calculated and compared. Evaluation of red fluorescence using QLF presented higher sensitivity but lower specificity than visual inspection in detecting dentin caries lesions. However, QLF considering different parameters and LFpen had similar performance to that obtained with visual inspection. Regarding activity assessment, all FBMs and visual inspection also presented similar performance. In conclusion, FBMs did not prove advantageous for the detection and activity assessment of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars when compared to visual inspection.

  6. Children's discomfort in assessments using different methods for approximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Because discomfort caused by different approximal caries detection methods can influence their performance, the assessment of this discomfort is important. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the discomfort reported by children after the use of different diagnostic methods to detect approximal caries lesions in primary teeth: visual inspection, bitewing radiography, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent pen - LFpen and temporary separation with orthodontic rubbers. Seventy-six children aged 4 to 12 years were examined using these methods. Their discomfort was assessed using the Wong-Baker scale and compared among the methods. Visual inspection caused less discomfort than did other methods. Radiography and the LFpen presented similar levels of discomfort. Older children reported higher discomfort using temporary separation, whereas younger children reported less discomfort with the LFpen. In conclusion, radiographic, temporary separation and LFpen methods provoke higher discomfort than visual inspection.

  7. Application of NIR Raman spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing early dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, A. C.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Zhu, R.; Hewko, M.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.; Sowa, M. G.

    2006-02-01

    Early dental caries detection facilitates implementation of non-surgical methods for arresting caries progression and promoting tooth remineralization. We present a method based on Raman spectroscopy with near-IR laser excitation to provide biochemical contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient carious lesions found in extracted human teeth. Changes in Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Examination of various intensities of the PO 4 3- ν2, ν3, ν4 vibrations showed consistent increased intensities in spectra of carious lesions compared to sound enamel. The spectral changes are attributed to demineralization-induced alterations of enamel crystallite morphology and/or orientation. This hypothesis is supported by reduced Raman polarization anisotropy derived from polarized Raman spectra of carious lesions. Polarized Raman spectral imaging of carious lesions found on whole (i.e. un-sectioned) tooth samples will also be presented.

  8. Histological validation of a laser fluorescence device for occlusal caries detection in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, D; Lagouvardos, P; Kavvadia, K; Papagiannoulis, L

    2009-11-01

    This was to validate in vitro a laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent 2095 - DD, on the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological examination as the gold standard and to compare the laser fluorescence findings to the results of the conventionally used diagnostic methods. 111 occlusal pits in 24 extracted primary molars were examined for caries by one trained operator (Intra-examiner Reliability K>0.83), using direct visual (DV), indirect visual (IDV), radiographic (XR) and fluorescence (DD) examinations and then the extent of caries was determined histologically. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve - AUC were calculated for all methods, using the histological evaluation as the gold standard. Differences between examination methods were estimated by pair-wise comparison of their respective AUC. DD's sensitivity for enamel and for dentine lesions respectively was 0.90 and 0.36, its specificity 0.36 and 0.91 and its accuracy 0.61 and 0.65. The DD device exhibited better sensitivity than specificity for enamel lesions and better specificity than sensitivity for lesions into dentine. The DD device was found to have the highest sensitivity for lesions into enamel, specificity and accuracy and as well as the largest AUC compared with all other methods. For lesions into dentine however, according to AUC values the DD was not statistically significant different from the other methods. Compared with the other methods, the DD had the highest validity for enamel caries while its validity for caries into dentine was not statistical different from the other methods.

  9. Comparison of three diagnostic techniques for detecting occlusal dental caries in primary molars: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin; Wakpanjar, Mayur; Rusawat, Bhavesh; Shetty, Ashveeta

    2016-01-01

    To compare the accuracy and repeatability of three diagnostic systems; visual inspection, bitewing radiography, and CarieScan PRO for occlusal caries diagnosis in primary molars. 216 occlusal surfaces of primary molars examined in turn by two examiners using each of three diagnostic systems (visual inspection, bitewing radiography, and CarieScan PRO). Examiners indicated operative intervention (validation method) for 104 teeth which were used for statistical analysis. The validation method was cavity preparation when the two examiners agreed about the presence of dentinal caries. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each diagnostic technique. Inter- and intra-examiner repeatability was calculated for each diagnostic system using the Cohen's kappa statistics. Visual inspection showed the highest sensitivity (0.93). The highest sensitivity and NPVs were provided by CarieScan PRO (0.97 and 0.95, respectively) however this was offset by a lower specificity (0.82) compared to other techniques. The CarieScan PRO gave the highest values of Cohen's kappa statistics. This study showed low sensitivity but substantial specificity with visual inspection. Bitewing radiography performed poorly overall when compared with the other two systems. The CarieScan PRO technique gave the highest overall combination of sensitivity and specificity for detection of occlusal caries.

  10. Impact of different magnification levels on visual caries detection with ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Jost, F; Perrin, P; Lussi, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of different levels of magnification on the accuracy and reliability of visual caries detection using ICDAS criteria. Occlusal surfaces of 100 extracted molars were assessed by 14 examiners (3rd and the 4th year dental students and dentists) using no magnification aids, a 2.5× Galilean loupe, a 4.5× Keplerian loupe, or a surgical microscope with 10× magnification. The assessments were repeated on a different day. Sensitivity, specificity, AUC and reliabilities were calculated according to the gold standard of histology. We found that with increasing magnification, the number of surfaces rated as "sound" (ICDAS code 0) decreased, while the number of surfaces with a localized enamel breakdown (ICDAS code 3) increased. While the sensitivities increased, the values of the specificities decreased to an unacceptably low level irrespective of the clinical experience of the examiners. ICDAS seems to be optimized for natural vision up to 2.0× magnification and not for high magnifications. The use of powerful magnification in visual caries detection involves the risk of unnecessary and premature invasive treatment. This paper discusses when it does and does not make sense to use magnification devices for visual caries detection using ICDAS criteria. Strong magnifications should be refrained from for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple dental caries detection system using full spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Maldonado, Edison Puig; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-06-01

    Objectives: to develop an apparatus for the detection of early caries lesions in enamel using the full extent of the tooth fluorescence spectrum, through the integration of a laser diode, fiber optics, filters and one portable spectrometer connected to a computer, all commercially available; to evaluate the developed device in clinical and laboratory tests, and compare its performance with commercial equipment. Methods: clinical examinations were performed in patients with indication for exodontics of premolars. After examinations, the patients underwent surgery and the teeth were stored individually. The optical measurements were repeated approximately two months after extraction, on the same sites previously examined, then histological analysis was carried out. Results: the spectral detector has presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity when applied to differentiate between healthy and damaged tissues, with no significant differences from the performance of the commercial equipment. The developed device is able to detect initial damages in enamel, with depth of approximately 300 μm. Conclusions: we successfully demonstrated the development of a simple and portable system based in laser-induced fluorescence for caries detection, assembled from common commercial parts. As the spectral detector acquires a complete recording of the spectrum from each tissue, it is possible to use it for monitoring developments of caries lesions.

  12. Comparison of laser fluorescence devices for detection of caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cınar, Cağdaş; Atabek, Didem; Odabaş, Mesut E; Olmez, Ayşegül

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the performance of fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries lesions in primary molars compared with conventional methods. Two examiners assessed 44 occlusal surfaces of first and second primary molars in 20 patients using two fluorescence devices: DIAGNOdent (LF) and DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen). Teeth were also assessed by visual examination and bitewing radiograph. Histological examination served as the gold standard after extraction. By using the McNemar test, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating curve were calculated as outer enamel (D1), inner enamel (D2) and dentine caries (D3) lesion thresholds. The intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility were calculated using the Cohen's unweighted kappa statistics. At the D1 threshold, the LFpen sensitivity was statistically higher than LF and radiographic examination (P 0.05). All methods demonstrated the highest sensitivity values at D3. At the D1 and D2 thresholds, there were no significant differences between the LFpen specificity and the other methods. All methods presented similar performance in detecting all lesions considering the area under the receiver operating curve. The LFpen showed better performance than LF. Furthermore, visual examination and the LFpen device seem to be sufficient for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Effectiveness of DIAGNOdent in Detecting Root Caries Without Dental Scaling Among Community-dwelling Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; McGrath, Colman; Lo, Edward C M

    The purpose of this clinical research was to analyze the effectiveness of DIAGNOdent in detecting root caries without dental scaling. The status of 750 exposed, unfilled root surfaces was assessed by visual-tactile examination and DIAGNOdent before and after root scaling. The sensitivity and specificity of different cut-off DIAGNOdent values in diagnosing root caries with reference to visual-tactile criteria were evaluated on those root surfaces without visible plaque/calculus. The DIAGNOdent values from sound and carious root surfaces were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. On root surfaces without plaque/calculus, significantly different (p 0.05). Furthermore, on root surfaces with visible calculus, all DIAGNOdent readings obtained from sound root surfaces were > 50, which might be misinterpreted as carious. After scaling, the DIAGNOdent readings obtained from sound root surfaces (8.1 ± 11.3), active carious root surfaces (37.9 ± 31.9) and inactive carious root surfaces (24.9 ± 11.5) presented significant differences (p sensitivity and specificity in detecting root caries on root surfaces without visible plaque/calculus before scaling, but the combined sensitivity and specificity are both around 70%. These findings suggest that on exposed, unfilled root surfaces without visible plaque/calculus, DIAGNOdent can be used as an adjunct to the visual-tactile criteria in detecting root-surface status without pre-treatment by dental scaling.

  14. Association and comparison between visual inspection and bitewing radiography for the detection of recurrent dental caries under restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, José R; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Coelho, Valéria Silveira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Moysés, Marcos R; Ribeiro, José C R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, in posterior teeth, the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration visually inspected and the presence, under restorations, of recurrent or residual dental caries detected by radiographic examination. Furthermore, the agreement between visual inspection and radiographs to detect dental caries was assessed. Eighty-five permanent molars and premolars with resin restorations on the interproximal and/or occlusal faces, from 18 patients, were submitted for visual inspection and radiographic examination. The visual inspection involved the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Bitewing radiographs were used for the radiographic examination. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the characteristics of the margins of a restoration assessed by visual inspection (absence of dental caries, or early, established, inactive and active lesions) and the presence of recurrent caries detected by radiographs. Kappa coefficients were calculated for determining agreement between the two methods. The Kappa coefficient for agreement between visual inspection and radiographic examination was 0.19. Established lesions [odds ratio (OR) = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.94-33.25; P caries detected by radiographs. Restorations with established and active lesions at the margins had a greater chance of exhibiting recurrent or residual lesions in the radiographic examination. The present findings demonstrate that restorations with established and active lesions at the margins when visually inspected often require removal and retreatment. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. [Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans in different people with dental caries by real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Wang, Zhan-yong; Wang, Jian-qiu; Xiao, Bai; Zhou, Yan

    2010-04-01

    To establish a quantity detection method of Streptococcus mutans (Sm) and bacteria and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in different people. With specific primers for a unique sequence in a 14 kb HaeIII restriction fragment consistently presenting during detecting Sm by chromosomal DNA fingerprints, the total number of Sm and bacteria of 99 saliva samples were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and statistically analyzed. The primers were specific for Sm and the minimum detectable level by real-time PCR was 0.1 microg/L. The total number of bacteria in the dental caries and people without caries was 51.4 x 10(8) cell copies/L and 221.6 x 10(8) cell copies/L respectively, in which the ratio of Sm to bacteria was 0.0193 and 0.0059 respectively. The differences were significantly different between the people with dental caries and those without caries in the total number of bacteria and the ratio of Sm to bacteria. The primers can be used to detect the Sm by real-time PCR. The ratio of Sm to bacteria was closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries.

  16. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  17. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, Howard (Albany, CA); Kinney, John H. (Danville, CA); Otis, Linda L. (San Francisco, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  18. ROC analysis of acid demineralized artificial caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-15

    This study is designed to determine the artificial incipient proximal caries lesion detectability by dentists on Ektaspeed Plus film using ROC analysis. Sixteen premolars and 30 molars, which have 52 proximal caries-like demineralized lesions using acid-gel technique were added to 20 sound premolars and 30 sound molars to make 24 plaster blocks. Each block with 4 teeth and 6 contacting proximal surfaces was placed in an optical bench to take 12 bitewing radiographs with Ektaspeed Plus film. Thirty-six dentists acted as observers to evaluated the proximal lesions using five rating scales for ROC analysis. They were also asked to determine the presence or absence of the proximal caries. The true status of the proximal caries was established by the consensus of three oral and maxillofacila radiologists. For evaluation of intra-observer agreement, 9 dentist reread the radiographs at an interval of 1 month. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the intra-observer agreement was 0.746 (good agreement). Ten observer's data set were degenerated. The mean area under ROC curve from 26 observers was 0.806 and standard deviation was 0.061. The sensitivity and the specificity of the binary response were 0.17 (SD=0.11) and 0.78 (SD=0.17) respectively. The binary response only reveal a single values of sensitivity and the specificity. The ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy in caries detection, which producing estimates of sensitivities for all specifities, yield more comprehensive measures of diagnostic performance than single values for sensitivity and specificity.

  19. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanišević Vujadin; Bugarski Ivan; Stamenković Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Caričin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caričin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town’s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only pr...

  20. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  1. Using laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) in surveys for the detection of noncavitated occlusal dentine caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando-Meirelles, M P M; de Sousa, M da Luz Rosário

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the DIAGNOdent system in epidemiological studies to detect noncavitated occlusal caries lesions, and compare the results with those found in radiographic examinations. The sample consisted of 1,290 occlusal surfaces of permanent molars, examined in 179 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years. The methods used were: visual inspection, radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent exam, with radiographic examination being considered the gold standard, and noncavitated caries lesions identified in dentin under sound enamel. The inclusion criterion of this study was to have sound occlusal surfaces on visual inspection. The sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were used for statistical analysis. Of the 1,290 surfaces examined during visual inspection, 918 were scored as clinically sound. Of these, 789 were examined by radiographic examination and DIAGNOdent, considering that in more than half of them (410) there were coincident results in the absence of noncavitated lesion in both methods (radiographic examination by DIAGNOdent), with specificity of 74% and negative predictive values of 82% and 155 coincident surfaces with presence of caries, with sensitivity of 64% and positive predictor values of 53% for DIAGNOdent. These results suggest that although DIAGNOdent is not a substitute method for the radiographic examination in surveys, it may be an alternative as an auxiliary to visual inspection.

  2. Light-emitting diode and laser fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A.; Hug, Isabel; Neuhaus, Klaus W.; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of two light-emitting diode (LED)- and two laser fluorescence-based devices in detecting occlusal caries in vitro. Ninety-seven permanent molars were assessed twice by two examiners using two LED- (Midwest Caries - MID and VistaProof - VP) and two laser fluorescence-based (DIAGNOdent 2095 - LF and DIAGNOdent pen 2190 - LFpen) devices. After measuring, the teeth were histologically prepared and classified according to lesion extension. At D1 the specificities were 0.76 (LF and LFpen), 0.94 (MID), and 0.70 (VP); the sensitivities were 0.70 (LF), 0.62 (LFpen), 0.31 (MID), and 0.75 (VP). At D3 threshold the specificities were 0.88 (LF), 0.87 (LFpen), 0.90 (MID), and 0.70 (VP); the sensitivities were 0.63 (LF and LFpen), 0.70 (MID), and 0.96 (VP). Spearman's rank correlations with histology were 0.56 (LF), 0.51 (LFpen), 0.55 (MID), and 0.58 (VP). Inter- and intraexaminer ICC values were high and varied from 0.83 to 0.90. Both LF devices seemed to be useful auxiliary tools to the conventional methods, presenting good reproducibility and better accuracy at D3 threshold. MID was not able to differentiate sound surfaces from enamel caries and VP still needs improvement on the cut-off limits for its use.

  3. Validation of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in diagnosis of occlusal caries in permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Lia S; Cotta, Fernanda V M D; Bueno, Audrey C; Moreira, Allyson N; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Magalhães, Cláudia S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to validate the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence method and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) for caries classification against the gold standard, histological examination, for detecting occlusal caries on permanent molars; the thresholds used were the outer enamel (D1), the inner enamel and outer third of the dentine (D2), and the inner two-thirds of the dentine (D3). Patients with non-impacted third molars (n = 43) were recruited from a university clinic. A trained examiner performed the examinations. After the teeth were extracted, the histological criterion was used to determine the severity of the lesions. Intra-examiner agreement (weighted kappa) for ICDAS was 0.60 and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for DIAGNOdent was 0.968. The correlations with the histological reference were weak for DIAGNOdent (rs = 0.369) and moderate for ICDAS (rs = 0.515). The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve at D1, D2, and D3 were 0.60, 0.69, and 0.91, respectively, for ICDAS and 0.55, 0.65, and 0.92, respectively, for DIAGNOdent. ICDAS and DIAGNOdent proved to be reproducible methods with similar performance in the detection of occlusal carious lesions in dentine. The ability of DIAGNOdent to detect initial enamel lesions was higher than that of ICDAS, but with low specificity. The usefulness of DIAGNOdent as an adjunct method for assessment of initial occlusal caries in permanent molars is questionable. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Detecting and treating occlusal caries lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2015-02-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence-based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a "gold standard" did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection methods should be

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of digital and conventional radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesi, Farida; Mirshekar, Alireza; Moudi, Ehsan; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Haghanifar, Sina; Haghighat, Nima; Bijani, Ali

    2012-03-01

    Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries. The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD), Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP) and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries. Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland), PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland),and E-speed film (Kodak, USA). Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0), restricted to enamel (R1), reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and the outer half of the dentin (R2) and the inner half of the dentin (R3). The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination. Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

  6. Laser fluorescence of caries detection in permanent teeth in vitro: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria I; Schambeck, Vilson S; Dondossola, Eduardo R; Alexandre, Maria Cm; Tuon, Lisiane; Grande, Antonio J; Hugo, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    The detection of dental caries in the early stages, particularly on the occlusal surfaces, has become a mainstay of contemporary clinical practice. The objective of the study was to verify the accuracy of laser fluorescence for caries detection. A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, IBECS, BIOSIS, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature databases was undertaken from 1980 through January 2016. We included cross-sectional studies that evaluated laser fluorescence in caries diagnoses in vitro and compared them with histological analyses. A total of 39 articles were included in the meta-analysis, which included 2082 caries sites. The pooled sensitivity was 0.71 (0.69, 0.73), and the specificity was 0.81 (0.73, 0.82). The diagnostic odds ratio was 14.93 (11.2, 19.9). A summary receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. The area under the curve was 0.865. This meta-analysis showed that laser fluorescence in vitro had the ability to diagnose occlusal caries lesions in permanent teeth and enamel and dentin caries. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early caries detection is essential for minimal intervention dentistry, since it could give the opportunity to reverse the process and eliminate or at least postpone the surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis for both occlusal and proximal lesions. Thirty-eight adult patients were included in the study. The results from the visual, radiological and near-infrared transillumination examination for proximal caries lesions were compared. The diagnostic abilities of these methods for occlusal lesions were assayed on 60 teeth. The three methods showed a very high level of correlation when there were caries lesions involving the enamel and dentin. Concerning proximal caries involving only the enamel, the visual--tactile diagnosis proved to be insufficiently sensitive even with the use of magnification. Radiographic examination and near-infrared transillumination correlated significantly, but the latter was more sensitive. Radiographic examination proved to be insufficiently sensitive for occlusal lesions. The results obtained with the near-infrared fluorescence correlated most with the visual–tactile examination. These results suggest that near-infrared transillumination is an effective method for diagnosis of lesions both involving only the enamel and involving the enamel and dentin. It could be used for both occlusal and proximal caries lesions and it could eventually substitute radiographic bitewings, especially in children and pregnant women, due to its efficiency as a diagnostic tool and the absence of radiation.

  9. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  10. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Part 75 RIN 1219-AB65 Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... hearing. SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is announcing [[Page 63239

  11. Efficient Proximity Detection among Mobile Users via SelfTuning Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Hou U, Leong; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    Given a set of users, their friend relationships, and a distance threshold per friend pair, the proximity detection problem is to find each pair of friends such that the Euclidean distance between them is within the given threshold. This problem plays an essential role in friend-locator applicati......Given a set of users, their friend relationships, and a distance threshold per friend pair, the proximity detection problem is to find each pair of friends such that the Euclidean distance between them is within the given threshold. This problem plays an essential role in friend......-locator applications and massively multiplayer online games. Existing proximity detection solutions either incur substantial location update costs or their performance does not scale well to a large number of users. Motivated by this, we present a centralized proximity detection solution that assigns each mobile...

  12. Clinical validation of the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, George K.; Isaacs, Roger L.; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G.; Ando, Masatoshi; Gonzalez, Carlos; Mau, Melissa S.; Kelly, Sue A.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1999-05-01

    A clinical investigation was conducted in children to validate the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries. A total of 150 children were examined for the presence of dental caries at baseline and at 4-month intervals for one year using conventional visual-tactile with and without a dental explorer, electrical conductivity and light fluorescence methods on the occlusal, buccal and lingual tooth surfaces. Interproximal tooth surfaces were examined using conventional film and direct digital radiography at baseline and 12 months. Validation of the clinical methods was performed by the histologic examination of exfoliated primary teeth. The results indicate that visual-tactile examinations with an explorer detected more carious lesions than similar examinations without an explorer. The use of quantitative light fluorescence permitted the detection of a substantially greater number of enamel lesions or demineralized areas than the conventional visual-tactile-radiographic diagnostic procedure. Further, the use of the quantitative light fluorescence permitted the monitoring of both the progression of regression of early carious lesions.

  13. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  14. Validation of different diagnostic aids in detection of occlusal caries in primary molars: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Shwetha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To estimate the accuracy and assess the sensitivity and specificity of direct visual examination (DVE, computerized radiograph (VISTA SCAN mini, and DIAGNOdent (DD for caries diagnosis in primary molars as compared to histological examination of the teeth. Materials and Methods: An in vitro comparative study was carried out on 40 freshly extracted primary molars with questionable pit and fissures that yielded 89 examination sites. These samples were mounted on plaster and were subjected to examination methods for caries detection on the occlusal surface by two trained and calibrated examiners. The examination methods used in this study were DVE, computerized radiographic (CR examination, laser fluorescence examination using DD followed by histological examination which is a gold standard; later, these samples were examined under microscope for caries extent. The scoring criteria given by Nytun et al. were used in this study for scoring the extent of caries. Results: The sensitivity for caries in enamel were 66.10%, 52.86%, and 54.17% for DVE, CR, and DD, respectively, while the specificity for DVE, CR, and DD were found to be 86.67%, 68.42%, and 76.47%, respectively. For dentinal caries, sensitivity for DVE, CR, and DD were 86.67%, 92.86%, and 81.25%, respectively, while the specificity were 66.10%, 56%, and 54.79%, respectively. The accuracy were 73.03%, 61.80%, and 59.55%, respectively, suggesting that the DVE showed highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for enamel caries, whereas for dentinal caries, CR showed highest sensitivity and DVE showed highest specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The DD exhibited better specificity than sensitivity for enamel lesions and better sensitivity than specificity for lesions into dentin. DD may prove useful as a predictive clinical tool and should only be used in addition to other diagnostic methods such as visual inspection and dental radiographs to avoid false

  15. In vitro evaluation of laser fluorescence devices for caries detection through stereomicroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, Roxana; Podariu, Angela Codruţa; Vasile, Liliana; Sava-Roşianu, Ruxandra; Folescu, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of the laser fluorescence device (LF), and the relationship between laser fluorescence readings taken at the entrance of the fissure, ICDAS visual examination caries detection system and the histological depth of the lesion. Two hundred and forty teeth (122 human third molars and 118 bicuspids) were selected from 62 patients enrolled in the study. Visual and LF examinations (Diagnodent, Kavo, Biberach, Germany) of the occlusal surfaces were performed in vivo. After tooth extraction, histological sections were evaluated by stereomicroscopy in vitro. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple statistical methods (SPSS ver. 17). Intra-examiner reproducibility for the LF measurements was excellent: intra-class-correlation coefficient (ICC) for LF was 0.957. Kappa values for each examiner's reproducibility were 0.74-0.82. The diagnostic performance of the LF device gave a good overall diagnostic accuracy according to ICDAS II codes and histological values as indicated by the area under the ROC curve of 0.707 and 0.709 respectively. The results of the study showed acceptable diagnostic accuracy for the laser fluorescence device. This supports the view that dentists can be site specific in applying fluorescence-based devices to multiple discrete sites within the same surface. In conclusion, these diagnostic methods have different characteristics, indications and limitations for use. In order to detect caries on occlusal surfaces thoroughly, a combination of methods would be the best practice moderated by clinical knowledge and experience.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of five different techniques for detection of approximal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Yalçın Yeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of five different radiographic methods for the detection of approximal caries on posterior teeth. Materials and Method: Seventy-two extracted posterior teeth with and without caries were studied. Intraoral bitewing radiographs were taken with film and a storage phosphor-plate system. Extraoral panoramic images were obtained by using the bitewing, orthogonal and standard programs of a digital panoramic radiography device. Images were evaluated by two observers. Intra- and inter-observer weighted-kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the five techniques were compared against the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis. Az values for each image type were compared using z-test and the level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity and false-positive rates were calculated for each method. Results: Intra- and inter-observer agreement κ values were between 0.59-0.88 and 0.54-0.87, respectively. The Az value was greatest with conventional bitewing (0.760 and phosphor plate bitewing (0.756 and lowest with standard panoramic image program (0.639. The standard panoramic image program was significantly inferior to the other diagnostic methods (p<0.05. Sensitivity and specificity values were 0.64 and 0.85 for conventional bitewing, 0.64 and 0.87 for phosphor plate bitewing, 0.40 and 0.87 for standard program, 0.56 and 0.85 for orthogonal program, and 0.59 and 0.90 for extraoral bitewing program, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, conventional and phosphor plate bitewing images were found to confer similar diagnostic accuracy. Orthogonal and extraoral bitewing programs on panoramic devices were effective for reducing superimpositions. The diagnostic sensitivity of the studied methods for approximal caries was found to be low at the level of enamel.

  17. The effect of distance and tooth structure on laser fluorescence caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, K; Stenvall, R M; Graye, M

    2012-01-01

    The DIAGNOdent, a device used in caries detection, uses a laser to excite fluorescence from pigments in carious tooth structure. In clinical use assessing occlusal surfaces, distance and tooth structure may separate the instrument's tip from the fluorescent source.The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of distance and tooth structure on laser fluorescence (LF) readings.In one set of experiments, a porphyrin pigmentin oil suspension was used as a LF signal source. Thin slices of enamel and dentin were obtained from extracted molars. Pigment-induced LF readings were obtained when these slices were placed between the porphyrin pigment and the LF instrument's tip. The effect of either demineralized or intact tooth tissue on pigment-induced LF readings was assessed.In other experiments on extracted molars with small occlusal caries, LF readings were taken from pit/fissure sites before and after removal of the occlusal surface.LF readings are proportional to pigment con-centration and inversely proportional to the distance between the suspension and the instrument's tip. Enamel, demineralized enamel,dentin, and demineralized dentin all caused significant reductions in LF signal, all readings being taken with the same tip-pigment distance. Demineralized enamel (white with intact surface) caused the most reduction.After sectioning of carious teeth, there was a significant increase in LF readings.The results of this study indicate that distance and the presence of tooth structure between the carious lesion and the instrument's tip reduce LF readings. These results indicate that anatomic factors interfere with the LF device's ability to assess occlusal caries. DIAGNOdent readings should not be relied on when making diagnostic decisions.

  18. Design of intelligent proximity detection zones to prevent striking and pinning fatalities around continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissert, P T; Carr, J L; DuCarme, J P; Smith, A K

    2016-01-01

    The continuous mining machine is a key piece of equipment used in underground coal mining operations. Over the past several decades these machines have been involved in a number of mine worker fatalities. Proximity detection systems have been developed to avert hazards associated with operating continuous mining machines. Incorporating intelligent design into proximity detection systems allows workers greater freedom to position themselves to see visual cues or avoid other hazards such as haulage equipment or unsupported roof or ribs. However, intelligent systems must be as safe as conventional proximity detection systems. An evaluation of the 39 fatal accidents for which the Mine Safety and Health Administration has published fatality investigation reports was conducted to determine whether the accident may have been prevented by conventional or intelligent proximity. Multiple zone configurations for the intelligent systems were studied to determine how system performance might be affected by the zone configuration. Researchers found that 32 of the 39 fatalities, or 82 percent, may have been prevented by both conventional and intelligent proximity systems. These results indicate that, by properly configuring the zones of an intelligent proximity detection system, equivalent protection to a conventional system is possible.

  19. Comparison of diagnostic methods for early interproximal caries detection with near-infrared light transillumination: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacioglu, Ismail Hakki; Orhan, Kaan

    2017-11-16

    Although numerous studies have used digital intraoral imaging, only a few studies have used photo-optical methods for the diagnosis of caries. Moreover, several limitations exist in terms of observers (experience and specialty) and the caries lesion itself. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic capability of near-infrared light transillumination (NILT) and PSP-Bitewing radiographs and to compare the interobserver and intraobserver differences in addition to observers' experience level to detect early interproximal caries lesions in vivo. A total of 52 untreated posterior teeth with and without varying degrees of early interproximal carious lesions were included. Bitewing radiographs using digital phosphor plates (PSP-Bitewing) and NILT were used to clarify the diagnosis. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist and a restorative dentistry consultant evaluated the images twice. A separate appointment for clinical validation and restoration was made. Kappa coefficients were calculated to assess both intraobserver and interobserver agreements for each evaluation method. Scores obtained from PSP-Bitewing and NILT were compared with the clinical validation via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. No significant differences were found between PSP-Bitewing radiography and NILT for detecting early interproximal carious lesions with high average Az results. Both intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were relatively higher for NILT evaluation. The Az values increased at second evaluations for both caries detection methods. NILT examination has an appropriate sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for detecting early interproximal caries lesions and can be considered as a method of choice for detecting caries without the use of ionizing radiation.

  20. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 4. Detection and diagnosis of initial caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, A; Gaucher, C; Bonte, E; Lasfargues, J J

    2012-12-01

    The detection of carious lesions is focused on the identification of early mineral changes to allow the demineralisation process to be managed by non-invasive interventions. The methods recommended for clinical diagnosis of initial carious lesions are discussed and illustrated. These include the early detection of lesions, evaluation of the extent of the lesion and its state of activity and the establishment of appropriate monitoring. The place of modern tools, including those based on fluorescence, is discussed. These can help inform patients. They are also potentially useful in regular control visits to monitor the progression or regression of early lesions. A rigorous and systematic approach to caries diagnosis is essential to establish a care plan for the disease and to identify preventive measures based on more precise diagnosis and to reduce reliance on restorative measures.

  1. An in vivo comparison of two diagnostic methods in secondary caries detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Saber Hamishaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the level of agreement between four operators with different levels of experience for two methods of detecting secondary enamel and dentin carious lesions in composite restored teeth.Sixty teeth of 40 patients with with secondary carious lesions in the composite resin were selected. The teeth were examined by two methods; visual inspection and a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO dent pen 2190 by four operators including an undergraduate student, a dentist with 5 years of clinical experience, a general dentist with 12 years of clinical experience and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Cohen's kappa statistic was applied in order to assess the agreement between the diagnoses performed by the four operators with each diagnostic method.The diagnosis performed by different operators achieved an excellent agreement with high ICC.DIAGNOdent can be a useful device for secondary caries detection in posterior teeth as an adjunct to visual examination.

  2. Comparison of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Intraoral Radiography in Detection of Recurrent Caries under Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Rahmani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is the most common cause of dental restoration failures. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detection of recurrent caries around composite restorations. mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared using bur on 45 extracted sound human molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, cavities were restored with composite resin after etching and bonding (n=15). In Group 2, 500-μm thick wax was placed over the buccal, lingual and gingival walls and the cavities were restored with composite resin. Group 3 specimens were subjected to pH cycling and artificial caries were created on the buccal, lingual and gingival walls. The cavities were restored with composite. Conventional and digital photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP; Optime) radiographs and two CBCTs images (NewTom 3G and Cranex 3D) were obtained from them. Presence or absence of caries in the cavity walls was assessed on these images. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT was significantly higher than that of digital and conventional intraoral radiography (pintraoral radiography, respectively. CBCT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than digital and conventional intraoral radiography for detection of secondary caries around composite restorations.

  3. Comparison of cone - beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography in detection of recurrent caries under composite restorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Rahmani, Hamid, E-mail: Dr.a.shokri@gmail.com [Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Samira [Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Secondary caries is the most common cause of dental restoration failures. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detection of recurrent caries around composite restorations mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared using bur on 45 extracted sound human molar teeth. The teeth were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, cavities were restored with composite resin after etching and bonding (n=15). In Group 2, 500-μm thick wax was placed over the buccal, lingual and gingival walls and the cavities were restored with composite resin. Group 3 specimens were subjected to pH cycling and artificial caries were created on the buccal, lingual and gingival walls. The cavities were restored with composite. Conventional and digital photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP; Optime) radiographs and two CBCTs images (NewTom 3G and Cranex 3D) were obtained from them. Presence or absence of caries in the cavity walls was assessed on these images. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT was significantly higher than that of digital and conventional intraoral radiography (p<0.05). The accuracy was 0.83, 0.78, 0.55 and 0.49 for CBCT Cranex 3D, CBCT NewTom 3G, conventional and digital intraoral radiography, respectively. CBCT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than digital and conventional intraoral radiography for detection of secondary caries around composite restorations. (author)

  4. A comparison of conventional intraoral radiography and computer imaging techniques for the detection of proximal surface calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    The present results indicates that the sensitivity for the proximal calculus was high, but there are different sensitivities among the observer. More study should be done to determine that digitized image can be clinical applicable to detecting the proximal calculus.

  5. A study on the artificial interproximal caries detection with the digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jeong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    The purposes of this study were clinical comparison and evaluation between digital radiography and conventional radiography for the detection of artificial interproximal caries. Four freshly extracted, unrestored posterior teeth were obtained and caries was simulated by drilling semicircled defects with variable size at the interproximal surface of each tooth. The experiments were performed with IBM-PC/32 bit -DX compatible, video camera (VM-S8200, Hitachi Co., Japan), and color monitor (Multisync 3D, NEC, Japan). Sylvia Image Capture Board for the ADC (analog to digital converter) was used, and spatial resolution has 256 gray levels. The obtained results were as follows: 1. at the condition of under exposure, the radiographs were superior to the images in readability. Also, as the size of the artificial lesion was increased, readability of the radiographs was elevated. 2. The digital images were superior to the radiographs in readability especially under over exposure. 3. As the exposure time and size of lesion was increased, the gray level of region of interest of the digital image was decreased proportionally. 4. As the F-value of average gray level of region of individual exposure time and size of lesion, gray level of the all lesion sizes was decreased in comparison with the normal enamel.

  6. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... pinned by the machine. Proximity detection is a technology that uses electronic sensors to detect motion... also observed the Booyco Collision Warning System (CWS) being used on continuous mining machines. The... further analysis due to its potential to force machine operators out of previously safe areas into...

  7. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Tayefeh Davalloo, Reza; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying "Sharpening 2" and "Noise Reduction" processing options to the original images; (2) applying the "Magnification 1:3" option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the "Diagonal/" option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying "Magnification 1:3"; (5) applying "Sharpening UM" to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying "Magnification 1:3." Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of "Sharpening UM" along with the "Magnification 1:3" processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  8. Extraoral radiographic imaging of primary caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, T L; Tyndall, D A; Ludlow, J B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate three extra-oral radiographic imaging modalities as alternatives to conventional intra-oral film for the detection of primary caries. Sixty-four extracted primary molar teeth with eighty-five carious lesions were radiographed using D-speed film (N = 8), panoramic imaging (N = 8), multidirectional tomography (N = 8), and linear tomography (N = 8). Eight trained observers were asked to identify the presence or absence of caries on each surface using a five point scale. Ground sections were viewed microscopically to determine truth. ROC curve areas (Az) were generated from observer responses and assessed with ANOVA. Average of Az for the detection of combined results for proximal and occlusal lesions were 0.70 for D-speed, film, 0.58 for linear tomography, 0.64 for both multidirectional tomography, and panoramic film. Turkey's pairwise comparisons of Az revealed that D-speed film was significantly better than linear tomography (P = 0.0039). When data were divided into proximal and occlusal surfaces the variability due to modality remained significant (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0024 respectively). Turkey's comparisons for proximal surfaces revealed that D-speed film was significantly better than linear tomography (P = 0.0007), multidirectional tomography (P = 0.0010) and panoramic radiography (P = 0.0100). For detection of occlusal lesions, multidirectional tomography was significantly better than linear tomography (P = 0.0075) and panoramic radiography (P = 0.0034), but not significantly different from D-speed film (P = 0.2337). Multidirectional tomography and panoramic radiography performed as well as intra-oral D-speed film for the combined assessment of proximal and occlusal caries in the model used. when proximal surfaces were evaluated alone, D-speed film was significantly better. For occlusal caries there was no statistically significant difference between multidirectional tomography and D-speed film.

  9. Diagnosis of approximal caries: bite-wing radiology versus the Ultrasound Caries Detector. An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shlomo; Feuerstein, Osnat; Kaffe, Israel

    2003-05-01

    We sought to examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of bite-wing radiographs and a high-frequency sound wave device (the Ultrasound Caries Detector) used to detect caries on contacting approximal surfaces. A total of 36 extracted premolars and molars were first visually examined for the presence of caries; then a probe was used. Twelve models were prepared, each containing 3 teeth with 2 approximal surfaces and 2 contacted surfaces (of adjacent teeth). Bite-wing radiographs were taken and evaluated for proximal caries lesions. A high-frequency sound wave (ultrasound) device called the Ultrasound Caries Detector was also used to detect caries. Examinations were repeated after 1 week. Teeth were then sectioned and viewed under a stereomicroscope at 20x magnification, with which the true interproximal caries diagnosis was validated. The receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to establish the accuracy of the observer data. The efficacy of the ultrasound diagnostic device for cavitated carious lesion detection was assessed by determining its specificity and sensitivity, 1.0 for each, in comparison with those of bite-wing radiography, 0.92 and 0.90, respectively (P <.001). The mean receiver operating characteristic value for the area under the curve was 0.934 with bite-wing radiography and 1 with the ultrasound diagnostic device. Under in vitro conditions, the ultrasound diagnostic device had a higher sensitivity and specificity, in terms of the detection of approximal carious lesions, than bite-wing radiographs.

  10. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  11. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  12. Detection of driver drowsiness using wearable devices: A feasibility study of the proximity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; Choi, William; Yang, Yan; Lu, Junshi; Wu, Xiaohui; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-11-01

    Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving. Drowsy drivers increased frequency of eye blinks, produced longer braking response time and increased lane deviation, compared to when they were alert. A threshold algorithm for proximity sensor can reliably detect eye blinks and proved the feasibility of using Google Glass to detect operator drowsiness. This technology provides a new platform to detect operator drowsiness and has the potential to reduce drowsiness-related crashes in driving and aviation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic Values of Laser Fluorescence Device with Other Techniques in Occlusal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chehresaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of laser fluorescence (LF method with other conventional diagnostic techniques in detection of smallocclusal caries in permanent teeth.Materials and Methods: Prior to this in vitro diagnostic study, a pilot study assessed intra-examiner reliability and reproducibility. The occlusal surfaces of 90 extracted human premolars were examined with four diagnostic methods: probing, visual inspection, bitewing(BW radiographs, and LF. The teeth were then sectioned for the purpose of histological examination. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software, and sensitivity,specificity and other diagnostic criteria of the techniques were calculated.Results: The intra-examiner reproducibility for probing and also radiographic techniques was 100%. The corresponded figure for LF (88% was more than visual inspection (82%.The highest level of validity of the examiner turned out to be in probing technique(76.9%. Sensitivity of visual inspection, probing, and LF methods was 54.5% and that of BW radiography was 27.5%. Specificity and efficiency of LF method were 84.8% and 81.1%, respectively. Probing and visual inspection showed the highest specificity (97.5% and 94.9, respectively and efficiency (92.2% and 90%, respectively among the methods.Conclusion: Specificity and efficiency of LF method were lower compared to those of other methods. Among all the investigated methods, the most efficient methods in the diagnosis of small occlusal caries in permanent teeth were probing and visual inspection,respectively.

  14. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  15. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  16. Validity and reliability of methods for the detection of secondary caries around amalgam restorations in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Minatel Braga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries has been reported as the main reason for restoration replacement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of different methods - visual inspection, laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent, radiography and tactile examination - for secondary caries detection in primary molars restored with amalgam. Fifty-four primary molars were photographed and 73 suspect sites adjacent to amalgam restorations were selected. Two examiners evaluated independently these sites using all methods. Agreement between examiners was assessed by the Kappa test. To validate the methods, a caries-detector dye was used after restoration removal. The best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis, and the area under the ROC curve (Az, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the methods were calculated for enamel (D2 and dentine (D3 thresholds. These parameters were found for each method and then compared by the McNemar test. The tactile examination and visual inspection presented the highest inter-examiner agreement for the D2 and D3 thresholds, respectively. The visual inspection also showed better performance than the other methods for both thresholds (Az = 0.861 and Az = 0.841, respectively. In conclusion, the visual inspection presented the best performance for detecting enamel and dentin secondary caries in primary teeth restored with amalgam.

  17. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October 20...

  18. The performance of conventional and fluorescence-based methods for occlusal caries detection: an in vivo study with histologic validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Michele B; Boldieri, Thalita; Rodrigues, Jonas A; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Lussi, Adrian; Cordeiro, Rita C L

    2012-04-01

    The authors conducted an in vivo study to determine clinical cutoffs for a laser fluorescence (LF) device, an LF pen and a fluorescence camera (FC), as well as to evaluate the clinical performance of these methods and conventional methods in detecting occlusal caries in permanent teeth by using the histologic gold standard for total validation of the sample. One trained examiner assessed 105 occlusal surfaces by using the LF device, LF pen, FC, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria and bitewing (BW) radiographic methods. After tooth extraction, the authors assessed the teeth histologically. They determined the optimal clinical cutoffs by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The specificities and sensitivities for enamel and dentin caries detection versus only dentin caries detection thresholds were 0.60 and 0.93 and 0.77 and 0.52 (ICDAS), 1.00 and 0.29 and 0.97 and 0.44 (BW radiography), 1.00 and 0.85 and 0.77 and 0.81 (LF device), 0.80 and 0.89 and 0.71 and 0.85 (LF pen) and 0.80 and 0.74 and 0.49 and 0.85 (FC), respectively. The accuracy values were higher for ICDAS, the LF device and the LF pen than they were for BW radiography and the FC. The clinical cutoffs for sound teeth, enamel carious lesions and dentin carious lesions were, respectively, 0 through 4, 5 through 27 and 28 through 99 (LF device); 0 through 4, 5 through 32 and 33 through 99 (LF pen); and 0 through 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 through 5.0 (FC). The ICDAS, the LF device and the LF pen demonstrated good performance in helping detect occlusal caries in vivo. The ICDAS did not seem to perform as well at the D(3) threshold (histologic scores 3 and 4) as at the D(1) threshold (histologic scores 1-4). BW radiography and the FC had the lowest performances in helping detect lesions at the D(1) and D(3) thresholds, respectively. Occlusal caries detection should be based primarily on visual inspection. Fluorescence-based methods may be used to provide a second

  19. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  20. [Detection of the exogenous gene copy number of the transgenic tomato anti-caries vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guo-hui; Liu, Jian-guo; Tian, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Bai, Peng-yuan; Han, Qi; Gu, Yu; Guan, Xiao-yan; Wang, Hai-hui

    2013-12-01

    To detect the exogenous gene copy number of the transgenic tomato anti-caries vaccine by using the SYBR Green real-time PCR. Recombinant plasmid pEAC10 and pEPC10 were used as standard to detect genome samples of exogenous gene pacA-ctxB and pacP-ctxB by SYBR green fluorescent quantitation, then the average value was calculated as gene copy number. The copy number of the transgenic tomato carrying pacA-ctxB was 1.3 and the pacP-ctxB was 3.2. The transgenic tomato plants which have high stability are low-copy transgenic plants. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (30160086, 81260164), Science and Technical Fund of Guizhou Province (LKZ[2011]41), Project of Technology Innovation Team in Guizhou Province, Leading Academic Discipline Construction Project in Guizhou Province and Excellent Scientific Research Team Cultivation Project in Zunyi Medical College ([2012]12).

  1. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  2. Comparison of The Canary System and DIAGNOdent for the in vitro detection of caries under opaque dental sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvertown, Josh D; Wong, Bonny P Y; Abrams, Stephen H; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran S; Mathews, Sapna M; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of operators using The Canary System and DIAGNOdent to detect natural pit and fissure caries under four commonly-used opaque dental sealants. Mixed sound and carious pits/fissures (N = 105) selected from 40 human teeth were randomly assigned (10 teeth/group) to one of four opaque sealant groups (Delton, Embrace WetBond, Helioseal F, UltraSeal XT Plus). Selected pits/fissures sites on occlusal surfaces were scanned with The Canary System and DIAGNOdent, sealed, re-scanned, and subjected to polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the scanned regions were sound or carious. Sensitivities and specificities for each detection method before and after sealant placement were calculated. The Canary System and DIAGNOdent were able to distinguish between sound and carious tissue beneath opaque sealants with an accuracy of 76% and 59%, respectively. The Canary System can serve as a clinical tool to aid dental professionals to detect and monitor the status of caries lesions and tooth structure underneath sealant. The increased likelihood of false-positive diagnoses with DIAGNOdent due to intrinsic auto-fluorescence of sealant filler and opacifying agents might limit its usefulness as an aid to detect caries underneath opaque sealants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Methods used by Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, V V; Riley, J L; Carvalho, R M; Snyder, J; Sanderson, J L; Anderson, M; Gilbert, G H

    2011-01-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%–100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p=.040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p=.001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods..

  4. Methods used by dental practice-based research network dentists to diagnose dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valerie V; Riley, Joseph L; De Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-04-01

    To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use, and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods.

  5. A clinical study of a laser fluorescence device for the detection of approximal caries in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghao; Qin, Man; Ma, Wenli; Ge, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of laser fluorescence (LF) device in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. Two hundred and sixteen primary molars from 96 children were inspected visually to identify possible caries with contact approximal surfaces. Target molars and their contralateral molars were examined using bitewing radiographs (BR) and LF. Depending on the examination findings, invasive treatments were performed on molars to identify the presence of cavitation. Of 256 surfaces evaluated from 216 primary molars, 128 were intact, 39 had white spots, and 89 had cavities. At the white-spot threshold, sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 2.56% and 94.87% for visual inspection (VI); 64.10% and 97.43% for BR; and 56.41% and 94.87% for LF. At the cavity threshold, sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 70.79% and 95.51% for VI; 97.75% and 93.26% for BR; and 92.14% and 97.75% for LF. Significant differences between intact surfaces and white spots, and white spots and cavities were shown through LF readings. Both LF and BR can detect cavitations on approximal surfaces of primary molars. LF could be an alternative to radiographs in detecting approximal caries in primary molars. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Andres; Fuentes, Ricardo; Cabello, Enrique; Conde, Cristina; Martin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work. PMID:25347580

  7. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work.

  8. Treatment of proximal superficial caries lesions on primary molar teeth with resin infiltration and fluoride varnish versus fluoride varnish only: efficacy after 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Bakhshandeh, A; Martignon, S

    2010-01-01

    This split-mouth study aimed to assess the efficacy of resin-infiltrated lesions covered by fluoride varnish (FV) versus FV treatment only of proximal lesions on deciduous molar teeth. The study lasted for 1 year. Children with 2 or more superficial proximal lesions on deciduous molar teeth...... for controlling proximal lesion progression on deciduous molar teeth....

  9. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Davalloo, Reza Tayefeh; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying 'Sharpening 2' and 'Noise Reduction' processing options to the original images; (2) applying the 'Magnification 1:3' option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the 'Diagonal/' option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying 'Magnification 1:3'; (5) applying 'Sharpening UM' to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying 'Magnification 1:3.' Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of 'Sharpening UM' along with the 'Magnification 1:3' processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  10. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  11. Near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm and 1,500-1,700 nm for in vivo caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth A; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Cozin, Matthew J; Lee, Robert C; Fried, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that near-IR imaging methods at wavelengths longer than 1,300 nm have great potential for caries detection. In this study, the diagnostic performance of both near-IR transillumination and near-IR reflectance was assessed on teeth scheduled for extraction due to orthodontic treatment (n = 109 teeth on 40 test subjects). Three intra-oral near-IR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo images using a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provided occlusal and approximal images using 1,300 nm light which manifests the highest transparency in enamel. A third reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths greater than 1,500 nm where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. Teeth were collected after extraction and sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy and microradiography which served as the gold standard. In addition, radiographs were taken of the teeth and the diagnostic performance of near-IR imaging was compared with radiography. Near-IR imaging was significantly more sensitive (P detection of lesions on both occlusal and proximal surfaces. Near-IR imaging methods are ideally suited for screening all tooth surfaces for carious lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:828-836, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of Different Contact Materials on Approximal Caries Detection by Laser Fluorescence and Light-Emitting Diode Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsevik, A Semih; Kararslan, Emine Sirin; Aktan, Ali Murat; Bozdemir, Esin; Cebe, Fatma; Sarı, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of the adjacent tooth surface on pen type laser fluorescence (LFpen) and light-emitting diode (LED) device readings in detecting approximal caries lesions in permanent teeth. Early detection of noncavitated dental caries is important, because disease progression can be easily halted at this stage with certain applications, such as fluoride therapy, antibacterial therapy, dietary changes, or low-intensity laser irradiation. A total of 87 permanent molars with 156 approximal surfaces were assessed with LED- and LF-based devices in contact with sound tooth surfaces (the control group) as well as approximal amalgam, composite, zirconia, and full ceramic restorations. All teeth were assessed once by one trained examiner. After the LF and LED assessments, the teeth were histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve were calculated according to the appropriate thresholds (T1, sound surface or enamel caries; T2, dentin caries). For the LFpen device, higher sensitivity and accuracy was found when the adjacent surface was sound at the T1 threshold and no significant differences were found among accuracy at the T2 threshold. For the LED-based device, no significant differences were found among sensitivities at the T1 threshold. At the T2 threshold, specificity was higher when the adjacent tooth had a zirconia restoration. It was found that both devices could be used effectively for evaluating approximal surfaces with adjacent restored teeth, regardless of the different kinds of restorative materials.

  13. TaqManR proximity ligation technology for the detection of heterodimeric adhesion receptors on lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehwolf, Renate; Band, Elisabeth; Trost, Andrea; Iglseder, Bernhard; Trinka, Eugen; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kraus, Jörg; Harrer, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    TaqMan(R) proximity ligation technology (TaqMan(R) PLA) is an innovative advancement of immuno PCR. It allows a fast and quantitative detection of vicinal proteins or protein-protein interactions from cell lysates by combining antibody-antigen binding with a real-time PCR detection. We tested if TaqMan(R) PLA also was applicable to investigate and relatively quantitate adhesion receptor heterodimers such as the alpha-4/beta-1 integrin on the surface of intact cells. Both, alpha-4, beta-1 and the alpha-4/beta-1 heterodimer were detected on the surface of lymphocytes by TaqMan(R) PLA. Results were specific, reproducible and comparable to flow cytometric data. However, preciseness of reactions varied dependent on the antibody pairs used. Co-detection of proximate identical subunits suggested clusters of alpha-4 and/or beta-1 on the cell surface which we confirmed by microscopy. We conclude that real-time PCR-based TaqMan(R) PLA is of limited applicability to investigate heterodimeric receptor molecules such as the alpha-4/beta-1 integrin. Determination of an abundance ratio of alpha-4/beta-1 in relation to total alpha-4 or beta-1 was not possible and real-time detection did not allow conclusions on the surface distribution of molecules. The related in situ PLA developed for microscopy allows visualizing proximate protein interactions and might be an interesting alternative for research into receptor heterodimers and their surface distribution on immune cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A new scintillation proximity assay-based approach for the detection of KRAS mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Young; Lim, Jae-Cheong; Cho, Eun-Ha; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Radioisotope Research Div.

    2016-04-01

    KRAS is very commonly mutated resulting in a constitutively activated protein, which is independent of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand binding and resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. Although KRAS is frequently studied, there is still no uniform standard for detecting of KRAS mutations. In this report, a new scintillation proximity assay-based approach is described that determines the relative affinities of wild-type and mutated KRAS to the anti-KRAS antibody. We performed in vitro experiments using normal human colonic cells (CCD18Co), KRAS wild type (Caco-2) and KRAS mutant (HCT 116) cell lines to determine the relative affinities of wild type or mutated KRAS toward an anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. The process consists of two primary steps: immunoprecipitation from cell lysate to enrich the KRAS protein and the scintillation proximity assay of the immunoprecipitant to determine the relative affinity against the antibody. A fixed concentration of cell lysates was purified by the immunoprecipitation method. The expressions of the KRAS protein in all cell lines was quantitatively confirmed by western blot analysis. For the scintillation proximity assay, the KRAS standard protein was radiolabeled with {sup 125}I by a simple mixing process in the iodogen tube immediately at room temperature immediately before use. The obtained CPM (count per minute) values of were used to calculate the KRAS concentration using purified KRAS as the standard. The calculated relative affinities of 7 μg of Caco-2 and HCT 116 immunoprecipitants for the anti-KRAS antibody were 77 and 0%, respectively. The newly developed scintillation proximity assay-based strategy determines the relative affinities of wild-type or mutated KRAS towards the anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. This determination can help distinguish mutated KRAS from the wild type protein. The new SPA based approach for detecting KRAS mutations is applicable to many other cancer-related mutations.

  15. Influence of the Display Monitor on Observer Performance in Detection of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Kaviani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection.

    Materials and methods. Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a Planmeca (Planmeca Co, Helsinki, Finland digital imaging system. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists rated each image on a five-point scale for the presence or absence of lesion. Radiographic images were viewed on the following monitors: (1 LG Flatron 700p (LG Electronics Co., South Korea; (2 Samsung Magicgreen (Samsung Electronics Corp., South Korea; (3 Hansol 710p (Hansol Electronics Corp., South Korea and (4 Toshiba satellite laptop (Toshiba Computer Corp., Philippines. Examiners were allowed to magnify and adjust density and contrast of each image at will. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis was performed. Data was subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression to test for significance between variables and to determine odds ratios.

    Results. Mean ROC curve areas ranged from 0.8728 for the LG monitor to 0.8395 for the Samsung. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between observers (P< 0.0001, lesion size (P< 0.0001, examiner/monitor interaction (P< 0.033 and examiner/block interaction (P< 0.013. However, no significant difference was found between monitors.

    Conclusion. This study suggests that observer performance is independent of the visual characteristics of the display monitor.

  16. Sensitive detection of Aβ protofibrils by proximity ligation - relevance for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsdottir Sigrun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein aggregation plays important roles in several neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, insoluble aggregates of phosphorylated tau and of Aβ peptides are cornerstones in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Soluble protein aggregates are therefore potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for their cognate disorders. Detection of the aggregated species requires sensitive tools that efficiently discriminate them from monomers of the same proteins. Here we have established a proximity ligation assay (PLA for specific and sensitive detection of Aβ protofibrils via simultaneous recognition of three identical determinants present in the aggregates. PLA is a versatile technology in which the requirement for multiple target recognitions is combined with the ability to translate signals from detected target molecules to amplifiable DNA strands, providing very high specificity and sensitivity. Results For specific detection of Aβ protofibrils we have used a monoclonal antibody, mAb158, selective for Aβ protofibrils in a modified PLA, where the same monoclonal antibody was used for the three classes of affinity reagents required in the assay. These reagents were used for detection of soluble Aβ aggregates in solid-phase reactions, allowing detection of just 0.1 pg/ml Aβ protofibrils, and with a dynamic range greater than six orders of magnitude. Compared to a sandwich ELISA setup of the same antibody the PLA increases the sensitivity of the Aβ protofibril detection by up to 25-fold. The assay was used to measure soluble Aβ aggregates in brain homogenates from mice transgenic for a human allele predisposing to Aβ aggregation. Conclusions The proximity ligation assay is a versatile analytical technology for proteins, which can provide highly sensitive and specific detection of Aβ aggregates - and by implication other protein aggregates of relevance in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. The repeatability of three diagnostic methods (visual using ICDAS II, laser fluorescence, and radiographic) for early caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.

    2017-08-01

    Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.

  18. ON THE UTILITY OF SOME SALIVARY TESTS FOR THE DETECTION AND MONITORIZATION OF DENTAL CARIES RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminița ICHIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries represents a destructive condition of the hard dental tissue.The occurrence and advance of carious lesions is a complex phenomenon, involving the interaction of the microbial factor (the action of bacteria upon the tooth with the factors related to the host, alimentary regime, time factor. For an as correct as possible appreciation of the cariogenic risk of an individual, several tests, based on different (microbiological, clinical, epidemiological principles, are usually recommended [1]. Also, especially important is to check up the existence of a possible statistical association between the prevalence of dental caries and the results of the salivary tests performed on the experimental group [2].

  19. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Thorsen, Stine; Lundberg, Martin; Villablanca, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from...... a case–control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals. After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic...

  20. Comparison of the Diagnostic Value of Digital Radiography and Temporal Digital Subtraction Radiography in Detection of Dentinal Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shekhi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development and progress of computerized technologies has revolutionized radiology with digital imaging. The aim of this study is to compare Digital Radiography(DR and Temporal Digital Subtraction (TDSin detection of dentinal caries progression. Methods: 27carious teeth were placed in separate vials of sterile buffer solution after extraction .Three radiopaque restorations were placed in each tooth to aid in the alignment of successive radiographs. Each tooth was then mounted in poly methylmethacrylate and then incubated at 37°c in saliva buffer containing 5% glucose for 7hours per day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Each day after the7hour incubation period, each tooth was washed with 25ml of salivary buffer and placed in 50ml of salivary buffer at 37°c until the next cycling day and the PH in the medium was maintained above5.Digital radiographs were taken for each tooth on day 1 and then at week 2‚4‚6 and 8. The images were subtracted and results were recorded and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Statistical calculation showed a meaningful difference between the two methods. In other words, the progression of caries was more readily detected by the TDS technique such that during the first two weeks, diagnostic value of TDS was more than DR, but in the later stages, progression of caries was detected similarly by the two methods. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that TDS is a more sensitive method for detecting change in tooth mineral content.

  1. PENETRACIÓN DE TRES ADHESIVOS EN LESIONES INTERPROXIMALES DE CARIES DE MANCHA BLANCA: ESTUDIO IN VITRO/PENETRATION OF THREE ADHESIVES IN PROXIMAL WHITE-SPOT CARIES LESIONS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olga Lucía Zarta; Alba Lucía Zuluaga Valencia; María Cristina Huertas Díaz; Juan Sebastián Lara; Ingrid Katherine Quintero; Marisol Téllez; Margarita Úsuga; Stefania Martignon

    2012-01-01

    .... One hundred seventeen extracted human premolars with ICDAS 2 white-spot non-cavitated proximal lesions mounted on plaster, to simulate oral cavity conditions, were randomly sorted out in each of the three groups...

  2. Performance of laser fluorescence for the detection of enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces: clinical study with total validation of the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Camilo; Mendoza, Asunción; Jimenez-Planas, Amparo; Guerrero, Elena; Chaparro, Antonio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting enamel caries in non-cavitated occlusal surfaces. The sample included 96 first and second permanent molars, selected according to the criteria of Ekstrand: 44 not suspected of having dentin caries (score: 0-2) and 52 under suspicion (score: 3-4). Once measured by laser fluorescence, all teeth were validated by fissurotomy (gold standard). To avoid ethical questions, the 44 teeth (score: 0-2) used were to serve as abutments for a fixed dental prostheses. Following fissurotomy, the 52 teeth with suspected caries were treated with resin composite restorations. Kruskall-Wallis statistical analysis (PLaser fluorescence showed an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of Az = 0.803 for enamel caries. The cut-off point with the highest sensitivity and specificity was 15, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 0.63, respectively. Values under 10 indicated healthy teeth.

  3. Double line sign: a helpful sonographic sign to detect occult fractures of the proximal humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M.; Jager, Gerrit J. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Waal malefijt, Maarten C. de [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blickman, Johan G. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this study was to describe a new sonographic sign of bone fracture and to determine if it can be helpful in decreasing the number of missed fractures of the proximal humerus. Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder was performed in 57 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and/or disability following trauma. All cases were prospectively reviewed for the presence of a humeral fracture. Sonographic signs of fractures, with special emphasis on what was termed the 'double line sign' (DLS), were assessed. Plain radiography was considered the standard of reference and in equivocal cases magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight patients had a tuberosity complex fracture, which were all detected at US examination. Sonographic features of a fracture were periosteal elevation, corticol bone discontinuity, step-off deformity or a combination of these findings. This study showed that in 26 (93%) patients an additional sonographic feature, a DLS, could be demonstrated. The DLS is a helpful and probably reliable sonographic sign to indicate a humeral fracture. High-spatial-resolution US substantially increases the detection of fractures of the proximal humerus and should be considered as an alternative diagnostic tool prior to computed tomography (CT), MRI and arthroscopy in patients with persisting shoulder pain and/or disability following trauma. (orig.)

  4. Performance of laser fluorescence devices, visual and radiographic examination for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Hug, Isabel; Stich, Herman; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the performance of two laser fluorescence devices (LF, LFpen), conventional visual criteria (VE), ICDAS and radiographic examination on occlusal surfaces of primary teeth. Thirty-seven primary human molars were selected from a pool of extracted teeth, which were stored frozen at -20 °C until use. Teeth were assessed twice by two experienced examiners using laser fluorescence devices (LF and LFpen), conventional visual criteria, ICDAS and bitewing radiographs, with a 2-week interval between measurements. After measurement, the teeth were histologically prepared and assessed for caries extension. The highest sensitivity was observed for ICDAS at D(1) and D(3) thresholds, with no statistically significant difference when compared to the LF devices, except at the D(3) threshold. Bitewing radiographs presented the lowest values of sensitivity. Specificity at D(1) was higher for LFpen (0.90) and for VE at D(3) (0.94). When VE was combined with LFpen the post-test probabilities were the highest (94.0% and 89.2% at D(1) and D(3) thresholds, respectively). High values were observed for the combination of ICDAS and LFpen (92.0% and 80.0%, respectively). LF and LFpen showed the highest values of ICC for interexaminer reproducibility. However, regarding ICDAS, BW and VE, intraexaminer reproducibility was not the same for the two examiners. After primary visual inspection using ICDAS or not, the use of LFpen may aid in the detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Bitewing radiographs may be indicated only for approximal caries detection.

  5. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2014-01-01

    and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. RESULTS: Network dentists from five regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled...... proximal caries lesions. Enamel occlusal restorations varied significantly (P caries risk assessment, network region, and practice type. Enamel proximal restorations varied significantly (P ...PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice...

  6. Occlusal Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, JC; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, V

    2016-01-01

    The management of occlusal caries still remains a major challenge for researchers as well as for general practitioners. The present paper reviews and discusses the most up-to-date knowledge and evidence of the biological principles guiding diagnosis, risk assessment, and management of the caries...... process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...

  7. In situ and in vitro comparison of laser fluorescence with visual inspection in detecting occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Hebling, Josimeri; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in situ and in vitro performances of a laser fluorescence (LF) device (DIAGNOdent 2095) with visual inspection for the detection of occlusal caries in permanent teeth. Sixty-four sites were selected, and visual inspection and LF assessments were carried out, in vitro, three times by two independent examiners, with a 1-week interval between evaluations. Afterwards, the occlusal surfaces were mounted on the palatal portion of removable acrylic orthodontic appliances and placed in six volunteers. Assessments were repeated and validated by histological analysis of the tooth sections under a stereomicroscope. For both examiners, the highest intra-examiner values were observed for the visual inspection when in vitro and in situ evaluations were compared. The inter-examiner reproducibility varied from 0.61 to 0.64, except for the in vitro assessment using LF, which presented a lower value (0.43). The methods showed high specificity at the D(1) threshold (considering enamel and dentin caries as disease). In vitro evaluations showed the highest values of sensitivity for both methods when compared to the in situ evaluations at D(1) and D(2) (considering only dentinal caries as the disease) thresholds. For both methods, the results of sensitivity (at D(1) and D(2)) and accuracy (at D(1)) showed significant differences between in vitro and in situ conditions. However, the sensitivity (at D(1) and D(2)), specificity and accuracy (both at D(1)) of the methods were not significantly different when the same condition was considered. It can be concluded that visual inspection and LF showed better performance in vitro than in situ.

  8. Evaluation of a proximity extension assay for the detection of H1 2009 pandemic influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wesenbeeck, Liesbeth; Meeuws, Hanne; De Wolf, Hans; Stuyver, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    The rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are widely distributed, simple to use, but often lack sensitivity as compared to gold standard methods (viral culture and nucleic acid detection technologies). Applying RIDTs outside of epidemic or pandemic infections results in large numbers of false negatives. Hence, a sensitive RIDT that would reduce the number of false negatives would result in an increased clinical value. We evaluated the potential of a proximity extension assay (PEA) for the detection of influenza A H1 viruses. This technology makes use of antibodies to capture the pathogen, followed by molecular detection. Forty-seven nasopharyngeal swab samples, all confirmed infections of the H1 2009 pandemic influenza virus, were evaluated. The performance of PEA was compared to the RIDT Quickvue Influenza A+B assay. The success rate of the comparative assays was modeled by means of a binary logistic response model. Both assays performed equally well within the current range of viral particles, expressed as log10 copies/ml. When the actual input of viral particles was taken into account, the 95% hitrate of PEA lies within the range of 4.60-7.02 log10 copies/reaction, which is an almost 2 log10 sensitivity improvement over the 95% hitrate of the Quickvue RIDT, ranging from 6.86 to 9.37 log10 copies/reaction. The PEA method holds promise to improve sensitive detection of influenza viruses in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  10. Comparison of validity of DIAGNOdent with conventional methods for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological gold standard: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to compare the in vivo effectiveness of DIAGNOdent with other conventional methods (visual, tactile and bitewing radiographs for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. Another objective of the study was to calculate new cut-off limits for the detection of caries by DIAGNOdent in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four primary molars in 52 children (aged 8-12 years, which were indicated for extraction, were selected and evaluated for dental caries using DIAGNOdent, visual and tactile examination and bitewing radiographs. Histological examination of the sections, prepared subsequent to extraction of the teeth, served as the gold standard for comparison of the above-mentioned methods. Results: When considering enamel caries, values obtained for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 48.15, 100 and 49.40% for visual examination, 48.15, 100.00 and 49.40% for tactile examination, 49.38, 50.00 and 49.40% for bitewing radiographs, 85.19, 50.00 and 84.34% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 81.48, 100.00 and 81.93% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to newly formulated cut-off limits, respectively. At dentin caries cut-off levels, the values of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual examination were 52.78, 89.36 and 73.49%; 50.00, 91.49 and 73.49% for tactile examination; 30.56, 82.98 and 60.24% for bitewing radiographs; 72.22, 76.60 and 74.70% for DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 77.48, 74.47 and 75.90%, respectively, for the DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to the newly formulated cut-off limits. Conclusions: DIAGNOdent showed higher sensitivity and accuracy as compared with other conventional methods for detection of enamel caries, whereas for detection of dentinal caries, even though the sensitivity was high, accuracy of the DIAGNOdent device was similar to other

  11. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2016-09-30

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group.

  13. Effects of various cone-beam computed tomography settings on the detection of recurrent caries under restorations in extracted primary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Sonmez, Gul; Kurt, Hakan; Berktas, Zeynep Serap [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Ozen, Dogukan [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the ex vivo diagnostic ability of 9 different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) settings in the detection of recurrent caries under amalgam restorations in primary teeth. Fifty-two primary teeth were used. Twenty-six teeth had dentine caries and 26 teeth did not have dentine caries. Black class II cavities were prepared and restored with amalgam. In the 26 carious teeth, recurrent caries were left under restorations. The other 26 intact teeth that did not have caries served as controls. Teeth were imaged using a 100×90-mm field of view and a 0.2-mm voxel size with 9 different CBCT settings. Four observers assessed the images using a 5-point scale. Kappa values were calculated to assess observer agreement. CBCT settings were compared with the gold standard using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) values for each setting were compared using the chi-square test, with a significance level of α=.05. Intraobserver kappa values ranged from 0.366 to 0.664 for observer 1, from 0.311 to 0.447 for observer 2, from 0.597 to 1.000 for observer 3, and from 0.869 to 1 for observer 4. Furthermore, interobserver kappa values among the observers ranged from 0.133 to 0.814 for the first reading and from 0.197 to 0.805 for the second reading. The highest AUC values were found for setting 5 (0.5916) and setting 3 (0.5886), and were not found to be statistically significant (P>.05). Variations in tube voltage and tube current did not affect the detection of recurrent caries under amalgam restorations in primary teeth.

  14. Histological validation of cone-beam computed tomography versus laser fluorescence and conventional diagnostic methods for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Elif; Sinanoglu, Alper

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of visual (VE), radiological (RE), cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and laser fluorescence (LFE) examination methods for the detection of the occlusal noncavitated caries in permanent posterior teeth. Two examiners assessed 121 selected sites on the occlusal surfaces of 44 molar teeth by visual (International Caries Assessment and Detection System II [ICDAS]), radiographic (bite-wing projection) cone-beam computed tomography, and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent Pen) examination methods. After a 1-week interval, each measurement was repeated by two examiners. Then, the teeth were sectioned, and histological evaluation was performed, which serves as the gold standard. The lesion depths were classified and correlated with the methods evaluated for validation. The intra- and inter-examiner reliability (sensitivity, specificity) and reproducibility of all examination methods were calculated using a weighted Cohen's κ statistic. The correlation between the examination methods was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicating the area under the curve (AUC). CBCT exhibited excellent intra-examiner (0.76 for examiner 1, 0.78 for examiner 2) and fair to good inter-examiner (0.63 for the first, 0.64 for the second measurements) reproducibility. The intra-examiner reproducibility was excellent for the LFE method according to the weighted κ values of examiners 1 (0.90) and 2 (0.79). Among the combined methods, the highest AUC values (0.81-0.95) were obtained for the CBCT examination method performed by the two examiners at both the first and second measurements. Cone beam computed tomography showed better performance than other diagnostic methods.

  15. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors. [hand mounted IR device to detect nearby objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing devices suitable for hand mounting on a manipulator are described, which use near IR LED light sources operating at 0.94 micron and silicon detectors, with appropriate signal processing so that the data are unaffected by ambient light. Laboratory tests with simple proximity sensors are described. Extension of the same techniques to yield multipoint or digital sensors is also discussed. A cooperative proximity sensor concept is described, which employs a composite mirror attached to the work piece to generate an unambiguous set of position and orientation signals. A very rudimentary experiment in local control of a manipulator with a pair of hand mounted proximity sensors is also described.

  16. Multiplex detection of homo- and heterodimerization of g protein-coupled receptors by proximity biotinylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Murray, Victoria L; Liu, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    Dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represents a potential mechanism by which GPCR functions are regulated. Several resonance energy transfer (RET)-based methods have revealed GPCR homo- and heterodimerization. However, interpretation of an increase in FRET efficiency could be attributed to either dimerization/oligomerization events or conformational changes within an already dimerized/oligomerized receptor complex. Furthermore, RET-based methods can only measure pairwise dimerization, and cannot easily achieve multiplex detection. In this study, we applied proximity-based biotinylation for detecting receptor dimerization by utilizing a specific enzyme-substrate pair that are fused to GPCRs. The biotin ligase BirA is fused to CXCR4 and site-specifically biotinylates an acceptor peptide (AP) in the presence of biotin. As a test case for our newly developed assay, we have characterized the homo-dimerization of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and heterodimerization of CXCR4 with CCR2 or CCR5. The degree of biotinylation varies with the amount of GPCR-AP as well as biotinylation time. Using enzyme/substrate receptor pairs and measuring receptor biotinylation, we demonstrate that CXCR4 can homo-dimerize and hetero-dimerize with CCR2 and CCR5. The effect of CXCL12, agonist for CXCR4, was found to decrease surface biotinylation of CXCR4-AP. This effect is due to a combination of CXCR4 endocytosis and stabilization of CXCR4 homodimers. Finally, when CXCR4-AP, CCR2-AP, and CCR5-AP were expressed together, we observed CXCR4-CXCR4 homodimers and CXCR4-CCR2 and CXCR4-CCR5 heterodimers. The newly developed assay opens new opportunity for multiplex detection for GPCR homo- and heterodimerization within the same cellular context.

  17. Multiplex detection of homo- and heterodimerization of g protein-coupled receptors by proximity biotinylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Steel

    Full Text Available Dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs represents a potential mechanism by which GPCR functions are regulated. Several resonance energy transfer (RET-based methods have revealed GPCR homo- and heterodimerization. However, interpretation of an increase in FRET efficiency could be attributed to either dimerization/oligomerization events or conformational changes within an already dimerized/oligomerized receptor complex. Furthermore, RET-based methods can only measure pairwise dimerization, and cannot easily achieve multiplex detection. In this study, we applied proximity-based biotinylation for detecting receptor dimerization by utilizing a specific enzyme-substrate pair that are fused to GPCRs. The biotin ligase BirA is fused to CXCR4 and site-specifically biotinylates an acceptor peptide (AP in the presence of biotin. As a test case for our newly developed assay, we have characterized the homo-dimerization of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and heterodimerization of CXCR4 with CCR2 or CCR5. The degree of biotinylation varies with the amount of GPCR-AP as well as biotinylation time. Using enzyme/substrate receptor pairs and measuring receptor biotinylation, we demonstrate that CXCR4 can homo-dimerize and hetero-dimerize with CCR2 and CCR5. The effect of CXCL12, agonist for CXCR4, was found to decrease surface biotinylation of CXCR4-AP. This effect is due to a combination of CXCR4 endocytosis and stabilization of CXCR4 homodimers. Finally, when CXCR4-AP, CCR2-AP, and CCR5-AP were expressed together, we observed CXCR4-CXCR4 homodimers and CXCR4-CCR2 and CXCR4-CCR5 heterodimers. The newly developed assay opens new opportunity for multiplex detection for GPCR homo- and heterodimerization within the same cellular context.

  18. A new computerized impedance plethysmograph: accuracy in the detection of proximal deep-vein thrombosis in symptomatic outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prandoni, P.; Lensing, A. W.; Huisman, M. V.; Jonker, J. J.; Vigo, M.; Borm, J. J.; Büller, H. R.; Sing, A. K.; Carta, M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the lack of specificity of the clinical diagnosis it is appropriate in patients with clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis to apply an objective test before starting anticoagulant treatment. Impedance plethysmography is a highly accurate technique for the detection of proximal-vein

  19. Diagnostic accuracy in detecting tears in the proximal biceps tendon using standard nonenhancing shoulder MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrow SA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Samuel A Dubrow,1 Jonathan J Streit,2 Yousef Shishani,2 Mark R Robbin,3 Reuben Gobezie21Department of Orthopedics, Alegent Creighton Clinic, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics, Cleveland Shoulder Institute, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH, USABackground: There is a paucity of data in the literature evaluating the performance of noncontrast MRI in the diagnosis of partial and complete tears of the proximal portion of the long head of the biceps (LHB tendon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI compared to arthroscopy for the diagnosis of pathology involving the intra-articular portion of the LHB tendon.Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 66 patients (mean age 57.8 years, range 43–70 years who underwent shoulder arthroscopy and evaluation of the LHB tendon after having had a noncontrast MRI of the shoulder. Biceps pathology was classified by both MRI and direct arthroscopic visualization as either normal, partial tearing, or complete rupture, and arthroscopy was considered to be the gold standard. We then determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values of MRI for the detection of partial and complete LHB tears.Results: MRI identified 29/66 (43.9% of patients as having a pathologic lesion of the LHB tendon (19 partial and ten complete tears while diagnostic arthroscopy identified tears in 59/66 patients (89.4%; 50 partial and 16 complete. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for detecting partial tearing of the LHB were 27.7% and 84.2%, respectively (positive predictive value =81.2%, negative predictive value =32.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for complete tears of the LHB were 56.3% and 98.0%, respectively (positive predictive value =90.0%, negative predictive value =87.5%.Conclusion: Standard noncontrast MRI of the shoulder

  20. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  1. Extended sealing of interproximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardu, Stefano; Perroud, Reymond; Krejci, Ivo

    2006-06-01

    In recent years the concept of minimally invasive dentistry has offered a more conservative approach to restoration of teeth with caries lesions. Several techniques have been suggested for treatment of proximal lesions, but their results have been less than ideal. The aim of this article is to present a new technique for ultraconservative restoration of small interproximal caries lesions that avoids the disadvantages of both the tunnel and the proximal slot restorative techniques. Two cases, of patients with high and low caries risk, are presented to illustrate the technique. The proposed technique can be considered the most conservative alternative to conventional Class 2 or slot-cavity treatment approaches.

  2. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  3. In vitro Detection of Occlusal Caries on Permanent Teeth by a Visual, Light-Induced Fluorescence and Photothermal Radiometry and Modulated Luminescence Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallad, Mahmoud; Zero, Domenick; Eckert, George; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm shift towards the nonsurgical management of dental caries relies on the early detection of the disease. Detection of caries at an early stage is of unequivocal importance for early preventive intervention. The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the performance of a visual examination using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria, two quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) systems--Inspektor™ Pro and QLF-D Biluminator™ 2 (Inspektor Research Systems B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands)--and a photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence, The Canary System® (Quantum Dental Technologies, Toronto, Ont., Canada) on the detection of primary occlusal caries on permanent teeth. A total of 60 teeth with occlusal surface sites ranging from sound to noncavitated lesions (ICDAS 0-4) were assessed with each detection method twice in a random order. Histological validation was used to compare methods for sensitivity, specificity, percent correct, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), at standard and optimum sound thresholds. Interexaminer agreement and intraexaminer repeatability were measured using intraclass correlation coefficients. Interexaminer agreement ranged between 0.48 (The Canary System®) and 0.96 (QLF-D Biluminator™ 2). Intraexaminer repeatability ranges were 0.33-0.63 (The Canary System®) and 0.96-0.99 (QLF-D Biluminator™ 2). The sensitivity range was 0.75-0.96 while that of specificity was 0.43-0.89. The AUC were 0.79 (The Canary System®), 0.87 (ICDAS), 0.90 (Inspektor™ Pro), and 0.94 (QLF-D Biluminator™ 2). ICDAS had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity followed by QLF-D Biluminator™ 2 at optimum threshold. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Is it Ethical to Withhold Restorative Dental Care From a Child with Occlusoproximal Caries Lesions Into Dentin of Primary Molars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainar, S M Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Non-restorative caries treatment (NRCT) has been mentioned as a treatment option for occluso-proximal caries lesions into dentin of primary molars. The NRCT approach for occluso-proximal caries lesions in primary molars was considered from an ethical perspective. In summary, it is not ethical to withhold restorative dental care from a child with occluso-proximal caries lesions into dentin of primary molars.

  5. Performance of fluorescence-based methods for detecting and quantifying smooth-surface caries lesions in primary teeth: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Moriyama, Caroline Moraes; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; Kohara, Eduardo Kazuo; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    Although smooth-surface caries can be subjectively assessed by visual inspection, quantitative methods would improve the monitoring of these lesions. To evaluate the in vitro performance of laser fluorescence devices, namely DIAGNOdent (LF) and DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen), and a fluorescence camera (VistaProof; FC) in the detection and quantification of smooth-surface caries in primary teeth. Two examiners evaluated 99 smooth surfaces of 65 extracted primary molars using FC, LF, and LFpen. As a reference standard, the actual and relative lesion depths were determined using stereomicroscopy and polarized light microscopy. Reproducibilities were assessed, and correlation analyses were performed. The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies of the methods were calculated and compared. There was a significant correlation between the values obtained using the fluorescence-based devices and the actual and relative lesion depths, although the correlation coefficient values were not higher than 0.7 (LF, 0.673; LFpen, 0.646; FC, 0.663). The sensitivities of the devices were similar for the detection of enamel caries, although LFpen was superior in detecting dentin lesions. The reliabilities of all methods were moderate to low, with similar accuracies at all depths. Although the fluorescence-based devices showed similar performance in the detection of enamel and dentin lesions, the reliability of these devices and the correlation of their findings with the actual and relative lesion depths were moderate with regard to smooth-surface caries in primary molars. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. In vitro Evaluation of Magnification and LED Illumination for Detection of Occlusal Caries in Primary and Permanent Molars Using ICDAS Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Ari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of low-powered magnification (×2.5 and its association with LED headlight illumination for occlusal caries detection in primary and permanent molars using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS criteria.Methods: The occlusal surfaces of 36 extracted teeth (n=18 primary molars, n=18 permanent molars were examined using ICDAS criteria with unaided visual examination, low-powered magnification and low-powered magnification plus LED headlight illumination. Three examiners evaluated one occlusal site per tooth twice independently with one week interval, using all methods. The teeth (n = 36 were sectioned and examined under light microscopy using Downer’s histological criteria as the gold standard. Results: The weighted kappa values for inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility for the ICDAS examinations were almost perfect (Kappa values 0.72–0.96 in all three examination methods. The correlation with histology and overall AUC performance (0.96–0.98 of low-powered magnification plus LED headlight illumination was statistically significant in permanent molars. In primary molars, both low-powered magnification (0.82–0.90 and low-powered magnification plus LED headlight illumination (0.87–0.93 showed statistically significant correlation with histology and good to excellent AUC performance than unaided examination. Conclusion: Visual aids have the potential to improve the performance of early caries detection and clinical diagnostics in children.

  7. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwitz, Robert H; Ismail, Amid I; Pitts, Nigel B

    2007-01-06

    Dental caries, otherwise known as tooth decay, is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide; individuals are susceptible to this disease throughout their lifetime. Dental caries forms through a complex interaction over time between acid-producing bacteria and fermentable carbohydrate, and many host factors including teeth and saliva. The disease develops in both the crowns and roots of teeth, and it can arise in early childhood as an aggressive tooth decay that affects the primary teeth of infants and toddlers. Risk for caries includes physical, biological, environmental, behavioural, and lifestyle-related factors such as high numbers of cariogenic bacteria, inadequate salivary flow, insufficient fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene, inappropriate methods of feeding infants, and poverty. The approach to primary prevention should be based on common risk factors. Secondary prevention and treatment should focus on management of the caries process over time for individual patients, with a minimally invasive, tissue-preserving approach.

  8. In vitro performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence device and bitewing radiographs for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Boldieri, Thalita; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Lussi, Adrian; de Cássia Loiola Cordeiro, Rita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a pen‑type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent 2190; LFpen, KaVo, Germany) and bitewing radiographs (BW) for approximal caries detection in permanent and primary teeth. A total of 246 anterior approximal surfaces (102 permanent and 144 primary) were selected. Contact points were simulated using sound teeth. Two examiners assessed all approximal surfaces using LFpen and BW. The teeth were histologically assessed for the reference standard. Optimal cut‑off limits were calculated for LFpen for primary and permanent teeth. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated for D1 (enamel and dentin lesions) and D3 (dentin lesions) thresholds. The reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's weighted kappa values. For permanent teeth, the LFpen cut‑off were 0-27 (sound), 28-33 (enamel caries) and >33 (dentin caries). For primary teeth, the LFpen cut‑off were 0-7 (sound), 8- 32 (enamelcaries) and >32 (dentin caries). The LFpen presented higher sensitivity values than BW for primary teeth (0.58 vs. 0.32 at D1 and 0.80 vs. 0.47 at D3) and permanent teeth (0.80 vs. 0.57 at D1 and 0.94 vs. 0.51 at D3). Specificity did not show a significant difference between the methods. Rank correlations with histology were 0.59 and 0.83 (LFpen) and 0.36 and 0.70 (BW) for primary and permanent teeth, respectively, considering all lesions. ICC values for LFpen were 0.71 (inter) and 0.86 (intra) for permanent teeth and 0.94 (inter) and 0.90/0.99 for primary teeth. Kappa values for BW were 0.69 (inter) and 0.68/0.90 (intra) for permanent teeth and 0.64 (inter) and 0.89/0.89 for primary teeth. LFpen presented better reproducibility for primary and permanent teeth and higher accuracy in detecting caries lesions at D1 threshold than BW for permanent teeth. LFpen should be used as an adjunct method for approximal caries detection.

  9. In-vitro detection of artificial caries on vertical dental cavity walls using infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.; Vu, Jaclyn T.; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the ability of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (PTR) and modulated luminescence (LUM) to detect secondary caries lesions on the walls of restorations (wall lesions). Changes in experimental PTR-LUM signals due to sequential demineralization on entire vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples were investigated. In addition, transverse micro-radiography (TMR) analysis (used as a gold standard) was conducted to measure the degree of demineralization that occurred in each sample. Statistical correlation between TMR results and PTR-LUM signals was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. LUM signals were found to be dominated by the scattered component of the incident laser beam. The more clinically relevant cases of localized demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls were also investigated to examine whether PTR-LUM signals are sensitive to demineralization and remineralization of much smaller areas. The overall results demonstrated that PTR-LUM is sensitive to progressive demineralization and remineralization on vertical walls of sectioned tooth samples.

  10. In Vitro Comparison of the Accuracy of Primax, Insight Dental X-Ray Films and CMOS-APS Digital Imaging in Detection of Interproximal Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Javaheri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiography is one of the most important diagnostic methods for evaluation of dental caries. On the other hand, the least amount of radiation along with high quality is a main gold standard. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Primax, Insight Radiographic films, and direct digital images (Schick CMOS-APS, in detection of interproximal natural Caries. Methods: In this experimental invitro study, 208 extracted permanent molars and premolars were selected for study on the basis of varying caries depth. Exposure factors considered for conventional films and digital images were 70 Kvp and 8 mA, and exposure times for each of the three modalities were in the following order; 0.20 s for Primax, 0.16 s for Insight and 0.08 s for digital images. All film types were subsequently automatically processed. The conventional radiographs and digital images were examined by five observers. They were asked to detect caries in the approximal surfaces. They had to indicate their certainty of decision separately for each interproximal side of each tooth on a 5-point confidence scale. Following acquisition of the image modalities, the teeth were sectioned mesiodistally along the long axis of the crowns. Sectioned teeth were evaluated for the absence or presence of approximal carious lesions as Gold Standard. Inter-observer agreement in detecting approximal caries, for each image using Kappa Value, was evaluated. Then sensitivity value, specificity value and the areas (Az beneath Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were calculated. Results: A slight (k=0.01 inter-observer agreement was observed in comparison of Gold Standard. The sensitivity value of Primax was higher as compared to both Insight and digital images. Although the Az value indicated an overall better performance of Primax(0.64 as compared to both Insight(0.63 and digital images(0.61, all three modalities showed a trend of increasing sensitivity for

  11. Clinical performance of a new laser fluorescence device for detection of occlusal caries lesions in permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, K C; Neuhaus, K W; Gygax, M; Bücher, K; Crispin, A; Paschos, E; Hickel, R; Lussi, A

    2008-12-01

    To determine the clinical performance of a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen, KaVo) to discriminate between different occlusal caries depths (D(0)-D(1-4); D(0-2)-D(3,4)) in permanent molars. In this prospective, randomized two-centre-study 120 sound/uncavitated carious sites in 120 patients were measured after visual and radiographic caries assessment. In cases of operative intervention (n=86), the lesion depths after caries removal were recorded (reference). In cases of preventive intervention (n=34), the sites were reassessed visually/radiographically after 12 months to verify the status assessed before (reference). The discrimination performance was determined statistically (Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's rho coefficient, and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs)). Sensitivities (SE) and specificities (SP) were plotted as a function of the measured values and cut-off values for the mentioned thresholds suggested. Sound sites (n=13) had significantly minor fluorescence values than carious sites (n=107) (Pcaries (n=63) compared to dentinal caries (n=57). The AUCs for the same discriminations were 0.92 and 0.78 (Pcaries depths was calculated (rho=+0.57, P=0.01). Within this study, the device's discrimination performance for different caries depths was moderate to very good and it may be recommended as adjunct tool in the diagnosis of occlusal caries.

  12. Double line sign: a helpful sonographic sign to detect occult fractures of the proximal humerus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.C.M.; Jager, G.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Blickman, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a new sonographic sign of bone fracture and to determine if it can be helpful in decreasing the number of missed fractures of the proximal humerus. Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder was performed in 57 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and/or disability

  13. Efficacy of application of pseudocolor filters in the detection of interproximal caries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zangooei Booshehry, Maryam; Davari, Abdolrahim; Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Rashidi Nejad, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of application of an image processing mode of a colorizer on the efficacy of the detection of interproximal carious lesions viewed in direct digital radiography...

  14. Progression of interproximal caries in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J A; Barton, D H; Vahedi, I; Hatcher, E A

    1997-01-01

    While studies have addressed the diagnosis and progression of interproximal carious lesions within a primary tooth, few studies have addressed the development of proximal lesions in adjacent primary molars. The purpose of this study was to examine retrospectively the long term interproximal caries progression in primary molar teeth. Dental records of 150 children were retrospectively reviewed, 76 from a university pediatric dentistry clinic and 74 from a pediatric dentistry private practice. Out of the 387 teeth initially diagnosed with proximal caries, the combined university and private practice results for timing of the development of proximal lesions on adjacent tooth surfaces showed the following: simultaneous development-162 (41.9%); 1 to 24 months-65 (16.8%); 24 to 60 months-40 (10.3%); never-120 (31.0%). The combined results for formation of proximal caries in posterior quadrants showed that out of the 150 patients, the timing for development of additional quadrants with proximal caries was as follow: simultaneous development: 77 (51.3%); 1 to 24 months 31, (20.7%); 24 to 60 months 25, (16.7%); never 17 (11.3%). The conclusions of the study are that 69% of the primary molar teeth with proximal caries developed caries on the adjacent proximal surface and 89% of the patients who developed a proximal carious lesion on a primary molar tooth within one quadrant developed another primary molar proximal lesion in another quadrant.

  15. Interproximal dental caries detection using Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Modulated Luminescence (LUM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, R. J.; Matvienko, A.; Mandelis, A.; Abrams, S. H.; Amaechi, B. T.; Kulkarni, G.

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) has been used to detect mechanical holes and demineralized enamel in the interproximal contact area of extracted human teeth. Thirty four teeth were used in a series of experiments. Preliminary tests to detect mechanical holes created by dental burs and 37% phosphoric acid etching for 20 s on the interproximal contact points showed distinct differences in the signal. Interproximal contact areas were demineralized by using a partially saturated acidic buffer system. Each sample pair was examined with PTR before and after micro-machining or treating at sequential treatment periods spanning 6 hours to 30 days. Dental bitewing radio graphs showed no sign of demineralized lesion even for samples treated for 30 days. μ -CT, TMR and SEM analyses were performed. Although μ -CT and TMR measured mineral losses and lesion depths, only SEM surface images showed visible signs of treatment because of the minimal extent of the demineralization. However, the PTR amplitude increased by more than 300% after 80 hours of treatment. Therefore, PTR has been shown to have sufficient contrast for the detection of very early interproximal demineralized lesions. The technique further exhibited excellent signal reproducibility and consistent signal changes in the presence of interproximal demineralized lesions, attributes which render PTR a reliable probe to detect early interproximal demineralization lesions. Modulated luminescence was also measured simultaneously, but it showed a lower ability to detect these interproximal demineralized lesions than PTR.

  16. Assessment of a new infrared laser transillumination technology (808 nm) for the detection of occlusal caries-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussaneli, D G; Restrepo, M; Boldieri, T; Pretel, H; Mancini, M W; Santos-Pinto, L; Cordeiro, R C L

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vitro performance of near-infrared laser transillumination (NIR-LTI) for detecting early occlusal caries in permanent teeth and compare it with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), DIAGNOdent Pen (DDPen), and conventional radiography (CR). Ninety-four occlusal surfaces presenting International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores ranging from 0 to 3 were selected. For the NIR-LTI examination, images were captured using a prototype, which consists of a laser beam (808 nm) and an infrared CCD camera. One occlusal site on each tooth was assessed twice by two examiners. The teeth were prepared histologically and assessed for the presence of early caries. The intraexaminer correlation showed no difference between the NIR-LTI, DDPen, and QLF analytical methods, but all these methods differed from CR. Interexaminer reproducibility was moderate for NIR-LTI, which showed sensitivity (0.68), specificity (0.85), accuracy (0.73), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.76) similar to those of the fluorescence method and different from those of the CR. In conclusion, the performance of NIR-LTI was comparable to that of DDPen and QLF and may therefore be considered a valid and reliable alternative for the diagnosis of incipient lesions on the occlusal surface of permanent teeth.

  17. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  18. Detection of artificial occlusal caries in a phosphor imaging plate system with two types of LCD monitors versus three different films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dinçer, Semanur; Ilgüy, Dilhan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of a storage phosphor plate system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) with two types of LCD monitor in the detection of artificial caries when compared to Ultraspeed (D), Ektaspeed Plus (E), and Insight (F) radiographic films. Seventy extracted human molars-with artificial caries-were radiographed under identical standardized conditions using (1) a storage phosphor plate system Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), (2) Insight, (3) Ektaspeed Plus, and (4) Ultraspeed (Carestream Health Inc, Rochester, NY). All digital images and radiographs were examined by three observers for the presence or absence of artificial caries using a five-point confidence scale. Digital images were evaluated both on a LCD computer monitor (Philips 170S, Holland) and medical monitor-3 megapixel monochrome display (Me355i2, Totoku, Tokyo)-with brightness and contrast enhancement. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and other measurements for diagnostic accuracy. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor demonstrated higher mean A (z) values (0.70 +/- 0.08) than digital images with computer monitor and conventional films. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor presented the highest score, 0.97, 0.90, 0.94, for each observer, respectively. Also, true positive observations (0.82) and positive likelihood ratios (2.71) were higher in enhanced storage phosphor images with medical monitor. Caries detection of mechanically created lesions by experienced radiologists is roughly comparable when examining D-speed film images and Digora images on both the computer and medical LCD monitors, and appears to be poorer on E- and F-speed film images.

  19. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 6. Caries inhibition by resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, J J; Bonte, E; Guerrieri, A; Fezzani, L

    2013-01-01

    Resin infiltration has made possible an innovative way of treating initial carious lesions that fits perfectly with the concept of minimal intervention dentistry. Infiltration of carious lesions represents a new approach to the treatment of non-cavitated lesions of proximal and smooth surfaces of deciduous and permanent teeth. The major advantage of this method is that it is a non-invasive treatment, preserving tooth structure and that it can be achieved in a single visit. While this therapy can rightly be categorised as minimum intervention dentistry, clinical experience is limited and further controlled clinical trials are required to assess its long-term results. The inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration should now be considered an alternative to invasive restorations, but involves early detection of lesions and does not allow for appropriate monitoring of the caries risk.

  20. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišević Vujadin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caričin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caričin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town’s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only previously unexplored unit of the city. In the course of this programme, the classical research method - the excavations started in 2009 - is for the first time combined with the systematic application of airborne and terrestrial sensing and detection techniques. The analysis of historic aerial photographs and topographic plans proved to be very useful as well. Along with them, LiDAR-derived DTMs, photogrammetric DEMs, different geophysical and orthophotographic plans are stored in the GIS database for Caričin Grad and the Leskovac Basin. In this way almost 80 percent of the plateau area was defined, and the obtained plan is hypothetical only to a small extent, which particularly refers to the unexcavated northern rampart of the Upper Town. Each source provided relevant information for the reconstruction of both the rampart and the settlement, which points to the value of a holistic approach to documentation from various dates. The first source to be studied were archival aerial photographs of Caričin Grad from 1938 and 1947 (Figs. 1, 2.1. The latter one was originally processed by Aleksandar Deroko and Svetozar Radojči}, who drew the plan of the town after it, labelling the unexplored Upper Town’s northern plateau as “a probable habitation area”. The route of the northern rampart was aslo rather precisely determined by the authors (Fig. 2.2. Recently, these photographs were rectified and georeferenced in the GIS. The 1938 shot reveals the position of some towers as well, and it is

  1. Evaluation of diagnostic tests using information theory for multi-class diagnostic problems and its application for the detection of occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Umut; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Özkan, Gökhan; Kanlı, Aydan

    2014-09-01

    Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC) and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU), can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Diagnostic accuracy study. Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and pre-molar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11), enamel caries (n=22) and dentin caries (n=27). Diagnostic performance of i) visual inspection, ii) radiography, iii) laser fluorescence (LF) and iv) micro-computed tomography (M-CT) caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05), (PRDU: 70.5%) and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU: 73.8%) for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU:73.8%) and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05), (PRDU:70.8%). IC and PRDU were lowest for visual inspection. The present study

  2. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate...... of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also...... assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher...

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth were >16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  4. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of tQ > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  5. Clinical cavitation and radiographic lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansare, Kaustubh; Raghav, Mamta; Sontakke, Subodeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To assess the relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces of permanent posterior teeth in an Indian population. This study also assessed the clinical feasibility of applying 'western guidelines' to this population from...... the developing world. Materials and methods. Relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population was assessed. Proximal surfaces (n = 126) without restorations were examined on bitewing radiographs in patients with suspected caries and lesion...

  6. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care.

  7. Impact of a Tutored Theoretical-Practical Training to Develop Undergraduate Students’ Skills for the Detection of Caries Lesions: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Controlled Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda Rosche; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Imparato, José Carlos; Bonecker, Marcelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wang, Linda; Rios, Daniela; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Duque, Cristiane; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Alves Filho, Ary Oliveira; Lima, Marina De Deus Moura; Moura, Marcoeli Silva; De Carli, Alessandro Diogo; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio; Oliveira, Elenara Ferreira; Correa, Marcos Britto; Rocha, Rachel Oliveira; Zenkner, Julio Eduardo; Murisí, Pedroza Uribe; Martignon, Stefania; Lara, Juan Sebastian; Aquino, Fatima Gabriela; Carrillo, Alfredo; Chu, Chun Hung; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David; Melo, Paulo; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2017-01-01

    Background Tutored laboratorial activities could be a manner of improving the competency development of students. However, its impact over conventional theoretical classes has not yet been tested. Additionally, different university contexts could influence this issue and should be explored. Objective To assess the impact of a tutored theoretical-practical training for teaching undergraduate students to detect caries lesions as compared with theoretical teaching activities. The impact of these teaching/learning activities will be assessed in terms of efficacy, cost/benefit, retention of knowledge/acquired competences, and student acceptability. Methods Sixteen centers (7 centers from Brazil and 9 centers from other countries throughout the world) are involved in the inclusion of subjects for this protocol. A randomized controlled study with parallel groups will be conducted. One group (control) will be exposed to a 60- to 90-minute conventional theoretical class and the other group (test) will be exposed to the same theoretical class and also a 90-minute laboratory class, including exercises and discussions based on the evaluation of a pool of images and extracted teeth. The mentioned outcomes will be evaluated immediately after the teaching activities and also in medium- and long-term analyses. To compare the long-term outcomes, students who enrolled in the university before the participating students will be interviewed for data collection and these data will be used as a control and compared with the trained group. This stage will be a nonrandomized phase of this study, nested in the main study. Appropriate statistical analysis will be performed according to the aims of this study. Variables related to the centers will also be analyzed and used to model adjustment as possible sources of variability among results. Results This ongoing study is funded by a Brazilian national funding agency (CNPq- 400736/2014-4). We expect that the tutored theoretical

  8. Implications of Articulating Machinery on Operator Line of Sight and Efficacy of Camera Based Proximity Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Schwabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The underground mining industry, and some above ground operations, rely on the use of heavy equipment that articulates to navigate corners in the tight confines of the tunnels. Poor line of sight (LOS has been identified as a problem for safe operation of this machinery. Proximity detection systems, such as a video system designed to provide a 360 degree view around the machine have been implemented to improve the available LOS for the operator. A four-camera system was modeled in a computer environment to assess LOS on a 3D cad model of a typical, articulated machine. When positioned without any articulation, the system is excellent at removing blind spots for a machine driving straight forward or backward in a straight tunnel. Further analysis reveals that when the machine articulates in a simulated corner section, some camera locations are no longer useful for improving LOS into the corner. In some cases, the operator has a superior view into the corner, when compared to the best available view from the camera. The work points to the need to integrate proximity detection systems at the design, build, and manufacture stage, and to consider proper policy and procedures that would address the gains and limits of the systems prior to implementation.

  9. A Novel Method for Proximity Detection of Moving Targets Using a Large-Scale Planar Capacitive Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for proximity detection of moving targets (with high dielectric constants using a large-scale (the size of each sensor is 31 cm × 19 cm planar capacitive sensor system (PCSS is proposed. The capacitive variation with distance is derived, and a pair of electrodes in a planar capacitive sensor unit (PCSU with a spiral shape is found to have better performance on sensitivity distribution homogeneity and dynamic range than three other shapes (comb shape, rectangular shape, and circular shape. A driving excitation circuit with a Clapp oscillator is proposed, and a capacitance measuring circuit with sensitivity of 0.21 V p − p / pF is designed. The results of static experiments and dynamic experiments demonstrate that the voltage curves of static experiments are similar to those of dynamic experiments; therefore, the static data can be used to simulate the dynamic curves. The dynamic range of proximity detection for three projectiles is up to 60 cm, and the results of the following static experiments show that the PCSU with four neighboring units has the highest sensitivity (the sensitivities of other units are at least 4% lower; when the attack angle decreases, the intensity of sensor signal increases. This proposed method leads to the design of a feasible moving target detector with simple structure and low cost, which can be applied in the interception system.

  10. Characterization and application studies of ProxyPhos, a chemosensor for the detection of proximally phosphorylated peptides and proteins in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskouskaya, D; Cabral, A D; Fong, R; Bancerz, M; Toutah, K; Rosa, D; Gardiner, J E; de Araujo, E D; Duodu, E; Armstrong, D; Fekl, U; Gunning, P T

    2017-06-26

    Proximal phosphorylation on proteins appears to have functional significance and has been associated with several diseases, including Alzheimer's and cancer. While much remains to be learned about the role of proximal phosphorylation in biological systems, no simple and/or affordable technique is available for its detection. To this end, we have previously developed a ProxyPhos chemosensor, which detects proximally phosphorylated peptides and proteins over mono- and non-phosphorylated motifs in aqueous solutions. In this follow-up work, we performed extensive characterization of peptide and protein ProxyPhos assay conditions to achieve enhanced detection, and further explored the selectivity of ProxyPhos, and its potential off-targets. As a result of characterization studies, selective sensing of proximally phosphorylated over mono-phosphorylated peptides and proteins was achieved. Moreover, studies demonstrated that ProxyPhos was compatible with the detection of all commonly phosphorylated residues (i.e. tyrosine, serine and threonine residues). Under optimized conditions, ProxyPhos efficiently discriminated between peptides derived from the activated (proximally phosphorylated, disease-relevant) and inactive (mono-phosphorylated) forms of JAK2, SYK and MAPK1 kinases. In addition, ProxyPhos can be used to probe phosphatase activity on peptides and proteins via detecting changes in proximal phosphorylation, demonstrating immediate utility of this chemosensing system.

  11. Use of a low cut-off value for the fecal immunochemical test enables better detection of proximal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeun, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk

    2013-11-01

    The advantage of the quantitative fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is the flexibility to set the positivity threshold. However, the diagnostic success of the FIT has not been compared for standard and low cut-off thresholds. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic success of FIT for standard and low cut-off thresholds. In 2009 and 2010 a standard cut-off threshold (20 μg Hb/g feces) was used as positivity criterion for the FIT; in 2012 a low cut-off (10 μg Hb/g feces) was used. Diagnostic success was compared between the two groups. Of the total of 14,289 participants, 195 (1.4 %) had positive FIT results. Positivity of the FIT was significantly higher in the low cut-off group than in the standard cut-off group (1.8 vs. 1.0 %, p = 0.000). Although detection of advanced neoplasia lesions was comparable, proximal neoplasia was more frequently detected in the low cut-off group (33.3 vs. 20.9 %, p = 0.016). With the low cut-off threshold, 39 (0.7 %) participants were also classified as having positive results, and 18 (46.2 %) of these had colorectal neoplasias. The number of positive results from the FIT was increased by 54.9 %, and detection of advanced neoplasia was increased by 60 % with the low cut-off threshold compared with the standard cut-off. A low cut-off threshold for the FIT resulted in better detection of proximal neoplasia in population-based screening. These results indicate the cut-off threshold for positive FIT should be properly chosen and adjusted in colorectal cancer screening.

  12. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC).

  13. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  14. [Clinical analysis of caries status of the mandibular second molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun-an; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Ning; Su, Qin

    2014-04-01

    To collect the cases which have caries on the mandibular second molar and analyze the caries status and correlative factors. Patients treated in the Department of Endodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology were randomly collected. The baseline information, primary sites and severity of dental caries on the mandibular second molar, and eruption pattern of the mandibular third molar were recorded. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Four hundred eighty-one patients including 227 males and 254 females were collected. Caries on the mandibular second molar starting from the occlusal, distal proximal and buccal surfaces accounted for 33.8%, 33.2% and 24.4%, respectively. Caries involving dental pulp (49.7%) were significantly more than deep and shallow to moderate caries (31.7% and 18.6%). Gender was not correlated with the site and severity of caries. However, impacted mandibular third molars and age were significantly related to both caries site and severity. Occlusal and distal proximal surfaces are the most predisposed sites to have caries on mandibular second molar. Impacted mandibular third molar and age are significantly related to caries of mandibular second molar.

  15. The Performance of ICDAS-II Using Low-Powered Magnification with Light-Emitting Diode Headlight and Alternating Current Impedance Spectroscopy Device for Detection of Occlusal Caries on Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Timucin; Ari, Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the diagnostic performance of low-powered magnification with light-emitting diode headlight (LPMLED) using ICDAS-II criteria and AC Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS) device, on occlusal surfaces of primary molars. The occlusal surfaces of 18 extracted primary molars were examined blindly by two examiners. The teeth were sectioned and examined under light microscopy using Downer's histological criteria as gold standard. Good to excellent inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility, higher sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values were achieved by LPMLED at D1 threshold. Also the relationship between histology and LPMLED was statistically significant. In conclusion visual aids have the potential to improve the performance of early caries detection and clinical diagnostics in children. Despite its potential, ACIS device should be considered as an adjunct method in detecting caries on primary teeth.

  16. The natural history of dental caries lesions: a 4-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Santiago, E; Eckert, G J; Katz, B P; Pereira de Oliveira, S; Capin, O R; Mau, M; Zero, D T

    2012-09-01

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous disease affecting all age groups and segments of the population. It is known that not all caries lesions progress to cavitation, but little is known regarding the progression pattern of caries lesions. This study's purpose was to evaluate the natural history of dental caries using a standardized, visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The study population consisted of 565 consenting children, who were enrolled and examined at baseline and at regular intervals over 48 months with ICDAS and yearly bitewing radiographs. Of these, 338 children completed all examinations. Not all lesions cavitated at the same rate, differing by surface type and baseline ICDAS severity score and activity status. With increasing severity, the percentage of lesions progressing to cavitation increased: 19%, 32%, 68%, and 66% for ICDAS scores 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Lesions on occlusal surfaces were more likely to cavitate, followed by buccal pits, lingual grooves, proximal surfaces, and buccal and lingual surfaces. Cavitation was more likely on molars, followed by pre-molars and anterior teeth. Predictors of cavitation included age, gender, surfaces and tooth types, and ICDAS severity/activity at baseline. In conclusion, characterization of lesion severity with ICDAS can be a strong predictor of lesion progression to cavitation.

  17. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R.S.; Piovesan, C.; Ardenghi, T.M.; Emmanuelli, B.; Braga, M.M.; Ekstrand, K.R.; Mendes, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher caries experience presented higher risk of developing new lesions. In conclusion, the caries activity system associated with the ICDAS presents predictive and construct validity in primary teeth in the assessment of occlusal caries lesions, but predictive validity was not observed in smooth surfaces. PMID:24713370

  18. Comparative effectiveness study to assess two examination modalities used to detect dental caries in preschool urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Billings, Ronald J

    2013-11-01

    Dental caries affecting the primary dentition of U.S. children continues to be the most prevalent chronic childhood disease. Preventive screening for dental caries in toddlers by dental professionals is labor-intensive and costly. Studies are warranted to examine innovative screening modalities that reduce cost, are less labor-intensive, and have the potential to identify caries in high-risk children. Two hundred ninety-one children were randomized into two groups: Group 1 received a traditional, visual tactile examination initially and follow up-examinations at 6 and 12 months, and Group 2 received a teledentistry examination initially and follow-up examinations at 6 and 12 months. The mean primary tooth decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) scores were calculated for all children at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At baseline, the mean dfs score for children examined by means of teledentistry was 2.19, and for the children examined by means of the traditional method, the mean was 1.27; the means were not significantly different. At the 12-month examination, the mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 3.02, and for the children examined by means of the clinical method, the mean dfs was 1.70; the means were not significantly different. At 12 months the mean fillings score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.43 and for the children examined by means of the clinical method was 0.51; the means were statistically significantly different (pexaminations were comparable to clinical examinations when screening for early childhood caries in preschool children. The data further showed that color printouts of teeth with cavities provided to parents of children who received teledentistry screenings promoted oral healthcare utilization, as children from the teledentistry study group received more dental care than children from the clinical study group.

  19. In vivo performance of a laser fluorescence device for the approximal detection of caries in permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, K C; Lussi, A; Gygax, M; Thum, M; Crispin, A; Paschos, E; Hickel, R; Neuhaus, K W

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to investigate if a laser fluorescence device is able to discriminate between sound and carious approximal sites and between enamel and dentinal lesions, as well as to find appropriate cut-off values. One hundred and seventeen sound or uncavitated carious sites in permanent molars were visually and radiographically examined, then either opened or not, after which their laser fluorescence was measured. Forty-three lesions were opened, the caries removed and the clinically identified caries depths were registered in addition to the radiographical scoring. Seventy-four sites were radiographically deemed sound or had enamel caries and were not opened. Here, the radiographical scorings were registered. Taking the radiographic scoring as gold standard for all investigated approximal sites, sound sites (D(0), n=40) showed significantly lower laser fluorescence measurements than carious sites (D(1-4), n=77) (Mann-Whitney test, Plaser fluorescence values and radiographical scoring was found (rho=+0.47, Plaser fluorescence values (rho=+0.34, P=0.03) and a moderately strong correlation to the radiographic scoring (rho=+0.67, Pcaries along with established procedures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  1. Comprehensive Implementation of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS in a Dental School and University Oral Health Centre: A Stepwise Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ahlawat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ICDAS (the International Caries Detection and Assessment System is a new approach to the detection and classification of dental caries, starting with the stage showing the earliest visual changes. Methodology: This article describes the implementation of the ICDAS at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in a step-by-step systematically planned process. Beginning with the setting up of a Task Force in 2011 for the evaluation and preparation of the training resources and the running of exploratory training exercises, it finally culminated in carrying out training workshops for the entire staff and students. After the internal processes had been completed, an international expert (KE was invited to evaluate the process and conduct another workshop using the resources developed within the University, including a reference set of carious teeth. The overall time taken was one and a half years. Conclusions: The implementation of the ICDAS has been comprehensively set into motion within the context of our local curriculum and oral healthcare delivery arrangements. However, this will be an ongoing process with further quality assurance measures being required clinically together with the continuing training of new staff. Sharing this ‘framework’ of the ICDAS implementation process should considerably ease the path and reduce the time period of future implementations by other dental teaching institutions.

  2. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  3. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chirico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN, 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT, 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethylpropyl] nitrate (PETN and urea nitrate (UN in the range of 100–1000 μg/cm2 at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm2. The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm2. AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100–400 μg/cm2 and fingerprints followed by TNT and PETN (17%–70% for surface densities of 400–1000 μg/cm2 and fingerprints.

  4. Association between interdental plaque acidogenicity and caries risk at surface level: a cross sectional study in primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Campus, Guglielmo; Sale, Silvana; Cocco, Fabio; Strohmenger, Laura; Lingström, Peter

    2011-03-01

    In schoolchildren the most commonly decayed primary teeth are molars affecting proximal adjacent surfaces especially. To determine whether a more acidic plaque in response to sucrose challenge is detected in children with more carious lesions. Plaque pH measurements, using the microtouch technique, were carried out in interproximal spaces between primary molars, in 157 high caries risk children (314 sites and caries status of the 628 proximal surfaces recorded). The area under the curve (AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2) ) was analyzed. The AUC(5.7) and the AUC(6.2) showed a statistically significant difference between plaque adjacent to proximal surfaces with or without caries. Differences for AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2) were recorded between one decayed surface compared to two decayed surfaces (P<0.01) whereas a statistical significant difference was only observed for AUC(5.7) , when the areas under the curve were obtained near one decayed surface compared to two sound surfaces (P=0.04). The higher acidogenicity of the dental plaque found in presence of a proximal carious lesion in primary maxillary molars represents an additional risk factor for the adjacent surface. This finding may help clinicians in treatment decisions. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of insight intraoral film on dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Kodak Insight film with other intra-oral films in the detection of dental caries. Periapical radiographs of 99 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were made on Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Kodak Insight films and automatically processed. Six dentists examined the presence of dental caries using a five-point confidence rating scale and compared the diagnostic accuracy by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and ANOVA test. The sensitivity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.84, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. The specificity of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.97, 0.95, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. The mean ROC areas (Az) of Kodak Ultra speed, Ektaspeed, Agfa Ektaspeed and Insight film were 0.917, 0.910, 0.894, 0.909 respectively. There was no significant differences between Az of Insight film and other films (p = 0.178). Theses results suggested that Kodak Insight film have the comparative diagnostic accuracy of dental caries with Ultraspeed and Ektaspeed films. (77)

  6. Fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE), caries detector, and conventional caries excavation in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Aine M; Attin, Thomas; Martens, Sabine; Buchalla, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the ability of fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) to remove infected dentin in primary teeth with that of conventional methods. Sixty-six extracted carious primary teeth were divided according to lesion size into 3 groups of 22 teeth. Caries excavation was carried out with a slow-speed handpiece and round burs for all groups. In the first group, caries was excavated conventionally using visual tactile criteria. In the second group, a caries detector dye was used to detect carious dentin. In the FACE group, cavities were excited with violet light (370-420 nm) and observed through a 530 nm highpass filter. Orange-red fluorescing areas were removed. Undecalcified thin slices were prepared, stained with Giemsa, and examined for presence of infected dentin using light microscopy. Four samples were lost during processing. Histology showed infected dentin in significantly less FACE samples (3 of 22) compared to conventional excavation (9 of 20; P=.03), but not significantly less compared to caries detector (5 of 20; P=.35). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that fluorescence-aided caries excavation is more effective than conventional excavation in removal of infected primary dentin.

  7. "MI" caries management--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Minimum intervention dentistry, with its non-operative prevention and control of disease, underpins the basis of a patient-centred, team-based approach to managing dental caries in patients, who must take an active responsibility in maintaining their personal oral health. In patients where cavities are present causing pain, poor aesthetics and/or functional problems, restorations will need to be placed. Minimally invasive caries excavation strategies can be deployed depending on the patient's caries risk, lesion-pulp proximity and vitality, the extent of remaining supra-gingival tooth structure and clinical factors (e.g., moisture control, access) present in each case treated. Excavation instruments, including burs/handpieces, hand excavators, chemo-mechanical agents and/or air-abrasives which limit caries removal selectively to the more superficial caries-infected dentine and partial removal of caries-affected dentine when required, help create smaller cavities with healthy enamel/dentine margins. Using adhesive restorative materials, the operator can, if handling with care, optimize the histological substrate coupled with the applied chemistry of the material so helping to form a durable peripheral seal and bond to aid retention of the restoration as well as arresting the carious process within the remaining tooth structure. Achieving a smooth tooth-restoration interface clinically to aid the co-operative, motivated patient in biofilm removal, is an essential pre-requisite to prevent further secondary caries.

  8. Recent trends in caries diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyatama Meshram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To create opportunity for a preventive approach to the management of caries, it is important to keep abreast of developments in diagnostic systems. It is apparent that conventional methods for the detection of dental canes do not fulfill the criteria for an ideal canes detection method. These methods rely on subjective interpretation and are insensitive to early canes detection. To overcome these shortcomings, researchers are developing advanced techniques. These not only detect mineral loss but also quantify it.

  9. Effectiveness of a worker-worn electric-field sensor to detect power-line proximity and electrical-contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shengke; Powers, John R; Newbraugh, Bradley H

    2010-06-01

    Construction workers suffer the most electrocutions among all industries. Currently, there are no electrical contact warning devices on the market to protect workers. This paper proposes a worker-worn electric-field sensor. As the worker is in proximity to, or in contact with, a live power-circuit, the sensor sets off an audible/visual warning alarm. The sensor also has the potential to wirelessly trip a wireless-capable circuit breaker, and to trigger a wireless transmitter to notify emergency response of an electrical contact. An experiment was conducted to measure electric-field variation on simulated human-wrists (10 defrosted hog-legs) in various proximities and in electrical-contact to a simulated power-circuit. The purpose of these tests was to determine the feasibility of developing a worker-worn electric-field detection sensor for use in protecting workers from contact with energized electrical conductors. This study observed a significant electric-field-magnitude increase as a hog-leg approaches the live-circuit, and the distinct electric-field-magnitude jump as the leg contacts with the live-circuit. The observation indicates that this sensor can be an effective device to warn the workers of electrical hazards. Additionally, the sensor has the potential to wirelessly trip a wireless-capable circuit-breaker and trigger a wireless transmitter (such as a cell phone) to notify an emergency response. The prompt notification prevents the worker from further injury caused by postponed medical-care. Widespread use of this sensor could lower electrocution and electrically related injury rates in the construction industry. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  11. Oral therapeutic vaccination with Streptococcus sobrinus recombinant enolase confers protection against dental caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Márcia; Tavares, Delfina; Veiga-Malta, Isabel; Fonseca, António J M M; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Trigo, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Adília; Videira, Arnaldo; Cabrita, António M Silvério; Ferreira, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is among the more prevalent chronic human infections for which an effective human vaccine has not yet been achieved. Enolase from Streptococcus sobrinus has been identified as an immunomodulatory protein. In the present study, we used S. sobrinus recombinant enolase (rEnolase) as a target antigen and assessed its therapeutic effect in a rat model of dental caries. Wistar rats that were fed a cariogenic solid diet on day 18 after birth were orally infected with S. sobrinus on day 19 after birth and for 5 consecutive days thereafter. Five days after infection and, again, 3 weeks later, rEnolase plus alum adjuvant was delivered into the oral cavity of the rats. A sham-immunized group of rats was contemporarily treated with adjuvant alone. In the rEnolase-immunized rats, increased levels of salivary IgA and IgG antibodies specific for this recombinant protein were detected. A significant decrease in sulcal, proximal enamel, and dentin caries scores was observed in these animals, compared with sham-immunized control animals. No detectable histopathologic alterations were observed in all immunized animals. Furthermore, the antibodies produced against bacterial enolase did not react with human enolase. Overall, these results indicate that rEnolase could be a promising and safe candidate for testing in trials of vaccines against dental caries in humans.

  12. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  13. Quantification of carious pathogens in the interdental microbiota of young caries-free adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inquimbert, Camille; Tramini, Paul; Molinari, Nicolas; Carrouel, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Background The majority of caries lesions in adults occur on the proximal tooth surfaces of the posterior teeth. A comprehensive study of the composition of the oral microbiota is fundamental for a better understanding of the etiology of interdental caries. Methods Twenty-five caries-free subjects (20–35 years old) were enrolled in the study. The interdental biofilm of four interdental sites were collected. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology were used to quantify (i) the following bacteria: Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Enterococcus faecalis; (ii) the fungus Candida albicans; and (iii) total bacteria. Results Streptococcus spp. was the most abundant species, followed by Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were detected at all tested sites and Enterococcus spp. at 99% of sites. S. mutans was detected at only 28% of the tested sites and C. albicans was detected at 11% of sites. E. faecalis was never detected. In 54.5% of the biofilm inhabited by C. albicans, S. mutans was present. Moreover, 28% of the ID sites co-expressed S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. The studied pathogens were organized into two correlated groups of species. Strikingly, the fungus C. albicans and the bacteria Enterococcus spp. cluster together, whereas Streptococcus spp., S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. form one distinct cluster. Conclusion The interdental biofilm of young caries-free adults is comprised of pathogens that are able to induce interproximal caries. That several of these pathogens are implicated in heart disease or other systemic diseases is an argument for the disruption of interdental biofilms using daily oral hygiene. PMID:29016613

  14. Quantification of carious pathogens in the interdental microbiota of young caries-free adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Denis; David, Alexandra; Inquimbert, Camille; Tramini, Paul; Molinari, Nicolas; Carrouel, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The majority of caries lesions in adults occur on the proximal tooth surfaces of the posterior teeth. A comprehensive study of the composition of the oral microbiota is fundamental for a better understanding of the etiology of interdental caries. Twenty-five caries-free subjects (20-35 years old) were enrolled in the study. The interdental biofilm of four interdental sites were collected. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology were used to quantify (i) the following bacteria: Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Enterococcus faecalis; (ii) the fungus Candida albicans; and (iii) total bacteria. Streptococcus spp. was the most abundant species, followed by Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were detected at all tested sites and Enterococcus spp. at 99% of sites. S. mutans was detected at only 28% of the tested sites and C. albicans was detected at 11% of sites. E. faecalis was never detected. In 54.5% of the biofilm inhabited by C. albicans, S. mutans was present. Moreover, 28% of the ID sites co-expressed S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. The studied pathogens were organized into two correlated groups of species. Strikingly, the fungus C. albicans and the bacteria Enterococcus spp. cluster together, whereas Streptococcus spp., S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. form one distinct cluster. The interdental biofilm of young caries-free adults is comprised of pathogens that are able to induce interproximal caries. That several of these pathogens are implicated in heart disease or other systemic diseases is an argument for the disruption of interdental biofilms using daily oral hygiene.

  15. Quantification of carious pathogens in the interdental microbiota of young caries-free adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bourgeois

    Full Text Available The majority of caries lesions in adults occur on the proximal tooth surfaces of the posterior teeth. A comprehensive study of the composition of the oral microbiota is fundamental for a better understanding of the etiology of interdental caries.Twenty-five caries-free subjects (20-35 years old were enrolled in the study. The interdental biofilm of four interdental sites were collected. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methodology were used to quantify (i the following bacteria: Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Enterococcus faecalis; (ii the fungus Candida albicans; and (iii total bacteria.Streptococcus spp. was the most abundant species, followed by Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were detected at all tested sites and Enterococcus spp. at 99% of sites. S. mutans was detected at only 28% of the tested sites and C. albicans was detected at 11% of sites. E. faecalis was never detected. In 54.5% of the biofilm inhabited by C. albicans, S. mutans was present. Moreover, 28% of the ID sites co-expressed S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. The studied pathogens were organized into two correlated groups of species. Strikingly, the fungus C. albicans and the bacteria Enterococcus spp. cluster together, whereas Streptococcus spp., S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. form one distinct cluster.The interdental biofilm of young caries-free adults is comprised of pathogens that are able to induce interproximal caries. That several of these pathogens are implicated in heart disease or other systemic diseases is an argument for the disruption of interdental biofilms using daily oral hygiene.

  16. Study of validity of autofluorescence-based incipient occlusal caries detection in vitro compared to DIAGNOdent pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. H.; Chen, Q. G.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2012-03-01

    The validity of laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of occlusal caries irradiated by 403 nm diode laser compared to commercial device DIAGNOdent pen was investigated. The quantitative evaluation parameter based on the fluorescence intensity area ratio of different bands F(440-480 nm)/F(540-700 nm) was built. And the linear correlation analysis between fluorescence result and corresponding DIAGNOdent reading is performed to be r = -0.9085. Moreover, the factors of irradiation laser power and excited site influencing the fluorescence distribution was experimentally investigated. The result shows that the fluorescence spectra at different site of sound occlusal surface is different and the higher laser power will lower the sensitivity of evaluation parameter based on the red fluorescence region increasing. The work is of great significance for practical application of laser induced fluorescence at 403 nm.

  17. Infiltration of natural caries lesions with experimental resins differing in penetration coefficients and ethanol addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Resin infiltration of enamel caries lesions requires materials optimized for penetration into the capillary structures of the lesion body. With increasing penetration coefficients (PC) improved penetration and caries-inhibiting properties of low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) could be observed in artificial caries lesions. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the penetrativity of experimental resins varying in PC and ethanol addition into natural caries lesions using this technique. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spot lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: code 2) were etched for 2 min using 15% hydrochloric acid gel. After drying, the lesions were stained with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate and 1 of 4 experimental resins (PC63; PC185; PC204; PC391) was applied for 5 min. The materials consisted of bisphenol-A-glycidyl-methacrylate (B), tri-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (T) and ethanol (E) in ratios (B:T:E) of PC63: 25:75:0; PC185: 20:60:20; PC204: 0:100:0; PC391: 0:80:20. Excess material was removed before light curing. The teeth were sectioned perpendicularly to the lesion surfaces and unbound dye was bleached by immersion in hydrogen peroxide. The remaining lesion pores were stained with fluorescein solution. Lesion and penetration depths were analyzed using confocal microscopy (n = 60). At deep lesion sites the percentage penetration of PC204 was significantly higher compared to PC63 and PC391 (p 0.05). It can be concluded that materials with high PC (infiltrants) are capable of penetrating almost completely into enamel parts of natural caries lesions in vitro. A solvent-free resin mainly consisting of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate seems to be preferable. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-09-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed.

  19. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed. PMID:26064846

  20. Genetic sensitivity to bitter taste of 6-n Propylthiouracil: A useful diagnostic aid to detect early childhood caries in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidamale, Raghavendra; Sowmya, B; Thomas, Ann; Jose, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factor to bitter taste perception appears to be largely mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. The insensitivity to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is mediated by this gene. PROP, a pharmacological drug used in treatment of Graves' disease, proved to be useful tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels to bitter and sweet taste. The purpose of this study is to show much simpler PROP sensitivity technique for the clinical examiner and its application as a diagnostic aid in Early Childhood Caries (ECC) detection among preschool children. A total of 119 children belonging to the age group of 36 to 71 months of both sexes, were recruited from A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore (Karnataka). PROP sensitivity test was carried out to determine the inherent genetic ability to taste a bitter or sweet substance. This study used simpler scaling method to find out genetic sensitivity to bitter taste; one who tasted bitter as taster and one who was not able to differentiate/tasted like paper as non-taster. A questionnaire was provided to evaluate their dietary habits and caries experience was recorded. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. In the total of 119 children the mean dmfs was definitely higher in non-taster children compared to tasters. The tasters had a mean dmfs value of 9.5120 (S.D. 7.0543) and non-tasters had a value of 7.7250 (S.D. 8.33147), which was statistically significant. The results suggested that there was increase in caries experience among the group of non-tasters as compared to tasters. Tasters tended to be sweet dislikers and non-tasters tended to be sweet likers. On the whole, tasters had a bad dentition as compared to non tasters. The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test) proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. The knowledge of a child's taste perception can help us in identifying the children who are at higher risk for

  1. Longitudinal study of caries progression in 2- and 3-year-old German children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchika, Vinay; Kokel, Claudia; Andreeva, Jana; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Kühnisch, Jan; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2016-08-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study in 2- and 3-year-old kindergarten children investigated lesion progression on different surfaces of primary teeth. The study was conducted between September 2008 and September 2010 on a sample of 400 children from the Kyffhäuser district (Thuringia, Germany). A calibrated investigator recorded (non)cavitated caries lesions according to World Health Organization (WHO), International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and Universal Visual Scoring System (UniViSS) criteria. Nonparametric methods and linear regression using a mixed-effects model with an unbalanced design were used for data analysis. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of noncavitated caries lesions during the 2-year period, with the highest chance for change on all surfaces compared to cavitated lesions. First visible sign lesions on occlusal surfaces had the highest chance for change (estimate 0.38), whereas established lesions revealed the highest chance for change on proximal (estimate 1.05) and smooth surfaces (estimate 0.62). Proximal lesions exhibited the greatest chance for change irrespective of severity level. Our study demonstrated that each type of carious lesion had different changing rates. Greater lesion severity correlated with greater chances to change and receive treatment. This information is crucial for dental practitioners in decision-making processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of occlusal caries lesions using fluorescence: correlation between histology and obtained results for Diagnodent and spectroscopy; Deteccao de lesoes de carie por fluorescencia: correlacao entre a histologia e os resultados obtidos com o Diagnodent e a espectroscopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha-Cabral, Renata Maciel

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and test a method to detect caries lesions in vivo and in vitro, using a portable spectrometer (PS); to analyze the performance of PS as well as the commercial device Diagnodent (Dd); correlate them with the gold standard, their transversal section areas and lesions depth and between themselves. 66 occlusal pre-molars sites were examined in vivo with Dd. Sequentially, fluorescence ({lambda}exc {approx} 657 nm) was collected by an optical fiber, conducted to PS and then analyzed as spectra, which were normalized and had calculated the Ratios of their Areas Under the Curves (RAUC) of carious and sound tissues. Experiments were conducted in vitro in the same sites. Gold Standard was obtained by polarized light microscopy. Pearson correlation was used to compare the devices with transversal section area, lesions depth and between themselves. The area under ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity as well as accuracy were calculated and verified with McNemar test. Dd and RAUC showed statistically significant correlation with gold standard (p < 0.01 for Dd and p < 0.05 for RAUC) and between themselves (r = 0,83 in vivo and r = 0,87 in vitro). Although it was significant, the devices showed low correlation with depth of lesions in vivo and in vitro (r = {approx} 0.43). The transversal section area of the lesion had no influence on readings in both devices. Dd showed higher sensitivity (0.76) than PS (0.60) in vivo (p < 0.05), though this fact was not able to improve its performance. In turn, PS showed higher sensitivity (0.88) than Dd (0.79) in vitro, but this difference was not significantly. The other parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between methods. PS showed positive correlation with Dd, equal correlation with lesions depth and higher ability of detecting the disease in vitro, what suggests that if accompanied with a conic and an angulated probe and a dedicated software, the PS method could be

  3. Dental caries vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Vidya S; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from c...

  4. Dental caries vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K M; Vidya, S K; Chandu, G N

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  5. Dental caries vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  6. [Lasers in dentistry 2. Diagnosis of dental caries with lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, E H; van der Veen, M H

    2002-04-01

    When enamel, dentine and substances in caries lesions are exposed to (laser) light of a specific colour, fluorescence may be induced. This principle is at the basis of two caries diagnostic methods, DIAGNOdent and Quantitative Laser (Light-induced) Fluorescence (QLF). Only the DIAGNOdent is commercially available. Bacterial porphyrins evoke fluorescence when illuminated with red light and the intensity of the emitted light is related to the size of the caries lesion. Published research indicates that the DIAGNOdent is particularly suitable for detecting small bacteria containing caries lesions, and to monitor such lesions. QLF is based on the fluorescence decrease in demineralised enamel upon exposure to blue-violet (laser) light. The intensity of the emitted light is related to the amount of mineral loss in the caries lesion. Using QLF the mineral loss in caries lesions can be measured quantitatively. Like the DIAGNOdent, QLF is particularly suitable to monitor caries lesions.

  7. Association of dental caries and salivary sIgA with tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpasand Hagh, L; Zakavi, F; Ansarifar, S; Ghasemzadeh, O; Solgi, G

    2013-06-01

    Salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) is said to play an important role in the immune response against dental caries. This study aimed to determine the salivary sIgA levels in healthy smokers and non-smokers, and its correlation with dental caries. A total of 70 healthy subjects were selected and classified into four groups according to dental caries and tobacco smoking habits: smoking with caries (Group 1, n = 15); smoking without caries (Group 2, n = 15); non-smoking with caries (Group 3, n = 15); and non-smoking without caries (Group 4, n = 25). Salivary sIgA was measured using ELISA. The fissure and proximal caries were examined clinically and radiographically. Caries status was determined according to the decay surface index. Smokers showed a higher number of caries and the lowest concentration of sIgA. The highest levels of sIgA were observed in non-smoking and caries-free subjects compared to caries-active smokers (123.2 ± 19.9 vs. 13.3 ± 4.1 μg/ml respectively, p caries in smokers. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Use of ICDAS-II, Fluorescence-Based Methods, and Radiography in Detection and Treatment Decision of Occlusal Caries Lesions: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jablonski-Momeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To use visual inspection (ICDAS-II, laser fluorescence (LF, fluorescence based camera (FC and radiographic examination (BW for detection of caries and for treatment decision. Methods. The occlusal sites of 84 extracted permanent teeth were examined using all methods and treatment decisions (preventive or operative care were recorded based on each method independently. For validation of the findings, fissures were opened with rotating instruments and clinical depth was determined as gold standard. Correlations (, sensitivity, specificity and AUC were calculated. McNemar test was used to show whether different methods led to significant changes in treatment decisions. Results. Highest correlation was found between ICDAS-II and FC ( 0.84, ICDAS-II and gold standard (0.82 and FC and gold standard (0.81. ICDAS-II provided the highest performance (AUC 1.0, followed by FC (0.95 and LF (0.88. The greatest difference was found for treatment planning of dentine lesions, where the use of FC (cut-offs according to the literature had the greatest agreement between operative treatment and dentine lesions, followed by use of ICDAS-II. Conclusion. ICDAS-II may have high potential for detection and treatment planning, and other devices, especially the fluorescence camera, can add substantial information to the visual examination, enabling examiners plan treatment more accurately.

  9. Comparison of cone beam computed tomography and digital intraoral radiography performance in the detection of artificially induced recurrent caries-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Melo, Saulo Leonardo; Belem, Manuella Dias Furtado; Prieto, Lucia Trazzi; Tabchoury, Cinthia Pereira Machado; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital radiography in the detection of artificial recurrent caries-like lesions under amalgam and composite fillings. The study included class II cavities in 30 molars that had been filled with amalgam. Fifteen of those molars had the restoration-enamel interface artificially demineralized. Phantoms were prepared, and CBCT images were acquired with 2 units in 3 voxel sizes (K9000, 0.076 mm; i-CAT, 0.2 mm and 0.4 mm). Intraoral radiographs were obtained with 3 systems (Digora, VistaScan, and RVG-6100). Amalgam fillings were then replaced by composite, and new images were obtained. Three examiners assessed all of the images. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated and verified through analysis of variance and the Tukey test. There were no significant differences in sensitivity and specificity when the same restorative material was present or when the restorative materials were compared with the imaging technique as a constant. As for accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curve, there were statistically significant differences when the 2 materials were compared, and there were differences in the amalgam group when the imaging modalities were compared. CBCT performed similarly to intraoral radiography in detecting demineralization under restorations. However, the voxel size and the type of restorative material influenced its performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  11. An in vitro comparison of diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and phosphor storage plate to detect simulated occlusal secondary caries under amalgam restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shahidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT with phosphor storage plate (PSP in detection of simulated occlusal secondary caries. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro descriptive-comparative study, a total of 80 slots of class I cavities were prepared on 80 extracted human premolars. Then, 40 teeth were randomly selected out of this sample and artificial carious lesions were created on these teeth by a round diamond bur no. 1/2. All 80 teeth were restored with amalgam fillings and radiographs were taken, both with PSP system and CBCT. All images were evaluated by three calibrated observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems. SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was adopted for statistical analysis. The difference between Az value of bitewing and CBCT methods were compared by pairwise comparison method. The inter- and intra-operator agreement was assessed by kappa analysis (P < 0.05. Results: The mean A z value for bitewings and CBCT was 0.903 and 0.994, respectively. Significant differences were found between PSP and CBCT (P = 0.010. The kappa value for inter-observer agreement was 0.68 and 0.76 for PSP and CBCT, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer agreement was 0.698 (observer 1, P = 0.000, 0.766 (observer 2, P = 0.000 and 0.716 (observer 3, P = 0.000 in PSP method, and 0.816 (observer 1, P = 0.000, 0.653 (observer 2, P = 0.000 and 0.744 (observer 3, P = 0.000 in CBCT method. Conclusion: This in vitro study, with a limited number of samples, showed that the New Tom VGI Flex CBCT system was more accurate than the PSP in detecting the simulated small secondary occlusal caries under amalgam restoration.

  12. The evaluation of effect of developer age in the detection of approximal caries using three speed dental x-ray films: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalli, Vijaylaxmi B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Basavaraddi, Shrinivas M

    2014-03-01

    Ever since the first radiograph was taken in 1895, radiographs have become an essential part of dental practice. Since radiation exposure for the patients is a major concern, it is important for us to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient and surrounding environment, without compromising the quality of image. Since improper film processing is one of the major causes of poor image quality, it is very important to test dental films under a variety of processing conditions. So this study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy between Kodak Ultraspeed, Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 Comfort films for the detection of approximal caries in fresh as well as in aged processing solution. Hundred extracted unrestored maxillary and mandibular teeth were aligned in a group of five teeth in each plaster model. Total of 20 plaster models were constructed and only 3 teeth in the middle were utilized for the study. The final sample consisted of 60 teeth in the study. The exposure time for Ultraspeed film was standardized at 0.5 seconds and for Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 films, the exposure time was 0.32 seconds. For each radiograph two blocks were used simulating bitewing radiograph. All 20 plaster blocks were exposed using three film types at standardized exposure timings with 30 radiographs each week. The procedure was repeated every week until 6 weeks. Radiographs were evaluated by an observer and assessed by following four point scale 0- sound tooth, 1- lesion in enamel, 2- lesion in amelodentinal junction, 3- dentinal lesion. Only distal surfaces were assessed. Thereafter all the teeth were subjected for histological study and actual depth of the lesion was recorded which acted as gold standard and this reading was subtracted in observer readings after radiographic examination. All data collected were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, paired and unpaired t-tests. Ektaspeed and Agfa films required less exposure compared to Ultraspeed film. With respect to

  13. A systematic approach to deep caries removal end points: the peripheral seal concept in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, David S; Magne, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present evidence-based protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of deep caries lesions in vital teeth. These protocols combine caries-detecting dye with anatomical and histologic knowledge to arrive at ideal caries removal end points for adhesive restorations. DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technology can also be used to confirm these end points. These ideal caries removal end points generate a peripheral seal zone that can support long-term biomimetic restorations. A review of the published literature since 1980 on caries, caries diagnosis, and caries treatments and their relationships to adhesive bonding techniques was carried out. Combining anatomical measurements and pathologic and histologic knowledge with caries-detecting dye and DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technologies can produce ideal caries removal end points for adhesive dentistry without exposing vital pulps.

  14. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quant...

  15. The Performance of ICDAS-II Using Low-Powered Magnification with Light-Emitting Diode Headlight and Alternating Current Impedance Spectroscopy Device for Detection of Occlusal Caries on Primary Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Ari; Timucin Ari

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of occlusal caries in children is challenging for the dentists, because of the morphology of pit and fissures. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the diagnostic performance of low-powered magnification with light-emitting diode headlight (LPMLED) using ICDAS-II criteria and AC Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS) device, on occlusal surfaces of primary molars. The occlusal surfaces of 18 extracted primary molars were examined blindly by two examiners. The teeth were sectio...

  16. Association between findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images and detection of a fracture in the proximal sesamoid bones of forelimbs obtained from cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E; Lee, Christina M; Anderson, Mark L; Barr, Bradd C; Read, Deryck H; Johnson, Bill J; Woods, Leslie W; Daft, Barbara M; Kinde, Hailu; Moore, Janet D; Farman, Cynthia A; Odani, Jenee S; Pesavento, Patricia A; Uzal, Francisco A; Case, James T; Ardans, Alex A

    2006-05-01

    To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images. Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds. Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of chi2 and logistic regression techniques. Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively. Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

  17. Anti-Sweep Jamming Design and Implementation Using Multi-Channel Harmonic Timing Sequence Detection for Short-Range FMCW Proximity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW proximity sensors are widely used. However, they suffer from a serious sweep jamming problem, which significantly reduces the ranging performance. To improve its anti-jamming capability, this paper analyzed the response mechanism of a proximity sensor with the existence of real target echo signals and sweep jamming, respectively. Then, a multi-channel harmonic timing sequence detection method, using the spectrum components’ distribution difference between the real echo signals and sweep jamming, is proposed. Moreover, a novel fast Fourier transform (FFT-based implementation was employed to extract multi-channel harmonic information. Compared with the traditional band-pass filter (BPF implementation, this novel realization scheme only computes FFT once, in each transmission cycle, which significantly reduced hardware resource consumption and improved the real-time performance of the proximity sensors. The proposed method was implemented and proved to be feasible through the numerical simulations and prototype experiments. The results showed that the proximity sensor utilizing the proposed method had better anti-sweep jamming capability and ranging performance.

  18. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  19. The effect of exposure reduction on the diagnosis of caries: An ex vivo comparison of film and a CMOS digital imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Geist

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effect on caries diagnosis of exposure reduction on intraoral digital radiographs compared with optimally exposed film images. Materials and Methods: F-speed film radiographs of 61 extracted molars and premolars were made with optimal exposure parameters. The teeth were radiographed using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS digital system with exposures equal to 50%, 30%, 20%, 10%, and 5% of the film exposure. Five observers, who were permitted to adjust brightness and contrast on the digital images, scored the proximal and occlusal surfaces for the presence of caries using a 5-point confidence scale. Areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves represented accuracy of caries detection. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated. The significance level was P = 0.05. Results: All digital images resulted in lower diagnostic accuracy than film images for all lesions (P ≤ 0.036 and for caries in enamel only (P ≤ 0.030. With dentin caries, there were no significant differences between film and any digital radiographs (P ≥ 0.065 except the 5% exposures (P ≤ 0.034. Digital radiographs of 5% of the exposure of film were significantly poorer than all other exposure categories (P ≤ 0.014 except for the 10% exposures for accuracy for all lesion sizes and for dentin lesions only. Exposures at 10% and 20% resulted in lower sensitivity scores for enamel caries, while 50% exposures were associated with the poorest specificity. Conclusions: Exposures of 30% of optimal F-speed film exposure settings appear to balance acceptable levels of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for caries detection. Observer-controlled enhancements were ineffective at extremely high and low exposures.

  20. Vroegdiagnostiek van cariës

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijp, A.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of carious lesions enables the dental p rofessional to interfere in caries development. Visual inspection in combination with bitewing radiographs p erformed better than new quantitative methods in detecting early non-cavitated carious lesions. Once a lesion has been detected

  1. INJURIES OF THE SAGITTAL GROOVE OF THE PROXIMAL PHALANX IN WARMBLOOD HORSES DETECTED WITH LOW-FIELD MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: 19 CASES (2007-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sarah J; Werpy, Natasha M; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D

    2017-05-01

    Sagittal groove injuries of the proximal phalanx are an important cause of lameness in performance horses. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe standing low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of these injuries in a group of Warmblood horses. Horses with an MRI diagnosis of sagittal groove injuries involving the proximal phalanx and that had follow-up MRI and clinical outcome information were included. Findings from clinical examinations, diagnostic tests, and other imaging modalities were recorded. All MRI studies were retrieved for re-evaluation by an experienced, board-certified veterinary radiologist. A total of 19 horses met inclusion criteria. All horses had MRI lesions consistent with unilateral or bilateral sagittal groove injuries of the proximal phalanx and abnormal mineralization of the sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone. Fifteen horses (79%) had concurrent osteoarthritis of the affected metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint. Eighteen horses received conservative therapy and all horses still had osseous abnormalities detected at the time of follow-up MRI. Thirteen horses (68.5%) were still lame at the time of follow-up, whereas the other six horses (31.5%) had become sound and returned to the previous level of exercise. Findings indicated that, for mature Warmblood horses, acute or chronic injuries of the sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx may have variable standing low-field MRI characteristics. Based on this sample of 19 horses, findings also indicated that the prognosis for performance soundness in horses diagnosed with sagittal groove injury of the proximal phalanx and concurrent osteoarthritis is poor. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Differences between reported and actual restored caries lesion depths: results from The Dental PBRN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, D B; Gordan, V V; Fellows, J L; Spurlock, N L; Bauer, M R; Litaker, M S; Gilbert, G H

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) quantify the discordance between the caries lesion depth at which dentists restored initial lesions during a clinical study ("actual depth") and the lesion depth that they reported during a hypothetical clinical scenario ("reported depth"); (2) test the hypothesis that certain practitioner, practice, patient, and caries lesion characteristics are significantly associated with this discordance. Practitioner-investigators who perform restorative dentistry in their practices completed an enrollment questionnaire and participated in 2 consecutive studies on caries diagnosis and treatment. The first study was a survey asking about caries treatment. The second study collected data on restorations placed in routine clinical practice due to caries in patients over 19 years of age on occlusal surfaces only or proximal surfaces only. We report results on 2,691 restorations placed by 205 dentists in 1,930 patients with complete data. Discordance between actual depth and reported depth occurred in only about 2% of the restorations done due to proximal caries, but about 49% of the restorations done due to occlusal caries. Practice type, restorative material used and the diagnostic methods used were significantly associated with discordance. Dentists frequently restored occlusal caries at a shallower depth as compared to their reported depth, but the discordance was very small for proximal lesions. Discordance for occlusal caries was more common when radiographs were not taken or if a resin restoration was placed.

  3. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions...... in a low-caries population. METHODS: Each of four examiners independently examined preselected contacting interproximal surfaces in 53 dental students aged 20-37 years using a visual-tactile examination and bitewing radiography. The visual-tactile examination distinguished between noncavitated...

  4. Health promotion and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated i