Sample records for proximal caccc box

  1. Influence of proximal box elevation on bond strength of composite inlays. (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Dayana; Cura, María; Ceballos, Laura; Fuentes, Mª Victoria


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of proximal box elevation on microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of composite inlays to the proximal box floor, using either a total-etch or a self-adhesive resin cement. Twenty-five human molars were selected, and a class II OM (inlay) cavity preparation was performed in each tooth. Cavities were randomly assigned into four experimental groups, according to the location of the proximal cervical margin (located 1 mm below cementoenamel junction (CEJ), or with proximal box elevation with composite resin) and the resin cement used for luting (a total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC or a self-adhesive resin cement G-Cem). After 1-week water storage, samples were subjected to mTBS test. Results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p box elevation improved the bond strength of composite inlays for both resin cements. However, only for G-Cem was this improvement statistically significant. The proximal box elevation improved the bond strength attained by G-Cem resin cement. For RelyX ARC, the position of the cervical margin did not affect composite inlays bond strength. Proximal box elevation does not decline bond strength of composite inlays to the proximal floor when a total-etch or a self-adhesive resin cement is used.

  2. Amalgam matrix for class II and class V preparations connected at the proximal box. (United States)

    Mamoun, John S; Ahmed, Mairaj K


    The authors present a technique for placing and reinforcing an amalgam matrix around combined Class II and Class V preparations that connect at the proximal box. First, the dentist fills the Class V aspect of the preparation, using a temporary resin-based composite wall at the line angle to support amalgam condensation. The dentist then removes the wall and places a matrix band around the tooth, internally reinforcing the band with smaller pieces of matrix band and resin-saturated cotton balls that are light-polymerized and externally reinforcing the band with fast-polymerizing vinyl polysiloxane. Finally, the dentist condenses the line angle amalgam through the proximal box and condenses the proximal box and occlusal aspects. For connected Class II and Class V preparations, this matrix technique permits controlled amalgam condensation, even at the line angle aspect, where it is difficult to condense amalgam without voids or microleakage. This technique allows dentists to provide a stable, inexpensive direct restoration for teeth with connected Class II and Class V preparations, providing an alternative for patients who do not wish to have crowns placed.

  3. Zinc ions upregulate the hormone gastrin via an E-box motif in the proximal gastrin promoter. (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Kovac, Suzana; Chang, Mike; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S; Patel, Oneel


    Gastrin and its precursors act as growth factors for the normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal mucosa. As the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride upregulates the gastrin gene, the effect of other metal ions on gastrin promoter activity was investigated. Gastrin mRNA was measured by real-time PCR, gastrin peptides by RIA, and gastrin promoter activity by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Exposure to Zn(2)(+) ions increased gastrin mRNA concentrations in the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum stimulation of 55 ± 14-fold at 100 μM (Pgastrin induction by Zn(2)(+). Deletional mutation of the gastrin promoter identified an 11 bp DNA sequence, which contained an E-box motif, as necessary for Zn(2)(+)-dependent gastrin induction. The fact that E-box binding transcription factors play a crucial role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), together with our observation that Zn(2)(+) ions upregulate the gastrin gene in AGS cells by an E-box-dependent mechanism, suggests that Zn(2)(+) ions may induce an EMT, and that gastrin may be involved in the transition.

  4. School in a Box in Low Resource Primary School in Mozambique: Practical Application of Zone of Proximal Development in Teacher Training with Mobile Technology (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Linda; Seabra, N. Miguel


    The new Sustainable Development Goals call for quality education for all. This study aims to examine the role of mobile educational technology, through the School in a Box intervention, particularly in supporting teachers skills in achieving quality education, in the context of a public primary school in Mozambique. Quality education is examined…

  5. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff


    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  6. Bento Boxes (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy


    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  7. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  8. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  9. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.


    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...... that for precision docking of 9 DoF boxes, some of the proposed techniques are significantly better than ones with explicit rotation and scaling. Another interesting result is that the number of DoF simultaneously controlled by the user significantly influences the precision of the docking....

  10. Math in the Box (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.


    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  12. BoxPlot++


    Azmeh, Zeina; Hamoui, Fady; Huchard, Marianne


    We propose the BoxPlot++ as an extension of Tukey's boxplot. We improve the resulting data values distribution by removing the repeated values and by calculating distances between the points and the nearest median.

  13. Boxes and Shelves


    Hughes, Dean


    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  14. Freedom to box. (United States)

    Warburton, N


    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom.

  15. Cable Tester Box (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.


    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  16. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  17. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W


    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  18. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr


    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  19. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  20. Teaching with Box Tops. (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth


    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  1. Many-box locality (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqian; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gao, Fei; Scarani, Valerio


    There is an ongoing search for a physical or operational definition for quantum mechanics. Several informational principles have been proposed which are satisfied by a theory less restrictive than quantum mechanics. Here, we introduce the principle of "many-box locality," which is a refined version of the previously proposed "macroscopic locality." These principles are based on coarse graining the statistics of several copies of a given box. The set of behaviors satisfying many-box locality for N boxes is denoted LNM B. We study these sets in the bipartite scenario with two binary measurements, in relation with the sets Q and Q1 +A B of quantum and "almost quantum" correlations, respectively. We find that the LNM B sets are, in general, not convex. For unbiased marginals, by working in the Fourier space we can prove analytically that LNM B⊈Q for any finite N , while L∞M B=Q . Then, with suitably developed numerical tools, we find an example of a point that belongs to L16M B but not to Q1 +A B. Among the problems that remain open is whether Q ⊂L∞M B .

  2. IN-A-BOX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Claude Elwood Shannon. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  3. Mystery Box Marvels (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina


    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  4. Operant-Box Sociology (United States)

    Dimond, Stuart J.


    Sketches a model which considers society a teacher which instructs like an operant box..." The author contends that the family, the school, the play group, the adolescent gang, the office, the prison, the mental hospital, each reward, instruct and control the individual who learns by operant means what the institution teaches." (Author/AL)

  5. Hermit Points on a Box (United States)

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah


    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  6. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration


    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  7. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge


    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  8. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang


    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study...... the cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression...... of the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box...

  9. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box (United States)

    James, Jerry


    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  10. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  11. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  12. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  13. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture. (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted


    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  14. Being Creative "Inside the Box" (United States)

    Tomascoff, Rocky


    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  15. Box-and-Whisker Plots. (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.


    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  16. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  17. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  18. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  19. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  20. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  1. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen


    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  2. Two-dimensional box plot


    Phattrawan Tongkumchum


    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Kahrović


    Full Text Available Hit directly, giving any impact maximum muscle strength is skill, and it is neces- sary to the exercise and learning to make it perfect. Training begins with oral statement, so that students get to know with the techni- que that works. After oral exposure, it is necessary to create a good notion on technology that is adopted. The best way for the creation of good notion is a good demonstration. In direct training kicks in the box, you need patience and gradualness and there- fore uses a large number of additional exercises. In their work with beginners, in the first class, individual elements of technology, and also direct blow, it is necessary to separate the parts and run them on multiple commands, to later come to the confluence in one command. Direct wounds, with left and right hand, can be run from the towns, on the head and body, from the movement, to step forward, step back and step aside, the remedy to the left and right side. Left direct is taking out from a running protrusion hands, but kick, which is a pro- duct of the system, ankle-knee-pelvis and shoulder forward horizontaly. Set at the time of stripes, body weight over the left leg. Right direct from the place, starting ekscentrical reflecsive impuls of a extensor muscle in ankle, knee and joint of a hip.This kind of a sud- den movement is running simultaneously with the rotation of the body around vertical (longitudinal axis, with the transfer body weight on the left leg. Further movement to the hand which serves as a lever, which is transmitted through the power stroke

  4. Box Plots: Basic and Advanced. (United States)

    Mullenex, James L.


    Describes a five-number summary which is a display of the minimum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum value. Indicates how to draw box plots as graphical representations of a five-number summary. (YP)

  5. Implementace hry Dots and Boxes


    Balko, Martin


    Title: Dots and Boxes implementation Author: Martin Balko Department: Department of Applied Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Ondřej Pangrác, Ph.D. Supervisor's email address: Abstract: The presented thesis deals with the analysis of a popular logical game Dots and Boxes and its generalized versions. It focuses on the different methods and algorithms of opponent's artificial intelligence. The result of the work is implementation of the generalized version of this game in w...

  6. Thinking Outside the Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)


    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the

  7. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding


    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T E


    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  8. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution box...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls. ...

  10. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  11. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  12. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  13. Case report A Rare Cause of Sub-Acute Proximal Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A Rare Cause of Sub-Acute Proximal Intestinal Obstruction Due to Annular Pancreas. Weledji EP, Ngowe M, Mokake M. Department of Surgery, Regional Hospital Buea, Cameroon. Correspondence to: E P Weledji, P.O Box 126, Limbe, Cameroon. Summary. Background: Annular pancreas is a ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  15. Expo-Box Contact Us (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  16. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee


    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  17. The Bird Box Survey Project (United States)

    Willis, Patrick


    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  18. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  19. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (G...S2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS2; Box

  20. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim


    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  1. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  2. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  3. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH


    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  4. An Accelerated Proximal Gradient Algorithm for Singly Linearly Constrained Quadratic Programs with Box Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congying Han


    is proved that the new algorithm can terminate at an ε-optimal solution within O(1/ε iterations. Moreover, no line search is needed in this algorithm, and the global convergence can be proved under mild conditions. Numerical results are reported for solving quadratic programs arising from the training of support vector machines, which show that the new algorithm is efficient.

  5. Lessons from the light-cone box

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, G


    Working in the noncovariant light-cone gauge, we discuss the explicit computation of the 1PI four-point function ("box diagram") in Yang- Mills theory. The complete box diagram which consists of 16 box subdiagrams, 8 lynx subdiagrams and 4 fish subdiagrams, yields both local and nonlocal UV divergent terms. The nonlocal terms are consistent with gauge symmetry and correspond to a nonlocal renormalization of the wave function. (14 refs).

  6. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini


    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  9. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD... Systems § 1192.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far forward as practicable and...

  10. Magnetorotational dynamo action in the shearing box (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav


    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disc plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale non-zero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

  11. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.


    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can

  12. An effective box trap for capturing lynx (United States)

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires; Thomas W. Parker


    We designed a box trap for capturing lynx (Lynx lynx) that is lightweight, safe, effective, and less expensive than many commercial models. It can be constructed in approximately 3-4 hours from readily available materials. We used this trap to capture 40 lynx 89 times (96% of lynx entering traps) and observed no trapping related injuries. We compare our box...

  13. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang


    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  14. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  15. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.


    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  16. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox...

  17. North American box turtles: A natural history (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth


    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  18. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  20. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.


    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  2. [Present views on boxing--Henner's legacy]. (United States)

    Tichý, J


    Fifty years ago academician Henner formulated clearly the negative view of neurologists on boxing as practised in his time. It was his merit that a protective helmet was introduced, many of his demands concerning the regime after a KO and the importance of medical examinations were no yet adequately appreciated. At the opportunity of the 100th anniversary of Henner's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the Clinic he founded in the premises of saint Catherine the author discusses contemporary views on boxing, the risk of repeated injuries for the development of encephalopathia pugilistica and their relationship to Alzheimer's disease. Contemporary boxing is a spectacle which is a continuation of historical fights of gladiators. If the main objective is to hurt the adversary, this activity does not deserve the name of "sport" Sport should promote and maintain physical and mental health which is not the case in professional boxing.

  3. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... represent a stochastic state space model. In the grey box model the total noise is divided into a measurement noise and a process noise. The process noise is due to model approximations, undiscovered input and uncertainties in the input series. Estimates of the process noise can be used to highlight...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  4. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten


    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  5. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  6. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail


    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of January...

  8. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.


    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  9. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  10. Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish


    Kjellberg, Tobias; Palmér, Tobias; Oskarsson, Magnus; Åström, Karl


    In this paper we investigate a system for tracking the motion of box jellyfish tripedalia cystophora in a special test setup. The goal is to measure the motor response of the animal given certain visual stimuli. The approach is based on tracking the special sensory structures – the rhopalia – of the box jellyfish from high-speed video sequences. We have focused on a realtime system with simple building blocks in our system. However, using a combination of simple intensity...

  11. Box Lesion with Single Radiofrequency Clamp. (United States)

    Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Hunter, Steven


    We introduce a maneuver to perform the box lesion as a part of Cox maze IV procedure with single radiofrequency clamp. The maneuver entails engaging the right pulmonary veins with the clamp, then advancing the clamp jaws underneath the superior vena cava through the transverse sinus to include the roof and the left pulmonary veins in the clamp. We regularly use this technique for box lesion with desirable transmurality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Autoantibodies to box A of high mobility group box 1 in systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Schaper, F; de Leeuw, K; Horst, G; Maas, F; Bootsma, H; Heeringa, P; Limburg, P C; Westra, J


    Autoantibodies to nuclear structures are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including autoantibodies to nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 consists of three separate domains: box A, box B and an acidic tail. Recombinant box A acts as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and might be an interesting treatment option in SLE. However, antibodies to box A might interfere. Therefore, levels of anti-box A were examined in SLE patients in association with disease activity and clinical parameters. Serum anti-box A was measured in 86 SLE patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Serum samples of 28 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included as disease controls. Anti-HMGB1 and anti-box B levels were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during quiescent disease [SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) ≤ 4, n = 47] and active disease (SLEDAI ≥ 5, n = 39). Anti-box A levels in active SLE patients were higher compared to quiescent patients, and were increased significantly compared to HC and disease controls. Anti-box A levels correlated positively with SLEDAI and anti-dsDNA levels and negatively with complement C3 levels. Increased levels of anti-box A antibodies were present in the majority of patients with nephritic (73%) and non-nephritic exacerbations (71%). Antibodies to the box A domain of HMGB1 might be an interesting new biomarker, as these had a high specificity for SLE and were associated with disease activity. Longitudinal studies should be performed to evaluate whether these antibodies perform better in predicting an exacerbation, especially non-nephritic exacerbations. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  14. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  16. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping. (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong


    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  17. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S


    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  18. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.


    hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  19. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First Description of a β-Thalassemia Mutation, -86 (C > G) (HBB: c.-136C > G), in a Chinese Family. (United States)

    He, Sheng; Qin, Qian; Yi, Shang; Zhou, Wanjun; Deng, Jianping; Zheng, Chenguang; Chen, Biyan


    We present the first description of a Chinese family with a β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutation -86 (C > G) (HBB: c.-136C > G). This mutation changes the conserved promoter sequence within the proximal CACCC box of the β-globin gene that leads to a phenotype of β+-thal. The β-globin haplotype analysis revealed that the -86 mutation in our case was linked with haplotype I [+ - - - - + +]. This haplotype was commonly found both in the β-thal mutation and the βA gene. Our results suggest that the -86 mutation possibly does not have a distinct origin.

  1. Magnetic Interference Estimation on HIE-ISOLDE’s Beam Transfer Lines Diagnostic Box Stepper Motors’ Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Farantatos, P


    The aim of the HIE-ISOLDE project is to expand the physics programme compared to that of REX-ISOLDE. In total, 13 Diagnostic Boxes shall be installed in close proximity to the horizontal/vertical corrector magnets (steerers).The steerers’ shall have a maximum integrated magnetic field of 9.1 Tmm and their stray magnetic field could potentially cause perturbations to the nominal operation of the Diagnostic Boxes’ Stepper Motors due to magnetic interference. In the present report, the maximum stray magnetic field interference numerical calculation method in the volume occupied by the stepper motors is presented, followed by estimation results.

  2. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  3. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.


    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  4. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail:


    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  5. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  6. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio


    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...

  7. Virtualisointi VirtualBox-ohjelman avulla


    Pakka, Markku


    Tutkielmassani käsittelen aluksi palvelimia ja niiden tietoturvaa yleisesti, koska palvelinten tietoturva on tärkeää virtualisoitujen käyttöjärjestelmien turvallisuuden ja toimivuuden kannalta. Sen jälkeen siirryn käsittelemään virtualisointia ja sen tulevaisuutta. Seuraavaksi tutkin VirtualBox-ohjelmaa. Aluksi asennan VirtualBox-ohjelman Windows Vista-koneelle. Sen jälkeen käsittelen VirtualBoxin käyttöliittymää ja asennan Ubuntun virtuaalikäyttöjärjestelmäksi VirtualBoxin avulla. ...

  8. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box. (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C


    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  9. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  10. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  11. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels


    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  12. Expo-Box: Submit Tool Information (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  13. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals. (United States)

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.


    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  14. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri


    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  15. Comparing Box Plot Distributions: A Teacher's Reasoning (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine


    Drawing conclusions from the comparison of datasets using informal statistical inference is a challenging task since the nature and type of reasoning expected is not fully understood. In this paper a secondary teacher's reasoning from the comparison of box plot distributions during the teaching of a Year 11 (15-year-old) class is analyzed. From…

  16. Activities: Exploring Data with Box Plots. (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth H.


    This set of activity sheets requires students to organize and display data with a box-and-whiskers graph. Students use the plot as a summary display to detect patterns and to highlight the important features of the data for purposes of comparison. (PK)

  17. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua


      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...

  18. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  19. The black box of a mysterious disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, F.; Schouten, A.; De Vlugt, E.; Van der Sanden, M.


    Red and swollen limbs that feel hot or cold, a numb feeling, lack of mobility, and worst of all, pain. These are symptoms of post-traumatic dystrophy (PD). Researchers from various disciplines are working together in the TREND research consortium to open the black box of this mysterious disorder.

  20. Minimal Solutions to the Box Problem (United States)

    Chuang, Jer-Chin


    The "box problem" from introductory calculus seeks to maximize the volume of a tray formed by folding a strictly rectangular sheet from which identical squares have been cut from each corner. In posing such questions, one would like to choose integral side-lengths for the sheet so that the excised squares have rational or integral side-length.…

  1. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders (United States)


    The adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beam bridge is the bridge of choice for short and short-to-medium span bridges. This choice is because of the ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal, and high torsional sti...

  2. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  3. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  4. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  5. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  6. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  7. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  8. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  9. The clinicopathological significance of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yang, Zhulin; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Ziru; Miao, Xiongying; Li, Daiqiang; Zou, Qiong; Yuan, Yuan


    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, and the biomarkers for the early diagnosis, targeting therapy, and prognosis are still not clinically available. This study investigated the expression of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a proteins in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor tissues and pancreatic tissues with and without benign lesions using immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that the positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression were significantly lower in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors compared to peritumoral tissues, benign pancreatic tissues, and normal pancreatic tissues (p box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression exhibited dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia. The positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression were significantly lower in cases with tumor mass >5 cm, lymph node metastasis, invasion to surrounding tissues and organs, and tumor-node-metastasis III + IV stage disease compared to cases with tumor mass ⩽5 cm (p box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression survived significantly shorter than patients with positive forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression (p = 0.000). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that negative forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression was an independent poor prognosis factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. The area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.642 for forkhead box P1 (95% confidence interval: 0.553-0.730) and 0.655 for forkhead box O3a (95% confidence interval: 0.6568-0.742). Loss of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression is associated with carcinogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

  10. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination? (United States)

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J


    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (Pcontamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (Pcontamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  11. HMG-box sequences from microbats homologous to the human SOX30 HMG-box. (United States)

    Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Barragán, M J; Sánchez, A


    SOX genes are a family of genes that encode for proteins which are characterised by the presence of a HMG-domain related to that of the mammalian sex-determining gene (SRY). By definition, the DNA binding domain of SOX genes is at least 50% identical to the 79 amino acid HMG domain of the SRY gene. We report here two HMG-box sequences from two microbat species (R. ferrumequinum and P. Pipistrellus) which were PCR amplified using a primer pair specific to the mouse Sry HMG-box. The high percentage of identity of this sequences with the human and mouse SOX30 HMG-box suggests that they are the SOX30 HMG-box for these two bat species.

  12. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation


    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin


    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is e...

  13. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephanie Lem; Patrick Onghena; Lieven Verschaffel; Wim Van Dooren


    Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density...

  14. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  15. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft


    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji


    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  16. Box-Cox symmetric distributions and applications to nutritional data


    Ferrari, Silvia L. P.; Fumes, Giovana


    We introduce the Box-Cox symmetric class of distributions, which is useful for modeling positively skewed, possibly heavy-tailed, data. The new class of distributions includes the Box-Cox t, Box-Cox Cole-Gree, Box-Cox power exponential distributions, and the class of the log-symmetric distributions as special cases. It provides easy parameter interpretation, which makes it convenient for regression modeling purposes. Additionally, it provides enough flexibility to handle outliers. The usefuln...

  17. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  18. Transformative Environmental Education: Stepping Outside the Curriculum Box (United States)

    Johnston, Julie


    Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students' generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage, creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the…

  19. 76 FR 41411 - Group E Post Office Box Service (United States)


    ... 111 Group E Post Office Box Service AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... administration for Group E (free) Post Office\\TM\\ (PO) box service. DATES: Effective Date: September 6, 2011. FOR... facilitate uniform administration for Group E (free) PO Box\\TM\\ service. The Postal Service received several...

  20. 75 FR 71642 - Group E Post Office Box Service (United States)


    ... 111 Group E Post Office Box Service AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... administration for Group E (free) Post Office\\TM\\ (PO) Box service. DATES: We must receive your comments on or..., Washington, DC between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday. E-mail comments concerning the proposed box...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  2. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  3. 31 CFR 500.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 500... Definitions § 500.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  4. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement...

  5. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan


    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  6. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  7. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  8. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter


    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  9. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom


    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  10. Design and Optimize an Automatic Medicine Box


    Lai, Lin; Wu, Shengmin


    Our work is to design an automatic and intelligent medicine box to help most people to take the medicine easily, especially for the arthritis, the elderly, the forgetful people and the kids. First, five different structures have been designed by CAD Inventor software. One of them, which can be carried out the most easily in reality, has been chosen to complete with a dynamic system. Considering the characteristic of medicine, there are two schemes in the structure designs are ideal. Several c...

  11. Can the box plot be improved?


    Chamnein Choonpradub; Don McNeil


    Invented by Spear in 1952 and popularized by Tukey in 1977, the box plot is widely used for displaying and comparing samples of continuous observations. Despite its popularity, it is less effective for showing shape behaviour of distributions, particularly bimodality. Using robust estimators of data skewness and kurtosis to classify the distribution into categories, we suggest a simple enhancement for indicating bimodality, central peakedness, and skewness. We also suggest a new graphical met...

  12. The Spectra of Des S-Boxes (United States)


    Properties of Cayley Graphs Associated with S-Box 8 BFs. . . . . 132 Table 6.51 The DES Functions with Ramanujan Cayley Graphs. . . . . . . . 136 Table...interesting case occurs when this inequality is not satisfied. Alexander Lubotzky et al. [89] coined the term Ramanujan graph for an r-regular graph in which...the largest eigenvalue other than λn = r is less than or equal to the Alon-Boppana bound. Ramanujan graphs are named after Indian mathematician

  13. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald


    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  14. Interferometric investigation of convection in plexiglas boxes (United States)

    Koster, J. N.


    Real-time holographic interferometry is used to study free convection in cavities heated from below and bounded by Plexiglas windows. Advantages and shortcomings of this visualization technique applied to such Plexiglas boxes are discussed. As Plexiglas has a high temperature-dependent refractive index, temperature fields in the windows and the fluid layer are visualized. These visualizations furnished proof of a pronounced thermal influence of the walls on the flow pattern based on what we call “thermal memory” of Plexiglas.

  15. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department


    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  16. PCB-Based Break-Out Box (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.


    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  17. Box fractal dimension in speckle images (United States)

    Rabal, Héctor; Grumel, Eduardo; Cap, Nelly; Buffarini, Leandro; Trivi, Marcelo


    In this paper, we propose a generalization of the box fractal dimension in images by considering the curve obtained from its value as a function of the binarization threshold. This curve can be used to describe speckle patterns. We show some examples of both objective simulated and experimental and subjective speckle in some cases of interest. The concept can be extended for all types of images.

  18. The in vivo dissection of direct RFX-target gene promoters in C. elegans reveals a novel cis-regulatory element, the C-box. (United States)

    Burghoorn, Jan; Piasecki, Brian P; Crona, Filip; Phirke, Prasad; Jeppsson, Kristian E; Swoboda, Peter


    At the core of the primary transcriptional network regulating ciliary gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons is the RFX/DAF-19 transcription factor, which binds and thereby positively regulates 13-15 bp X-box promoter motifs found in the cis-regulatory regions of many ciliary genes. However, the variable expression of direct RFX-target genes in various sets of ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs) occurs through as of yet uncharacterized mechanisms. In this study the cis-regulatory regions of 41 direct RFX-target genes are compared using in vivo genetic analyses and computational comparisons of orthologous nematode sequences. We find that neither the proximity to the translational start site nor the exact sequence composition of the X-box promoter motif of the respective ciliary gene can explain the variation in expression patterns observed among different direct RFX-target genes. Instead, a novel enhancer element appears to co-regulate ciliary genes in a DAF-19 dependent manner. This cytosine- and thymidine-rich sequence, the C-box, was found in the cis-regulatory regions in close proximity to the respective X-box motif for 84% of the most broadly expressed direct RFX-target genes sampled in this study. Molecular characterization confirmed that these 8-11 bp C-box sequences act as strong enhancer elements for direct RFX-target genes. An artificial promoter containing only an X-box promoter motif and two of the C-box enhancer elements was able to drive strong expression of a GFP reporter construct in many C. elegans CSNs. These data provide a much-improved understanding of how direct RFX-target genes are differentially regulated in C. elegans and will provide a molecular model for uncovering the transcriptional network mediating ciliary gene expression in animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  20. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  1. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  2. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  4. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  5. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  6. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  7. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  8. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  9. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll. (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  10. Creb and Sp/Krüppel response elements cooperate to control rat TRH gene transcription in response to cAMP. (United States)

    Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Pérez-Maldonado, Adrián; Osuna, Joel; Barrera, Benito; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia


    Expression of hypophysiotropic TRH, that controls thyroid axis activity, is increased by cold exposure; this effect is mimicked in rat hypothalamic cells incubated with norepinephrine or cAMP analogs. TRH proximal promoter contains three putative CRE: Site-4 or CRE-1 that overlaps an element recognized by thyroid hormone receptors, CRE-2 with adjacent sequences GC box or CACCC recognized by Sp/Krüppel factors (extended CRE-2), and AP-1 sites flanking a GRE(1/2). To evaluate the role of each element in the cAMP response, these sites were mutated or deleted in rat TRH promoter linked to luciferase gene (TRH-luc) and co-transfected with β-gal expression vector in various cell lines; C6 cells gave the highest response to forskolin. Basal activity was most affected by mutations or deletion of CRE-2 site, or CACCC (50-75% of wild type-WT). Forskolin-induced 3× stimulation in WT which decreased 25% with CRE-1 or AP-1 deletions, but 50% when CRE-2 or its 5' adjacent GC box was altered. SH-SY5Y cells co-transfected with CREB-expression vector increased dB-cAMP response in the wild type but not in the CRE-2 mutated plasmid; cotransfecting CREB-A (a dominant negative expression vector) strongly diminished basal or cAMP response. Primary cultures of hypothalamic cells transfected with plasmids containing deletions of CRE-1, CRE-2, or extended CRE-2 failed to respond to forskolin when CRE-2 was modified. These results corroborate the CRE-2 site as the main cAMP-response element of rat TRH promoter, not exclusive of transcription factors of hypothalamic cells, and stress the relevance of adjacent Sp-1 sites, important mediators of some metabolic hormones. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  12. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are as...

  13. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio


    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... and possibly modify the adaptation requirements, models and programs of an autonomic system....

  14. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72 (United States)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.


    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  15. Can the box plot be improved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamnein Choonpradub


    Full Text Available Invented by Spear in 1952 and popularized by Tukey in 1977, the box plot is widely used for displaying and comparing samples of continuous observations. Despite its popularity, it is less effective for showing shape behaviour of distributions, particularly bimodality. Using robust estimators of data skewness and kurtosis to classify the distribution into categories, we suggest a simple enhancement for indicating bimodality, central peakedness, and skewness. We also suggest a new graphical method for displaying confidence intervals when comparing several samples of continuous data.

  16. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros


    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  17. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V


    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  18. Do Biomimetic Students Think Outside the Box?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker


    Biomimetics is a recognized method in ideation for getting access to new and – for the designer – novel knowledge, which hopefully will result in more novel and useful products. But do designers actually find new knowledge, i.e. think outside the box or do they stick to well-known biological...... phenomena? If they concentrate on animals and plants, which they beforehand have knowledge about, it could be expected that solutions will remind of what they would have found without using biomimetics. To investigate this question, the empirical results from a university course in biomimetics have been...

  19. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping


    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  20. A (72, 36; 15) box code (United States)

    Solomon, G.


    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  1. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  2. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  3. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  4. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  5. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  6. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie


    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  7. The Design of the Orthogonal Box Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Alfred; /Fermilab


    The muon collider and/or the neutrino factory require large accelerating electric field gradients immersed in large (3 to 6 T) solenoidal magnetic fields for ionization cooling of muon beams. Our original vacuum breakdown study demonstrated a loss of achievable peak accelerating gradient in solenoidal magnetic fields by a factor 2 or greater. The Muon Collaboration has developed a theory of a method to suppress high electric field breakdown in vacuum cavities needed for a Muon collider or neutrino factory. It has been shown in our studies and by others that high gradient electric field emitted electrons (dark current) are the primary cause of breakdown. A DC magnetic field orthogonal to the RF electric accelerating field prevents dark current high field emitted electrons from traveling across the accelerating gap and then will prevent breakdown. We have decided to test this theory by building a special cavity in the shape of vacuum box. Figure 1 is a simplified view of the cavity design. The design is based on an 805 MHz WR975 waveguide cavity resonating in the TE{sub 101} mode. For the TE{sub 101} mode the resonant frequency f{sub 0} is given by the relationship f{sub 0} = c[(I/a){sup 2} + (m/b){sup 2} + (n/d){sup 2}]{sup 0.5}/2 where a and d are the lengths of the base sides and b is the height of the box in MKS units and c is the velocity of light.

  8. Research of intelligent bus coin box (United States)

    Xin, Shihao


    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  9. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)


    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  10. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser (United States)

    Reinhardt, V.


    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  11. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  12. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta


    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  13. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin


    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible presence of colour vision in box jellyfish has previously been investigated using behavioural......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...

  14. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  15. Deep Cropping via Attention Box Prediction and Aesthetics Assessment


    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing


    We model the photo cropping problem as a cascade of attention box regression and aesthetic quality classification, based on deep learning. A neural network is designed that has two branches for predicting attention bounding box and analyzing aesthetics, respectively. The predicted attention box is treated as an initial crop window where a set of cropping candidates are generated around it, without missing important information. Then, aesthetics assessment is employed to select the final crop ...

  16. Prospective Assessment of Inpatient Boxed Warning Prescriber Adherence. (United States)

    Kloet, Megan A; Lohr, Brian R; Smithburger, Pamela L; Seybert, Amy L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L


    To evaluate medication boxed warning nonadherence in the inpatient setting. This was a prospective cohort quality improvement project approved by our institution's Total Quality Council. General medicine and ICU patients 18 years and older were included if they were cared for by a prescriber-led multidisciplinary team that included a pharmacist. Patients were evaluated for medication orders with an actionable boxed warning; if boxed warning nonadherence occurred, the physician's reason was determined. Patients with boxed warning nonadherence were monitored for adverse drug reactions until discharge. A total of 393 patients (224 general medicine and 169 ICU) were evaluated for nonadherence to 149 actionable boxed warnings. There were 293 drugs (175 general medicine and 118 ICU) with boxed warnings prescribed, and more than 50% of these were medications restarted from home. A total of 23 boxed warning nonadherences occurred in general medicine patients, and NSAIDs accounted for 81% of these events. ICU patients experienced 11 boxed warning nonadherences, with nearly 54% from anti-infectives and immunosuppressants. Antipsychotics were the most commonly ordered boxed warning medication class in ICU patients. Reasons for nonadherence included knowledge deficit and an acceptable risk-to-benefit ratio. Two adverse drug reactions occurred from boxed warning nonadherences, both because of a drug-drug interaction. Boxed warning nonadherence is a concern in the inpatient setting, specifically with NSAID use in general medicine patients and antipsychotic use in ICU patients. More than half of boxed warning nonadherence occurred in medications restarted from home, which emphasizes the need for medication evaluation during transitions of care.

  17. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf


    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling con...... in order to describe the complicated in vivo system of insulin and glucose following an IVGTT....

  18. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)


    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  19. Light directs zebrafish period2 expression via conserved D and E boxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Vatine


    Full Text Available For most species, light represents the principal environmental signal for entraining the endogenous circadian clock. The zebrafish is a fascinating vertebrate model for studying this process since unlike mammals, direct exposure of most of its tissues to light leads to local clock entrainment. Importantly, light induces the expression of a set of genes including certain clock genes in most zebrafish cell types in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism linking light to gene expression remains poorly understood. To elucidate this key mechanism, here we focus on how light regulates transcription of the zebrafish period2 (per2 gene. Using transgenic fish and stably transfected cell line-based assays, we define a Light Responsive Module (LRM within the per2 promoter. The LRM lies proximal to the transcription start site and is both necessary and sufficient for light-driven gene expression and also for a light-dependent circadian clock regulation. Curiously, the LRM sequence is strongly conserved in other vertebrate per2 genes, even in species lacking directly light-sensitive peripheral clocks. Furthermore, we reveal that the human LRM can substitute for the zebrafish LRM to confer light-regulated transcription in zebrafish cells. The LRM contains E- and D-box elements that are critical for its function. While the E-box directs circadian clock regulation by mediating BMAL/CLOCK activity, the D-box confers light-driven expression. The zebrafish homolog of the thyrotroph embryonic factor binds efficiently to the LRM D-box and transactivates expression. We demonstrate that tef mRNA levels are light inducible and that knock-down of tef expression attenuates light-driven transcription from the per2 promoter in vivo. Together, our results support a model where a light-dependent crosstalk between E- and D-box binding factors is a central determinant of per2 expression. These findings extend the general understanding of the mechanism whereby the clock is

  20. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  1. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  2. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  3. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  5. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  7. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  8. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  10. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.


    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  11. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  12. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  13. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  14. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  15. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  16. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  17. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  18. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  19. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  1. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays. (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M


    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  2. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  3. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  4. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.


    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  5. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This book is a report from a class on design research at the Danish Design School. Ten students had ten weeks to conduct design research based on approaches, methods and techniques from co-design focusing on the Alzheimer’s disease as experienced by people with Alzheimer’s, their relatives...... and close relations, and professional caretakers. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and social life. As Alzheimer’s is a fatal disease that affects many people, there is a strong interest in finding...... professional organizations in a user-driven approach to explore and learn what it means to identify and admit that a person has Alzheimer’s. Apart from making contributions to the common box, the students have written reports in which they reflect on their work both in relation to the design research process...

  6. Box ladders in a noninteger dimension (United States)

    Gonzalez, I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.


    We construct a family of triangle-ladder diagrams that can be calculated using the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique in d= 4-2ɛ dimensions. The main idea of the approach we propose is to generalize this loop reduction technique existing in d= 4 dimensions. We derive a recurrence relation between the result for an L-loop triangle-ladder diagram of this family and the result for an (L- 1)-loop triangleladder diagram of the same family. Because the proposed method combines analytic and dimensional regularizations, we must remove the analytic regularization at the end of the calculation by taking the double uniform limit in which the parameters of the analytic regularization vanish. In the position space, we obtain a diagram in the left-hand side of the recurrence relations in which the rung indices are 1 and all other indices are 1 - ɛ in this limit. Fourier transforms of diagrams of this type give momentum space diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. By a conformal transformation of the dual space image of this momentum space representation, we relate such a family of triangle-ladder momentum diagrams to a family of box-ladder momentum diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. Because any diagram from this family is reducible to a one-loop diagram, the proposed generalization of the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique to a noninteger number of dimensions allows calculating this family of box-ladder diagrams in the momentum space explicitly in terms of Appell's hypergeometric function F 4 without expanding in powers of the parameter ɛ in an arbitrary kinematic region in the momentum space.

  7. Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V.; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.


    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg−1) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml−1) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  8. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure (United States)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie


    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  9. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults. (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer


    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  10. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013


    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  11. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal...

  12. Creative Underachievers: Children Who Are Too out of the Box (United States)

    Rimm, Sylvia


    Educators in the field of gifted education attempt to not only accelerate curriculum for their students, but also to encourage and expand their critical and creative thinking. They often explain this creative approach to students as "out-of-the-box" thinking. "The box" is an effective analogy to help children understand how to…

  13. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box (United States)

    Sanz, Martial


    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  14. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis (United States)

    Dietz, John R.


    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  15. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo


    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  16. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna


    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  17. Modelling of Box Type Solar Cooker Performance in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal performance model of box type solar cooker with loaded water is presented. The model was developed using the method of Funk to estimate cooking power in terms of climatic and design parameters for box type solar cooker in a tropical environment. Coefficients for each term used in the model were determined ...

  18. Current implementation of advance encryption standard (AES) S-Box

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the attack on cryptosystem is still not severe, the development of the scheme is still ongoing especially for the design of S-Box. Two main approach has beenused, which are heuristic method and algebraic method. Algebraic method as in current AES implementation has been proven to be the most secure S-Box ...

  19. 30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held and...

  20. 30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof distribution boxes. 18.42 Section 18.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.42 Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (a) A cable passing through an...

  1. Analysis of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, R.G.H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Kooiker, M.; Busscher, M.; Angenent, G.C.


    Transcription factors are key regulators of plant development. One of the major groups of transcription factors is the MADS-box family, of which at least 80 members are encoded in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, 23 members of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family were investigated

  2. Lightweight S-Box Architecture for Secure Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prathiba


    Full Text Available Lightweight cryptographic solutions are required to guarantee the security of Internet of Things (IoT pervasiveness. Cryptographic primitives mandate a non-linear operation. The design of a lightweight, secure, non-linear 4 × 4 substitution box (S-box suited to Internet of Things (IoT applications is proposed in this work. The structure of the 4 × 4 S-box is devised in the finite fields GF (24 and GF ((222. The finite field S-box is realized by multiplicative inversion followed by an affine transformation. The multiplicative inverse architecture employs Euclidean algorithm for inversion in the composite field GF ((222. The affine transformation is carried out in the field GF (24. The isomorphic mapping between the fields GF (24 and GF ((222 is based on the primitive element in the higher order field GF (24. The recommended finite field S-box architecture is combinational and enables sub-pipelining. The linear and differential cryptanalysis validates that the proposed S-box is within the maximal security bound. It is observed that there is 86.5% lesser gate count for the realization of sub field operations in the composite field GF ((222 compared to the GF (24 field. In the PRESENT lightweight cipher structure with the basic loop architecture, the proposed S-box demonstrates 5% reduction in the gate equivalent area over the look-up-table-based S-box with TSMC 180 nm technology.

  3. Heart Rate and Liking During "Kinect Boxing" Versus "Wii Boxing": The Potential for Enjoyable Vigorous Physical Activity Videogames. (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh


    Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (P<0.001) increased percentage HRmean (64.1±1.6 percent of age-predicted maximum) and percentage HRpeak (76.5±1.9 percent) above all other conditions: Wii HRmean, 53.0±1.2 percent; Wii HRpeak, 61.8±1.5 percent; treadmill HRmean, 52.4±1.2 percent; treadmill HRpeak, 55.2±2.2 percent. Percentage HRpeak for "Kinect Boxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (P<0.001; n=26) to all other conditions ("Wii Boxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a

  4. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P


    have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes......The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focuses at the cell surface the activation of pro-uPA and, hence, the formation of plasmin, thus enhancing directional extracellular proteolysis. To characterize the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control receptor expression, we...

  5. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi


    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  6. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  7. Proximity Labeling of Interacting Proteins: Application of BioID as a Discovery Tool. (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Li; Di, Li-Jun


    Proteins perform biochemical functions by forming complexes, or protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Many different approaches such as phage display, yeast hybridization, etc. were developed to illustrate the PPIs, and disclose the composition and organization of protein complexes. However, none of these approaches are based on the real-time and in vivo PPI analysis. Proximity-dependent labeling (PDL) of interacting proteins has recently been proposed by taking advantage of several enzymes, which are capable of attaching the known reactive groups to the nearby proteins covalently. Among the PDL methods, BioID is the earliest and the most widely used one and has been upgraded from its prototype, making it an extremely convenient research tool. In this review, we describe the BioID technology development, its potential applications according to the nature of the target protein, and some recent efforts to circumvent the technical limitations. Moreover, some comparable PDL methods are introduced, including selective proteomic proximity labeling assay using tyramide, enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources, Proximity Labeling with Ascorbate Peroxidase, in vivo proximal labeling, etc., and we propose that systematic comparison of the working radius of these methods may be helpful to develop a tool box, from which the right method can be selected for a given target protein for PPI research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Getting started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stuart Arthur


    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to simplify and streamline virtual desktops so you get a production-quality solution while instantly lowering your costs and improving security.Getting Started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box is great for IT professionals who are new to VDI-in-a-Box and who are looking for a good grounding in the product. You may be planning to research VDI-in-a-Box in more detail, or you may be tasked with researching how VDI-in-a-Box could improve the productivity of your organization. No prior knowledge of VDI-in-a-Box is required, just a

  9. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B


    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  10. Mirror Box Training in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients Affects Body Representation. (United States)

    Tosi, Giorgia; Romano, Daniele; Maravita, Angelo


    The brain integrates multisensory inputs coming from the body (i.e., proprioception, tactile sensations) and the world that surrounds it (e.g., visual information). In this way, it is possible to build supra-modal and coherent mental representations of our own body, in order to process sensory events and to plan movements and actions in space. Post-stroke acquired motor deficits affect the ability to move body parts and to interact with objects. This may, in turn, impair the brain representation of the affected body part, resulting in a further increase of disability and motor impairment. To the aim of improving any putative derangements of body representation induced by the motor deficit, here we used the Mirror Box (MB). MB is a rehabilitative tool aimed at restoring several pathological conditions where body representation is affected, including post-stroke motor impairments. In this setting, observing the reflection of the intact limb in the mirror, while the affected one is hidden behind the mirror, can exert a positive influence upon different clinical conditions from chronic pain to motor deficits. Such results are thought to be mediated by a process of embodiment of the mirror reflection, which would be integrated into the representation of the affected limb. A group of 45 post-stroke patients was tested before and after performing a MB motor training in two conditions, one with the mirror between the hands and one without it, so that patients could see their impaired limb directly. A forearm bisection task, specifically designed to measure the metric representation of the body (i.e., size), was used as dependent variable. Results showed that, at baseline, the forearm bisection is shifted proximally, compatibly with a shrink of the metric representation of the affected arm towards the shoulder. However, following the MB session bisection scores shifted distally, compatibly with a partial correction of the metric representation of that arm. The effects

  11. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures]. (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C


    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  12. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.


    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  13. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor


    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  14. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  15. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  16. IEA Common Exercise 4: ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models for thermal performance characterization of the test box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this report results of applying time series models for assessing the thermal performance of the IEA Annex 58 test box based on data given in the Common Exercise 4 (CE4), which was measured in Almeria, Spain. Both ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models are applied. Finally, the same models are fitted...

  17. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures. (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A


    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  18. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers


    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.


    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  19. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery


    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe


    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  20. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  1. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu


    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  2. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  4. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital]. (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire


    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  6. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. A Pit-1 Binding Site Adjacent to E-box133 in the Rat PRL Promoter is Necessary for Pulsatile Gene Expression Activity. (United States)

    Bose, Sudeep; Ganguly, Surajit; Kumar, Sachin; Boockfor, Fredric R


    Recent evidence reveals that prolactin gene expression (PRL-GE) in mammotropes occurs in pulses, but the molecular process(es) underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Earlier, we have identified an E-box (E-box133) in the rat PRL promoter that binds several circadian elements and is critical for this dynamic process. Preliminary analysis revealed a Pit-1 binding site (P2) located immediately adjacent to this E-box133 raising the possibility that some type of functional relationship may exist between these two promoter regions. In this study, using serum shocked GH3 cell culture system to synchronize PRL-GE activity, we determined that Pit-1 gene expression occurred in pulses with time phases similar to that for PRL. Interestingly, EMSA analysis not only confirmed Pit-1 binding to the P2 site, but also revealed an interaction with factor(s) binding to the adjacent E-box133 promoter element. Additionally, down-regulation of Pit-1 by siRNA reduced PRL levels during pulse periods. Thus, using multiple evidences, our results demonstrate clearly that the Pit-1 P2 site is necessary for PRL-GE elaboration. Furthermore, the proximity of this critical Pit-1 binding site (P2) and the E-box133 element coupled with the evidences of a site-to-site protein interactions suggest that the process of PRL-GE pulse activity might involve more dynamic and intricate cross-talks between promoter elements that may span some, or all, of the proximal region of the PRL promoter in driving its pulsatile expression.

  8. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers. (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard


    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  9. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  10. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  11. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  12. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box. (United States)

    Esrey, S A


    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century.

  13. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs (United States)

    Vandegrift, Guy


    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the

  14. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box (United States)


    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  15. A Grey-Box Dynamic Model of Plate Heat Exchangers Used in an Urban Heating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingwei Miao; Shijun You; Wandong Zheng; Xuejing Zheng; Huan Zhang; Yaran Wang


    .... In the grey-box method, a newly developed parameter identification method was established. The simulation results of two outlet temperatures by the grey-box and white-box method, respectively, are compared with the test data...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dureja Gaurav


    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where F values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dureja


    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where ‘F’ values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  18. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  19. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  20. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  1. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan


    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... key and the secret S-box for respectively four, five, and six rounds of the AES. Despite the significantly larger amount of secret information which an adversary needs to recover, the attacks are very efficient with time/data complexities of 217/216, 238/240 and 290/264, respectively. Another...

  2. Utilization of Boxes for Pesticide Storage in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka


    Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid...... of the Department of Agriculture, distributed lockable in-house pesticide storage boxes free of charge to a farming community in a rural district of Sri Lanka. Padlocks were not provided with the boxes. These storage boxes were distributed to the farmers without prior education. The authors carried out a cross...

  3. Quartic Box-Spline Reconstruction on the BCC Lattice. (United States)

    Kim, Minho


    This paper presents an alternative box-spline filter for the body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice, the seven-direction quartic box-spline M7 that has the same approximation order as the eight-direction quintic box-spline M8 but a lower polynomial degree, smaller support, and is computationally more efficient. When applied to reconstruction with quasi-interpolation prefilters, M7 shows less aliasing, which is verified quantitatively by integral filter metrics and frequency error kernels. To visualize and analyze distributional aliasing characteristics, each spectrum is evaluated on the planes and lines with various orientations.

  4. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai


    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  5. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause. (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R


    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  6. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  7. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon. (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L


    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  8. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events. (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R


    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  9. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)]. (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria


    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  10. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  11. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture. (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad


    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  13. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability (United States)



    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  14. Trial manufacture of portable type `WISH BOX`; Kahangata WISH BOX no shisaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I.; Sakuma, H.; Qin, W. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Onai, Y.


    This paper proposes the small portable type power source `WISH BOX` (wind and solar hybrid) composed of a small wind power generator and solar cell panels. Since solar radiation and wind power are complementary to each other in seasons, day and night, and fine and cloudy weather, WISH BOX is useful for standalone power source in non-power areas of developing countries, life spot in disasters, and outdoor leisure. The most small light-weight high-performance AIR303 produced by Southwest Windpower Co., USA is used as wind power generator, and two 50W solar cell panels HSC-5010-S produced by Daido Hokusan Co. is used. Sealed lead storage batteries (12V, 20Ah each) are also connected to cope with load fluctuation. In comparison with conventional portable gasoline engine generators, this environment-friendly generator is featured by fuel-free, no emission of gases, no noises and no fire occurrence, and can also supply stable power with small batteries even in the nighttime and cloudy weather by combining wind power. The generator of 400,000 yen is now in field experiment. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  15. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations. (United States)


    ... transmitter can be only manually reactivated. (9) Frequency selection must be made with regard to reception of... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20 feet...

  16. FDA boxed warnings: how to prescribe drugs safely. (United States)

    O'Connor, Nina R


    Boxed warnings, commonly referred to as "black box" warnings, are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and featured in the labeling of drugs associated with serious adverse reactions. These safety concerns are typically identified through the Adverse Event Reporting System and the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, which evaluates postmarket safety findings. The most common type of warning is issued when there is a potentially serious adverse effect that must be carefully weighed against the potential benefit of the drug. Warnings are also issued to draw attention to dosing, monitoring requirements, and potential drug interactions. Boxed warnings have been issued recently for oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and salmeterol. Despite these highly publicized warnings, all of these medications remain viable treatment options with appropriate patient selection. Ultimately, physicians must decide whether to prescribe drugs with boxed warnings. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  17. T-Box Genes in Human Development and Disease. (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Brook, J D; Wilsdon, A


    T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending their role in human disease. In this review, we focus on ten T-box genes with a special emphasis on their roles in human disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryogenic distribution box for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States)

    Svehla, M. R.; Bonnema, E. C.; Cunningham, E. K.


    Meyer Tool & Mfg., Inc (Meyer Tool) of Oak Lawn, Illinois is manufacturing a cryogenic distribution box for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The distribution box will be used for the Muon-to-electron conversion (Mu2e) experiment. The box includes twenty-seven cryogenic valves, two heat exchangers, a thermal shield, and an internal nitrogen separator vessel, all contained within a six-foot diameter ASME coded vacuum vessel. This paper discusses the design and manufacturing processes that were implemented to meet the unique fabrication requirements of this distribution box. Design and manufacturing features discussed include: 1) Thermal strap design and fabrication, 2) Evolution of piping connections to heat exchangers, 3) Nitrogen phase separator design, 4) ASME code design of vacuum vessel, and 5) Cryogenic valve installation.

  19. Generalized box-plot for root growth ensembles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vad, Viktor; Cedrim, Douglas; Busch, Wolfgang; Filzmoser, Peter; Viola, Ivan


    .... We use the generalized box plot concept with a new formulation of data depth. In addition to spatial distributions, we created a visual representation to encode temporal distributions associated with the development of root individuals...

  20. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E


    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo...

  1. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  2. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Physical (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  3. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Stressors in ERA (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  4. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Chemical (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  5. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Biological (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  6. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brinkman, Diane L; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason


    .... The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening...

  7. Design and development of a freezer and chiller delivery box (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Zakimi; Hung, Goh Chung; Dawi, Mohd Syedi Imran Mohd; Hussin, Radhwan; Khalil, Ahmad Nabil Mohd; Naim, Muhammad Khairy Md; Hilmi, Ahmad Humaizi


    This paper presents an action research of designed and fabricated using well insulating materials in order to ensure the coolness inside the freezer and chiller delivery box is as good minimize temperature raised. The main purpose of this study is to develop freeze and chiller delivery box that will be able to keep fresh meat during travelling long delivery. A range of freeze and chill solutions exists for that must be kept within a specific temperature range throughout the supply-and-distribution chain. This will help to minimize the activeness of bacteria to spoil the meats, at the same time it can linger the duration for meats to spoil. All affecting parameter such as temperature inside the delivery box, heat transfer rate, and natural convection flow pattern has been studied to design and development of the delivery box. Finally, temperature distribution analysis has been conducted which showed that in operating condition inside temperature are suitable to keep the fresh meats condition.

  8. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders : Research Brief (United States)


    Ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal and high torsional stiffness make adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beams a popular option for short-to-medium span bridges. However, persisting durability and performance...

  9. Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, M; Parker, N G


    Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.

  10. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing


    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M.


    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  11. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways - Food Chains (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  12. Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh (United States)


    ARL-TN-0818 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh by James U Cazamias...originator. ARL-TN-0818 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh by James U person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  13. The DEAD-box helicase eIF4A (United States)

    Andreou, Alexandra Z.; Klostermeier, Dagmar


    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes. They share a helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains that carries a set of conserved motifs contributing to ATP binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding and duplex unwinding. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the founding member of the DEAD-box protein family, and one of the few examples of DEAD-box proteins that consist of a helicase core only. It is an RNA-stimulated ATPase and a non-processive helicase that unwinds short RNA duplexes. In the catalytic cycle, a series of conformational changes couples the nucleotide cycle to RNA unwinding. eIF4A has been considered a paradigm for DEAD-box proteins, and studies of its function have revealed the governing principles underlying the DEAD-box helicase mechanism. However, as an isolated helicase core, eIF4A is rather the exception, not the rule. Most helicase modules in other DEAD-box proteins are modified, some by insertions into the RecA-like domains, and the majority by N- and C-terminal appendages. While the basic catalytic function resides within the helicase core, its modulation by insertions, additional domains or a network of interaction partners generates the diversity of DEAD-box protein functions in the cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on eIF4A and its regulation, and discusses to what extent eIF4A serves as a model DEAD-box protein. PMID:22995829

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.


    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  15. Oriented Spatial Box Plot, a New Pattern for Points Clusters


    Etienne, Laurent; Devogele, Thomas; McArdle, Gavin


    Nowadays, an abundance of sensors are used to collect very large datasets containing spatial points which can be mined and analyzed to extract meaningful patterns and information. This article examines patterns which describe the dispersion of 2D data around a central tendency. Several state of the art patterns for point cluster analysis are presented and critiqued before a new pattern, the Oriented Spatial Box Plot, is defined. The Oriented Spatial Box Plot extends the clas...

  16. A pharmacological and biochemical characterisation of Australian box jellyfish venoms


    Winter, Kelly Lee


    Box jellyfish are found throughout the northern tropical waters of Australia and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Chironex fleckeri is arguably the most venomous creature in the world and has been responsible for over 70 deaths. Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of action of these venoms have yet to be elucidated. The current study investigated the pharmacological and biochemical characteristics of venom from the following species of box jellyfish: C. flec...

  17. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Deng, Hui, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)


    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations.

  18. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob


    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  19. The relationship between destination proximity, destination mix and physical activity behaviors. (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bulsara, Max


    The presence and mix of destinations is an important aspect of the built environment that may encourage or discourage physical activity. This study examined the association between the proximity and mix of neighbourhood destinations and physical activity. Secondary analysis was undertaken on physical activity data from Western Australian adults (n=1394). These data were linked with geographical information systems (GIS) data including the presence and the mix of destinations located within 400 and 1500 m from respondents' homes. Associations with walking for transport and recreation and vigorous physical activity were examined. Access to post boxes, bus stops, convenience stores, newsagencies, shopping malls, and transit stations within 400 m (OR 1.63-5.00) and schools, transit stations, newsagencies, convenience stores and shopping malls within 1500 m (OR 1.75-2.38) was associated with participation in regular transport-related walking. A dose-response relationship between the mix of destinations and walking for transport was also found. Each additional destination within 400 and 1500 m resulted in an additional 12 and 11 min/fortnight spent walking for transport, respectively. Proximity and mix of destinations appears strongly associated with walking for transport, but not walking for recreation or vigorous activity. Increasing the diversity of destinations may contribute to adults doing more transport-related walking and achieving recommended levels of physical activity.

  20. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  1. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  2. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V


    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M


    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  4. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  5. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V


    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  6. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.


    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  7. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee


    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  8. The G-Box Transcriptional Regulatory Code in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Ezer, Daphne; Shepherd, Samuel J K; Brestovitsky, Anna; Dickinson, Patrick; Cortijo, Sandra; Charoensawan, Varodom; Box, Mathew S; Biswas, Surojit; Jaeger, Katja E; Wigge, Philip A


    Plants have significantly more transcription factor (TF) families than animals and fungi, and plant TF families tend to contain more genes; these expansions are linked to adaptation to environmental stressors. Many TF family members bind to similar or identical sequence motifs, such as G-boxes (CACGTG), so it is difficult to predict regulatory relationships. We determined that the flanking sequences near G-boxes help determine in vitro specificity but that this is insufficient to predict the transcription pattern of genes near G-boxes. Therefore, we constructed a gene regulatory network that identifies the set of bZIPs and bHLHs that are most predictive of the expression of genes downstream of perfect G-boxes. This network accurately predicts transcriptional patterns and reconstructs known regulatory subnetworks. Finally, we present Ara-BOX-cis (, a Web site that provides interactive visualizations of the G-box regulatory network, a useful resource for generating predictions for gene regulatory relations. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. RNAa Induced by TATA Box-Targeting MicroRNAs. (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Hui


    Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir. Further study revealed that many cellular miRNAs also function like miR-H3. For instance, let-7i targets the TATA box of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter and upregulates IL-2 expression in T-lymphocytes. In RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNAs, Argonaute (AGO) proteins are needed, but there is no evidence for the involvement of promoter-associated transcripts or epigenetic modifications. We propose that the binding of small RNA-AGO complex to TATA box could facilitate the assembly of RNA Polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex. In addition, synthesized small RNAs targeting TATA box can also efficiently activate transcription of interested genes, such as insulin, IL-2, and c-Myc. The discovery of RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNA provides an easy-to-use tool for activating gene expression.

  10. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic


    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  11. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers. (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente


    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement. (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A


    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  13. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction


    Torregrosa Daniel; Pérez-Ortiz Juan Antonio; Forcada Mikel L.


    Interactive translation prediction (ITP) is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been re...

  14. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torregrosa Daniel


    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  15. Allosteric regulation of helicase core activities of the DEAD-box helicase YxiN by RNA binding to its RNA recognition motif. (United States)

    Samatanga, Brighton; Andreou, Alexandra Z; Klostermeier, Dagmar


    DEAD-box proteins share a structurally similar core of two RecA-like domains (RecA_N and RecA_C) that contain the conserved motifs for ATP-dependent RNA unwinding. In many DEAD-box proteins the helicase core is flanked by ancillary domains. To understand the regulation of the DEAD-box helicase YxiN by its C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM), we investigated the effect of RNA binding to the RRM on its position relative to the core, and on core activities. RRM/RNA complex formation substantially shifts the RRM from a position close to the RecA_C to the proximity of RecA_N, independent of RNA contacts with the core. RNA binding to the RRM is communicated to the core, and stimulates ATP hydrolysis and RNA unwinding. The conformational space of the core depends on the identity of the RRM-bound RNA. Allosteric regulation of core activities by RNA-induced movement of ancillary domains may constitute a general regulatory mechanism of DEAD-box protein activity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Influence of dimension box differences and time differences during operations of red box for motorcycles at signalized intersection (United States)

    Mulyadi, Agah Muhammad


    Performance of signalized intersection has declined due to a large number of motorcycles. The number of motorcycles reached 98.2 million units and the composition of motorcycles has reached around 81.7% of the total composition of vehicles in Indonesia (AISI, 2017). To solve that problem, the red box for motorcycles are provided at the signalized intersection. Red box for the motorcycle at signalized intersections was developed from the concept of Advance Stop Line (ASL) for bicycles. The Red Box was developed to split the queue between motorcycles and other vehicles when waiting at red light. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the red box dimension and red time operation differences. The survey was conducted as many as 30 cycles of traffic signals per day. The data were analyzed using software IBM SPSS Statistics 20 by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to obtain p-value (significant). The analysis shows that there are insignificant influences between the occupancy rates to the dimension of Red Box. Furthermore, that there is a significant difference that shows the dependency of only motorcycles in the Red Box Area towards red time operation.

  17. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection. (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  18. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J


    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  19. 76 FR 54931 - Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations (United States)


    ... 111 Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final..., Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 508.4 to allow Post Office Box TM (PO Box TM ) fee groups to be merged due to... lower, and only once per calendar year. Absent this change, where a box section is merged with a...

  20. Autoantibodies Against High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in Patients with SLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; Horst, Gerda; Henegouwen, Daan van Beijeren Bergenen; Bijzet, Johan; de Leeuw, Karina; Stel, Alja; Limburg, Pieter C.; Heeringa, Peter; Westra, Johanna


    Background/Purpose: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern and can be divided in three separate domains: the A Box, B Box and the acidic tail. Box A by itself serves as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and inhibits HMGB1 activity. In an earlier study we showed

  1. Box-trees and R-trees with near-optimal query time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Berg, M. de; Gudmundsson, J.; Hammar, M.; Haverkort, H.J.


    A box-tree is a bounding-volume hierarchy that uses axis-aligned boxes as bounding volumes. The query complexity of a box-tree with respect to a given type of query is the maximum number of nodes visited when answering such a query. We describe several new algorithms for constructing box-trees

  2. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy. (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  3. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems. (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles


    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  4. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John


    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  5. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures. (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing


    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  6. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke


    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  7. Total Radiosynthesis: Thinking outside "the box". (United States)

    Liang, Steven H; Vasdev, Neil


    The logic of total synthesis transformed a stagnant state of medicinal and synthetic organic chemistry when there was a paucity of methods and reagents to synthesize drug molecules and/or natural products. Molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) is now experiencing a renaissance in the way radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging are synthesized, however, a paradigm shift is desperately needed in the discovery pipeline to accelerate in vivo imaging studies. A significant challenge in radiochemistry is the limited choice of labeled reagents (or building blocks) available for the synthesis of novel radiopharmaceuticals with the most commonly used short-lived radionuclides carbon-11 (11C; half-life ~20 minutes) and fluorine-18 (18F; half-life ~2 hours). In fact, most drugs cannot be labeled with 11C or 18F due to a lack of efficient and diverse radiosynthetic methods. In general, routine radiopharmaceutical production relies on the incorporation of the isotope at the last or penultimate step of synthesis, ideally within one half-life of the radionuclide, to maximize radiochemical yields and specific activities thereby reducing losses due to radioactive decay. Reliance on radiochemistry conducted within the constraints of an automated synthesis unit ("box") has stifled the exploration of multi-step reactions with short-lived radionuclides. Radiopharmaceutical synthesis can be transformed by considering logic of total synthesis to develop novel approaches for 11C- and 18F-radiolabeling complex molecules via retrosynthetic analysis and multi-step reactions. As a result of such exploration, new methods, reagents and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging studies are discovered. A new avenue to develop radiotracers that were previously unattainable due to the lack of efficient radiosynthetic methods is necessary to work towards our ultimate, albeit impossible goal - the concept we term total radiosynthesis - to radiolabel virtually any molecule. As with

  8. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Wong, Kwok-Wo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Changbing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Li, Yang [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, S1 3DJ (United Kingdom)


    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  9. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination. (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  10. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  11. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities


    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET


    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  12. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen


    Ermler, Romy


    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  13. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone


    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  15. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology. (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K


    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivation of students to boxing during physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazymok V.V.


    Full Text Available Showing survey results of students I - II courses about issues of motivation for boxing in physical education. The survey involved 100 students. Among them, 88 men and 12 women. It is established that the majority of respondents did not engage in boxing before entering the university. The main motives for classes in boxing are improving physical fitness and self-confidence. Fears of boxing cause poor physical and moral - psychological preparation, the fear to miss bounce or be injured. It is shown that the box in the technical university engaged in 5.5%, 2.8% of the fight and taekwondo 2.1% of students. Absolute leaders are athletic gymnastics and swimming 13.7% 13.3%. Also popular team sports football 8.7%, 5.5% of basketball, volleyball, 5.3%. Unfortunately, the number of students that attend due to health and exercise therapy SMG also has a fairly substantial 6.3%. Enough to visit among girls is 6.1% aerobics and shaping of 5.8.

  17. DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and chaperones (United States)

    Jarmoskaite, Inga; Russell, Rick


    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous in RNA-mediated processes and function by coupling cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in affinity for single-stranded RNA. Many DEAD-box proteins use this basic mechanism as the foundation for a version of RNA helicase activity, efficiently separating the strands of short RNA duplexes in a process that involves little or no translocation. This activity, coupled with mechanisms to direct different DEAD-box proteins to their physiological substrates, allows them to promote RNA folding steps and rearrangements and to accelerate remodeling of RNA-protein complexes. This review will describe the properties of DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and the current understanding of how the energy from ATPase activity is used to drive the separation of RNA duplex strands. It will then describe how the basic biochemical properties allow some DEAD-box proteins to function as chaperones by promoting RNA folding reactions, with a focus on the self-splicing group I and group II intron RNAs. PMID:21297876

  18. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune


    -box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey......-box models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey...

  19. T-Box Genes in the Kidney and Urinary Tract. (United States)

    Kispert, A


    T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system. However, this has changed with the finding that mutations in TBX18, a member of a vertebrate-specific subgroup within the Tbx1-subfamily of T-box transcription factor genes, cause congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, predominantly hydroureter and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Gene expression analyses, loss-of-function studies, and lineage tracing in the mouse suggest a primary role for this transcription factor in specifying the ureteric mesenchyme in the common anlage of the kidney, the ureter, and the bladder. We review the function of Tbx18 in ureterogenesis and discuss the body of evidence that Tbx18 and other members of the T-box gene family, namely, Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx20, play additional roles in development and homeostasis of other components of the excretory system in vertebrates. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Creep behavior of precast segmental box girder bridge (United States)

    Xihua, Dai; Liangfang, Liu; Rong, Xian


    The concrete creep effect is more obvious when the box girder is assembled by segment. It is necessary to consider the influence of the loading value of the section at different time and the different age of concrete at different stages. In this paper, ACI209R-92, CEB-FIP MC90 and B3 and other concrete creep models are compared. The results show that the B3 model has many factors to consider and the calculation accuracy is high. Secondly, this paper discusses the influence of the segmental construction technology on the creep calculation, and puts forward the characteristics of the stress analysis of the segmental box girder. Finally, on the basis of the B3 model of concrete creep, the Midas software is used to establish the calculation model of segmental box girder, and the internal force and deformation of the box girder are calculated. The results show that the internal force and deformation of the box girder is too large due to the poor integrity of the segmental assembling process, which will seriously affect the normal service performance.

  1. The extra-depth toe box: a rational approach. (United States)

    Kaye, R A


    The conservative management of foot deformities often requires the use of a modified shoe. A higher toe box is one of the most common variations required when the abnormality is located in region of the forefoot. High toe boxes are available in a variety of footgear, including athletic sneakers, comfort shoes, and prescription footwear. A rational approach to accommodating a deformed forefoot would be to first measure the maximum height of the abnormal toes in a weightbearing position. Then, by referring to a table listing shoes and available toe box space, the physician could match the foot with a shoe. The purpose of this study was to collect and tabulate measurements of toe box height for a variety of shoes. Impressions were taken from various shoes using a moldable plastic material. Toe box height was then measured and recorded. Results were tabulated for various types of men's and women's shoes. The depth of shoes at the point 5 cm from the tip of the toe was about 44 mm for most styles. The sagittal profile (i.e., vertical height available) of extra-depth shoes, comfort shoes, and athletic shoes was similar.

  2. Using a box instead of a column for process chromatography. (United States)

    Ghosh, Raja


    Columns with relatively short bed-height to diameter ratios are frequently used for process-scale chromatography applications such as biopharmaceutical purification. Non-uniform flow distribution within such columns could result in broad and poorly resolved eluted peaks, which could in turn affect purity, recovery and productivity of the process. Different strategies centered on improved column header design have been proposed for addressing this problem. This paper describes a radically different approach, i.e. the use of a chromatography box (or chromato-box) instead of a column, for addressing the challenges posed by flow mal-distribution in process-scale, packed-bed chromatography devices. The design of the chromatography box devices used in this study is based on a laterally-fed membrane chromatography (or LFMC) device, that has been described and discussed in several recent papers. The performances of two chromatography box devices were compared with their equivalent columns in terms of sharpness and asymmetry of flow-through and eluted peaks, number of theoretical plates per metre, and peak resolution in binary and ternary protein separations. In each of the above comparisons, the chromatography box devices performed better than their equivalent columns, clearly indicating their potential as an alternative in process-scale chromatography applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Boxes and Sound Quality in AN Italian Opera House (United States)



    The “Teatro Comunale” (City Theatre) in Bologna is an Italian opera house of the 18th century, designed by the famous architect Antonio Galli Bibiena. Largely built in masonry, it has been only partially restored and altered several times, but never destroyed and rebuilt. The study of its acoustics, while interesting for itself, offers the opportunity to investigate the role of the boxes, which constitute the most evident characteristic of Italian opera houses. The study was carried on at first by measurements, acquiring binaural impulse responses in the stalls and in the boxes, and then by computer simulation, modelling also some changes which cannot be done in the real hall. The measurements revealed clear differences between the listening quality in the boxes and in the stalls, especially regarding ITDG, clarity and IACC. Computer simulations show how the sound field in the historical theatre could be if the sound absorption of the boxes were changed, adding some velvet curtains, as was done in ancient times, and clarify the effects of the cavities which constitutes the boxes.

  4. Application of oxime-diversification to optimize ligand interactions within a cryptic pocket of the polo-like kinase 1 polo-box domain | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    By a process involving initial screening of a set of 87 aldehydes using an oxime ligation-based strategy, we were able to achieve a several-fold affinity enhancement over one of the most potent previously known polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD) binding inhibitors. This improved binding may result by accessing a newly identified auxiliary region proximal to a key hydrophobic cryptic pocket on the surface of the protein. Our findings could have general applicability to the design of PBD-binding antagonists. Cover design by Joseph Myer

  5. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  6. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  7. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  8. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas


    data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different......Cubomedusae (box jellyfish) possess a remarkable visual system with 24 eyes distributed in four sensory structures termed rhopalia. Each rhopalium is equipped with six eyes: two pairs of pigment cup eyes and two unpaired lens eyes. Each eye type probably captures specific features of the visual...... environment. To investigate whether multiple types of photoreceptor cells are present in the rhopalium, and whether the different eye types possess different types of photoreceptors, we have used immunohistochemistry with a range of vertebrate opsin antibodies to label the photoreceptors...

  9. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos


    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Box-Cox regression method with λj, for j = 1, 2, ..., k, power transformation can be used when dependent variable and error term of the linear regression model do not satisfy the continuity and normality assumptions. The situation obtaining the smallest mean square error  when optimum power λj, transformation for j = 1, 2, ..., k, of Y has been discussed. Box-Cox regression method is especially appropriate to adjust existence skewness or heteroscedasticity of error terms for a nonlinear functional relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. In this study, the advantage and disadvantage use of Box-Cox regression method have been discussed in differentiation and differantial analysis of time scale concept.

  11. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals (United States)

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.


    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  12. The SRY gene HMG-box in micro- and megabats. (United States)

    Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A; Burgos, M; Jiménez, R; Díaz De La Guardia, R


    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the Y-linked SRY gene, which encodes a transcription factor with a DNA-binding motif of the HMG type. The only conserved region in this gene is the HMG-box, whose nucleotide sequence is currently available in a number of mammalian taxa. However, nothing is known about this gene in bats. Here, we report partial sequences of the SRY HMG-box from four microbat and four megabat species. We used the SRY HMG- box sequences from micro- and megabats to test the phylogenetic relationships between microbats, megabats, and primates. In maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood trees, mega- and microbat branches start in the same internal node, which is consistent with a monophyletic origin of this mammalian group. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. A Finite Segment Method for Skewed Box Girder Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Xue


    Full Text Available A finite segment method is presented to analyze the mechanical behavior of skewed box girders. By modeling the top and bottom plates of the segments with skew plate beam element under an inclined coordinate system and the webs with normal plate beam element, a spatial elastic displacement model for skewed box girder is constructed, which can satisfy the compatibility condition at the corners of the cross section for box girders. The formulation of the finite segment is developed based on the variational principle. The major advantage of the proposed approach, in comparison with the finite element method, is that it can simplify a three-dimensional structure into a one-dimensional structure for structural analysis, which results in significant saving in computational times. At last, the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed finite segment method are verified by a model test.

  14. Optimatization of loop heat pipe for cooling of electrotechnical box (United States)

    Roman, Banovcan; Tomas, Puchor; Andrej, Kapjor; Milan, Malcho


    The paper deals with use of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe to transfer heat from electrotechnical box and describe of construction individual types of LOOP heat pipes. The LOOP heat pipe is very good cooling device which requires no mechanical parts in their design. LOOP heat pipe use only phase change during heat transfer, without a compressor, fan or pump. LOOP heat pipe is more energy saving compared to conventional cooling systems with forced convection. The main advantage of cooling by heat pipe is that electrotechnical box can be hermetically closed (dust -free construction), because dust reduces the lifetime of electrotechnical elements in box. Lifetime of LOOP heat pipe equals to the lifetime of construction material. The paper describes mathematical model of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe (condenser). Compares selected types of working fluids which are filled with a heat pipe and construction materials of heat pipe.

  15. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  16. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife. (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A


    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  17. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.


    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  18. Effects of thermal insulation on electrical connections and outlet boxes (United States)

    Beausoliel, R. W.; Clifton, J. R.; Meese, W. J.


    When residential walls are retrofitted with foamed-in urea formaldehyde or blown-in cellulose thermal insulations, the insulation may enter electrical outlet and switch boxes. The effects of these thermal insulations on the durability of electrical components were studied. These studies were carried out at 44, 75, and 96 percent relative humidities with test periods between one and twelve months. Laboratory test methods were developed and tests performed to determine the electrical and corrosive effects of urea formaldehyde and cellulose thermal insulation contained in electrical outlet and switch boxes.

  19. Analysis of white box test of cyber-physical system (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Lichen


    The Cyber-Physical System is a complex system in which the information system is closely integrated with the physical system. Through the environment detection and the combination of computing, communication and control process, the physical real-time perception and dynamic control function are realized. CPS is another information revolution after the Internet, and his presence will change the way people interact with the physical world. In this paper, the concept of CPS and white box testing is introduced, and then the white box test for CPS hardware, software, network and system is discussed in detail. Finally, the research on CPS is prospected.

  20. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric


    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...

  1. Low-profile self-sealing sample transfer flexure box. (United States)

    Simon, Kevin; Porz, Lukas; Swamy, Tushar; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Slocum, Alexander


    A flexural bearing mechanism has enabled the development of a self-sealing box for protecting air sensitive samples during transfer between glove boxes, micro-machining equipment, and microscopy equipment. The simplicity and self-actuating feature of this design makes it applicable to many devices that operate under vacuum conditions. The models used to design the flexural mechanism are presented in detail. The device has been tested in a Zeiss Merlin GEMINI II scanning electron microscope with Li 3 PS 4 samples, showing effective isolation from air and corrosion prevention.

  2. Tests of CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Box Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Sergey; Sirunyan, Albert; Tumasyan, Armen; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Cornelis, Tom; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit Florent; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Martins, Thiago Dos Reis; Pol, Maria Elena; Vaz Da Silva Filho, Mario; Alda Junior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner De Paula; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; De Oliveira Martins, Carley Pedro; Figueiredo, Diego Matos; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jose; Molina Insfran, Jorge Andres; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Rosa Lopes Zachi, Alessandro; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Borras, Kerstin; Gunnellini, Paolo; Jung, Hannes; Knutsson, Albert Hans; Lutz, Benjamin; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel; Sen, Niladri; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf Matthias; Wohrmann, H; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Horvath, D; Bala, Suman; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, M; Lal, Manjit Kaur; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, S; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sharan, Manoj Kumar; Aziz, Tariq; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Katta, Sudhakar; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant Raichand; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Penzo, Aldo; Afanasyev, A; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Fedoseev, Oleg; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Konoplynikov, V; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoly; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Krasnikov, Nikolay; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kosov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Kudinov, Ilya; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, V; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlassov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, A; Boos, Eduard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Savrin, Victor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, V; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Vinogradov, Alexey; Bayshev, Igor; Bityukov, Sergey; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kryshkin, Victor; Petrov, V; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrey; Turchanovich, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Uzunyan, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Santanastasio, Francesco; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Numan Mustafa; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; G�kbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Aliyev, Takhmasib; Deniz, Muhammed; Guler, Ali Murat; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gulmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, H; Scarborough, Tara Ann; Rumerio, Paolo; Heister, Arno; Hill, C; Lawson, Philip Daniel; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; St. John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Gennadiy, G; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Tsang, Ka Vang; Long, Owen Rosser; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher Alan; Apresyan, Artur; Chen, Y; Mott, Alexander Robert; Spiropulu, Maria; Winn, David; Abdoulline, Salavat; Anderson, J; Chlebana, Frank; Freeman, James; Green, Daniel; Hanlon, J; Hirschauer, James Francis; Joshi, Umeshwar; Kunori, Shuichi; Musienko, Yuri; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William Jeffrey; Tkaczyk, Slawomir; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, W; Gaultney, Vanessa; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete Edward; Martinez, German Ruben; Gleyzer, Sergei; Hagopian, Sharon Lee; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Charles Merrill; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian L; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren James; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony Richard; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, John Edwin; Olson, Jonathan Edward; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Schmidt, Ianos; Tiras, Emrah; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Kenny, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Baden, Andrew; Calvert, Brian Michael; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime Arturo; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Y; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice Louise Cox; Peterman, Alison Marie; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite Belt; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin Humphrey; Mans, Jeremiah Michael; Pastika, Nathaniel Joseph; Kroeger, Robert; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Jain, S; Anastassov, Anton; Velasco, Mayda Marie; Won, Steven; Heering, Adriaan; Karmgard, Daniel; Pearson, Tessa Jae; Ruchti, Randal; Berry, Edmund A; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam Paul; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Saka, Halil; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej Maciej; Barnes, Virgil Everett; Laasanen, Alvin; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel Jan; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-bellido, Aran Angel; Goldenzweig, Pablo David; Han, Ji Yeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert Adam; Flanagan, Will Hogan; Kamon, Teruki; Montalvo, Roy Joaquin; Sakuma, Tai; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Gurrola, Alfredo; Milstene, Caroline


    A readout box prototype for CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter upgrade is built and tested in CERN H2 beamline. The prototype is designed to enable simultaneous tests of different readout options for the four anode upgrade PMTs, new front-end electronics design and new cabling. The response of the PMTs with different readout options is uniform and the background response is minimal. Multi-channel readout options further enhance the background elimination. Passing all the electronics, mechanical and physics tests, the readout box proves to be capable of providing the forward hadron calorimeter operations requirements in the upgrade era.

  3. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)


    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  4. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.


    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  5. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler]. (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M


    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures. (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong


    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)


    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  8. Altruism by age and social proximity. (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  9. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G


    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  10. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh


    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  11. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  12. Altruism by age and social proximity (United States)


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  13. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel


    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  14. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  15. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.


    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  16. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  17. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  18. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng


    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  19. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  20. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes. (United States)

    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J


    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  1. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  2. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh


    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  3. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  4. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  5. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion. (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian


    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  6. Printing of the year book, carton boxes and printed envelopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 18, 2018 ... 1. Title: PRINTING AND SUPPLY OF THE YEAR BOOK - 2018 AND CARTON BOXES ALONG WITH PRINTED. ENVELOPES. Description a) Book size: : 140 X 215 mm / 22.5 cm x 15 cm (Trim Size) b) No. of Pages. : 340 + 4 in DOUBLE COLOUR c) Inner Pages. Matt Art 100 GSM. 2) Natural shade (NS), ...

  7. Pandora's Box: Academic Perceptions of Student Plagiarism in Writing (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy


    Plagiarism is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora's box--the elements contained inside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by academic members of staff to discuss student plagiarism openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we, as teachers, face when dealing with student…

  8. Efficient approximation of black-box functions and Pareto sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, G.


    In the case of time-consuming simulation models or other so-called black-box functions, we determine a metamodel which approximates the relation between the input- and output-variables of the simulation model. To solve multi-objective optimization problems, we approximate the Pareto set, i.e. the

  9. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei


    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  10. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes. (United States)


    ... are as follows: (1) Strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multi-wall) must be... suitable material may be used. (3) Manufacturing joints. (i) Manufacturing joints in the bodies of boxes must be— (A) Taped; (B) Lapped and glued; or (C) Lapped and stitched with metal staples. (ii) Lapped...

  11. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge


    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors are ...

  12. The Box Model and the Acoustic Sounder, a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik


    Concentrations of SO2 in a large city during a subsidence situation are predicted as a function of time by means of a simple box model and the predictions are compared to actual SO2 concentration measurements. The agreement between model results and measurements is found to be excellent. The model...

  13. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes. (United States)


    ... carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment or... carbon black content does not exceed 2 percent by mass or if the pigment content does not exceed 3...

  14. A QQ→QQ planar double box in canonical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Bianchi


    Full Text Available We consider a planar double box with four massive external momenta and two massive internal propagators. We derive the system of differential equations for the relevant master integrals, cast it in canonical form, write it as a dlog form and solve it in terms of iterated integrals up to depth four.

  15. The energetics of semicontact 3 x 2-min amateur boxing. (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Leithäuser, Renate M; Beneke, Ralph


    The energy expenditure of amateur boxing is unknown. Total metabolic cost (Wtot) as an aggregate of aerobic (Waer), anaerobic lactic (W[lactate]), and anaerobic alactic (WPCr) energy of a 3 × 2-min semicontact amateur boxing bout was analyzed. Ten boxers (mean ± SD [lower/upper 95% confidence intervals]) age 23.7 ± 4.1 (20.8/26.6) y, height 180.2 ± 7.0 (175.2/185.2) cm, body mass 70.6 ± 5.7 (66.5/74.7) kg performed a semicontact bout against handheld pads created from previously analyzed video footage of competitive bouts. Net metabolic energy was calculated using respiratory gases and blood [lactate]. Waer, 526.0 ± 57.1 (485.1/566.9) kJ, was higher (P amateur boxing is predominantly aerobic. They also highlight the importance of a highly developed aerobic capacity as a prerequisite of a high activity rate during rounds and recovery of the high-energy phosphate system during breaks as interrelated requirements of successful boxing.

  16. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molodova, M.


    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact

  17. Review of Elastic Analysis of Box Girder Bridges | Ezeokpube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of thin-walled box girder bridges has attracted the attention of researchers since the last five decades. A lot of literature has dealt with the analytical formulations as well as experimental investigations. Field studies have increased tremendously in the last decade. So far the agreement between the analytical ...

  18. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine


    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  19. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.


    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  20. Department of Geology University of Ghana, Box LG 58, Legon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.M. AKABZAA", B.K. BANEONG-YAKUBO and T.E.K. ARMAH. Department of Geology University of Ghana, Box LG 58, Legon, Ghana. (Submitted: 12 March 2005; Accepted: 15 August 2005). Abstract. The distribution and sources of mercury in the Ankobra River Basin and the Bonsa River Sub-basin in the. Wassa West ...

  1. Preferences for nest boxes as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, HA; Van Loo, PLP; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    In nature, mice live in burrows with nest chambers where they breed and may hide from predators. In the laboratory, a shelter or refuge is an easily applicable form of enrichment which may enhance the welfare of laboratory mice by giving them more control over their environment. Six nest boxes made

  2. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik


    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  3. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin


    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  4. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus


    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...

  5. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish. (United States)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders; Pålsson, Jonas; Vihtelic, Thomas S; Nilsson, Dan-Eric


    Cubomedusae (box jellyfish) possess a remarkable visual system with 24 eyes distributed in four sensory structures termed rhopalia. Each rhopalium is equipped with six eyes: two pairs of pigment cup eyes and two unpaired lens eyes. Each eye type probably captures specific features of the visual environment. To investigate whether multiple types of photoreceptor cells are present in the rhopalium, and whether the different eye types possess different types of photoreceptors, we have used immunohistochemistry with a range of vertebrate opsin antibodies to label the photoreceptors, and electroretinograms (ERG) to determine their spectral sensitivity. All photoreceptor cells of the two lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Carybdea marsupialis displayed immunoreactivity for an antibody directed against the zebrafish ultraviolet (UV) opsin, but not against any of eight other rhodopsin or cone opsin antibodies tested. In neither of the two species were the pigment cup eyes immunoreactive for any of the opsin antibodies. ERG analysis of the Carybdea lower lens eyes demonstrated a single spectral sensitivity maximum at 485 nm suggesting the presence of a single opsin type. Our data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different and specific visual tasks.

  6. The Popcorn Box Activity and Reasoning about Optimization (United States)

    Whiteley, Walter J.; Mamolo, Ami


    A well-known optimization problem is the Popcorn Box investigation, which involves a movie theater snack container. The problem has been tailored for classroom investigations by the Ontario Association for Mathematics Education. The exploration was designed for students in grades 9 through 12. A common strategy proposed for algebra students is to…

  7. Testing the Box-Cox Parameter for an Integrated Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jian); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractThis paper analyses the constant elasticity of volatility (CEV) model suggested by Chan et al. (1992). The CEV model without mean reversion is shown to be the inverse Box-Cox transformation of integrated processes asymptotically. It is demonstrated that the maximum likelihood estimator

  8. Learning unions of boxes with membership and equivalence queries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goldman, S.A.; Mathias, H.D. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)


    The authors present two algorithms that use membership and equivalence queries to exactly identify the concepts given by the union of s discretized axis-parallel boxes in d-dimensional discretized Euclidean space where there are n discrete values that each coordinate can have. The first algorithm receives at most sd counterexamples and uses time and membership queries polynomial in s and log n for d any constant. Further, all equivalence queries made can be formulated as the union of O(sd log(s)) axis-parallel boxes. Next, they introduce a new complexity measure that better captures the complexity of a union of boxes than simply the number of boxes and dimensions. Their new measure, {sigma}, is the number of segments in the target polyhedron where a segment is a maximum portion of one of the sides of the polyhedron that lies entirely inside or entirely outside each of the other halfspaces defining the polyhedron. They then present an improvement of their first algorithm that uses time and queries polynomial in {sigma} and log n. The hypothesis class used here is decision trees of height at most 2sd. Further they can show that the time and queries used by this algorithm are polynomial in d and log n for s any constant thus generalizing the exact learnability of DNF formulas with a constant number of terms. In fact, this single algorithm is efficient for either s or d constant.

  9. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh


    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  10. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a continuous steel box girder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tae-Hyung Lee


    Feb 7, 2018 ... indicate that the bridge structures equipped with seismic isolation devices (e.g. LRBs) significantly mitigated the damages due to earthquakes. Keywords. Continuous steel box girder bridge; fragility curves; seismic vulnerability assessment; damage state; nonlinear dynamic analysis; lead rubber bearing. 1.

  11. Application of Box-Behnken Design for Optimum Citric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of three factors, temperature, pH and inoculum density on citric acid production was determined using a three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). The BBD was used to develop a statistical model to describe the production of citric acid and the fermentation conditions were then optimised using RSM. The model ...

  12. Evaluating degradation at railway crossings using axle box acceleration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.


    In this paper, we investigate the capability of an axle box acceleration (ABA) system to evaluate the degradation at railway crossings. For this purpose, information from multiple sensors, namely, ABA signals, 3D rail profiles, Global Positioning System (GPS) and tachometer recordings, was

  13. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515 Section 178.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriente...

  14. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  15. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing. (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian


    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  16. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara


    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  17. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography. (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J


    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  18. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study. (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür


    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  19. Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan


    The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes

  20. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member


    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane


    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  1. Use of proximal operator graph solver for radiation therapy inverse treatment planning. (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Pelizzari, Charles; Belcher, Andrew H; Grelewicz, Zachary; Wiersma, Rodney D


    Most radiation therapy optimization problems can be formulated as an unconstrained problem and solved efficiently by quasi-Newton methods such as the Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. However, several next generation planning techniques such as total variation regularization- based optimization and MV+kV optimization, involve constrained or mixed-norm optimization, and cannot be solved by quasi-Newton methods. Using standard optimization algorithms on such problems often leads to prohibitively long optimization times and large memory requirements. This work investigates the use of a recently developed proximal operator graph solver (POGS) in solving such radiation therapy optimization problems. Radiation therapy inverse treatment planning was formulated as a graph form problem, and the proximal operators of POGS for quadratic optimization were derived. POGS was exploited for the first time to impose hard dose constraints along with soft constraints in the objective function. The solver was applied to several clinical treatment sites (TG119, liver, prostate, and head&neck), and the results were compared to the solutions obtained by other commercial and non-commercial optimizers. For inverse planning optimization with nonnegativity box constraints on beamlet intensity, the speed of POGS can compete with that of LBFGSB in some situations. For constrained and mixed-norm optimization, POGS is about one or two orders of magnitude faster than the other solvers while requiring less computer memory. POGS was used for solving inverse treatment planning problems involving constrained or mixed-norm formulation on several example sites. This approach was found to improve upon standard solvers in terms of computation speed and memory usage, and is capable of solving traditionally difficult problems, such as total variation regularization-based optimization and combined MV+kV optimization. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  3. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M


    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  4. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  5. Simultaneous determination of the bilirubin oxidation end products Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Seidel, Raphael A; Kahnes, Marcel; Bauer, Michael; Pohnert, Georg


    Bilirubin oxidation end products (BOXes) appear upon endogenous heme degradation and can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid after hemorrhagic stroke. BOXes are assumed to contribute to delayed cerebral vasospasm and secondary loss of brain tissue. Here, we present a validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the sensitive determination of the regio-isomers Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum. We found that Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B appear in serum of healthy volunteers. The sample preparation includes the addition of 5-bromonicotinamide as internal standard and protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Baseline-separation was achieved on a C-18 column with a binary solvent gradient of formic acid in water/acetonitrile at 1 mL/min within a total analysis time of 17 min. Using single reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode, the linear working ranges were 2.74-163 pg/μL (Z-BOX A) and 2.12-162.4 pg/μL (Z-BOX B) with R(2)>0.995. Intra- and inter-day precisions were human serum were determined by standard addition. The photolability of both analytes was demonstrated. This method enables to monitor Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B as a prerequisite to systematically study the biological significance of higher order metabolites of heme degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proximity to urban parks and mental health. (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah


    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  7. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings... comment on the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes and accessories. The FAA has posted...

  8. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus. (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel


    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  9. Signals emanating from the membrane proximal region of the thrombopoietin receptor (mpl) support hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Ibarra, Yessenia M; Lodish, Harvey F


    Studies using thrombopoietin -/- (TPO(-/-)) or TPO receptor, mpl(-/-) mice have established a critical role for TPO/mpl signaling in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development. In this study, we further dissected mpl signaling in both megakaryopoiesis and HSC function, using mice bearing a truncated mpl receptor lacking the distal 60 amino acids (Delta60). This deletion removes three major signaling tyrosines on the mpl cytoplasmic domain, but retains the membrane proximal Box1 and Box2 domains required for JAK2 activation. Competitive bone marrow transplantations (BMT) and serial BMTs were performed to study HSC function. Western blot analysis was used to study TPO-stimulated signaling pathways. BM cell cultures in the presence of TPO were used to study megakaryocyte development. In agreement with prior findings, we show that Delta60 BM cells cultured in TPO generated normal numbers of megakaryocytes, but with greatly reduced ploidy. As expected from the deletion of three signaling tyrosine residues, freshly isolated Delta60 megakaryocytes showed marked reduction in all known TPO-stimulated signaling pathways tested, including signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) 5, Stat3, Akt, and p42/44 mitogen-activated kinase. We found that Delta60 mice displayed normal short-term (ST-HSC) activities and marginally compromised long-term (LT-HSC) stem cell activities in primary transplantation. In addition, Delta60 mice supported HSC self-renewal for at least two serial BMTs. Our data reveal a pivotal role for an unknown signal emanating from the membrane proximal region of the mpl receptor or from JAK2 itself in maintaining stem cell activity and self-renewal, in addition to its role in megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis.

  10. PU.1 and a TTTAAA element in the myeloid defensin-1 promoter create an operational TATA box that can impose cell specificity onto TFIID function. (United States)

    Yaneva, Mariana; Kippenberger, Serena; Wang, Nan; Su, Qin; McGarvey, Margaret; Nazarian, Arpi; Lacomis, Lynne; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul


    Defensins are major components of a peptide-based, antimicrobial system in human neutrophils. While packed with peptide, circulating cells contain no defensin-1 (def1) transcripts, except in some leukemia patients and in derivative promyelocytic leukemia cell lines. Expression is modulated by serum factors, mediators of inflammation, and kinase activators and inhibitors, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. A minimal def1 promoter drives transcription in HL-60 cells under control of PU.1 and a def1-binding protein ("D1BP"), acting through, respectively, proximal (-22/-19) and distal (-62/-59) GGAA elements. In this study, we identify D1BP, biochemically and functionally, as GA-binding protein (GABP)alpha/GABPbeta. Whereas GABP operates as an essential upstream activator, PU.1 assists the flanking "TTTAAA" element (-32/-27), a "weak" but essential TATA box, to bring TBP/TFIID to the transcription start site. PU.1 thus imparts a degree of cell specificity to the minimal promoter and provides a potential link between a number of signaling pathways and TFIID. However, a "strong" TATA box ("TATAAA") eliminates the need for the PU.1 binding site and for PU.1, but not for GABP. As GABP is widely expressed, a strong TATA box thus alleviates promyelocytic cell specificity of the def1 promoter. These findings suggest how the myeloid def1 promoter may have evolutionarily acquired its current properties.

  11. Fauna using nest boxes in four timber types in eastern Texas (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph


    Occupancy of 240 nest boxes in pure pine, pine-hardwood, upland hardwood, and bottomland hardwood forests (60 boxes in each forest type) were monitored for six years on the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches County in eastern Texas. Three boxes were placed at twenty sites in each forest type. Initially, each site had a box with 3.2, 4.7, or 5.7 cm...

  12. Visual pigment in the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie


    O'Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders; Marshall, Justin N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Ekström, Peter; Skogh, Charlotta; Nilsson, Dan-Eric


    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible...

  13. 76 FR 40849 - Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations (United States)


    ... 111 Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Proposed... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 508.4 to allow Post Office TM (PO) Box fee groups to be merged due to... , with a subject line of ``PO Box Fee Group for Merged Locations.'' Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR...

  14. Autoantibodies to high mobility group box 1 in patients with Incomplete and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, F.; De Leeuw, K.; Horst, G.; Maas, F.; Beijeren, D.V.; Bijzet, J.; Heeringa, P.; Limburg, P.C.; Westra, J.


    Introduction. High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) is involved in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, the role of autoantibodies to HMGB1 is unclear. Therefore levels of anti-HMGB1 and their reactivity to HMGB1 BoxA and BoxB were examined in association with disease

  15. Is Think Outside the Box 21st Century Code for Imagination, Innovation, Creativity, Critical Thinking, Intuition? (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon


    It is the authors' contention that there is no such thing as "thinking outside the box." However, the term has become an iconic phrase for a generation. The discussion presents the authors' thoughts on why there is no box in which to think outside. If there is a box, then accidental learning would never exist for students.

  16. The Use of a Pica Box in Reducing Pica Behavior in a Student with Autism. (United States)

    Hirsch, Nancy; Myles, Brenda Smith


    A pica box (containing items safe to chew) was used as an intervention with a 10-year-old autistic girl with pica behaviors in a special education setting. Evaluation using an ABAB design (varying in availability of the pica box) found a decrease in pica attempts when the pica box was available to the student. (DB)

  17. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...

  18. Limit theorems for the number of occupied boxes in the Bernoulli sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.; Marynych, O.


    The Bernoulli sieve is a version of the classical `balls-in-boxes' occupancy scheme, in which random frequencies of in¯nitely many boxes are produced by a multiplicative renewal process, also known as the residual allocation model or stick-breaking. We focus on the number Kn of boxes occupied by at

  19. Combining Multiple External Representations and Refutational Text: An Intervention on Learning to Interpret Box Plots (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Kempen, Goya; Ceulemans, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim


    Box plots are frequently misinterpreted and educational attempts to correct these misinterpretations have not been successful. In this study, we used two instructional techniques that seemed powerful to change the misinterpretation of the area of the box in box plots, both separately and in combination, leading to three experimental conditions,…

  20. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel De la Sen


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  1. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  2. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome (United States)

    ... can range from mild to severe. In particular, vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) ... Some affected individuals have an unusually large head size ( macrocephaly ). People with proximal 18q deletion syndrome often ...

  4. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park. (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana


    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  5. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  6. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  7. [A case of proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the perineum]. (United States)

    Murashima, Takaya; Kamibeppu, Toyoharu; Hiromasa, Tukino; Mukai, Syoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki


    Epithelioid sarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms which occur more often in young people. They tend to relapse, metastatize and show poor prognosis. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcomas arise from the more proximal part of body and are more malignant than distal-type epithelioid sarcomas. We present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma which occurred in the perineum. A 24-year-old male visited our hospital with the chief complaint of pain in the perineum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor 30×23×17 mm in diameter in the perineal region. The tumor was excised regionally and the pathological examination with immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. The patient is free of recurrence and metastasis one year after local excision.

  8. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  9. TETRAPOLIS - an exercise in building the complexities of proximity space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Blidariu; Diana Giurea


    ... student’s intuitive ways for understanding these vicinities, their physical and symbolic proximities, through participatory tactics and certain poetic/architectural tools required in the phenomenological build-up of space...

  10. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric


    Box jellyfish carry an elaborate visual system consisting of 24 eyes, which they use for driving a number of behaviours. However, it is not known how visual input controls the swimming behaviour. In this study we exposed the Caribbean box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora to simple visual stimuli...... and recorded changes in their swimming behaviour. Animals were tethered in a small experimental chamber, where we could control lighting conditions. The behaviour of the animals was quantified by tracking the movements of the bell, using a high-speed camera. We found that the animals respond predictably...... their bell in such a way that, if not tethered, they would turn and swim away from the dark area. We conclude that the visual system of T. cystophora has a predictable effect on swimming behaviour....

  11. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann


    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki


    Full Text Available The paper refers to the registration of road events by a modern device called EDR – black box for all types of the motor vehicles. The device records data concerning vehicle’s technical condition, the way it was driven and RTS. The recorder may be used in private and commercial cars, taxies, buses and trucks. The recorder may serve the purpose of a neutral witness for the police, courts and insurance firms, for which it will facilitate making the reconstruction of the road accidents events and will provide a proof for those who caused them. The device will bring efficient driving, which will significantly contribute to decreasing the number of road accidents and limiting the environmental pollution. In the end in the last year German parliament backed a proposal to the European Commission to put black boxes, which gather information from vehicles involved in accidents, in all the new cars from 2015 on.

  13. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation. (United States)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric


    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Box-Cox normal model for response times. (United States)

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P


    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  15. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.


    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.


    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  16. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture


    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D


    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  17. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination


    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...

  18. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  19. Partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome: a new case. (United States)

    Nucaro, A; Faedda, A; Cao, A; Boccone, L


    We report a case of partial proximal trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) performed with whole chromosome 10 specific painting and specific yac clones. The phenotypic findings, compared to those found in other published cases with the same karyotype, support the recognition of a distinctive partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome (10q11-->q22).

  20. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.


    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  1. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  2. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology


    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben


    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitatio...

  3. [Biomechanical study of percutaneous pinning as the treatment of proximal humerus fractures]. (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-yan; Wang, Man-yi; Rong, Guo-wei


    To investigate the influence on fracture stability by different pin construct during percutaneous pinning for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Eighteen pairs (36) adult fresh-frozen humeri were match-paired and divided into 4 groups. Dual-energy bone density scan had been used in order to rule out the influence by different degrees of osteoporosis of the cadaver. Two-part surgical neck fracture model was carried out unanimously in all 36 humeri. Four terminal threaded pins (2.5 mm in diameter) were used in fixation for all specimen. Parallel type pinning (box type) were carried out in 2 groups and convergent type pinning (fan shape) in the other 2 groups. Instron5566 biomechanical tester was applied in determining both anti-shear and anti-torsion ultimate load of each specimen. There was no statistical difference between parallel pin construct and convergent construct in regard of anti-shear resistance (P = 0.73). But by mean of anti-torsion resistance, the parallel construct had significant advantage over the convergent construct (P = 0.04). According to our biomechanical data, parallel pin construct seems to have better torsional stability. We suggest that parallel pin fixation should be applied whenever possible. Convergent pin construct should be considered when parallel construct is not possible or the distance between pins are too small (< 1 cm).

  4. Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney. (United States)

    Sasaki, Motohiro; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Tetsuya; Inagi, Reiko; Seki, George; Goto, Moritaka; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Jomori, Takahito; Kadowaki, Takashi


    Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва


    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  6. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.


    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  7. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifah, E., E-mail: [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)


    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  8. A Note on Implementing Box-Cox Quantile Regression


    Wilke, Ralf A.; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Zhang, Xuan


    The Box-Cox quantile regression model using the two stage method introduced by Chamberlain (1994) and Buchinsky (1995) provides an attractive extension of linear quantile regression techniques. However, a major numerical problem exists when implementing this method which has not been addressed so far in the literature. We suggest a simple solution modifying the estimator slightly. This modification is easy to implement. The modified estimator is still [square root] n-consistent and its asympt...

  9. Packing Infinite Number of Cubes in a Finite Volume Box (United States)

    Yao, Haishen; Wajngurt, Clara


    Packing an infinite number of cubes into a box of finite volume is the focus of this article. The results and diagrams suggest two ways of packing these cubes. Specifically suppose an infinite number of cubes; the side length of the first one is 1; the side length of the second one is 1/2 , and the side length of the nth one is 1/n. Let n approach…

  10. Two-Black Box Concept for Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Morag Kristin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We have created a possible solution to meeting the requirements of certification/authentication while still employing complicated criteria. Technical solutions to protecting information from the host in an inspection environment needs to be assessed by those with specific expertise but, LANL can still study the verification problem. The two-black box framework developed provides another potential solution to the confidence vs. certification paradox.

  11. Box & Jenkins Model Identification:A Comparison of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a presentation of a comparison of a neuro-fuzzy back propagation network and Forecast automatic model Identification to identify automatically Box & Jenkins non seasonal models.Recently some combinations of neural networks and fuzzy logic technologies have being used to deal with uncertain and subjective problems. It is concluded on the basis of the obtained results that this type of approach is very powerful to be used.

  12. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai


    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  13. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation. (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E


    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  14. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas


    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  15. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.


    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  16. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.


    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  17. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids. (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller. (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar


    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  19. Impact attenuation of protective boxing and taekwondo headgear. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, David M; Fife, Gabriel P


    This study aimed to compare the impact attenuation performance of boxing and taekwondo headgear in terms of peak linear and rotational acceleration. To measure the impact attenuation of headgear, a standardized (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F-2397) martial arts headgear striker was used to impart impacts to a 50th Percentile Male Hybrid III Crash Test Dummy head and neck complex. Two boxing (Adidas and Greenhill) and two taekwondo (Adidas and Nike) headgear, approved by the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), were selected. Each of the selected headgear was fitted to the Hybrid III head and subsequently subjected to five impacts at the front and side with a maximum impact interim time of 60 seconds by the rotating striker at 8 ± 0.3 m/s. Linear and rotational acceleration were recorded at 10,000 Hz. There were significant interactions of the impact location and brand on the rotational acceleration, F(3,40) = 6.7, p headgear brand F(3,40) = 9.9, p headgear tested failed the ASTM high impact test requirement to reduce the linear acceleration to below a threshold of 150 g. Further development of headgear to reduce impact linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes should be called for by the relevant sport governing bodies and initiated by headgear manufactures.

  20. Thermo-mechanical Design Methodology for ITER Cryodistribution cold boxes (United States)

    Shukla, Vinit; Patel, Pratik; Das, Jotirmoy; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Chang, Hyun-Sik; Sarkar, Biswanath


    The ITER cryo-distribution (CD) system is in charge of proper distribution of the cryogen at required mass flow rate, pressure and temperature level to the users; namely the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CPs). The CD system is also capable to use the magnet structures as a thermal buffer in order to operate the cryo-plant as much as possible at a steady state condition. A typical CD cold box is equipped with mainly liquid helium (LHe) bath, heat exchangers (HX’s), cryogenic valves, filter, heaters, cold circulator, cold compressor and process piping. The various load combinations which are likely to occur during the life cycle of the CD cold boxes are imposed on the representative model and impacts on the system are analyzed. This study shows that break of insulation vacuum during nominal operation (NO) along with seismic event (Seismic Level-2) is the most stringent load combination having maximum stress of 224 MPa. However, NO+SMHV (Séismes Maximaux Historiquement Vraisemblables = Maximum Historically Probable Earthquakes) load combination is having the least safety margin and will lead the basis of the design of the CD system and its sub components. This paper presents and compares the results of different load combinations which are likely to occur on a typical CD cold box.