Sample records for provoking public discussions

  1. Responses to scenarios that may provoke acts of conflict and aggression among the general public: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Lowe, Nathan C; May, David C


    The purpose of this article is to use empirical research and theory to investigate the context that may provoke individuals to engage in acts of conflict and aggression. A random sample of the general public from a midsouthern state was surveyed to explore this inquiry. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of reaction to a number of situations that often lead people to engage in conflict and/or aggression with other people. Several sociodemographic factors served as control variables in the study. The findings of the Pearson product-moment correlations suggest that respondents were more likely to report that they would respond more aggressively as the situations presented to them were perceived as being more physically threatening to them and/or their loved ones. Also, gender and age were the most significant predictors of engagement in acts of conflict and aggression in the multiple ordinal least squares regression analyses. Strengths and drawbacks of the study and direction of future research are also discussed.

  2. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope. (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  3. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children (United States)

    Laine, Sonja


    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers'…

  4. Engaging Communities using a MOOC combined with Public Library Discussions (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.; Morrill, J.; Handlos, Z.; Morrill, S.


    A massive open online course, or MOOC, is an noncredit education activity that delivers learning content to anyone with access to the Internet. Individual courses are generally free of charge, while a certificate can have small costs. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has exploring the use of MOOC as part of its Wisconsin Idea. In the 2015, a series of MOOCs focusing on the environment were offered via Coursera. One of those MOOCS was "Changing Weather and Climate of the Great Lakes Region." This 4-week course features a new season each week through short lectures and activities covering Great Lakes weather, observed changes in the climate, and societal impacts of climate change. ( The MOOC conveyed information from NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Weather-Ready Nation initiative as well as findings from the recent National Climate Assessment and the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts (WICCI). The course was organized by members of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies; material included discussion, videos for lectures as well as guest lecturers. There were also weekly visits by the course team to 21 public libraries throughout the state of WI. The library collaboration as facilitated by WiLS (Wisconsin Library Services -, who organized the application and selection process. The public libraries hosted local residents and course instructors in discussions of course content in the context of their communities as well as strategies to mitigate the climate change impacts. This presentation will discuss the public library discussions experience and the our evaluation of the impact of including a face-to-face component in the MOOC activity on engagement and learning.

  5. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives


    Henzell,Helen; Berzins,Karen; Langford,Jennifer


    Helen Henzell,1,2 Karen Berzins,1,3 Jennifer P Langford4 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Carlton, 2Action Centre, Family Planning Victoria, Melbourne, 3Dermatology/Vulval Conditions Clinic, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, 4Clifton Hill Physiotherapy, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifia...

  6. Noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag


    We study the noncoherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading wireless channels, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI). We present two results. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Discussing Occupy Wall Street on Twitter: longitudinal network analysis of equality, emotion, and stability of public discussion. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Pian-Pian; Zhu, Jonathan J H


    To evaluate the quality of public discussion about social movements on Twitter and to understand the structural features and evolution of longitudinal discussion networks, we analyze tweets about the Occupy Wall Street movement posted over the course of 16 days by investigating the relationship between inequality, emotion, and the stability of online discussion. The results reveal that (1) the discussion is highly unequal for both initiating discussions and receiving conversations; (2) the stability of the discussion is much higher for receivers than for initiators; (3) the inequality of online discussions moderates the stability of online discussions; and (4) on an individual level, there is no significant relationship between emotion and political discussion. The implications help evaluate the quality of public discussion, and to understand the relationship between online discussion and social movements.

  8. discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Poznyak


    Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.

  9. Management of provoked seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha


    Full Text Available A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure. This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED, that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST, AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.

  10. Management of provoked seizure. (United States)

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee


    A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis) or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure). This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED), that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT) may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.

  11. Cultural circumcision in EU public hospitals--an ethical discussion. (United States)

    Brusa, Margherita; Barilan, Y Michael


    The paper explores the ethical aspects of introducing cultural circumcision of children into the EU public health system. We reject commonplace arguments against circumcision: considerations of good medical practice, justice, bodily integrity, autonomy and the analogy from female genital mutilation. From the unique structure of patient-medicine interaction, we argue that the incorporation of cultural circumcision into EU public health services is a kind of medicalization, which does not fit the ethos of universal healthcare. However, we support a utilitarian argument that finds hospital based circumcision safer than non-medicalized alternatives. The argument concerning medicalization and the utilitarian argument both rely on preliminary empirical data, which depend on future validation

  12. We want to be provoked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen


    are often considered negative. But new views or knowledge are often provocative. To my opinion this is a good and needed provocation. For-given-taken professional values need to be questioned: as well as the usual roles of residents and professionals in the ongoing regeneration projects. My contribution......The title is a quotation from one of the meetings between residents and professionals during the Holmbladsgade regeneration process. During a discussion of future projects somebody asked what the residents expected from the professionals. We want to be provoked a resident answered. Provocations...

  13. Assault as a public health problem: discussion paper. (United States)

    Shepherd, J P; Farrington, D P


    Formal collaboration between epidemiologists, A & E doctors, family practitioners, criminologists and the police is necessary so that criminal justice and public health approaches to the causes and prevention of interpersonal violence can be co-ordinated. Computerized record keeping in A & E departments, incorporating programmes dedicated to assaultive and accidental injury, is an important starting point and this needs to be organized in a systematic way so that comparisons with data collected by police and in national crime surveys can be made. Research is necessary to identify risk groups and to draw causal inferences. Criminal injury is an increasing cause of temporary and permanent handicap and death in many countries and it merits formal epidemiological research, funded by national and international health agencies. This should include the evaluation of primary and secondary prevention programmes in A & E departments and in the community. On the 10th anniversary of the publication of the Black report on inequalities in health, it is apposite to consider that high rates of intentional injury as well as illness are closely linked to poverty and that violence leaves permanent physical and psychological scars. A deprived young urban male may suffer 60 years of incapacity as a result of injury and subsequent further reductions in quality of life and self-esteem. In comparison with child abuse, the causes, identification, prevention and management of assault involving adults are not yet established as a community health issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives. (United States)

    Henzell, Helen; Berzins, Karen; Langford, Jennifer P


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold: firstly, to summarize current literature concerning PVD pathophysiology and management; secondly, to provide a framework for clinicians unfamiliar with vulvar medicine to understand and manage PVD.

  15. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzell H


    Full Text Available Helen Henzell,1,2 Karen Berzins,1,3 Jennifer P Langford4 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Carlton, 2Action Centre, Family Planning Victoria, Melbourne, 3Dermatology/Vulval Conditions Clinic, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, 4Clifton Hill Physiotherapy, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold

  16. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives (United States)

    Henzell, Helen; Berzins, Karen; Langford, Jennifer P


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold: firstly, to summarize current literature concerning PVD pathophysiology and management; secondly, to provide a framework for clinicians unfamiliar with vulvar medicine to understand and manage PVD. PMID:28979166

  17. Exploring Public Attitudes Towards Approaches to Discussing Costs in the Clinical Encounter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danis, Marion; Sommers, Roseanna; Logan, Jean; Weidmer, Beverly; Chen, Shirley; Goold, Susan; Pearson, Steven; McGlynn, Elizabeth

    ... is uncertain.To explore public attitudes toward doctor–patient discussions of insurer and out-of-pocket costs and to examine whether several possible communication strategies might enhance patient receptivity to discussing costs...

  18. Provoking, disturbing, hacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh


    The article is a discussion of works by two Danish composers who both, with self-constructed instruments challenge computer music both as genre, the understanding and use of conventional technology and the relation to history. At first glance, the use of the homemade instruments appears as a comm...

  19. Organizational Statement for EPA-sponsored Public Meetings to Discuss Pesticide Exposure Modeling (United States)

    Information about EMPM meetings: Vision, Mission Statement, Organization, Meeting Administration and Public Meeting Attendance. Purpose is to discuss and exchange information regarding technical model-related pesticide exposure issues.

  20. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock


    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  1. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Draft Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C199 Establishing the Minimum... Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will...

  2. The nursing profession : public image, self-concept and professional identity. A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie

    Aim To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Background Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always

  3. The nursing profession: public image, self-concept and professional identity. A discussion paper. (United States)

    ten Hoeve, Yvonne; Jansen, Gerard; Roodbol, Petrie


    To discuss the actual public image of nurses and other factors that influence the development of nurses' self-concept and professional identity. Nurses have become healthcare professionals in their own right who possess a great deal of knowledge. However, the public does not always value the skills and competences nurses have acquired through education and innovation. Discussion paper. We identified 1216 relevant studies by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases in the period 1997-2010. Finally, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. The included studies show that the actual public image of nursing is diverse and incongruous. This image is partly self-created by nurses due to their invisibility and their lack of public discourse. Nurses derive their self-concept and professional identity from their public image, work environment, work values, education and traditional social and cultural values. Nurses should work harder to communicate their professionalism to the public. Social media like the Internet and YouTube can be used to show the public what they really do. To improve their public image and to obtain a stronger position in healthcare organizations, nurses need to increase their visibility. This could be realized by ongoing education and a challenging work environment that encourages nurses to stand up for themselves. Furthermore, nurses should make better use of strategic positions, such as case manager, nurse educator or clinical nurse specialist and use their professionalism to show the public what their work really entails. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Breastfeeding (Un)Covered: Narratives of Public Breastfeeding on Romanian Discussion Forums. (United States)

    Tăut, Diana


    The aim of this study was to explore the construction of breastfeeding in public, as depicted in the stories and the opinions of women participating in discussions on public forums. There were 8 discussion forums selected, from which 769 messages were subjected to a narrative analysis further informed by recurrent themes identified in the literature and across messages. The emerging narratives were grouped based on their valence, and three broader categories of themes were formed, highlighting the predominant tone towards breastfeeding in public. The three broader themes, 'public restraint of breast(feeding) as acknowledgement of the cultural status-quo', 'permission within boundaries' and 'breast(feeding) as a human right', depict various meanings and experiences associated with public breastfeeding. People seeing breasts as mainly a cultural symbol of sexuality were more against public breastfeeding and more in favour of covering up or striving to discretion. Those arguing that breastfeeding is no more than exercising a fundamental right and pleading for breast as a primary maternal symbol were more in favour of breastfeeding in public. Aiming to understand personal and social perspectives on public breastfeeding is informative for understanding cultural differences in breastfeeding rates but also for designing effective interventions to promote it.

  5. 77 FR 37472 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Workshop To Discuss Implementing Incorporation by Reference... (United States)


    ... public workshop will include an overview of the issue in the morning, and a panel discussion by various... standards are updated approximately every three to five years to reflect improvements to previous technology... write and promulgate rules would increase significantly if the government created its own standards...

  6. 76 FR 10810 - Public Workshop to Discuss Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 Public Workshop to Discuss Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear... has been in place for about 11 years and applies to management of radioactive waste within the DOE... radioactive waste management decision-making. DOE recently started a comprehensive revision of Order 435.1...

  7. Conversation and compliance: role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in public communication campaigns. (United States)

    Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Chaudhuri, Sonal T; Lapsansky, Charlotte; Bhanot, Anurudra; Murphy, Sheila T


    This study explores the role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in a public health campaign, the BBC Condom Normalization Campaign, designed to promote conversation and change the public perception of condom use in India. Drawing upon the integrative model of behavioral prediction, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and descriptive norms were predicted to relate to behavioral intentions to use condoms. It is important to note that the valence of discussion was hypothesized to relate to each of these more proximal predictors. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the model on 3 separate samples of Indian men between the ages of 15 and 49 years: (a) high-risk men who had sex with nonspouses; (b) low-risk, sexually inactive, unmarried men; and (c) low-risk, monogamous, married men. Results were similar for low- and high-risk audiences, with valence of discussion about condoms predicting condom-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective and descriptive social norms with respect to condom use, which, in turn, predicted behavioral intent to use condoms. These findings underscore the need to take not only the frequency but also the valence of interpersonal discussion into account when assessing the effect of health campaigns. Implications for theory and design of future public communication campaigns are explored.

  8. Exploring public attitudes towards approaches to discussing costs in the clinical encounter. (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Sommers, Roseanna; Logan, Jean; Weidmer, Beverly; Chen, Shirley; Goold, Susan; Pearson, Steven; Donley, Greer; McGlynn, Elizabeth


    Patients' willingness to discuss costs of treatment alternatives with their physicians is uncertain. To explore public attitudes toward doctor-patient discussions of insurer and out-of-pocket costs and to examine whether several possible communication strategies might enhance patient receptivity to discussing costs with their physicians. Focus group discussions and pre-discussion and post-discussion questionnaires. Two hundred and eleven insured individuals with mean age of 48 years, 51 % female, 34 % African American, 27 % Latino, and 50 % with incomes below 300 % of the federal poverty threshold, participated in 22 focus groups in Santa Monica, CA and in the Washington, DC metro area. Attitudes toward discussing out-of-pocket and insurer costs with physicians, and towards physicians' role in controlling costs; receptivity toward recommended communication strategies regarding costs. Participants expressed more willingness to talk to doctors about personal costs than insurer costs. Older participants and sicker participants were more willing to talk to the doctor about all costs than younger and healthier participants (OR = 1.8, p = 0.004; OR = 1.6, p = 0.027 respectively). Participants who face cost-related barriers to accessing health care were in greater agreement than others that doctors should play a role in reducing out-of-pocket costs (OR = 2.4, p = 0.011). Participants did not endorse recommended communication strategies for discussing costs in the clinical encounter. In contrast, participants stated that trust in one's physician would enhance their willingness to discuss costs. Perceived impediments to discussing costs included rushed, impersonal visits, and clinicians who are insufficiently informed about costs. This study suggests that trusting relationships may be more conducive than any particular discussion strategy to facilitating doctor-patient discussions of health care costs. Better public understanding of how medical

  9. Words and Deeds: Presidential Discussion of Minority Health, Public Policies, and Minority Perceptions. (United States)

    Gillion, Daniel Q


    What are the different rhetorical approaches presidents used to address minority health inequality? More importantly, how have the efforts of presidents impacted minorities' perceptions of health? I offer a historical perspective that describes the three major periods of presidential engagement in discussions of minority health since the 1960s. I couple this historical overview with an empirical assessment that introduces a novel and extensive dataset of every presidential discussion of minority health spanning five decades (1960-2016). This study finds that, since the early 1990s, presidents have transported their discussion of minority health beyond the confines of Washington, DC, traveling to speak to local communities throughout the nation that have a disproportionate number of blacks and Latinos. Moreover, a presidential discussion of minority health leads to greater salience on this issue and thus increases public health awareness. This work suggests that presidential messaging on minority health provides a framework for minority groups to understand and discuss the health disparities that may plague their communities. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  10. 75 FR 55575 - Joint Public Roundtable To Discuss Data for Swaps and Security-Based Swaps, Swap Data... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Joint Public Roundtable To Discuss Data for Swaps and Security- Based Swaps, Swap Data Repositories, Security-Based Swap Data Repositories, and Real-Time Public..., security-based swap data repositories, and real-time public reporting that would help inform the discussion...

  11. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il


    This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.

  12. Non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag


    We study the Rayleigh fading non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of any channel. We present two results. At high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low-SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Secret-Key Agreement with Public Discussion subject to an Amplitude Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen


    This paper considers the problem of secret-key agreement with public discussion subject to a peak power constraint A on the channel input. The optimal input distribution is proved to be discrete with finite support. To overcome the computationally heavy search for the optimal discrete distribution, several suboptimal schemes are proposed and shown numerically to perform close to the capacity. Moreover, lower and upper bounds for the secret-key capacity are provided and used to prove that the secret-key capacity converges for asymptotic high values of A, to the secret-key capacity with an average power constraint A2. Finally, when the amplitude constraint A is small (A ! 0), the secret-key capacity is proved to be asymptotically equal to the capacity of the legitimate user with an amplitude constraint A and no secrecy constraint.

  14. Emotions, Public Opinion, and U.S. Presidential Approval Rates: A 5-Year Analysis of Online Political Discussions (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra; Banchs, Rafael E.; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas


    This article examines how emotional reactions to political events shape public opinion. We analyze political discussions in which people voluntarily engage online to approximate the public agenda: Online discussions offer a natural approach to the salience of political issues and the means to analyze emotional reactions as political events take…

  15. Defensible space in the news: public discussion of a neglected topic (United States)

    Jayne Fingerman Johnson; David N. Bengston; Kristen C. Nelson; David P. Fan


    Managers have an opportunity during times of peak media coverage of wildfire to expand the discussion about defensible space from the current focus on vegetation clearing to include the full range of activities a homeowner can undertake to mitigate damage. Currently, news media discussion of wildfire is overwhelmingly dominated by firefighting, and discussion of...

  16. Ethical Guidelines for Human Communication and Public Discussion: A Gandhian Intercultural Perspective. (United States)

    Bode, Robert A.

    Ethical communication scholars frequently find national popular rhetoric unethical. Some proposed ethical guidelines for the public presentation of ideas call for such elements as habits of search, justice, preference for public versus private motives, respect for dissent, airing of all relevant arguments, and persuasion without coercion or…

  17. Discussions about Contraception or STDs Prior to Sex. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-14 (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Ryan, Suzanne; Manlove, Jennifer


    Since decisions about sexual behavior are made by couples, communication between sexual partners is essential for preventing risky sexual behavior. In particular, teens who discuss contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) with their partners before they engage in sex are more likely to use contraception when they do have sex, which…

  18. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.


    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  19. What do the JAMA editors say when they discuss manuscripts that they are considering for publication? Developing a schema for classifying the content of editorial discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Drummond


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify previously unrecognized aspects of editorial decision-making, we explored the words and phrases that one group of editors used during their meetings. Methods We performed an observational study of discussions at manuscript meetings at JAMA, a major US general medical journal. One of us (KD attended 12 editorial meetings in 2003 as a visitor and took notes recording phrases from discussion surrounding 102 manuscripts. In addition, editors attending the meetings completed a form for each manuscript considered, listing the reasons they were inclined to proceed to the next step in publication and reasons they were not (DR attended 4/12 meetings. We entered the spoken and written phrases into NVivo 2.0. We then developed a schema for classifying the editors' phrases, using an iterative approach. Results Our classification schema has three main themes: science, journalism, and writing. We considered 2,463 phrases, of which 87 related mainly to the manuscript topic and were not classified (total 2,376 classified. Phrases related to science predominated (1,274 or 54%. The editors, most of whom were physicians, also placed major weight on goals important to JAMA's mission (journalism goals such as importance to medicine, strategic emphasis for the journal, interest to the readership, and results (729 or 31% of phrases. About 16% (n = 373 of the phrases used related to writing issues, such as clarity and responses to the referees' comments. Conclusion Classification of editorial discourse provides insight into editorial decision making and concepts that need exploration in future studies.

  20. Using Twitter to Measure Public Discussion of Diseases: A Case Study. (United States)

    Weeg, Christopher; Schwartz, H Andrew; Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina M; Arango, Catalina; Ungar, Lyle


    Twitter is increasingly used to estimate disease prevalence, but such measurements can be biased, due to both biased sampling and inherent ambiguity of natural language. We characterized the extent of these biases and how they vary with disease. We correlated self-reported prevalence rates for 22 diseases from Experian's Simmons National Consumer Study (n=12,305) with the number of times these diseases were mentioned on Twitter during the same period (2012). We also identified and corrected for two types of bias present in Twitter data: (1) demographic variance between US Twitter users and the general US population; and (2) natural language ambiguity, which creates the possibility that mention of a disease name may not actually refer to the disease (eg, "heart attack" on Twitter often does not refer to myocardial infarction). We measured the correlation between disease prevalence and Twitter disease mentions both with and without bias correction. This allowed us to quantify each disease's overrepresentation or underrepresentation on Twitter, relative to its prevalence. Our sample included 80,680,449 tweets. Adjusting disease prevalence to correct for Twitter demographics more than doubles the correlation between Twitter disease mentions and disease prevalence in the general population (from .113 to .258, P Twitter actually referred to the diseases, from 14.89% (3827/25,704) of instances (for stroke) to 99.92% (5044/5048) of instances (for arthritis). Applying ambiguity correction to our Twitter corpus achieves a correlation between disease mentions and prevalence of .208 ( P Twitter, whereas high cholesterol appeared most underrepresented. Twitter is a potentially useful tool to measure public interest in and concerns about different diseases, but when comparing diseases, improvements can be made by adjusting for population demographics and word ambiguity.

  1. The Concept of a Single-sex Optional Discussion Session in Introductory Astronomy at a Publicly Funded University (United States)

    Shawl, S.


    The concept of single-sex education for science and mathematics has recently received renewed discussion in both the popular and professional literature. So important is the topic within higher education that the Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy sponsored a symposium called "Gender & The Higher Education Classroom: Maximizing the Learning Environment" in February 1996 ( jrd4/djgcnf96.htm). The concept is especially controversial in publicly supported educational institutions. The idea of offering an optional discussion session limited to a single sex in a university-level introductory astronomy course at a State-supported school was considered through discussions with a number of faculty and administrators, and through a questionnaire aimed at determining student attitudes toward the concept. The results of the student questionnaire will be presented. (While the questionnaire results will be seen to be in favor of such an optional discussion session, such sessions have not been offered.)

  2. Social media as a platform for health-related public debates and discussions: the Polio vaccine on Facebook. (United States)

    Orr, Daniela; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Landsman, Keren


    Social media can act as an important platform for debating, discussing, and disseminating information about vaccines. Our objectives were to map and describe the roles played by web-based mainstream media and social media as platforms for vaccination-related public debates and discussions during the Polio crisis in Israel in 2013: where and how did the public debate and discuss the issue, and how can these debates and discussions be characterized? Polio-related coverage was collected from May 28 to October 31, 2013, from seven online Hebrew media platforms and the Facebook groups discussing the Polio vaccination were mapped and described. In addition, 2,289 items from the Facebook group "Parents talk about Polio vaccination" were analyzed for socio-demographic and thematic characteristics. The traditional media mainly echoed formal voices from the Ministry of Health. The comments on the Facebook vaccination opposition groups could be divided into four groups: comments with individualistic perceptions, comments that expressed concerns about the safety of the OPV, comments that expressed distrust in the Ministry of Health, and comments denying Polio as a disease. In the Facebook group "Parents talk about the Polio vaccination", an active group with various participants, 321 commentators submitted 2289 comments, with 64 % of the comments written by women. Most (92 %) people involved were parents. The comments were both personal (referring to specific situations) and general in nature (referring to symptoms or wide implications). A few (13 %) of the commentators were physicians (n = 44), who were responsible for 909 (40 %) of the items in the sample. Half the doctors and 6 % of the non-doctors wrote over 10 items each. This Facebook group formed a unique platform where unmediated debates and discussions between the public and medical experts took place. The comments on the social media, as well as the socio-demographic profiles of the commentators, suggest

  3. Recent advances in understanding provoked vestibulodynia [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahinoam Lev-Sagie


    Full Text Available Vulvodynia refers to pain in the vulva of at least 3 months’ duration in the absence of a recognized underlying cause. Provoked, localized vestibulodynia is the term used to describe superficial pain confined to the vulvar vestibule, provoked by touch. This review will focus on provoked vestibulodynia with regard to its suggested causative factors and will discuss the role of inflammation, vulvovaginal infections, mucosal nerve fiber proliferation, hormonal associations, central pain mechanisms, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and genetic factors. Clinical observations, epidemiological studies, and data from basic research emphasize the heterogeneity of vulvar pain syndromes. There is a critical need to perform prospective, longitudinal studies that will allow better diagnostic criteria and subgrouping of patients that would lead to improvements in our understanding of provoked vestibulodynia and its treatment.

  4. Contested embryonic culture in Japan--public discussion, and human embryonic stem cell research in an aging welfare society. (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret


    This article explores the reasons for the lack of a broad discussion on bioethical regulation of human embryonic stem cell research (hESR) in Japan and asks why scientists experience difficulties accessing resources for hESR despite the acclaimed indifference of dominant Japanese culture to embryo research. The article shows how various social actors express their views on the embryo and oocyte donation in terms of dominant Japanese culture, foiled against what is regarded as Western culture. Second, it shows how the lack of concern with hESR should be understood in the context of public health policies and communications and bioethics decision making in Japan. Finally, it interprets the meaning of the embryo in the context of Japan as an aging modern welfare society, explaining how policymakers have come to emphasize the urgency of infertility problems over issues around abortion and embryonic life.

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis provoked by furosemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andżelika Schwann-Majewska


    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of generalized pustules, accompanied by elevated body temperature and neutrophilia. Objective. Presentation of a patient with AGEP provoked by furosemide. Case report. We present a case of a 65-year-old patient diagnosed with and treated for generalized pustular eruption, with fever and changes in laboratory tests. Numerous coexisting medical conditions and a great number of frequently changed drugs (ciprofloxacin, allopurinol, folic acid, calcium carbonate, cyclophosphamide, atorvastatin, betaxolol and furosemide hindered identification of the causative factor. Conclusions. On the basis of the medical history and clinical picture, the patient was diagnosed with generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by furosemide.

  6. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann


    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  7. Secret-key agreement over spatially correlated fast-fading multiple-antenna channels with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen


    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem that we derive. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Finally, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance and provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation in the high power regime.

  8. On the Ergodic Secret-Key Agreement over Spatially Correlated Multiple-Antenna Channels with Public Discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen


    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. We prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Moreover, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance. Finally, we study the system’s performance in the two extreme power regimes. In the high-power regime, we provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation. In the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, we investigate the energy efficiency of the system by determining the minimum energy required for sharing a secret-key bit and the wideband slope while highlighting the impact of correlation matrices.

  9. Hyperventilation provokes symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. (United States)

    Aslam, U; Afzal, S; Syed, Shakir


    Hyperventilation causes respiratory alkalosis. The nervous system is more excitable in alkalosis. This phenomenon can be observed as paraesthesia in fingers and toes as well as around the lips in anxious patients breathing rapidly. We wanted to test this phenomenon on already irritable nerves like the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We deployed 50 patients who came in to the day case unit for carpal tunnel decompression with electro-physiologically proven diagnosis. We devised a test whereby patients were made to hyperventilate under prescribed conditions and repeated Phalen's test and Tinel's sign for comparison. These were compared with a control group chosen randomly among hospital staff. 86% patients had a positive result which was just behind Phalen's test in sensitivity. It was also 100% specific as there were no false positives. Hyperventilation is a phenomenon which provokes carpal tunnel syndrome. Its clinical value remains to be seen due to cumbersome method and probable patient non-compliance but it is a new discovery. It may be useful in other irritable-nerve-syndromes as a test to add to our available armament. It may be an additional factor or a primary reason for nocturnal paraesthesias in CTS patients.

  10. MLA Report on Foreign-Language Education Continues to Provoke Debate (United States)

    Wasley, Paula


    This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…

  11. Communicative Aspects of the Public-Science Relationship Explored: Results of Focus Group Discussions About Biotechnology and Genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Anne M.; Gutteling, Jan M.


    Communication and the way this communication process is perceived by different publics is part of the public-science relationship. This article presents qualitative data with respect to biotechnology and genomics communication and identifies similarities and differences among publics in various

  12. Home-Schooled Students And Their Teachers: Provoking Curriculum Together Through Child-Driven Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. EFFORD


    Full Text Available Child-centered and child-driven learning can provoke the creation of curriculum that is responsive to students’ particular learning needs, is engaging and meaningful, and promotes learner agency. Homeschool settings provide opportunities for parent/educators cognizant of child-centered and child-driven curriculum to meet students’ interests, readiness, growth, and educational drive with responses tailored for each unique situation. This learning space can allow for the relationship between the parent/educator and the student to continually revisit and revitalize learning, expanding on shared experience and potentially spanning the developmental years of the student. The lines between educator and student become blurred as the educator is directed by the unique interests and educational needs of each student. Research into the field of homeschooling curriculum can inspire discussion and innovation in more traditional educational settings. In this paper presentation, the authors will discuss the literature on child-centered and child-driven learning. Next, stories from real homeschools illustrating the co-creation of child- centered curriculum by both the educator/parent and student will be shared. Finally, the presenters will kindle a lively conversation with all participants about the role of students and teachers in curriculum creation, student-centered and student-driven learning in homeschools and in public schools, and imagining the possibilities of both contexts.

  13. Discussion on the Concept of Forest Public Product Based on the Relationship of Modern Population, Resource and Environment


    Zhou, Changchun; Zhang, Enguang


    Based on the unbalanced relationship among modern population, resource and environment, as well as the weak awareness and supply-demand conflict of forest public product, the paper exposed the public product function of forestry and explained its meaning, then evaluated the traditional concepts of forestry, product, and forest products, and finally redefined the extension of forest products. On this basis, the concepts of forestry and public products were elaborated, and the connotation, char...

  14. 75 FR 13646 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed AC 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers... (United States)


    ..., Hand Fire Extinguishers for Use in Aircraft ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal... received regarding proposed advisory circular (AC) 20-42D, Hand Fire Extinguishers for use in Aircraft... extinguishers in aircraft. The proposed AC also identifies three FAA approved replacement agents for Halon 1211...

  15. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues (United States)


    Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may

  16. Public health economics: a systematic review of guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions and discussion of key methodological issues. (United States)

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw


    If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader

  17. Understanding Where Americas Public Discussion Takes Place In Todays Society: Case Studies of Concealed Weapons Carry Reform (United States)


    for allowing U.S. citizens the right to own “weapons of mass killing ,” calling all readers to support new measure of gun control and ban certain...arguing that concealed carry permit holders are a danger to public safety and that mass shootings are taking place by citizens who are legally armed.2...developments, on the other, say about the role and reach of the mass media in American society today? B. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH According to

  18. Public educational policy in Rio Grande do Sul: Indicators for discussion and analysis in the area of the High Abilities/ Giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Joyce Wellausen Vieira


    Full Text Available The actions to settle the proposal of public educational policy in Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil are discussed and analyzed in this paper, based upon Prieto’s indicators (2001, 2002, 2003: legal guidelines; theoretical conception; educational organization and functioning; educational system management; investments in the educational field; and teachers’ working conditions. Finally, a new paradigm of Special Education and the relevance of proposing public policies considering this model are highlighted, as well as the importance of an articulation among the different state departments to reinforce the public policy actions.

  19. A glossary for big data in population and public health: discussion and commentary on terminology and research methods. (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Buote, Richard; Stanley, Kevin


    The volume and velocity of data are growing rapidly and big data analytics are being applied to these data in many fields. Population and public health researchers may be unfamiliar with the terminology and statistical methods used in big data. This creates a barrier to the application of big data analytics. The purpose of this glossary is to define terms used in big data and big data analytics and to contextualise these terms. We define the five Vs of big data and provide definitions and distinctions for data mining, machine learning and deep learning, among other terms. We provide key distinctions between big data and statistical analysis methods applied to big data. We contextualise the glossary by providing examples where big data analysis methods have been applied to population and public health research problems and provide brief guidance on how to learn big data analysis methods. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediane Carolina Peixoto Lopes Maturano


    Full Text Available The present work adopted as theorical and methodological guidance the research of qualitative nature, having as methodological procedure the bibliographical research. It aimed at analysing the Distance Education, direct or indirectly, in its different aspects: theorical, social, historical and political. With this study it is verified how the Distance Education became strong and continues to get stronger, by means of its own historicity and development, to the used and developed technologies, to the legislative contributions promulgated from the decade of 1990 in Brazil, as well as some propositions, in the sense of, contributing for the discussion in the policies of implementing the courses of this modality.

  1. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu


    Full Text Available With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2. This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. The 3rd course of immunochemotherapy was complicated with a thyroid storm manifested by high fever, tachycardia and even transient cardiac arrest. Fortunately, he recovered eventually from this crisis by immediate resuscitation followed by antithyroid dugs. Our case highlights the rare complication of a thyroid storm provoked by IL-2 treatment. Precaution against autoimmune thyroid dysfunction is required during treatment with IL-2 and probably also other kinds of newly-developed immunotherapy to avoid life-threatening complications.

  2. Cyprus; 2011 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Cyprus


    International Monetary Fund


    The 2011 Article IV Consultation report discusses the Cypriot economy, which faces strong headwinds and downside risks owing to financial turbulence in the euro area and the large exposure of Cypriot banks to Greece. Executive Directors noted that Cyprus faces daunting economic challenges in the face of faltering external demand and worsening domestic financial conditions. Directors urged the authorities to act forcefully to restore sound public finances and safeguard the stability of the ban...

  3. Do stages of dentistry training affect anxiety provoking situations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post‑hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students' pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping ...

  4. Foods provoking and alleviating symptoms in gastroparesis: patient experiences. (United States)

    Wytiaz, Victoria; Homko, Carol; Duffy, Frank; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P


    Nutritional counseling for gastroparesis focuses on reduction of meal size, fiber, and fat to control symptoms. The tolerance of gastroparesis patients for particular foods is largely anecdotal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize foods provoking or alleviating gastroparesis symptoms. Gastroparesis patients completed: (1) Demographic Questionnaire; (2) Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms; (3) Food Toleration and Aversion survey asking patients about experiences when eating certain foods utilizing a scale from -3 (greatly worsening symptoms) to +3 (greatly improving symptoms). Descriptive qualities (acidic, fatty, spicy, roughage-based, bitter, salty, bland, and sweet) were assigned to foods. Forty-five gastroparesis patients participated (39 idiopathic gastroparesis). Foods worsening symptoms included: orange juice, fried chicken, cabbage, oranges, sausage, pizza, peppers, onions, tomato juice, lettuce, coffee, salsa, broccoli, bacon, and roast beef. Saltine crackers, jello, and graham crackers moderately improved symptoms. Twelve additional foods were tolerated by patients (not provoking symptoms): ginger ale, gluten-free foods, tea, sweet potatoes, pretzels, white fish, clear soup, salmon, potatoes, white rice, popsicles, and applesauce. Foods provoking symptoms were generally fatty, acidic, spicy, and roughage-based. The foods shown to be tolerable were generally bland, sweet, salty, and starchy. This study identified specific foods that worsen as well as foods that may help alleviate symptoms of gastroparesis. Foods that provoked symptoms differed in quality from foods that alleviated symptoms or were tolerable. The results of this study illustrate specific examples of foods that aggravate or improve symptoms and provide suggestions for a gastroparesis diet.

  5. Are seizures in the setting of sleep deprivation provoked? (United States)

    Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John


    It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank psleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenomenon of isomorphic provoking responses in cases of limited scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talnikova Е.Е.


    Full Text Available The article presents the historical origin of the term "Koebner phenomenon". The literature data reflect the etiology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of isomorphic mechanisms provoking responses in lichen planus, psoriasis, scleroder-ma, syphilis. Variants of the Koebner phenomenon's classifications are given. The clinical cases of limited scleroderma after mechanical injury are described.

  7. Recruitment methods in a clinical trial of provoked vulvodynia: Predictors of enrollment. (United States)

    Bachour, Candi C; Bachmann, Gloria A; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie A; Brown, Candace S


    Successful recruitment in clinical trials for chronic pain conditions is challenging, especially in women with provoked vulvodynia due to reluctance in discussing pain associated with sexual intercourse. The most successful recruitment methods and the characteristics of women reached with these methods are unknown. To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of four recruitment methods and to determine socioeconomic predictors for successful enrollment in a National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter clinical trial evaluating a gabapentin intervention in women with provoked vulvodynia. Recruitment methods utilized mass mailing, media, clinician referrals and community outreach. Effectiveness (number of participants enrolled) and efficiency (proportion screened who enrolled) were determined. Socioeconomic variables including race, educational level, annual household income, relationship status, age, menopausal status and employment status were also evaluated regarding which recruitment strategies were best at targeting specific cohorts. Of 868 potential study participants, 219 were enrolled. The most effective recruitment method in enrolling participants was mass mailing ( p recruitment methods ( p = 0.11). Relative to clinician referral, black women were 13 times as likely to be enrolled through mass mailing (adjusted odds ratio 12.5, 95% confidence interval, 3.6-43.1) as white women. There were no differences in enrollment according to educational level, annual income, relationship status, age, menopausal status, or employment status and recruitment method. In this clinical trial, mass mailing was the most effective recruitment method. Race of participants enrolled in a provoked vulvodynia trial was related to the recruitment method.

  8. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kyler


    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Strengthening Discussions (United States)

    Hintz, Allison B.


    "Strategy sharing" is a certain type of discussion that centers on students' ideas and occurs when children present different approaches to problems and provide information about how they solved the problem (Wood, Williams, and McNeal 2004). A teacher may orchestrate a strategy-sharing discussion to achieve one or more of the…

  10. A public service learning organization: from coast to coast : a policy discussion paper = La fonction publique : une organisation apprenante d'un ocean a l'autre : document de travail sur les orientations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The purpose of this discussion paper is to establish a foundation for a Policy Framework to support the Public Service of Canada in its journey to transform itself into a Public Service learning organization...

  11. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.


    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris


    This is a post-print version. The official published version can be accessed from the link below - Copyright @ 2007 Elsevier Ltd. The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an...

  12. Do stages of dentistry training affect anxiety provoking situations? (United States)

    Obarisiagbon, A; Azodo, Cc; Omoaregba, Jo; James, Bo


    Undetected and unaddressed anxiety negatively affects performance in clinical learning environments. The aim was to investigate the anxiety provoking situations in clinical dental care delivery among students of preclinical and clinical years and house officers. A 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Zung self-rating anxiety scale were the data collection tools. Of the 84 recruited, 79 completed the study giving 94.0% (79/84) response rate. The median age of the participants was 25 years with 50.6% (40/79) being 20-25 years. Gender distribution revealed that males constituted 60.8% (48/79) of the participants. House officers constituted 29.1% (23/79), clinical students 36.7% (29/79), and preclinical students 34.2 (27/79) of the participants. The top anxiety provoking situations using the modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire were extracting wrong tooth 3.24 (1.06), inability to pass examination 3.32 (1.01), achieving examination requirement 3.19 (1.01), fracturing a tooth 3.08 (0.98) and accidental pulp exposure 2.96 (1.04). Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post-hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students' pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children while house officers/clinical students and house officers/preclinical students' pairs were for help in faint episode. Overall, 2.5% (2/79) had severe, 69.6% (55/79) moderate, 26.6% (21/79) mild clinical anxiety while 1 (1.3%) of the participants expressed no clinical anxiety. Data from this study revealed that the clinical anxiety of moderate severity was prevalent among the studied dental healthcare students. The anxiety-provoking

  13. Children's self-speech and self-regulation during a fear-provoking behavioral test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.


    Conducted a behavioral test and a behavioral interview to assess children's spontaneous use of self-speech and self-regulation in a fear-provoking situation. 44 children (aged 8-12 yrs) performed a series of more fear-provoking (e.g., jumping off the high diving board) or less fear-provoking (e.g.,

  14. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given


    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  15. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzeman K


    Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the

  16. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection. (United States)

    Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav


    High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.

  17. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors]. (United States)

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta


    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis.

  18. Leveraging public health nurses for disaster risk communication in Fukushima City: a qualitative analysis of nurses' written records of parenting counseling and peer discussions. (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Rudd, Rima E; Lai, Alden Y; Yoshida, Kazuki; Suzuki, Yuu; Halstead, Donald D; Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi; Reich, Michael R


    Local public health nurses (PHNs) have been recognized as the main health service providers in communities in Japan. The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has, however, created a major challenge for them in responding to mothers' concerns. This was in part due to difficulties in assessing, understanding and communicating health risks on low-dose radiation exposure. In order to guide the development of risk communication plans, this study sought to investigate mothers' primary concerns and possible solutions perceived by a core healthcare profession like the PHNs. A total of 150 records from parenting counseling sessions conducted between PHNs and mothers who have attended mandatory 18-month health checkups for their children at the Fukushima City Health and Welfare Center in 2010, 2011 (year of disaster) and 2012 were examined. Discussion notes of three peer discussions among PHNs organized in response to the nuclear disaster in 2012 and 2013 were also analyzed. All transcribed data were first subjected to text mining to list the words according to their frequencies and inter-relationships. The Steps Coding and Theorization method was then undertaken as a framework for qualitative analysis. PHNs noted mothers to have considerable needs for information on radiation risks as they impact on decisions related to relocations, concerns for child safety, and experiences with interpersonal conflicts within the family owing to differing risk perceptions. PHNs identified themselves as the information channels in the community, recommended the building of their risk communication capacities to support residents in making well-informed decisions, and advocated for self-measurement of radiation levels to increase residents' sense of control. PHNs also suggested a more standardized form of information dissemination and an expansion of community-based counseling services. Inadequate risk communication on radiation in the Fukushima nuclear incident has resulted in multiple

  19. Pain Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Patients with and without Provoked Vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ghizzani


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD and not exhibiting (FMS comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C. All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip, pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver, and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms.

  20. Alteration in the gut microbiota provokes susceptibility to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Khan


    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mtb in the lungs, liver and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota. Interestingly, dysbiosis of microbes showed significant increase in the bacterial burden in lungs and dissemination of Mtb to spleen and liver. Further, elevation in the number of Tregs and decline in the pool of IFN-γ and TNF-α releasing CD4 T cells was noticed. Interestingly, fecal transplantation in the gut microbiota disrupted animals exhibited improved Th1 immunity and lesser Tregs population. Importantly, these animals displayed reduced severity to Mtb infection. This study for the first time demonstrated the novel role of gut microbes in the susceptibility to TB and its prevention by microbial implants. In future, microbial therapies may help in treating patients suffering from TB.

  1. Preliminary design of a leadership academy for the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, report to management, reviews and discussions : [summary]. (United States)


    All organizations, including such technicallyoriented organizations as the Alaska Department of : Transportation and Public Facilities (AK DOT&PF), have continuing needs for training of many types. : Opportunities for selfimprovement are essent...

  2. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation (United States)

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.


    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  3. 75 FR 36505 - Notice of Public Webinar To Discuss the Applicability of 10 CFR 73.55 Requirements to Part 50... (United States)


    ... Facilities in Decommissioning or Decommissioned Status AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... facilities in decommissioning or decommissioned status. DATES: The public Webinar will be held on Tuesday... required by March 31, 2010. The NRC believes that Part 50 licensees with facilities in decommissioning or...

  4. Morocco; 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Morocco


    International Monetary Fund


    Morocco’s strong starting position, reflecting macroeconomic and structural reforms introduced over the last decade, has given the country greater room to maneuver in its policy response. The direct impact of the global crisis on Morocco has been limited, primarily affecting Morocco through real channels. Exports, tourism receipts, remittances, and foreign direct investment (FDI) have all declined primarily owing to the slowdown in Europe. In particular, Morocco has low public debt and low in...

  5. Effective partnership management : discussant contribution to an STDF/LNV/World Bank Workshop “Public-Private Partnerships in Support of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Capacity”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Pfisterer (Stella)


    markdownabstractIn this document, the author reflects and discusses on the three main questions of the workshop: What is the role of partnerships in facilitating agricultural development and market access? What is the value of partnerships; how to measure effectiveness? What are the main

  6. Survey report: study of information/educational discussions with private industries and public institutions on the direct-heat utilization of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, J.V.


    Results of a study of private and public institutions' responses to the proposed use of geothermal energy in the form of direct heat are summarized. This heat energy would be used as an alternate or supportive source for their process or other heat requirements. The summary includes information from over 75 personal contacts with firms in several categories. No attempt is made to reference specific data to any particular company. Although not necessarily confidential, some financial information concerning energy costs to profits was considered sensitive and is respected as such. The companies contacted are in the following categories: food processing--canning, drying, dehydration; chemicals; paper/wood-pulp processing; food machinery; horticulture; and dairy. The area covered in the study was from Seattle, Washington, to San Diego, California, during mid-1976. Industry's response varied from mild interest, as with corporations that had little or no knowledge of geothermal energy (and regard it as a new unproven science), to enthusiasm from corporations that employ their own energy departments. The study clearly indicated the need for a basic educational/promotional program and an operating demonstration project (industrial park) to prove economic feasibility and instill confidence in the potential of geothermal energy.

  7. Violência e Saúde Coletiva: contribuições teóricas das ciências sociais à discussão sobre o desvio Violence and Public Health: theoretical contributions from the social sciences to the discussion about deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ferreira de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Saúde Coletiva e Ciências Sociais e Humanas são campos reconhecidamente inseparáveis, o que se afirma por uma tradição de grupos e linhas de pesquisa em programas de pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva. Várias dificuldades têm sido apontadas, entretanto, em inserir discussões sobre temas tradicionalmente estudados nas ciências sociais, como a violência, no campo da saúde, ao mesmo tempo em que tal discussão tem sido vista como crucial para o entendimento de determinações de condições de saúde e qualidade de vida das populações. O foco de discussão sobre esse fenômeno carece de aportes teóricos de outras disciplinas, como a Sociologia, cujas teorias sobre o crime e sobre o desvio da norma constituem importante marco no estudo das violências. Neste artigo, o autor examina as teorias clássicas da sociologia nesse âmbito, buscando contribuir para a ampliação da discussão no campo da Saúde Coletiva, particularmente no que concerne a uma base de pensamento sobre a promoção, a prevenção e a reabilitação de agravos, considerando-a, assim, numa perspectiva interdisciplinar e de abrangência intersetorial.Public Health and the Human and Social Sciences are inseparable fields of knowledge, as attested by a tradition of research groups and research lines located in Public Health post-graduate programs. Several difficulties have been pointed when discussions about various themes traditionally identified with the social sciences, as is the case of violence, are inserted in the health field. At the same time, such discussions are considered essential to the understanding of the determination of populations' health conditions and quality of life. The discussion focus regarding this phenomenon lacks theoretical contributions from other disciplines, such as Sociology, whose theories on crime and deviance constitute an important benchmark in the study of the various forms of violence. In this article, the author examines the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ruckenbauer


    Full Text Available An energy system that is based on the use of renewable energy resources must be service –oriented and should be able to cover the varying energy demands. Moreover it must be flexible and cost effective by using on optimal mix of predominantly renewable energy sources. Agriculture will play an important role in the future if an optimal mix between food/feed production and energy plant production could be found. The present examples in the world to gain agricultural land for energy plants on the expenses of forests is going into the wrong direction. The cost intensive investments at present performed in Europe for biofuel and bioenergy production will certainly influence prices for crops and biomass supply. In this paper, strategies are questioned and discussed if the goals of the EU-commission to replace substantial parts of the fossile energy demands by bioenergy supply is feasible and can be realistic. As an example for a national agricultural situation, Austria, as am member of the PBBA, has elaborated a study about the timely development how much of the arable land can be utilized in the period between 2005 and 2020 for various bioenergy sources .The results demonstrate that, at the maximum , agriculture can only supply about 22 % of the total arable land for additional bioenergy as biofuel and biogas without interfering the national self food/feed supply and the protection of the sensible environment and emission situation. Finally, recent University research studies are presented about new processes to achieve a better and more efficient use of cereal and maize straw for biogas production already performed in the present 358 local biogas plants in Austria.

  9. Let's Discuss: Teaching Students about Discussions (United States)

    Brank, Eve; Wylie, Lindsey


    Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of employing classroom discussions; however, there has been less attention given to teaching students about discussions. The current research compared 2 advanced social psychology courses: 1 without (control) and 1 with (experimental) a week devoted to learning about and discussing discussions.…

  10. Internal derangement as a predictor of provoked pain on mouth opening: A magnetic resonance imaging study (United States)

    Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A


    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between pain and internal derangement in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods This study analyzed 356 TMD patients (712 temporomandibular joints [TMJs]). The inclusion criteria were the presence of spontaneous or provoked pain on one or both TMJs and having undergone MRI. The patients with provoked pain were divided into 3 groups: pain on palpation, pain on mouth opening, and pain on mastication. MRI was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. T1- and T2-weighted parasagittal and paracoronal images were obtained. According to the findings on the T1-weighted images, another 3 groups were created based on internal derangement: normal, disc displacement with reduction, and disc displacement without reduction. The MRI findings were independently interpreted by 2 experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologists at 2 different times. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using SPSS (version 12.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Provoked pain on mouth opening was found to be correlated with internal derangement in TMD patients (Ppain and provoked pain on palpation or mastication were not associated with internal derangement (P>.05). Conclusion These results suggest that internal derangement was a significant predictor of provoked pain on mouth opening. PMID:29279820

  11. The recurrent pain and sexual sequelae of provoked vestibulodynia: a perpetuating cycle. (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary


    Optimal management of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), thought to be the most common form of chronic dyspareunia, is unclear. To integrate recent brain data on chronic pain circuitry with stress-induced neuroendocrine mechanisms in the skin and the stress burden (allostatic load) of women with PVD; to also clarify the typical chronicity and negative sexual sequelae associated with PVD; and then review modulation of pain circuitry by cognitive therapy and mindfulness practice and apply to PVD management. Methods.  Review of scientific publications in the areas of sexual medicine, pain, brain imaging, gynecology, stress response, mindfulness, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). (i) A model of PVD to reflect its etiology, typical chronicity, and the detrimental effects on sexual function; (ii) Interventions of sexual rehabilitation based on principles underlying changes associated with CBT and mindfulness practice. A model emerges which reflects how stress-induced changes of pain amplification (central sensitization), characteristic of chronic pain conditions, may impair sexual response in addition to sexual dysfunction that arises from conscious pain avoidance and/or fear-related inattention to sexual cues. Stress from low self-acceptance may be a major component of the allostatic load present in women with PVD, only to be exacerbated by the sexual dysfunction precipitated by the pain of intercourse. Mindfulness-based CBT appears promising to target both the pain and sexual suffering from PVD. New findings on brain activity associated with recurrent clinical pain, functional brain changes associated with CBT and mindfulness, plus new data on stress systems within the skin along with data on increased stress load in women with PVD, support the use of mindfulness-based CBT for the recurrent pain and sexual suffering from PVD. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Provokative Elemente einer Didaktik internetgestützter Lehr-Lernarrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Müskens


    Full Text Available Onlinebasiertes kollaboratives Lernen erfordert eine neue Rolle der Lehrenden und damit verbunden auch neue didaktische Methoden. Ausgehend vom Begriff der Provokation wird eine solche Didaktik in Abgrenzung zur Vorstellung eines ausschliesslich selbstgesteuerten Lernens entwickelt. Provokation wird in diesem Zusammenhang als die intendierte Konfrontation eines Lernenden mit einstellungskonträrem Material verstanden. Die Grundlagen der hier vorgestellten Didaktik werden aus einer Vielzahl theoretischer Wurzeln und empirischer Forschungsergebnisse hergeleitet: Es wird auf die Beziehung zum Kompetenzbegriff, zur Systemtheorie, zur Emotionspsychologie, zur Induzierung kognitiver Konflikte, zur Dissonanztheorie und zu Kellys Theorie der persönlichen Konstrukte eingegangen. Als konkrete Methoden der provokativen Didaktik für das E-Learning werden u. a. provokative Statements, das Induzieren einstellungskonträrer Perspektiven und eine an die «Fixed-Role-Therapy» angelehnte Aufgabenstellung diskutiert. Die Methoden der provokativen Didaktik bedeuten eine hochgradige Individualisierung des Lernens und eine Intensivierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Lerner und Lehrendem.

  13. Intrusions and provoked and spontaneous confabulations on memory tests in Korsakoff's syndrome. (United States)

    Rensen, Yvonne C M; Oosterman, Joukje M; Walvoort, Serge J W; Eling, Paul A T M; Kessels, Roy P C


    Intrusions on verbal memory tests have been used as an index for clinical confabulation. Severe memory impairments in combination with executive dysfunction have been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of confabulation, but to date, this relation is unclear. The aim of this study was (a) to examine the relation between (different types of) intrusions and confabulations in a large sample of confabulating patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and (b) to investigate whether different measures of executive functioning and memory performance are related to provoked and spontaneous confabulation. The Dutch version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and various executive function and memory tests were administered to a group of 51 confabulating patients with KS. Professional caregivers rated the severity of provoked and spontaneous confabulation behavior of the patients using the Nijmegen-Venray Confabulation List-20 (NVCL-20). The total number of intrusions on the CVLT was not related to either provoked or spontaneous confabulation scores. None of the CVLT intrusion scores correlated significantly with any of the confabulation scores, but we did find small-to-medium, positive correlations between unrelated intrusions and both provoked confabulations and spontaneous confabulation. Provoked confabulation behavior was associated with executive dysfunction and poorer memory performances. Spontaneous confabulation was not related to performance on measures of executive function and memory. The total number of intrusions on verbal memory tests and clinical confabulations appear to be different phenomena. Only unrelated intrusions produced on the CVLT might possibly be related to confabulations. The production of provoked, but not spontaneous, confabulation is associated with executive dysfunction and memory deficits.

  14. Informal group discussion (United States)

    Hans Nienstaedt; Dean W. Einspahr; J. Douglas Brodie


    Editor's note: The morning's presentations were discussed during the afternoon by three groups, each group discussing one of the morning's three topics. Summaries of the discussions, prepared by the discussion leaders, follow.

  15. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery


    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  16. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W


    in renal cortical membranes fractionated on sorbitol density gradients. Aortic clamp-induced acute hypotension (from 100 +/- 3 to 78 +/- 2 mmHg) provoked a 62% decrease in urine output and a significant decrease in volume flow from the proximal tubule detected as a 66% decrease in endogenous lithium......-density membranes enriched in apical markers. PTH at much lower doses (

  17. Anisocoria in the dog provoked by a toxic contact with an ornamental plant: Datura stramonium. (United States)

    Hansen, Philippe; Clerc, Bernard


    We report an unusual case of anisocoria in the dog provoked by Datura stramonium, and an experimental clinical assay to reproduce the anisocoria using simple contact with part of the plant in four healthy dogs. Any part of the D. stramonium plant produced anisocoria following simple contact with the eye.

  18. I'm Right and You're and Idiot — Jim Hoggan discusses the toxic state of public discourse and how to clean it up, by changing the communication climate (United States)

    Hoggan, J. C.


    Just as the natural environment can be polluted, so too can public discourse. I'm Right and You're an Idiot: The Toxic State of Public Discourse and How to Clean it Up examines the sorry state of today's public square, showing how polluted, polarized conversations discourage people from taking action on critical issues such as climate change, and demonstrating how we can clear the air and become more powerful and effective communicators. The most urgent environmental threat today is not climate change, species extinction or the declining health of oceans. Author Jim Hoggan says the more pressing problem is resistance to change that results from pollution in the public square. A smog of adversarial rhetoric, propaganda and polarization that comes from all sides, is stifling discussion and our ability to solve problems collectively. Hoggan has investigated this troubling state of public dialogue and in his new book he asks leading intellectuals why, despite overwhelming scientific evidence, so little is being done to address today's critical environmental challenges. As chair of the David Suzuki Foundation and founder of one of Canada's most successful PR firms, he is uniquely positioned to probe this question. During Hoggan's 30 years in crisis management he has dealt with food poisonings, labour disputes, multi-million dollar bank fraud, sawmill explosions, even bodies disappearing from funeral homes. He also authored the bestseller Climate Cover-Up, which took a critical look at science propaganda and the widespread echo chamber of media and think tanks that magnifies it. How do we improve public discourse and curb over-the-top advocacy, corrupt conversations and propaganda. How do we counteract polarization and gridlock? Hoggan sought answers from more than 60 outstanding scholars, ranging from a NASA scientist to deep-sea oceanographer. He tapped the brains of cognitive researchers, political pundits, philosophers, moral psychologists, corporate analysts and

  19. What are people afraid of during dental treatment? Anxiety-provoking capacity of 67 stimuli characteristic of the dental setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, F.M.D.; de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.


    Relatively little is known about the anxiety-provoking capacity of the various objects and situations characteristic of the dental setting. The aims of the current study were to establish a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking capacities of a large set of dental stimuli and to determine the differences in

  20. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  1. A case report of successful team approach treatment of provoked vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Simetinger


    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Vulvodynia has been defined as vulvar discomfort, most often described as burning pain, occurring in the absence of relevant findings or a specific, clinically identifiable, neurologic disorder. Vulvodynia is a genital syndrome of multi-causal origin and requires a team approach. The purpose of the case report of provoked vulvodynia is to show the efficacy of individualized, multifaceted and multidisciplinary therapeutic team approach used by a gynaecologist with special knowledge of sexology and a physiotherapist specialising in treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Case report: A 35-year old patient presented with a complaint of genital itching and consequently burning pain which first occurred during sexual intercourse one year previously. Afterwards a gynaecologist with special knowledge of sexology performed a biopsychosocial assessment, broader gynaecological examination and psychoeducation. Diagnosed was provoked vulvodynia. Than she was assessed by the physiotherapist specialising in treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction and treated with TENS. To assess the effectiveness of treatment were used Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire and the visual analogue scale before and after the team approach treatment. Conclusions: In our case individualized, multifaceted and multidisciplinary therapeutic approach proved to be a good choice for treating genital syndrome of provoked vulvodynia of multi-causal origin.

  2. Strategies for Stimulating Discussion (United States)


    practices describe ways to facilitate communication during discussion. Use constructive questioning strategies . Facilitators serve to ensure the...lecture and group discussion teaching strategies in developing critical thinking skills. Communication Education, 45, 212-227. Gilmore, T. N., & Schall, E...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 2008 Strategies for Stimulating Discussion

  3. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee


    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  4. Learning through Discussions (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin


    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  5. The Use of Discussion. (United States)

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  6. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy for Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Randomized Pilot Study. (United States)

    Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F; Thibault-Gagnon, Stephanie; McLean, Linda; Chamberlain, Susan


    Non-medical and non-surgical treatments for provoked vestibulodynia target psychological, sexual, and pelvic floor muscle factors that maintain the condition. The goal of the study was to compare the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical therapy (PT) on pain and psychosexual outcomes in women with provoked vestibulodynia. In a clinical trial, 20 women with provoked vestibulodynia were randomly assigned to receive CBT or comprehensive PT. Participants were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up by gynecologic examination, structured interviews, and standardized questionnaires measuring pain, psychological, and sexual variables. Outcome measurements were based on an adaptation of the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials recommendations. The primary outcome was change in intercourse pain intensity. Secondary outcomes included pain during the cotton swab test, pain with various sexual and non-sexual activities, and sexual functioning and negative pain cognitions. The two treatment groups demonstrated significant decreases in vulvar pain during sexual intercourse, with 70% and 80% of participants in the CBT and PT groups demonstrating a moderate clinically important decrease in pain (≥30%) after treatment. Participants in the two groups also had significant improvements in pain during the gynecologic examination, the percentage of painful intercourse attempts, the percentage of activities resulting in pain, and the ability to continue intercourse without stopping because of pain. Psychological outcomes, including pain catastrophizing and perceived control over pain, also showed improvement in the two groups. Significant improvements in sexual functioning were observed only in participants who completed CBT. Few between-group differences were identified other than the PT group showing earlier improvements in some outcomes. Nearly all improvements were maintained at the 6-month

  7. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups. (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R


    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Do psychosexual factors play a role in the etiology of provoked vestibulodynia? A critical review. (United States)

    Desrochers, Geneviève; Bergeron, Sophie; Landry, Tina; Jodoin, Mélanie


    The aim of this review was to critically examine published studies concerning the psychosexual aspects of provoked vestibulodynia. Despite the presence of several methodological limitations, some findings were consistently replicated. Overall, women with vestibulodynia demonstrate impaired sexual functioning, namely, lower levels of sexual desire, arousal, and frequency of intercourse. Childhood physical and sexual abuse represent potential risk factors for the development of this condition. Additionally, specific psychological states such as anxiety, fear of pain, hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and depression, are more frequently reported by these women. More rigorous studies are needed to establish which psychosexual variables may exacerbate and/or maintain vestibulodynia.

  9. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens. (United States)

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G


    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods. (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Panel discussion on vaccine development to meet U.S. and international needs. Strategies for reducing the disincentives to HIV vaccine development: description of a successful public-private sector international collaboration. (United States)

    Bronnenkant, L


    A representative of Finishing Enterprises, the world's largest manufacturer of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs), discusses how to alter the balance of incentives-disincentives to expedite the development of HIV vaccines for international evaluation. Three main disincentives exist for private manufacturers in the United States to develop a new HIV vaccine to be used in developing countries, outside the profitable North American and western European markets: 1) low profit margin because of limited money, time, and resources. Medium and large-sized corporations are more concerned with a high return on their investment owing to stockholder pressure than with the human benefit of that investment. 2) Lengthy regulatory approval process. The current regulatory process in the US is tedious, time-consuming, and costly. 3) Liability risk. The United States is the most litigious society in the world. Suits filed against US corporations involved in drug manufacture incur legal defence costs, which make an already low profit margin HIV vaccine even lower. Finishing Enterprises' IUD program aimed at providing the safest and most effective IUD at an affordable price in a socially responsible way. The Population Council developed the Copper T and retained the patent rights. They and other international health authorities, such as the World Health Organization, conducted or monitored international clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy. Private foundations and public donor agencies funded these activities. When donor agencies committed to volume purchases for their commodity programs, Finishing Enterprises could commit to volume pricing. Whenever high-margin private sector sales occur, Population Council receives a royalty payment. Thus, the disincentives were overcome: 1) Low profit margin was less an issue for a small, private company created specifically to manufacture IUDs and guaranteed volume orders. 2) Lengthy regulatory approval processes were avoided by

  12. Uma Discussão sobre o Tratamento Contábil das Compensações Financeiras Decorrentes da Exploração de Petróleo e Gás Natural no Setor Público Brasileiro = A Discussion on the Accounting Treatment of Financial Compensation Resulting from oil and Natural Gas Exploration in the Public Sector Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geverson Dourado Brito


    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma discussão sobre o tratamento contábil das compensações financeiras decorrentes da exploração de petróleo e gás natural no âmbito do Setor Público brasileiro, de modo a refletir sua essência e impacto no patrimônio dos entes federados e não meramente a cumprir os aspectos legais e formais. Para tratar a questão de pesquisa, foi efetuado estudo de caso em um Município de pequeno porte localizado no Estado do Espírito Santo, a partir de dados extraídos dos balanços contábeis relativos aos exercícios de 2011, 2012 e 2013 disponibilizados pela Prefeitura. Os achados do estudo mostram que atualmente vem sendo mantido processo apto de registro para sustentar o disposto legal do regime da receita orçamentária. Os lançamentos contábeis são efetuados no momento do ingresso dos recursos, mas o mesmo não acontece do ponto de vista patrimonial, uma vez que não se verifica o registro contábil das compensações financeiras no momento da ocorrência do fato gerador. Uma proposta de tratamento contábil é então apresentada, recomendando que um ativo seja reconhecido sob a forma de direito a receber no mês de produção do petróleo ou gás natural.This study aims to present a discussion of the accounting treatment of financial compensation resulting from the oil and gas exploration within the Brazilian public sector, to reflect its essence and impact on the heritage of federal entities and not merely fulfill aspects legal and formal. To address the issue of research, case study was made on a small municipality located in the state of Espirito Santo, from data extracted in the accounting balance sheets for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 provided by the city. The study findings show that is currently being kept fit registration process to support the provisions cool budget revenues regime, the accounting entries being made at the inflow of funds, but the same is not true of the

  13. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs. (United States)

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F


    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  14. Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism. (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A


    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.

  15. Effects of Thought Suppression on Provoked Men's Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression in the Laboratory. (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R


    This study utilized a comprehensive theoretical approach to provide the first data on the impact of thought suppression on provoked men's alcohol-related aggression. A diverse community sample (58% African-American) of males between the ages of 21 and 35 (M = 25.25) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results indicated that acute alcohol intoxication significantly increased physical aggression among lower, but not higher, thought suppressing men. Results suggest that, under conditions of interpersonal provocation, alcohol intoxication produces a myopic focus on hostile thoughts and angry affect in lower, but not higher, suppression men. This pattern of results provides support for the durability of the alcohol myopia effect and highlights the need for continued examination of alcohol's role in the disruption of protective factors for men's aggression. It is important for research to continue to identify modifiable cognitive variables that influence self-regulation of behavior; however, it is imperative that researchers consider the extent to which these variables withstand alcohol's effects.

  16. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M


    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  17. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  18. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.


    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  19. John Cage Discusses Fluxus. (United States)

    Snyder, Ellsworth


    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  20. [Discussion paper participation research]. (United States)

    Farin, Erik


    This contribution introduces the "Diskussionspapier Teilhabeforschung" (discussion paper participation research) of the German Association for Rehabilitation (DVfR) and German Society for Rehabilitation Science (DGRW). The aim of this paper is to more clearly define current scientific research activity on the subject of participation and the significance of interdisciplinary participation research. The authors emphasise the desirability of a stronger scientific basis for instruments designed to improve the participation of disabled individuals. The paper is meant to be understood as an initial basis for the discussion about participation research development, and the authors are open to suggestions and elaboration.Participation research is understood in this discussion paper as an interdisciplinary research field with 7 goals and characteristics: 1. focussing on participation and self-determination; 2. contextual approach (taking environmental and personal factors into consideration that affect participation); 3. the participation of disabled persons in participation research; 4. interdisciplinary cooperation; 5. involving organisations and institutions whose approaches to participation research overlap; 6. referring to social and healthcare policies; 7. national and international orientations.The authors discuss the rationale behind increasing the support for participation research and theoretical models thereof. Fundamental concepts with high relevance to participation research include the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF), the inclusion concept, empowerment concept, and capabilities concept. The authors conclude their paper with recommendations for strengthening the research funding for participation research, and specify concrete steps toward greater participation research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  2. Summaries of group discussions (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.


    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  3. Discussion about magnesium phosphating


    Pokorny, P.; Tej, P.; Szelag, P.


    The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO4)2・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite) coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and convention...

  4. Experimental activation of the sphenopalatine ganglion provokes cluster-like attacks in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Barløse, Mads; Guo, Song


    BackgroundHigh frequency (HF) stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is an emerging abortive treatment for cluster headache (CH) attacks. HF SPG stimulation is thought to exert its effect by physiologically blocking parasympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that low frequency (LF) SPG...... stimulation may activate the SPG, causing increased parasympathetic outflow and thereby provoking cluster attacks in CH patients.MethodsIn a double-blind randomized cross-over study, seven CH patients implanted with an SPG neurostimulator were randomly allocated to receive HF or LF stimulation for 3 min on 2...... separate days. We recorded headache characteristics and autonomic symptoms during and after stimulation.ResultsSix patients completed the study. Three out of six patients (50%) reported ipsilateral cluster-like attacks during or within 30 min of LF SPG stimulation. These cluster-like attacks were all...

  5. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Carroll, Marie-Soleil; Bergeron, Sophie


    Pelvic floor muscle physical therapy is recommended in clinical guidelines for women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Including isolated or combined treatment modalities, physical therapy is viewed as an effective first-line intervention, yet no systematic review concerning the effectiveness of physical therapy has been conducted. To systematically appraise the current literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function in women with PVD. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, CINHAL, and PEDro was conducted until October 2016. Moreover, a manual search from reference lists of included articles was performed. Ongoing trials also were reviewed using and ISRCTNregistry. Randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohorts, and case reports evaluating the effect of isolated or combined physical therapy modalities in women with PVD were included in the review. Main outcome measures were pain during intercourse, sexual function, and patient's perceived improvement. The literature search resulted in 43 eligible studies including 7 randomized controlled trials, 20 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 6 case reports, and 6 study protocols. Most studies had a high risk of bias mainly associated with the lack of a comparison group. Another common bias was related to insufficient sample size, non-validated outcomes, non-standardized intervention, and use of other ongoing treatment. The vast majority of studies showed that physical therapy modalities such as biofeedback, dilators, electrical stimulation, education, multimodal physical therapy, and multidisciplinary approaches were effective for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function. The positive findings for the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities in women with PVD should be investigated further in robust and well-designed randomized controlled trials

  6. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots (United States)

    Strait, Megan K.; Floerke, Victoria A.; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D.; Jung, Malte F.; Urry, Heather L.


    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60) to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work

  7. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: the application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain. (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan M


    Introduction.  Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) report lower sexual arousal than nonaffected women, however, laboratory studies of arousal have reported contradictory results about whether group differences exist in genital and subjective arousal. Aim.  To examine genital and subjective sexual arousal in women with and without PVD. Methods.  Eligible women with and without PVD (N = 42) attended a laboratory session that included an interview, questionnaire completion, and genital imaging. A direct measure of superficial blood flow-laser Doppler imaging-was used to assess vulvar blood flow levels while participants watched three films, including an erotic film. Participants answered questions about their level of sexual arousal before, during, and after the erotic film. Main Outcome Measures.  Average vulvar blood flow levels during the baseline and erotic films, numerical ratings of subjective sexual arousal and anxiety, as well as questionnaire measures of arousal. Results.  There was a significant group difference in genital arousal, whereby the PVD group showed a lower genital response to the erotic film, as well as a significant interaction between baseline blood flow and group membership. Separate group regression analyses demonstrated that baseline blood flow explained a substantial amount of the variance in erotic film blood flow in the control group (70%), while only 27% was explained by this variable in the PVD group. There were no differences in subjective sexual arousal or anxiety between the groups. Across questionnaire measures, women with PVD reported lower sexual arousal than the control group. Conclusions.  The results suggest that women with PVD show lower genital responsiveness than nonaffected women to sexual stimuli in a laboratory setting and that their genital arousal is likely impacted by a number of biopsychosocial factors. Boyer SC, Pukall CF, and Chamberlain SM. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia

  8. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots. (United States)

    Strait, Megan K; Floerke, Victoria A; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D; Jung, Malte F; Urry, Heather L


    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task ( N agents = 60) to conduct an experimental test ( N participants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding-suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work furthers

  9. The abdominal compartment syndrome as a second insult during systemic neutrophil priming provokes multiple organ injury. (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao B; Moore, Ernest E; Masuno, Tomohiko; Moore, Peter K; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Sheppard, Forest R; Cunha-Melo, Jose R; Silliman, Christopher C


    In our recent clinical study of damage control laparotomy, the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) emerged as an independent risk factor for postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF). We and others have shown previously that the ACS promotes the systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our study objective was to develop a clinically relevant two-event animal model of postinjury MOF using the ACS as a second insult during systemic neutrophil priming to provoke organ dysfunction. Male adult rats underwent hemorrhagic shock (30 mmHg x 45 min) and were resuscitated with crystalloids and shed blood. The timing of postshock systemic neutrophil (PMN) priming was determined by the surface expression of CD11b via flow cytometry. Finding maximal PMN priming at 8 h, but no priming at 2 h (early) and 18 h (late), the ACS (25 mmHg x 60 min) was introduced at these time points. At 24 h postshock, lung injury was assessed by lung elastase concentration and Evans blue dye extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage. Liver and renal injuries were determined by serum alanine aminotransferase, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. The ACS during the time of maximal systemic PMN priming (8 h) provoked lung and liver injury, but did not if introduced at 2 or 18 h postshock when there was no evidence of systemic PMN priming. The 24-h mortality of this two-event model was 33%. These findings corroborate the potential for the ACS to promote multiple organ injury when occurring at the time of systemic PMN priming. This clinically relevant two-event animal model of PMN organ injury may be useful in elucidating therapy strategies to prevent postinjury MOF.

  10. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Strait


    Full Text Available Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60 to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72 of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous and agent identity (robot, person, and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1 Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2 Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3 Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics

  11. Panel Discussion Vi: Cosmology (United States)

    Anderson, E.; Dolgov, A.; Crothers, S.; Mitra, A.; Rubakov, V.; Zakharov, A.


    Questions to discuss: * To what extent are Dark Matter and Dark Energy necessary to explain the observed properties of the Universe? * Why are the Dark matter profiles so universal at the galactic scales? * Are there viable candidates of modified gravitational dynamics to exclude the dark components of Universe? * Do we have any perspectives to distinguish the Dark Energy from the cosmological constant? * Are there any certain indications for sterile neutrinos in the cosmos? * How does the Planck data change the view of inflation in the early Universe? What could be the origin of the inflaton plateau? So far, what else is interesting about the Planck data? * What are the nearest crucial points in cosmological observations? * Can we be more decisive discriminating between the anthropic principle, the superstringy landscape, fine tuning or dynamics as reasons for the cosmological coincidences?

  12. From discussion to dismay

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Dear colleagues, We are not at the end of our troubles concerning the pension conditions offered by the Organization. As is our wont, we had prepared an article explaining the details of our proposals, different from those of the Administration. Unfortunately, there is no longer time for explanations. The Director of Administration is now preparing to impose his proposals. Despite some improvements, they remain, for us, unjustified and unacceptable, and we shall demonstrate this. The Staff Council cannot accept this way of doing things and we will denounce it. We now expect the Director-General to take position and play his role as representative of the Member States towards the personnel and EQUALLY as the representative of the personnel towards these same Member States. We shall come back to this. So that things are clear, we invite you to attend one of the four public meetings listed below. Your opinion is important to us. We shall ask for your support in a referendum that will take place from Tuesday 10 M...

  13. Referred Pain Patterns Provoked on Intra-Pelvic Structures among Women with and without Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Descriptive Study (United States)

    Butler, Stephen; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha


    Objectives To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. Materials and Methods In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Results Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, ppain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis. PMID:25793999

  14. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Torstensson

    Full Text Available To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment.In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas.Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7 in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1 in women without CPP, p< 0.0001.Referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis.

  15. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain: a descriptive study. (United States)

    Torstensson, Thomas; Butler, Stephen; Lindgren, Anne; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha; Kristiansson, Per


    To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, ppain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis.

  16. What the public was saying about the H1N1 vaccine: perceptions and issues discussed in on-line comments during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, a vaccine was made available to all Canadians. Despite efforts to promote vaccination, the public's intent to vaccinate remained low. In order to better understand the public's resistance to getting vaccinated, this study addressed factors that influenced the public's decision making about uptake. To do this, we used a relatively novel source of qualitative data--comments posted on-line in response to news articles on a particular topic. This study analysed 1,796 comments posted in response to 12 articles dealing with H1N1 vaccine on websites of three major Canadian news sources. Articles were selected based on topic and number of comments. A second objective was to assess the extent to which on-line comments can be used as a reliable data source to capture public attitudes during a health crisis. The following seven themes were mentioned in at least 5% of the comments (% indicates the percentage of comments that included the theme: fear of H1N1 (18.8%; responsibility of media (17.8%; government competency (17.7%; government trustworthiness (10.7%; fear of H1N1 vaccine (8.1%; pharmaceutical companies (7.6%; and personal protective measures (5.8%. It is assumed that the more frequently a theme was mentioned, the more that theme influenced decision making about vaccination. These key themes for the public were often not aligned with the issues and information officials perceived, and conveyed, as relevant in the decision making process. The main themes from the comments were consistent with results from surveys and focus groups addressing similar issues, which suggest that on-line comments do provide a reliable source of qualitative data on attitudes and perceptions of issues that emerge in a health crisis. The insights derived from the comments can contribute to improved communication and policy decisions about vaccination in health crises that incorporate the public's views.

  17. Considering the Move to Electronic Discussions (United States)

    Larson, Bruce E.


    Over the past four years, the author has attempted to compare students' participation patterns during electronic threaded discussions and face-to-face classroom discussions. Most recently, he considered the interactions of 40 students in two world history classes at a public high school. These students regularly engaged in classroom discussions…

  18. Massage treatment and medial tibial stress syndrome; A commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS. (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah


    As students and practitioners we are taught about the treatment and causative factors of medial shin pain, in particular' shin splints' or the more recent term; medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). During the years there have been many theories, conjecture and misunderstandings about the mechanisms of 'shin splints/medial tibial stress syndrome' however the ramifications of these mechanisms on how massage treatment is delivered have not being discussed. The evidence for the treatment of MTSS is largely clinical with little evidence of any treatment being proven to be effective in treating MTSS. The aim of this article is to present a summary of the mechanisms of MTSS and a commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS based on these mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heightened Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone and Altered Contractility in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Khalifé, Samir; Ouellet, Stéphane; Bergeron, Sophie


    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions are reported to be involved in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Although heightened PFM tone has been suggested, the relative contribution of active and passive components of tone remains misunderstood. Likewise, alterations in PFM contractility have been scarcely studied. To compare PFM tone, including the relative contribution of its active and passive components, and muscular contractility in women with PVD and asymptomatic controls. Fifty-six asymptomatic women and 56 women with PVD participated in the study. The PVD diagnosis was confirmed by a gynecologist based on a standardized examination. PFM function was evaluated using a dynamometric speculum combined with surface electromyography (EMG). PFM general tone was evaluated in static conditions at different vaginal apertures and during repeated dynamic cyclic stretching. The active contribution of tone was characterized using the ratio between EMG in a static position and during stretching and the proportion of women presenting PFM activation during stretching. Contribution of the passive component was evaluated using resting forces, stiffness, and hysteresis in women sustaining a negligible EMG signal during stretching. PFM contractility, such as strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance, also was assessed during voluntary isometric efforts. Greater PFM resting forces and stiffness were found in women with PVD compared with controls, indicating an increased general tone. An increased active component also was found in women with PVD because they presented a superior EMG ratio, and a larger proportion of them presented PFM activation during stretching. Higher passive properties also were found in women with PVD. Women with PVD also showed decreased strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance compared with controls. Findings provide further evidence of the contribution of PFM alterations in the etiology of PVD. These alterations should be

  20. In vivo PTH provokes apical NHE3 and NaPi2 redistribution and Na-K-ATPase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Norian, J M; Magyar, C E


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in vivo administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) provokes diuresis/natriuresis through redistribution of proximal tubule apical sodium cotransporters (NHE3 and NaPi2) to internal stores and inhibition of basolateral Na-K-ATPase activity and...

  1. Monoassociation of SCID mice with Helicobacter muridarum, but not four other enterics, provokes IBD upon receipt of T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, HQ; Kushnir, N; Thurnheer, MC; Bos, NA; Cebra, JJ

    Background & Aims: Recently, a number of animal models for different aspects of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been developed. The aim of this study was to use one of these to determine whether particular, ostensibly innocuous, intestinal bacteria could provoke or exacerbate IBD. Methods:

  2. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with provoked vestibulodynia and asymptomatic controls. (United States)

    Næss, Ingrid; Bø, Kari


    The purpose of the present study was to assess vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and surface EMG activity in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). This was an assessor-masked comparison study including 70 women. Exclusion criteria were any previous pregnancy and presence of candida. Sensitivity of the vulvar vestibule was rated at three sites with Q-tip pressure measurement and a numerical rating scale for pain. VRP and PFM strength and endurance were measured with a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. Pelvic floor muscle activity was measured with surface EMG. The independent samples t test was used to analyze differences between groups. The p value was set to VRP: 20.6 cmH2O (SD 7.1) versus controls: 17.3 cmH2O (SD 4.4), p = 0.02. The PVD group had significantly lower muscle activity during a 10-s holding period; PVD: 465.2 μV (SD 218.4), controls: 591.1 μV (SD 277.7), p = 0.04. Young, nulliparous women with PVD had significantly higher VRP, but this finding was not confirmed by vaginal surface EMG.

  3. Acute Administration of Diazepam Provokes Redox Homeostasis Imbalance in the Rat Brain: Prevention by Simvastatin. (United States)

    Eger, Guilherme André; Ferreira, Vinícius Vialle; Batista, Camila Ribeiro; Bonde, Henrique LuisPetrek; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Rodrigues, André Felipe; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal


    We investigated the effects of acute diazepam (DZP) administration on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, protein carbonyl content, and on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the brain of rats. Additionally, we investigated the antioxidant role of chronic pretreatment with simvastatin on the effects provoked by DZP. Simvastatin was administered (1 or 10 mg/kg by oral gavage) for 30 days. On the 30th day of treatment, groups were randomized and DZP was administered (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection). Control groups received saline. Results showed that DZP enhanced TBARS levels and protein carbonyl content and altered enzymatic activity in the brain of rats. Simvastatin prevented most of the alterations caused by DZP on the oxidative stress parameters. Data indicate that DZP administration causes an oxidative imbalance in the brain areas studied; however, in the presence of simvastatin, some of these alterations in oxidative stress were prevented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jeong Kim


    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 12 days after rmTBI. After rmTBI, the latency of MEP was prolonged and the amplitude in the right hind limb was reduced in the rmTBI group. The latency of SEP was delayed and the amplitude was decreased after rmTBI in the rmTBI group. In the tDCS group, the amplitude in both hind limbs was increased after tDCS in comparison with the values before rmTBI. Anodal tDCS after rmTBI seems to be a useful tool for promoting transient motor recovery through increasing the synchronicity of cortical firing, and it induces early recovery of consciousness. It can contribute to management of concussion in humans if further study is performed.

  5. [Risk factors for provoking collisions between cyclists and pedestrians in Spain, 1993-2011]. (United States)

    Martínez Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo Requena, Rocío; Pulido Manzanero, José; Lardelli Claret, Pablo


    To identify and quantify the factors depending on pedestrians, cyclists and the environment associated with the risk of causing a collision between a cyclist and a pedestrian in Spain from 1993 to 2011. retrospective case series. 1228 pedestrian-cyclist pairs involved in the same number of collisions in an urban area, only one of whom committed an infraction. Register of Traffic Accidents with Victims, supported by the Spanish Traffic General Directorate. committing an infraction (yes/no), age, sex, helmet use (cyclist), hour, type of day, year, existence of sidewalks, place of the accident, and priority regulated. logistic regression model to estimate the strength of the association between the pedestrian's responsibility and independent variables. The association with the cyclist's responsibility was assessed by reversing the value of the odds ratios obtained. In both groups of users, the risk of causing a collision was higher in extreme ages. Female cyclists had a slightly higher risk than male cyclists, while the use of a helmet had a protective effect. The risk of the pedestrian causing an accident was higher in the absence of sidewalks. Cyclists more frequently provoked accidents in crosswalks. We recommend the implementation of safety campaigns aimed at pedestrians and cyclists, with special attention paid to the youngest and older people. Interventions for correct road use would also be advisable. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Original article Coffee consumption and propensity to experience aggressive feelings in provoking and frustrating situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zajenkowska


    Full Text Available The present study focused on examining whether coffee intake is related to the intensity of aggressive feelings in reaction to various provoking or frustrating situations, along with consideration of sex and culture. Previous studies focused mainly on the dose of caffeine (not the habit of coffee drinking and aggressive behavior. Many of these studies showed a positive relation between the amount of caffeine consumed and aggression, so it was expected that also habitual coffee consumption would be positively related to propensity for aggressive feelings in situ ations of provocation and frustration. Participants from Greece (n = 299 and Poland (n = 300 declared whether they were coffee drinkers (at least 1 mug of coffee per day and completed the Situational Triggers of Aggressive Responses questionnaire. The results showed that in females, coffee drinkers had higher scores in Sensitivity to Provocation (SP and Frustration (SF than nondrinkers, while no differences between drinkers and nondrinkers appeared in males. Moreover, amongst coffee drinkers, females had higher scores in SP and SF than males, while no sex differences were found in nondrinkers. Furthermore, in Poland coffee drinkers had higher SP scores than nondrinkers. Poles also had higher SP scores than Greeks, but only when coffee drinkers were compared.

  7. Post-injection induced seismicity provoked by superposition of different mechanisms. (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor


    Induced microseismicity is a controversial issue related to fluid injection into deep geological formations. The occurring of felt earthquakes after stopping injection especially generates concern, because the correlation between injection and seismic activity is unclear. Thus, advancing in its understanding is crucial to minimize its occurrence. Here, we perform numerical simulations of hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems to analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger co- and post-injection seismicity. Apart from the direct impact of fluid pressure increase, we acknowledge thermal effects due to cooling and stress redistribution due to fault slip. We analyze the effect of these three processes both separately and superimposed. We find that preferential flow through conductive fractures or fault zones provokes pressure and temperature perturbations that result in not only heterogeneous variation of the stress field, but also highly anisotropic variations of the local stress tensor. Anisotropic variations tend to stabilize some fractures, but destabilize others. Moreover, shear slip causes a significant variation of the stress field that enlarges the range of critical fracture orientations. We find that, given the different response times of mechanical, hydraulic and thermal effects, post-injection seismicity may occur on non-critically oriented faults that were originally stable. During injection, such faults become destabilized by thermal and shear slip stress changes, but remain static by the superposition of pressure forcing. However, they become unstable and fail when the pressure forcing dissipates shortly after injection stops abruptly.

  8. Paternal bisphenol a diet changes prefrontal cortex proteome and provokes behavioral dysfunction in male offspring. (United States)

    Luo, Guangying; Wei, Ruifen; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong


    Relatively little attention has been given paternal effects on next generation. Given that Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous compound in maternal diet, may disrupt brain development and behavior, we hypothesized that paternal BPA diet (PBD) could affect offspring development. Prefrontal cortex (PFC), a vital brain region, is involved in emotion and social behavior. To test whether PBD could alter developing PFC, we carried out a proteomics approach for PFC in male juvenile offspring that responded to PBD (50 mg BPA/kg diet). We found that PBD altered the expressions of binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP), CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), which could reflect endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, downregulation of myelinogenesis genes and myelin basic protein (MBP) could provoke myelin deficiency. Furthermore, PBD significantly increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired social behavior in male offspring. Taken together, these results revealed the alterations of ER stress and myelin destruction related molecules induced by PBD might be a potential mechanism for the behavior deficits in their male offspring. These findings remind us of the importance of paternal effects in the further environmental exposure research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception of experimental pain is reduced after provoked waking from rapid eye movement sleep. (United States)

    Daya, Vivek G; Bentley, Alison J


    Patients with chronic pain often complain of pain when they wake at night, but the accuracy of their perception of the pain after waking at night is unknown. While cognitive functions are reduced for a short time after waking from sleep, a situation known as sleep inertia, it is unclear how sleep inertia may affect the perception of pain. We investigated the effects of sleep inertia on the perception of experimentally induced pain. Fourteen male volunteers were exposed to a randomized thermal heat stimulus of 43.1 degrees C 'hot' and 46.5 degrees C 'hurting' during provoked waking from Stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Subjects rated their pain on awakening on a Visual Analogue Scale at 30 s after awakening and each minute thereafter for 5 min. We found no change in pain perception over the 5-min period irrespective of temperature used or sleep stage. However, perceived pain when awoken abruptly from REM sleep was significantly lower than the awake score for both the hot (P = 0.0069) and hurting (P = 0.0025) temperatures. Pain perception when woken from Stage 2 sleep or slow wave sleep was not significantly different from perception when awake. Our findings indicate that sleep inertia reduces pain perception when awoken abruptly from REM. This suggests that patients who wake up in pain either perceive accurately the pain they are experiencing, or at worst underestimate the level of pain if woken from REM sleep.

  10. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume I. General discussion and Examination of the articles; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome I. Discussion generale et Examen des articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)


    This report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply is composed of three parts. The first part contains the following three sections: I. The electricity, a commodity as others?; II. The stride towards liberalization; III. France and the opening of electricity market. In turn, the first section addresses the following two subjects: A. The 'classic' approach or recognizing the peculiarity of electricity; B. The European approach or the trend of trivializing the electricity. The second section addresses the subjects titled: A. A long and severe bargaining; B. Directive 96/92/CE of 19 December 1996, a new step in achieving a domestic market of electricity; C. The stage of implementation throughout the member states. The third section presents the current juridical framework and the main problems stipulated in the draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. The second part of this report is devoted to the debates in the Commission of Production and Exchanges and contains the following three sections: I. Auditions; II. General discussion; III. The examination of the articles of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply.

  11. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time. (United States)

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V


    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou


    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Short pain-provoked head-up tilt test for the confirmation of vasovagal syncope. (United States)

    Adamec, Ivan; Mišmaš, Antonija; Zaper, Dinka; Junaković, Anamari; Hajnšek, Sanja; Habek, Mario


    We investigated a short pain-provoked head-up tilt (PP-HUT) and the Calgary Syncope Symptom Score in a group of patients with clinically diagnosed vasovagal syncope and group of neurological patients without transient loss of consciousness. We included 127 consecutive patients who were investigated in our laboratory. The group 1 included 56 patients who after appropriate investigations were diagnosed with vasovagal syncope. The group 2 included 70 neurological patients without transient loss of consciousness. The subjects were tilted to 70° for a maximum period of 10 min or until symptoms occurred. If there were no symptoms after initial 10 min, a painful stimulus with the insertion of 0.7 mm needle into the dorsum of hand subcutaneously for 30 s was performed with the patient in the tilted for further 5 min. Calgary Syncope Symptom Score was calculated for all patients. In the group 1, significantly higher number of patients had positive results on PP-HUT (36 vs. 6 patients, respectively; p syndrome (3 vs. 1 patient, respectively; p = 0.32) between groups. PP-HUT had sensitivity of 65.9 % (95 % CI 0.49-0.79) and specificity of 89.7 % (95 % CI 0.75-0.97). The CSSS had sensitivity of 58.5 % (95 % CI 0.42-0.73) and specificity of 46.1 % (95 % CI 0.30-0.63). PP-HUT has a higher diagnostic rate than the CSSS and provides a rapid alternative to conventional methods.

  14. GCH1-polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heddini Ulrika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD is a pain disorder localized in the vestibular mucosa. It is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women and it is associated with general pain hypersensitivity and other chronic pain conditions. Polymorphism in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH1 gene has been found to influence general pain sensitivity and the risk of developing a longstanding pain condition. The aim of this study was to investigate GCH1-polymorphism in women with PVD and healthy controls, in correlation to pain sensitivity. Results We found no correlation between the previously defined pain-protective GCH1-SNP combination and the diagnosis of PVD. Nor any correlation with pain sensitivity measured as pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibule, coital pain scored on a visual analog scale and prevalence of other bodily pain conditions among women with PVD (n = 98 and healthy controls (n = 102. However, among patients with current treatment (n = 36, there was a significant interaction effect of GCH1-gene polymorphism and hormonal contraceptive (HC therapy on coital pain (p = 0.04 as well as on pressure pain thresholds on the arm (p = 0.04. PVD patients carrying the specified SNP combination and using HCs had higher pain sensitivity compared to non-carriers. In non-HC-users, carriers had lower pain sensitivity. Conclusions The results of this study gave no support to the hypothesis that polymorphism in the GCH1-gene contributes to the etiology of PVD. However, among patients currently receiving treatment an interaction effect of the defined SNP combination and use of hormonal contraceptives on pain sensitivity was found. This finding offers a possible explanation to the clinically known fact that some PVD patients improve after cessation of hormonal contraceptives, indicating that PVD patients carrying the defined SNP combination of GCH1 would benefit from this

  15. Fecal sacs attract insects to the nest and provoke an activation of the immune system of nestlings. (United States)

    Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Rodríguez, Laura; Soler, Manuel


    Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures determine this behavior. The parasitism hypothesis, which states that nestling fecal sacs attract parasites that negatively affect breeding birds, was proposed 40 years ago and is frequently cited as a demonstrated fact. But, to our knowledge, there is no previous experimental test of this hypothesis. We carried out three different experiments to investigate the parasitism hypothesis. First, we used commercial McPhail traps to test for the potential attraction effect of nestling feces alone on flying insects. We found that traps with fecal sacs attracted significantly more flies (Order Diptera), but not ectoparasites, than the two control situations. Second, we used artificial blackbird (Turdus merula) nests to investigate the combined attraction effect of feces and nest materials on arthropods (not only flying insects). Flies, again, were the only group of arthropods significantly attracted by fecal sacs. We did not detect an effect on ectoparasites. Third, we used active blackbird nests to investigate the potential effect of nestling feces in ecto- and endoparasite loads in real nestlings. The presence of fecal sacs near blackbird nestlings did not increase the number of louse flies or chewing lice, and unexpectedly reduced the number of nests infested with mites. The endoparasite prevalence was also not affected. In contrast, feces provoked an activation of the immune system as the H/L ratio of nestlings living near excrements was significantly higher than those kept under the two control treatments. Surprisingly, our findings do not support the parasitism hypothesis, which suggests that parasites are not the main reason for fecal sac removal. In contrast, the attraction of flies to nestling feces, the elevation of the immune response of chicks, and the

  16. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J


    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  17. Políticas públicas, juventude e desigualdades sociais: uma discussão sobre o ProJovem Urbano em Belo Horizonte Public policies, youth and social inequalities: a discussion about ProJovem Urbano in the city of Belo Horizonte (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Leão


    Full Text Available O artigo discute alguns resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa realizada entre 2009 e 2011 que investigou as trajetórias de jovens participantes do Programa ProJovem Urbano (Programa Nacional de Inclusão de Jovens no ano de 2009, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Procurou-se compreender a vivência da condição juvenil pelos participantes do programa a partir de suas experiências de escolarização e trabalho e de seus projetos de futuro, para assim compreender os significados e sentidos do programa para eles. Na primeira etapa da pesquisa, foram aplicados 103 questionários a fim de construir um breve perfil socioeconômico dos alunos. Após o levantamento inicial dos dados, duas turmas foram selecionadas e observadas. Posteriormente, foram selecionados dez jovens para a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas. A pesquisa revelou uma maioria de mulheres, negros e jovens em condições precárias de trabalho ou desempregados e com uma sociabilidade restrita em relação a outros estratos da população. Evidenciou-se que as desigualdades sociais têm uma importância central nas trajetórias de vida desses jovens, com impactos marcantes em suas experiências atuais e em suas expectativas em relação ao futuro. Com base nesse solo comum, foi possível perceber uma diversidade de experiências a partir das quais são produzidos diferentes significados e motivações em relação à escolarização, o que delimitava também a relação construída com o programa. De uma maneira geral, a busca pela certificação escolar era o principal interesse dos participantes.This paper discusses some of the outcomes of a qualitative research carried out between 2009 and 2011 which investigated the trajectories of young participants in the Program ProJovem Urbano (National Program for Youth Inclusion in 2009, in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. The attempt was to understand the experience of juvenile status by the program

  18. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It. (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.


    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  19. What do we know about medical tourism? A review of the literature with discussion of its implications for the UK National Health Service as an example of a public health care system. (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard; Horsfall, Daniel; Lunt, Neil


    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon. This review of the literature maps current knowledge and discusses findings with reference to the UK National Health Service (NHS). Databases were systematically searched between September 2011 and March 2012 and 100 papers were selected for review. The literature shows specific types of tourism depending on treatment, eg, dentistry, cosmetic, or fertility. Patient motivation is complex and while further research is needed, factors beyond cost, including availability and distance, are clearly important. The provision of medical tourism varies. Volume of patient travel, economic cost and benefit were established for 13 countries. It highlights contributions not only to recipient countries' economies but also to a possible growth in health systems' inequities. Evidence suggests that UK patients travel abroad to receive treatment, complications arise and are treated by the NHS, indicating costs from medical travel for originating health systems. It demonstrates the importance of quality standards and holds lessons as the UK and other EU countries implement the EU Directive on cross-border care. Lifting the private-patient-cap for NHS hospitals increases potential for growth in inbound medical tourism; yet no research exists on this. Research is required on volume, cost, patient motivation, industry, and on long-term health outcomes in medical tourists. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  20. Surface electromyography of myopotential oversensing provoked by simultaneous straining and leftward twisting in a patient with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. (United States)

    Ajiro, Yoichi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Shoda, Morio; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa


    An important step in diagnosing myopotential oversensing is to confirm its reproducibility using specific provocation maneuvers. Although most maneuvers involve the co-contraction of many muscles, no attempt has been made to assess relevant muscle activities by electromyography. We describe a case with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) whose myopotential oversensing was provoked by simultaneous straining and leftward twisting. Simultaneous recordings from real-time ICD telemetry and myopotentials of the rectus abdominis, oblique abdominis, and diaphragm on electromyography during the provocation maneuvers were conducted. It was shown that all three muscles contracted simultaneously during the provocation maneuvers; the diaphragm activity was the main source of noise oversensing, and the twist itself caused oversensing possibly due to the change in the position of the lead. In conclusion, the electromyographic assessment of relevant muscle activities may be useful in assessing each muscle's role and its contribution to myopotential oversensing, especially in a patient whose myopotential oversensing requires complex maneuvers to be provoked.

  1. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain : a descriptive study


    Torstensson, Thomas; Butler, Stephen; Lindgren, Anne; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha; Kristiansson, Per


    OBJECTIVES: To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for el...

  2. Carnitine Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Provoke Cardiotoxicity in an Ifosfamide-Induced Fanconi Syndrome Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed


    Full Text Available In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule. Cardiac abnormalities in IFO-treated cancer patients were reported as isolated clinical cases. This study examined whether carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress, secondary to Fanconi Syndrome, provoke IFO-induced cardiomyopathy as well as exploring if carnitine supplementation using Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC could offer protection against this toxicity. In the current study, an animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats by D-carnitine-mildronate treatment Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, D-carnitine (DC, 250 mg/kg/day combined with mildronate (MD, 200 mg/kg/day and PLC (250 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 10 successive days. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups were injected with the same doses of normal saline, DC-MD and PLC, respectively for 5 successive days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO (50 mg/kg/day. IFO significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, urinary carnitine excretion and clearance, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA-SH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in cardiac tissues and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP and total carnitine and reduced glutathione (GSH content in cardiac tissues. In carnitine

  3. Migration Processes Provoked yy the Break-Up of Yugoslavia and the Agression against Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Domini


    Full Text Available The paper deals with forced migration caused by Serb aggression in areas of Croatia and the neighbouring countries. The first part presents the relevant facts relating to Croatia and important for an understanding of the migration flows (some demographic data as well as the basic guidelines of migration policy, legal regulations and most important problems connected with expellees, refugees and displaced persons. The main elements of contemporary migration movements in Croatia are indicated – migration based on economic causes (traditional migration, migration provoked by crisis and war destruction in former Yugoslavia and migration flows that are difficult to register (mainly clandestine crossings of the border of the Republic of Croatia and the irregular labour market. The author states that the expellee, refugee and displaced persons crisis (with psychological and material repercussions began in 1991 and reached a climax in 1992 when Croatia became one of the most pronounced refugee countries in the world, with refugees accounting for about 15% of its population. As the war crisis shifted, the areas from which intense forced migration to and from Croatia resulted also shifted as did the mechanisms for regulating these forced migrations (dual citizenship, transit visas, accords with "third countries" for accepting refugees and expellees, ways of resolving and caring for the refugee-expellee populations in the Republic of Croatia. The author concludes that even after seven years from the start of the aggression against Croatia, this humanitarian crisis among expellees, refugees and displaced persons has not yet finished, as testified by the new military conflict in Kosovo and by many open questions in regard to the future organisation of states in this crisis area as well as the creation of mechanisms for monitoring potential conflicts. A fundamental idea is expressed throughout the paper – i.e. the notion that now it is maybe more

  4. A Discussion with Jacques Derrida. (United States)

    Derrida, Jacques


    Presents an edited transcript of a discussion held in April 1989 between Jacques Derrida and a group of students and professors concerning Derrida's "Afterword: Toward an Ethic of Discussion." Discusses Derrida's views on "deconstruction" as a term and a movement, the idea of arguments and persuasion, and specific power…

  5. Discussing performance management architecture in public service broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Gabel, Ole Dahl


    these metrics, reflected in an architecture, raises the certainty and level of organisational consensus. Research limitations/implications: DR is unique as the largest cultural institution in the Danish language area backed by a political consensus, strong popular support, high level of funding...... and a disproportional “market share” against commercial actors. This is both interesting to research but also issues limits on the conclusions given the uniqueness. Practical implications: Ambiguity, bad connectedness, and lack of consensus of measurement of organisational performance can tentatively have a negative......Purpose: To demonstrate design of Performance Management (PM) processes in highly complex, non-profit, culture-producing organisations specifically the shift from Performance Management Systems (PMS) to Performance Management Architectures (PMA) specifically using Danish Broadcasting Corporation...

  6. The Bible in discussion: Three recent South African publications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the well-known Du Plessis trial of the Dutch. Reformed Church, J D du Toit hailed reformed orthodoxy as the golden age of re formed theology (Die Kerksaak 1932:128):. With regard to the term 'scholasticism' I would say this: if used in a positive sense I can go along with it, since the men concerned were people writing in ...

  7. Sports celebrities and public health: Diego Maradona's influence on drug use prevention. (United States)

    Brown, William J; de Matviuk, Marcela Alejandra Chavan


    Exposure to a sports celebrity through media and sporting events can have important influences on a public health issue associated with that celebrity. The battle against drug use by Argentinean soccer icon Diego Maradona has provoked concerns about drug abuse and prevention in Argentina, particularly among young people. The present study analyzes how two forms of involvement with Maradona affected the public's concern and perceptions of drug use after Maradona's drug-related health crisis in 2004. Results indicate that those who had a greater degree of parasocial interaction with Maradona were more likely to have an increased awareness of drug abuse, a greater personal concern about drug abuse, abstained from drug use, and more strongly support drug abuse prevention programs. In contrast, identification with Maradona had a mitigating effect on drug use prevention. Implications of these findings regarding the influence of sports celebrities on substance abuse are discussed.

  8. Does Feedback Influence Student Postings to Online Discussions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina A. Meyer, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Feedback theory proposes that feedback influences the behavior of a system and its parts and that is governed by rules. This exploratory study attempts to test this theory in a graduate-level class on leadership theory. Twelve students were asked to participate in five online discussions, each lasting one week. The questions for each discussion were selected to be provocative and rich, without having any correct answer. At the end of the discussion, students were asked to indicate which posting and poster they felt was “best” or most valuable and why they felt the posting was “best.” There is mixed evidence that the voting influenced subsequent postings; some individuals did improve while others were consistently good or poor posters. Students selected postings that were (in declining frequency of occurrence: thoughtful or thought-provoking, well written or justified, uplifting, presented new information, same as their own opinions, changed me, or complex. These reasons are similar to those of the instructor, although the students’ difficulty in choosing and rationalizing a choice and the frequency at which students chose posts that captured their own thoughts and opinions are of some concern. This study provides some evidence that these graduate students could evaluate their own discussions without the instructor intruding or dictating an evaluation scheme, although this may not be true for other groups of online students.

  9. Role of actinically provoked systemic elastolysis in polymyalgic vascular disease. A study based on serum fluorescence and haptoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J.P.; Argyle, J.C.

    This study of cutaneous elastic tissue and serum fluorescence supports the hypothesis that widespread destruction and resorption of elastic tissue (elastolysis) occurs in the temporal arteritis/polymyalgia rheumatica syndrome. A systemic elastolysis of this nature may be provoked by actinic (radiant) damage to the exposed elastic tissues in the skin and superficial arteries, the archetype of such injury being seen in temporal arteritis. Scattered giant cells are the usual agents of elastolysis but tuberculoid (sarcoid) infiltrates often take over in the later stages. In acute polymyalgia, the phenomenon probably becomes diffuse and humoral. Elastolysis may be a direct pathogenetic link between polymyalgia and other vascular diseases such as idiopathic aneurysm and atherosclerosis.

  10. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb


    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses to...... of life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences....

  11. Online Discussion and Learning Outcomes


    William T. Alpert; Oskar R. Harmon; Joseph Histen


    In this paper we describe how we used online discussion forums to complement lecture presentations. We collected data on student usage and surveyed student opinion in several online/blended sections. Our hypothesis is that increased student participation in online discussion forums will increase learner engagement and learning outcomes. Using panel data we estimate a fixed effects model and find active participation in the discussion board has a positive effect on exam score at a statisticall...

  12. Perceiving the target's state or state provoked by the target? An analysis of the descriptive and evaluative knowledge in person perception. (United States)

    Mignon, Astrid; Mollaret, Patrick


    In line with the theory of traits as generalized affordances, the present article argues that target's states (TSs) and states provoked by a target (other's states (OSs) towards target) are two components of the meaning of traits referring, respectively, to a descriptive and to an evaluative knowledge of people. A preliminary study confirmed that TS and OS were equally representative of a trait. Two studies were designed to study the effects of practising the use of traits as either TS or OS categories (an induction procedure) on a subsequent person perception task, requiring participants to rate photographed targets on a series of traits. Results show that both the differentiation between targets and evaluative consistency of ratings were enhanced under the OS condition compared to TS and control (with no practice of traits) conditions. Importantly, Study 2 tends to show that the effects of the induction procedure are not limited to the practised traits but also generalize to unpractised traits. Implications of these findings for social perception research are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar White Uribe


    Full Text Available The text presents nearby, didactic, entertaining way the context of public services including some pills for debate, stimulating discussion of why we hurt and we are unable to assume: when we reached the “cuentica verde” of public services , sacredly, each month, to the house, that’s when we begin to blame all costs, unless policies governing the issue of public services in Colombia.

  14. Discussion Forum: Superintendent of Documents Operates an Outdated Vacuum Cleaner. (United States)

    Hernon, Peter


    Discusses the operations of the Government Printing Office's Office of Superintendent of Documents and suggests that changes are needed. The depository library program is discussed, government publications are described, the proliferation of publications and other information sources is considered, and issues relating to improvements are raised.…

  15. Effects of Thought Suppression on Provoked Men’s Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression in the Laboratory (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Lisco, Claire G.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.


    Objective This study utilized a comprehensive theoretical approach to provide the first data on the impact of thought suppression on provoked men’s alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (58% African-American) of males between the ages of 21 and 35 (M = 25.25) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results Results indicated that acute alcohol intoxication significantly increased physical aggression among lower, but not higher, thought suppressing men. Conclusions Results suggest that, under conditions of interpersonal provocation, alcohol intoxication produces a myopic focus on hostile thoughts and angry affect in lower, but not higher, suppression men. This pattern of results provides support for the durability of the alcohol myopia effect and highlights the need for continued examination of alcohol’s role in the disruption of protective factors for men’s aggression. It is important for research to continue to identify modifiable cognitive variables that influence self-regulation of behavior; however, it is imperative that researchers consider the extent to which these variables withstand alcohol’s effects. PMID:25337430

  16. Small group discussion: Students perspectives. (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran


    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  17. Which placebo to cure depression? A thought-provoking network meta-analysis. (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Millet, Bruno; Charlier, Philippe; Reymann, Jean Michel; Maria, Anne Solène; Falissard, Bruno


    Antidepressants are often considered to be mere placebos despite the fact that meta-analyses are able to rank them. It follows that it should also be possible to rank different placebos, which are all made of sucrose. To explore this issue, which is rather more epistemological than clinical, we designed an unusual meta-analysis to investigate whether the effects of placebo in one situation are different from the effects of placebo in another situation. Published and unpublished studies were searched for by three reviewers on Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase,, Current Controlled Trial, in bibliographies, and by mailing key organizations. The following studies in first-line treatment for major depressive disorder were considered to construct an "evidence network": 1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus placebo on fluoxetine, venlafaxine and 2) fluoxetine versus venlafaxine head-to-head RCTs.Two network meta-analyses were run to indirectly compare response and remission rates among three different placebos: 1) fluoxetine placebo, 2) venlafaxine placebo, and 3) venlafaxine/fluoxetine placebo (that is, placebo compared to both venlafaxine and fluoxetine). Publication biases were assessed using funnel plots and statistically tested. The three placebos were not significantly different in terms of response or remission. The antidepressant agents were significantly more efficacious than the placebos, and venlafaxine was more efficacious than fluoxetine. The funnel plots, however, showed a major publication bias. The presence of significant levels of publication bias indicates that we cannot even be certain of the conclusion that sucrose equals sucrose in trials of major depressive disorder. This result should remind clinicians to step back to take a more objective view when interpreting a scientific result. It is of crucial importance for their practice, far more so than ranking antidepressant efficacy.

  18. Socrates, discussion and moral education (United States)

    Rembert, Ron B.


    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  19. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons. (United States)

    McClintock, Ruth


    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  20. Group discussion improves lie detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley


    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  1. Small group discussion: Students perspectives


    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran


    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through s...

  2. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion (United States)


    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  3. Small group discussion: Students perspectives (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran


    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Subjects and Methods: Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1st year medical students of 2014–2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results: Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. Conclusions: The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods. PMID:26380202

  4. Provoking misunderstanding: a comment on Black's defence of value-free sociology. (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn


    This paper is a response to a recent article dealing with the concept of value-free sociology by Donald Black. It argues that while a defence of Weber's position on the role of values in sociological research is necessary and important, what is offered by Black is counter-productive in important respects. This is because it encourages some of the misunderstandings that it is aimed at remedying and, even more importantly, offers a simplistic discussion of what are complex issues. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  5. A Powerful Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public......The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public...

  6. Ictal brain SPET during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol: a new diagnostic procedure in drug-resistant epileptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro; Bruno, Isabella; Di Giuda, Daniela; De Rossi, Giuseppe; Troncone, Luigi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168 Roma (Italy); Parbonetti, Giovanni; Colicchio, Gabriella [Department of Neurosurgery, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma (Italy)


    Functional brain imaging plays an important role in seizure focus localisation. However, truly ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies are not routinely performed owing to technical problems associated with the use of tracers and methodological and logistical difficulties. In this study we tried to resolve both of these issues by means of a new procedure: technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPET performed during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol, a well-known central and respiratory stimulant. We studied 33 drug-resistant epileptic patients. All patients underwent anamnestic evaluation, neuropsychological and psychodynamic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, interictal and ictal video-EEG monitoring, and interictal and ictal SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. In order to obtain truly ictal SPET, 65 mg of pentylenetetrazol was injected every 2 minutes and, immediately the seizure began, 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected. The scintigraphic findings were considered abnormal if a single area of hyperperfusion was present and corresponded to the site of a single area of hypoperfusion at interictal SPET: the ''hypo-hyperperfusion'' SPET pattern. In 27 of the 33 patients (82%), interictal-ictal SPET showed the hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern. Video-EEG showed a single epileptogenic zone in 21/33 patients (64%), and MRI showed anatomical lesions in 19/33 patients (57%). Twenty-two of the 27 patients with hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern underwent ablative or palliative surgery and were seizure-free at 3 years of follow-up. No adverse effects were noted during pharmacologically provoked seizure. It is concluded that ictal brain SPET performed during pharmacologically provoked seizure provides truly ictal images because {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is injected immediately upon seizure onset. Using this feasible procedure it is possible to localise the focus, to avoid the limitations due to the unpredictability

  7. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travert Carine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%. CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a

  8. Report made on behalf of the mixed parity commission in charge of the text proposal about the remaining dispositions to be discussed of the project of law relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, J.C.; Poniatowski, L


    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents, first, in a comparative table the articles adopted by the French house of commons and the changes adopted by the Senate. Then, a common text is proposed by the mixed parity commission for the articles that remained under discussion. (J.S.)

  9. The "Other" Speaks Up. When Social Science (Representations Provoke Reactance from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer


    Full Text Available This paper addresses science communication problems: How do researchers convey social science representations and findings to the researched? How are the latter described in research reports? How do they react when they read or hear such reports and when they subsequently engage in discourse with researchers? Typically, social science researchers approach a field site with an attitude of curiosity that is unburdened by an immediate pressure to act. The field inhabitants, by contrast, are subject to the practical constraints of these everyday worlds; they identify personally with their milieu and its protagonists, and they are correspondingly sensitive. The present paper describes their defensive reactions, taking as an example the reception of a research project presented at conferences attended by a mixed audience. It highlights the reactions and strategies displayed by the researched in the contexts of discourse and meaning negotiation in response to unwelcome representations. And it offers several interpretations of the interactions between the researchers and the researched. Field members may oppose the revelation of contextual and causal factors construing it as "washing dirty laundry in public". Researchers react to this in their textual representations, and their reactions may take the form of score-settling. The present paper asks how such contradictory, conflict-laden constellations and perspectives in the discourse between the observers and the observed can be productively dealt with. URN:

  10. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.


    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  11. Body Art: A Panel Discussion. (United States)

    Surgenor, Peter; And Others


    Three camp directors discuss their policies regarding body art and body piercing. Only one director reported a strict policy prohibiting tattoos or body art based on standards that the camp portrays to families. However, all directors enforced policies prohibiting clothing or body art that mentions alcohol, tobacco, drug use, or inappropriate…

  12. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption (United States)

    Changgeng, Li


    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  13. [Type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation for the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction]. (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan-Wen; Guo, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Feng-Bin; Zhong, Da-Chuan; Fang, Jia-Jie; Li, Fang-Yin


    To evaluate the type V phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation in the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction. A total of 853 out-patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were divided into an injury and a non-injury group. After scored on IIEF-5 questionnaires, all the patients received oral administration of PDE-5 inhibitors and, 30 minutes later, audio-visual sexual stimulation. The data on penile erection were recorded with Rigiscan Plus. The patients with mild, moderate and severe ED accounted for 18.8, 31.9 and 49.3% in the injury group, and 50.6, 39.8 and 9.6% in the non-injury group, with statistic differences between the two groups in the mild and severe parts (P erectile dysfunction.

  14. Avoiding the Theory Trap When Discussing Evolution (United States)

    Morrison, David


    Public opinion polls tell us that we are losing the battle to explain the nature of evolution and its central role in science. One problem, I believe, is letting the opponents of evolution frame the discussion to our disadvantage. Framing involves the selective use of language or context to trigger responses, either support or opposition. As a prime example, we undercut our communications efforts with many nonscientists by defending the `theory of evolution.' Theory is the wrong word to use in addressing the public. In the contemporary U.S., theory means a hunch or idea that has not been established by evidence. It is thus no surprise that polls show that nearly three quarters of U.S. people think that ``evolution is commonly referred to as the theory of evolution because it has not yet been proven scientifically.'' Those who advocate adding ``only a theory'' disclaimers in textbooks know that to call evolution a theory is sufficient to undermine its acceptance.

  15. Writing a scientific publication for a management journal. (United States)

    Øvretveit, John


    The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate about criteria for assessing the scientific contribution of a piece of management research and to guide and encourage researchers in writing papers for publication. The paper also seeks to reduce the number of papers submitted to journals and reviewers which are really unfinished early drafts or which do provide knowledge which could contribute to reducing suffering. The paper draws on and discusses the difference between practical research for a manager and scientific research, as well as the author's experience as researcher, writer, reviewer, editor, research methods course leader and director of research. The discussion highlights that the author should draft the paper under the suggested headings and fulfil criteria of validity, reliability, supported conclusions, generalisability, ensuring that each section follows on from the other, and that the findings are related to previous research. This is the author's personal view about how to carry out and write research to get published, without discussions of other views. The findings in this paper may provoke more debate about management science and the role of this journal. The guidance may help many researchers publish their management research. The paper links practical guidance with discussion of criteria for scientific contribution in a readable way.

  16. [Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache]. (United States)

    Holzhammer, J; Wöber, C


    Based on a review of the literature the authors discuss the role of nutrition in the precipitation of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). The available information relies largely on the subjective assessment of the patients. Controlled trials suggest that alcohol and caffeine withdrawal are the most important nutritional precipitating factors of migraine and TTH. In addition, there is some evidence that missing meals is also an important factor. Dehydration seems to deserve more attention. A selective sensitivity to red wine has been shown in some patients, the importance of chocolate has been doubted seriously, and scientific evidence for cheese as a precipitating factor is lacking. Despite a series of experimental studies demonstrating that NO donors such as nitroglycerin and parenteral histamine cause headache the role of histamine, nitrates, and nitrites in food remains unclear. Similarly, other biogenic amines and aspartame have not been proven to precipitate headache. Sodium glutamate causes adverse reactions including headache probably at large doses ingested on an empty stomach. Therefore, patients should be advised that food plays a limited role as a precipitating factor of migraine and TTH. Subjective sensitivity to certain foods should be examined critically, and proven precipitating factors should be avoided. General dietary restrictions have not been proven to be useful.

  17. Group discussion improves lie detection. (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas


    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  18. CERN in discussions with its neighbours

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN recently invited local partners, elected representatives, and representatives of local administrations and associations to an information and discussion evening, giving those invited an opportunity to raise various topics linked to CERN’s presence in the local area. On Tuesday, 20 October the Globe of Science and Innovation took on a distinctly regional flavour when some 60 representatives of local administrations and public bodies in Switzerland and France as well as teachers, heads of local schools and chairs of local associations attended an information and discussion evening at the invitation of the Director-General. In his opening address, the Director-General underlined CERN’s commitment to transparency and the desire to enhance its communication with the local community. This address was followed by four presentations. Philippe Bloch, head of the Physics Department, explained the scientific goals of the LHC and the L...

  19. Active and Passive Components of Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Perspective Based on a Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Morin, Mélanie


    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions, especially elevated tone or tension, are suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). However, the involvement of the PFMs remains misunderstood as the assessment of muscle tone is complex and requires a thorough understanding of muscle physiology in relation to the characteristics and limitations of current PFM assessment tools. The aim of this review was to describe the structures and mechanisms involved in muscle tone in normally innervated muscle, and to discuss and relate these concepts to the PFM findings in women with PVD. A narrative overview of the literature retrieved from searches of electronic databases and hand searches. Muscle tone in a normally innervated muscle comprises both active (contractile) and passive (viscoelastic) components. Current methods for evaluating PFM tone such as digital palpation, ultrasound imaging, pressure perineometry, dynamometry, and electromyography may evaluate different components. Research findings suggestive of PFM hypertonicity in women with PVD include elevated general PFM tone, changes in viscoelastic properties, and at least in some women, abnormal increases in electrogenic activity. There is a growing body of evidence to support the involvement of PFM hypertonicity in the pathophysiology of PVD. Limitations of the instruments as well as their properties should be considered when evaluating PFM tone in order to obtain better insight into which component of PFM tone is assessed. Future research is required for further investigating the underlying mechanisms of PFM hypertonicity, and studying the specific effects of physiotherapeutic interventions on PFM tone in women with PVD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Can Fear, Pain, and Muscle Tension Discriminate Vaginismus from Dyspareunia/Provoked Vestibulodynia? Implications for the New DSM-5 Diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder. (United States)

    Lahaie, Marie-Andrée; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir; Boyer, Stephanie; Faaborg-Andersen, Marie; Binik, Yitzchak M


    Fear has been suggested as the crucial diagnostic variable that may distinguish vaginismus from dyspareunia. Unfortunately, this has not been systematically investigated. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether fear as evaluated by subjective, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures could differentiate women with vaginismus from those with dyspareunia/provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and controls. A second aim was to re-examine whether genital pain and pelvic floor muscle tension differed between vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD sufferers. Fifty women with vaginismus, 50 women with dyspareunia/PVD, and 43 controls participated in an experimental session comprising a structured interview, pain sensitivity testing, a filmed gynecological examination, and several self-report measures. Results demonstrated that fear and vaginal muscle tension were significantly greater in the vaginismus group as compared to the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Moreover, behavioral measures of fear and vaginal muscle tension were found to discriminate the vaginismus group from the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Genital pain did not differ significantly between the vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD groups; however, genital pain was found to discriminate both clinical groups from controls. Despite significant statistical differences on fear and vaginal muscle tension variables between women suffering from vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD, a large overlap was observed between these conditions. These findings may explain the great difficulty health professionals experience in attempting to reliably differentiate vaginismus from dyspareunia/PVD. The implications of these data for the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder are discussed.

  1. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  2. Publishing corruption discussion: predatory journalism. (United States)

    Jones, James W; McCullough, Laurence B


    Dr Spock is a brilliant young vascular surgeon who is up for tenure next year. He has been warned by the chair of surgery that he needs to increase his list of publications to assure passage. He has recently had a paper reviewed by one of the top journals in his specialty, Journal X-special, with several suggestions for revision. He received an e-mail request for manuscript submission from a newly minted, open access, Journal of Vascular Disease Therapy, which promises a quick and likely favorable response for a fee. What should be done? A. Send the paper to another peer reviewed journal with the suggested revisions. B. Resubmit the paper to Journal X-special. C. Submit to the online journal as is to save time. D. Submit to the online journal and another regular journal. E. Look for another job. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on common cultural, social and environmental values. The strategy comprises of a vision and more detailed aims and actions within three different areas: Corridor infrastructure, Innovation and Cooperation. In this way, the COINCO partners want to establish a political platform for transborder collaboration...... companies in the corridor, attracting innovative international companies, and supporting the creation of new knowledge intensive businesses is thus at the core of the strategy. New areas of collaboration will have to be identified systematically. Cooperation among COINCO businesses have...

  4. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California (United States)


    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI ( PMID:22414797


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.


    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  6. Using Knowledge Translation to Craft "Sticky" Social Media Health Messages That Provoke Interest, Raise Awareness, Impart Knowledge, and Inspire Change. (United States)

    Shibasaki, Sanchia; Gardner, Karen; Sibthorpe, Beverly


    In Australia, there is growing use of technology supported knowledge translation (KT) strategies such as social media and mobile apps in health promotion and in Indigenous health. However, little is known about how individuals use technologies and the evidence base for the impact of these health interventions on health behavior change is meager. The objective of our study was to examine how Facebook is used to promote health messages to Indigenous people and discuss how KT can support planning and implementing health messages to ensure chosen strategies are fit for the purpose and achieve impact. A desktop audit of health promotion campaigns on smoking prevention and cessation for Australian Indigenous people using Facebook was conducted. Our audit identified 13 out of 21 eligible campaigns that used Facebook. Facebook pages with the highest number of likes (more than 5000) were linked to a website and to other social media applications and demonstrated stickiness characteristics by posting frequently (triggers and unexpected), recruiting sporting or public personalities to promote campaigns (social currency and public), recruiting Indigenous people from the local region (stories and emotion), and sharing stories and experiences based on real-life events (credible and practical value). KT planning may support campaigns to identify and select KT strategies that are best suited and well-aligned to the campaign's goals, messages, and target audiences. KT planning can also help mitigate unforeseen and expected risks, reduce unwarranted costs and expenses, achieve goals, and limit the peer pressure of using strategies that may not be fit for purpose. One of the main challenges in using KT systems and processes involves coming to an adequate conceptualization of the KT process itself.

  7. It Takes Two: Sexual Communication Patterns and the Sexual and Relational Adjustment of Couples Coping With Provoked Vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Flynn, Michelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is associated with sexual and relational consequences for women and their partners. Greater perceived quality of sexual communication has been associated with women's lower pain during intercourse and with couples' better sexual and relational well-being. Whether couples' collaborative (eg, expressing feelings or problem solving) and negative (eg, withdrawing or criticizing) sexual communication patterns (SCPs) are differentially associated with couples' adjustment to PVD is unknown. To examine associations between collaborative and negative SCPs and women's pain and the sexual and relationship adjustment of women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 87) and their partners completed the Sexual Communication Patterns Questionnaire and measurements of pain (women only), sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and relationship satisfaction. (i) Numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function, (iii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, (iv) Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, and (v) Couple Satisfaction Index. When women reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater negative SCP, they reported less relationship satisfaction and had partners who reported greater sexual distress. When partners reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher relationship satisfaction and had female partners who were less sexually distressed. When partners reported higher negative SCP, they also reported less relationship satisfaction. There were no associations between SCP and women's or partners' sexual functioning or women's pain. Collaborative SCP may benefit couples' sexual and relational well-being, whereas negative SCP may impede sexual and relational adjustment to PVD. Findings

  8. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  9. Discussion on selected symbiotic stars (United States)

    Viotti, Roberto; Hack, Margherita


    Because of its large variety of aspects, the symbiotic phenomenon is not very suitable for a statistical treatment. It is also not clear whether symbiotic stars really represent a homogeneous group of astrophysical objects or a collection of objects of different natures but showing similar phenomena. However we are especially interested in the symbiotic phenomenon, i.e., in those physical processes occurring in the atmosphere of each individual object and in their time dependence. Such a research can be performed through the detailed analysis of individual objects. This study should be done for a time long enough to cover all the different phases of their activity, in all the spectral ranges. Since the typical time scale of the symbiotic phenomena is up to several years and decades, this represents a problem since, for instance, making astronomy outside the visual region is a quite new field of research. It was a fortunate case that a few symbiotic stars (Z And, AG Dra, CH Cyg, AX Per, and PU Vul) had undergone remarkable light variations (or 'outbursts') in recent years, which could have been followed in the space ultraviolet with IUE, and simultaneously in the optical and IR with ground-based telescopes. But, in general, the time coverage of most of the symbiotic objects is too short to have a complete picture of their behavior. In this regard, one should recall Mayall's remark about the light curve of Z And: 'Z Andromedae is another variable that shows it will require several hundred years of observations before a good analysis can be made of its variations'. This pessimistic remark should be considered as a note of caution for those involved in the interpretation of the observations. We shall discuss a number of individual symbiotic stars for which the amount of observational data is large enough to draw a rather complete picture of their general behavior and to make consistent models. We shall especially illustrate the necessary steps toward an empirical model

  10. Muscle coordination: the discussion continues (United States)



    In this response, the major criticisms of the target article are addressed. Terminology from the target article that may have caused some confusion is clarified. In particular, the tasks that have the basic features of muscle coordination, as identified in the target article, have been limited in scope. A new metabolic optimization criterion suggested by Alexander (2000) is examined for its ability to predict muscle coordination in walking. Issues concerning the validation of muscle force predictions, the rules of muscle coordination, and the role of directional constraints in coordination of two-joint muscles are discussed. It is shown in particular that even in one-joint systems, the forces predicted by the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand (1981) depend upon the muscle moment arms and the physiological cross-sectional areas in much more complex ways than either previously assumed in the target article, or incorrectly derived by Herzog and Ait-Haddou (2000). It is concluded that the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand qualitatively predicts the basic coordination features of the major one- and two-joint muscles in a number of highly skilled, repetitive motor tasks performed by humans under predictable conditions and little demands on stability and accuracy. A possible functional significance of such muscle coordination may be the minimization of perceived effort, muscle fatigue, and/or energy expenditure.

  11. Public Library YA Program Roundup. Fantastic Fiestas in the Library: Florida Teens Connect with Their Caribbean and Hispanic Roots; Read Any Good Movies Lately? Conducting YA Book and Movie Discussions; How To Survive a Summer Book Club: A Dialogue; What Do Teens Read in One Day? A Teen Read Week Log; Reading Rocks Music Revue; BookBusters! Spring Cleaning for Books, Teens, and Senior Citizens; Intergenerational Internet; Medieval Murder in the Library. (United States)

    Wexler, Sydna R.; Vaillancourt, Renee J.; Gillispie, Julie; Engdale, Adam; Lane, David; Welch, Rollie; Honnold, RoseMary; Hall, Tracie; Katz, Jeff; Bartlett, Linda


    These eight articles describe successful public library programs for teens. Highlights include programs emphasizing immigrants' cultures; viewing film adaptations from appropriate books; summer book discussion groups; using music to promote reading; using teen and senior citizen volunteers to help restore books; teens as computer tutors for other…

  12. Teratocarcinomas Arising from Allogeneic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Tissue Constructs Provoked Host Immune Rejection in Mice. (United States)

    Kawamura, Ai; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Kawamura, Takuji; Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Ito, Emiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Masuda, Shigeo; Toda, Koichi; Hatazawa, Jun; Morii, Eiichi; Sawa, Yoshiki


    Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs is a promising regenerative treatment for cardiac failure: however, its tumourigenic potential is concerning. We hypothesised that the tumourigenic potential may be eliminated by the host immune response after allogeneic cell transplantation. Scaffold-free iPSC-derived cardaic tissue sheets of C57BL/6 mouse origin were transplanted into the cardiac surface of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and allogeneic BALB/c mice with or without tacrolimus injection. Syngeneic mice and tacrolimus-injected immunosuppressed allogeneic mice formed teratocarcinomas with identical phenotypes, characteristic, and time courses, as assessed by imaging tools including (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In contrast, temporarily immunosuppressed allogeneic mice, following cessation of tacrolimus injection displayed diminished progression of the teratocarcinoma, accompanied by an accumulation of CD4/CD8-positive T cells, and finally achieved complete elimination of the teratocarcinoma. Our results indicated that malignant teratocarcinomas arising from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs provoked T cell-related host immune rejection to arrest tumour growth in murine allogeneic transplantation models.

  13. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators (United States)

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A


    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  14. Upregulations of Clcn3 and P-Gp Provoked by Lens Osmotic Expansion in Rat Galactosemic Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Ji


    Full Text Available Objective. Lens osmotic expansion, provoked by overactivated aldose reductase (AR, is the most essential event of sugar cataract. Chloride channel 3 (Clcn3 is a volume-sensitive channel, mainly participating in the regulation of cell fundamental volume, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp acts as its modulator. We aim to study whether P-gp and Clcn3 are involved in lens osmotic expansion of galactosemic cataract. Methods and Results. In vitro, lens epithelial cells (LECs were primarily cultured in gradient galactose medium (10–60 mM, more and more vacuoles appeared in LEC cytoplasm, and mRNA and protein levels of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 were synchronously upregulated along with the increase of galactose concentration. In vivo, we focused on the early stage of rat galactosemic cataract, amount of vacuoles arose from equatorial area and scattered to the whole anterior capsule of lenses from the 3rd day to the 9th day, and mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Clcn3 reached the peak around the 9th or 12th day. Conclusion. Galactosemia caused the osmotic stress in lenses; it also markedly leads to the upregulations of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 in LECs, together resulting in obvious osmotic expansion in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Error-provoking conditions in the medication use process: the case of a government hospital in Ghana. (United States)

    Koffuor, George Asumeng; Anto, Berko Panyin; Abaitey, Alfred K


    This study aimed to explore error-provoking factors prevalent in hospitals that have the potential to cause medication errors and to create awareness of the existence of medication errors. A total of 200 medical folders of in-patients in the health facility were randomly selected and assessed based on a checklist to record potential medication errors. The medication use process and working environment as well as drug packages and labels in the pharmacy were observed, and potential medication errors were documented. Of the 162 valid in-patient folders studied, 60.5% of the patients did not receive the actual quantity of drugs they were supposed to. Illegible handwriting on medication orders and prescription were common observations in the folders studied. Look-alike medicine packages and labeling were found. The working space in the dispensary was congested, and distractions (e.g., ringing personal telephones, being called from one task to attend to another, and unnecessary conversation between personnel) were common. This study has highlighted the vulnerability of the medication use process in the study site to medication errors. The findings may just be a tip of the iceberg; therefore, the researchers plan undertaking a multicenter study. In the absence of that, however, there is a need for a national policy on patient safety, and a national policy on incident reporting would help in determining the incidence, types, and potential causes of medication errors to improve patient safety.

  16. Reduced striatal activation during reward anticipation due to appetite-provoking cues in chronic schizophrenia: a fMRI study. (United States)

    Grimm, O; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Krebs, L; Zink, M; Smolka, M N


    The occurrence of weight gain in schizophrenia (SZ) has profound clinical impact and interacts with antipsychotic medication, life style and disease severity. The functional neuroanatomy underlying altered nutritional behavior is unraveled, but dysregulated reward anticipation might be one of the involved neuronal mechanisms. The striatum, a core region of the reward network and salience attribution, was previously shown to regulate appetite perception and eating behavior. We studied patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia with a stable medication in comparison to age and gender matched healthy adults. Every subject had to undergo a 6h fasting period before a newly developed, appetite-provoking fMRI task was applied. Subjects saw visual stimuli of appetitive food items in a 3Tesla scanner. In healthy controls food images elicited stronger activation in the striatum compared to SZ patients. When adjusting a ROI-based striatal activation for medication and weight, the group difference remained still significant. This points an effect of illness independent of antipsychotic medication. These data underscore the involvement of the striatum into salience attribution, reward anticipation and the neuronal pathways leading to altered eating behavior and weight gain in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproduction and mode of delivery in women with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia: a Swedish register-based study. (United States)

    Möller, L; Josefsson, A; Bladh, M; Lilliecreutz, C; Sydsjö, G


    To compare sociodemographics, parity and mode of delivery between women diagnosed with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia (LPV) to women without a diagnosis before first pregnancy. Retrospective, population-based register study. Sweden. All women born in Sweden 1973-83 who gave birth for the first time or remained nulliparous during the years 2001-09. Nationally linked registries were used to identify the study population. Women diagnosed with vaginismus or LPV were compared to all other women. Odds ratios for parity and mode of delivery were calculated using multinominal regression analysis and logistic regression. Parity and mode of delivery. Women with vaginismus/LPV were more likely to be unmarried (P = 0.001), unemployed (P = 0.012), have a higher educational level (P vaginismus/LPV more often delivered by caesarean section (P vaginismus/LPV were more likely to suffer a perineal laceration (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.56-2.25). Women with vaginismus/LPV are less likely to give birth and those that do are more likely to deliver by caesarean section and have a caesarean section based upon maternal request. Those women delivering vaginally are more likely to suffer perineal laceration. These findings point to the importance of not only addressing sexual function in women with vaginismus/LPV but reproductive function as well. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Exogenous interleukin-6, interleukin-13, and interferon-gamma provoke pulmonary abnormality with mild edema in enterovirus 71-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Szu-Wei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal mice developed neurological disease and pulmonary dysfunction after an infection with a mouse-adapted human Enterovirus 71 (EV71 strain MP4. However, the hallmark of severe human EV71 infection, pulmonary edema (PE, was not evident. Methods To test whether EV71-induced PE required a proinflammatory cytokine response, exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines were administered to EV71-infected mice during the late stage of infection. Results After intracranial infection of EV71/MP4, 7-day-old mice developed hind-limb paralysis, pulmonary dysfunction, and emphysema. A transient increase was observed in serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ, but not noradrenaline. At day 3 post infection, treatment with IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ provoked mild PE and severe emphysema that were accompanied by pulmonary dysfunction in EV71-infected, but not herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1-infected control mice. Adult mice did not develop PE after an intracerebral microinjection of EV71 into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS. While viral antigen accumulated in the ventral medulla and the NTS of intracerebrally injected mice, neuronal loss was observed in the ventral medulla only. Conclusions Exogenous IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ treatment could induce mild PE and exacerbate pulmonary abnormality of EV71-infected mice. However, other factors such as over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also be required for the development of classic PE symptoms.

  19. Provoking, disturbing, hacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    Among the artists on the contemporary Danish scene of computer music and sound art the musician and composer Goodiepal (Gæoudjiparl van den Dobbelsteen or Parl Kristian Bjørn Vester) is by no comparison the most controversial and provocative. This statement is applicable whether we meet him as mu...

  20. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates (United States)

    Hennessey, Jessica


    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  1. Balint-style case discussion groups in psychiatric training: an evaluation. (United States)

    Graham, Simon; Gask, Linda; Swift, Geraldine; Evans, Mark


    The authors aim to identify any benefits or limitations of psychiatric residents attending a Balint-style case discussion group, to explore those experiences, to study the process of the learning experience, and to identify potential educational implications. Seventeen psychiatric residents and counselors completing two parallel case discussion groups at a U.K. psychotherapy service were given in-depth interviews about their experiences of this training. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The groups were anxiety provoking; most participants were able to progressively accommodate to and benefit from the psychological learning process, but some struggled to adapt. Basic psychological competency and the awareness of the self in relation to the patient can be fostered through attendance at a case discussion group. With some limitations, Balint groups continue to be a useful way of introducing young psychiatrists to psychological processes.

  2. Publicity and public relations (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.


    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  3. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.


    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  4. Public knowledge and public trust. (United States)

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah


    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  5. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves. (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M


    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

  6. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels. (United States)

    Koehestanie, Parweez; Dogan, Kemal; Berends, Frits; Janssen, Ignace; Wahab, Peter; Groenen, Marcel; Müller, Michael; de Wit, Nicole


    Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this observational study, we evaluated improvement of glycemic control and weight loss in the course of the treatment (0 - 24 weeks after DJBL implantation) and analyzed accompanying gut hormone responses. 12 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were selected for DJBL implantation. Body weight, fat mass, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), were analyzed at 0, 1, 4 and 24 weeks post-implant. Fasting ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) were determined at 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-implant. Besides significant weight loss, fat mass, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also significantly decreased after DJBL implantation and a 42 % reduction was found in diabetes medication (P response in the first 4 weeks post-implant was significantly correlated with the fasting insulin and HOMA-IR response. Fasting ghrelin was found to be significantly elevated, in contrast to the decrease in ghrelin that is found after RYGB surgery. DJBL implantation provoked significant weight loss, a decrease in fat mass, and an early remission of type 2 diabetes, comparable to results seen after RYGB surgery. Gut hormone analyses revealed a potential role of fasting GLP-1 in early remission of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, the DJBL-induced elevation of ghrelin contradicts the suggested role of reduced ghrelin levels after RYGB in improvement of glycemic control.

  7. Attenuation of microRNA-16 derepresses the cyclins D1, D2 and E1 to provoke cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Zou, Xiao; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Liang, Ye-You; Deng, Chun-Yu; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhang, Meng-Zhen; Liao, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yu, Xi-Yong; Shan, Zhi-Xin


    Cyclins/retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway participates in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous small non-coding RNAs, were recognized to play significant roles in cardiac hypertrophy. But, it remains unknown whether cyclin/Rb pathway is modulated by miRNAs during cardiac hypertrophy. This study investigates the potential role of microRNA-16 (miR-16) in modulating cyclin/Rb pathway during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. An animal model of hypertrophy was established in a rat with abdominal aortic constriction (AAC), and in a mouse with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and in a mouse with subcutaneous injection of phenylephrine (PE) respectively. In addition, a cell model of hypertrophy was also achieved based on PE-promoted neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte and based on Ang-II-induced neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocyte respectively. We demonstrated that miR-16 expression was markedly decreased in hypertrophic myocardium and hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in rats and mice. Overexpression of miR-16 suppressed rat cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic phenotype of cultured cardiomyocytes, and inhibition of miR-16 induced a hypertrophic phenotype in cardiomyocytes. Expressions of cyclins D1, D2 and E1, and the phosphorylated pRb were increased in hypertrophic myocardium and hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, but could be reversed by enforced expression of miR-16. Cyclins D1, D2 and E1, not pRb, were further validated to be modulated post-transcriptionally by miR-16. In addition, the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and c-Myc were activated during myocardial hypertrophy, and inhibitions of them prevented miR-16 attenuation. Therefore, attenuation of miR-16 provoke cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via derepressing the cyclins D1, D2 and E1, and activating cyclin/Rb pathway, revealing that miR-16 might be a target to manage cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25583328

  8. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa. [Umeaa University, Umeaa University Hospital, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa (Sweden); Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta [Umeaa University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Larsson, Anne [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umeaa (Sweden); Nyberg, Lars [Umeaa University, Department of Psychology, Umeaa (Sweden)


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2{+-}4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4{+-}3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF{sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  9. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats. (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir


    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  10. Sexual and relationship intimacy among women with provoked vestibulodynia and their partners: associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy. (United States)

    Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; McDuff, Pierre; Grégoire, Catherine


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent subtype of vulvodynia. Women report negative consequences of PVD on their sexual and romantic relationships. Researchers have recently highlighted the importance of examining interpersonal factors such as intimacy, and of including both women and their partners in study designs. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual and relationship intimacy as defined by the Interpersonal Process Model of Intimacy and their associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity among women with PVD and their partners. Ninety-one heterosexual women (M age = 27.38, SD = 6.04) diagnosed with PVD and their partners (M age = 29.37, SD = 7.79) completed measures of sexual and relationship intimacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; (iii) Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale; and (iv) visual analog scale of pain intensity during intercourse. After controlling for women's age, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.49, P satisfaction and higher pain self-efficacy (β = 0.39, P = 0.001), beyond the effects of partners' sexual intimacy. Also, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.24, P = 0.05) and women's greater relationship intimacy (β = 0.54, P = 0.003) were associated with greater women's sexual function, beyond the effects of partners' sexual and relationship intimacy. Women's self-reported sexual and relationship intimacy in the couple relationship may promote higher sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy, as well as possibly foster greater sexual well-being among women with PVD. The authors discuss implications for the inclusion of emotional and interpersonal aspects of the couple's dynamic in clinical interventions and future research in PVD. © 2013

  11. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  12. Bioethics and multiculturalism: nuancing the discussion. (United States)

    Durante, Chris


    In his recent analysis of multiculturalism, Tom Beauchamp has argued that those who implement multicultural reasoning in their arguments against common morality theories, such as his own, have failed to understand that multiculturalism is neither a form of moral pluralism nor ethical relativism but is rather a universalistic moral theory in its own right. Beauchamp's position is indeed on the right track in that multiculturalists do not consider themselves ethical relativists. Yet, Beauchamp tends to miss the mark when he argues that multiculturalism is in effect a school of thought that endorses a form of moral universalism that is akin to his own vision of a common morality. As a supporter of multiculturalism, I would like to discuss some aspects of Beauchamp's comments on multiculturalism and clarify what a multicultural account of public bioethics might look like. Ultimately, multiculturalism is purported as a means of managing diversity in the public arena and should not be thought of as endorsing either a version of moral relativism or a universal morality. By simultaneously refraining from the promotion of a comprehensive common moral system while it attempts to avoid a collapse into relativism, multiculturalism can serve as the ethico-political framework in which diverse moralities can be managed and in which opportunities for ethical dialogue, debate and deliberation on the prospects of common bioethical norms are made possible. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris


    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  14. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  15. Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection. (United States)

    Kitikiew, Suwaree; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa


    In this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. Shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue. In another experiment, the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and respiratory bursts (RBs) were examined after the shrimp had been fed diets containing fucoidan at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-21 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with time. The immune parameters of shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 2.0 g kg(-1) diet after 14 and 21 days. Phagocytic activity and the clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus were significantly higher in shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet compared to those of shrimp fed the 0, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets. In a separate experiment, shrimp that had been fed diets containing fucoidan for 21 days were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 10(6) colony-forming units shrimp(-1). Survival rates of shrimp fed the 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) diets for 96-120 h. We concluded that fucoidan provokes innate immunity of shrimp as evidenced by haemocyte degranulation, proPO activation, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue, and that dietary administration of fucoidan at 1.0 g kg(-1) enhanced the immune response of shrimp and their resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Poliovirus infection and expression of the poliovirus protein 2B provoke the disassembly of the Golgi complex, the organelle target for the antipoliovirus drug Ro-090179. (United States)

    Sandoval, I V; Carrasco, L


    Infection of Vero cells with poliovirus results in complete disassembly of the Golgi complex. Milestones of the process of disassembly are the release to the cytosol of the beta-COP bound to Golgi membranes, the disruption of the cis-Golgi network into fragments scattered throughout the cytoplasm, and the disassembly of the stacked cisternae by a process mediated by long tubular structures. Transient expression of the viral protein 2B in COS-7 cells also causes the disassembly of the Golgi complex by a process preceded by the accumulation of the protein in the Golgi area. Vero cells infected for 3 h show no recognizable Golgi complexes at the ultrastructural level and display an enormously swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with extensive areas of its surface heavily coated. Ro-090179 (Ro), a flavonoid isolated from the herb Agastache rugosa, provokes the specific swelling and disruption of the Golgi complex and strongly inhibits poliovirus infection. Ro provokes the swelling and the disruption of the stacked cisternae and trans-Golgi elements without affecting the cis-most Golgi cisternae much. Moreover, Ro inhibits the fusion of the Golgi complex with the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A and provokes the accumulation of the intermediate compartment membrane protein p58 into ERD2-positive Golgi elements but has no effect on the anterograde transport involved in protein secretion. Our results indicate that the secretory pathway and specifically the Golgi complex are preferential targets of poliovirus.

  17. Public Values and Public Service Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette


    The literatures on public values (PV) and public service motivation (PSM) both address whether public service delivery is driven by something more than self-interest. They have developed separately, although they can benefit from insights developed by the other, and this article discusses...... conceptual and empirical relationships between them. Based on a survey of 501 public managers, we find that PSM and PV are associated empirically, but not in a manner allowing total integration. The conceptual discussion reveals how the two concepts cannot be totally separated, as values can be motivating...

  18. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ahn, Yong [Wooridul spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  19. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... the gap between public administration and psychology....

  20. Postmodern Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter


    Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...

  1. Discussion document on the ethical aspects of the allocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This document has been approved by the Council of the World Medical Association (WMA) for publication and distribution to the national member associations_ The document is not an expression of WMA policy, but is simply intended to stimulate reflection and discussion about the issues associated with allocation of health ...

  2. Revision by Means of Computer-Mediated Peer Discussions (United States)

    Soong, Benson; Mercer, Neil; Er, Siew Shin


    In this article, we provide a discussion on our revision method (termed "prescriptive tutoring") aimed at revealing students' misconceptions and misunderstandings by getting them to solve physics problems with an anonymous partner via the computer. It is currently being implemented and evaluated in a public secondary school in Singapore,…

  3. Election '92 Discussion Set. [Participants' Booklet] and Leader's Guide. (United States)

    McCoy, Martha, Ed.

    This document consists of two publications: a participants' booklet designed to promote discussion among small groups, and a Leader's Guide. The participants' booklet contains information on four important issues in the 1992 election year: health care, the economy, welfare reform, and foreign policy. "The Health Care Crisis in America" contains…

  4. HRCT and bronchial asthma: visualization of the pathophysiologic changes of the pulmonary parenchyma after inhalation provocation; HRCT und Asthma bronchiale: Visualisierung pathophysiologischer Veraenderungen des Lungenparenchyms nach inhalativer Provokation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G.; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Herold, C.J. [Univ. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Abt. fuer konservative Faecher, Vienna (Austria); Riemer, H. [Univ. Klinik fuer Innere Medizin IV, Abt. fuer Pulmologie, Vienna (Austria); Backfrieder, W. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Biomedizinische Technik und Physik; Sertl, K. [Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Floridsdorf (Austria). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin; Pittner, B. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik


    alterations of the lung parenchyma subsequent to inhalation provocation. In healthy individuals, these parenchymal alterations were not documented by pulmonary function tests. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei Patienten mit leichtem intermittierenden Asthma bronchiale, aber mit Hyperreaktivitaet auch im freien Intervall, und bei gesunden Probanden sollen mithilfe der hoch aufloesenden Computertomographie (HRCT) roentgenmorphologische Veraenderungen des Lungenparenchyms vor sowie nach inhalativer Histaminprovokation und darauf folgender Lyse durch Salbutamol charakterisiert und mit Ergebnissen von Lungenfunktionstests (FEV{sub 1}, Blutgase) verglichen werden. Methoden: Fuenfzehn Asthmatiker mit bronchialer Hyperreaktivitaet mit FEV{sub 1}-Abfall>20% und PaO{sub 2}-Abfall>10 mmHg nach Provokation (PC20%+), zwoelf Asthmatiker mit FEV{sub 1}-Abfall<20% und PaO{sub 2}-Abfall>10 mmHg nach Provokation (PC20%-) sowie acht Probanden ohne bronchiale Hyperreaktivitaet wurden mit der spirometrisch kontrollierten HRCT bei hohen Fuellungsvolumina vor und nach inhalativer Bronchoprovokation sowie nach Broncholyse untersucht. Es wurden die gesamte und periphere Lungendichte sowie der strukturelle Anteil solider pulmonaler Strukturen bestimmt. Ergebnisse: In allen Gruppen fand sich nach Provokation eine signifikante Abnahme (p<0,0005), nach Broncholyse eine signifikante Zunahme (p<0,0002) der Lungendichte. Die Aenderungen solider Lungenanteile waren nach Provokation und Lyse nicht signifikant unterschiedlich (p>0,05). Bei den hyperreaktiven Patienten fanden sich signifikante PaO{sub 2}-Abnahmen nach Provokation sowie signifikante PaO{sub 2}-Steigerungen nach Lyse (p<0,05). In der Gruppe PC20%+ wurde nach Provokatio ein mittlerer FEV{sub 1}-Abfall von 27,8% beobachtet, in den anderen Gruppen war dieser <20%. Es wurden keine signifikanten Korrelationen zwischen radiologischen und funktionellen Lungentestergebnissen asthmatischer Patienten und Probanden beobachtet. Die bei gesunden Probanden mit der

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  6. Productivity in Public Services


    Helen Simpson


    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  7. Interferon-gamma deficiency modifies the motor and co-morbid behavioral pathology and neurochemical changes provoked by the pesticide paraquat. (United States)

    Litteljohn, D; Mangano, E; Shukla, N; Hayley, S


    In addition to nigrostriatal pathology and corresponding motor disturbances, Parkinson's disease (PD) is often characterized by co-morbid neuropsychiatric symptoms, most notably anxiety and depression. Separate lines of evidence indicate that inflammatory processes associated with microglial activation and cytokine release may be fundamental to the progression of both PD and its co-morbid psychiatric pathology. Accordingly, we assessed the contribution of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), to a range of PD-like pathology provoked by the ecologically relevant herbicide and dopamine (DA) toxin, paraquat. To this end, paraquat provoked overt motor impairment (reduced home-cage activity and impaired vertical climbing) and signs of anxiety-like behavior (reduced open field exploration) in wild-type but not IFN-gamma-deficient mice. Correspondingly, paraquat promoted somewhat divergent variations in neurochemical activity among wild-type and IFN-gamma null mice at brain sites important for both motor (striatum) and co-morbid affective pathologies (dorsal hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and locus coeruleus). Specifically, the herbicide provoked a dosing regimen-dependent reduction in striatal DA levels that was prevented by IFN-gamma deficiency. In addition, the herbicide influenced serotonergic and noradrenergic activity within the dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex; and elevated noradrenergic activity within the locus coeruleus. Although genetic ablation of IFN-gamma had relatively few effects on monoamine variations within the locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex, loss of the pro-inflammatory cytokine did normalize the paraquat-induced noradrenergic alterations within the hippocampus. These findings further elucidate the functional implications of paraquat intoxication and suggest an important role for IFN-gamma in the striatal and motor pathology, as well as the co-morbid behavioral and hippocampal changes induced by

  8. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment. (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David


    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm(2) forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P palpation

  9. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  10. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points (United States)

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  11. Does the solid-liquid crystal phase transition provoke the spin-state change in spin-crossover metallomesogens? (United States)

    Seredyuk, M; Gaspar, A B; Ksenofontov, V; Galyametdinov, Y; Kusz, J; Gütlich, P


    crossover behavior at T(1/2) centered around 140 K. The thermal spin transition is accompanied by a pronounced change of color from dark red (LS) to orange (HS). The light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) effect has been investigated in compounds C(6)-2, C(12)-2 and C(18)-2. The T(1/2)LIESST is 56 K (C(6)-2), 48 K (C(16)-2), and 56 K (C(18)-2). On the basis of differential scanning calorimetry, optical polarizing microscopy, and X-ray diffraction findings for C(18)-1, C(12)-2, and C(18)-2 at high temperature a smectic mesophase SX has been identified with layered structures similar to C(6)-1 and C(6)-2. The compounds [Fe(C(n)-trenH)](Cl)2 x sH2O (n = 16 (C(16)-3, s = 3.5, C(16)-4, s = 0.5, C(16)-5, s = 0), 18 (C(18)-3, s = 3.5, C(18)-4, s = 0.5, C(18)-5, s = 0), 20 (C(20)-3, s = 3.5, C(20)-4, s = 0.5, C(20)-5, s = 0)) and [Fe(C18-tren)](F)2 x sH2O (C(18)-6, s = 3.5, C(18)-7, s = 0) show a very particular spin-state change, while [Fe(C18-tren)](Br)2 x 3H2O (C(18)-8) together with [Fe(C18-tren)](I)2 (C(18)-9) are in the LS state (10-400 K) and present mesomorphic behavior like that observed for the complexes C(18)-1, C(12)-2, and C(18)-2. In compounds C(n)-3 50% of the Fe(II) ions undergo spin-state change at T(1/2) = 375 K induced by releasing water, and in partially dehydrated compounds (s = 0.5) the Cr-->SA phase transition occurs at 287 K (C(16)-4), 301 K (C(18)-4) and 330 K (C(20)-4). For the fully dehydrated materials C(n)-5 50% of the Fe(II) ions are in the HS state and show paramagnetic behavior between 10 and 400 K. In the partially dehydrated C(n)-4 the spin transition is induced by the change of the aggregate state of matter (solidliquid crystal). For compound C(18)-6 the full dehydration to C(18)-7 provokes the spin-state change of nearly 50% of the Fe(II) ions. The compounds C(n)-3 and C(18)-6 are dark purple in the LS state and become light purple-brown when 50% of the Fe(II) atoms are in the HS state.

  12. Students' Critical Thinking in Online Discussion Forum


    Fitriana, Sela; Anggia, Helta


    Online discussion forum is well-known in educational technology development especially in blended learning because it supports the traditional face to face (f2f) class. Online discussion forum is familiar as the leading of critical thinking process. This paper reports about qualitative study on web-based class by using blended learning focuses on online discussion forum. This study is held in order to analyze the critical thinking process that appears during online discussion forum class. Thi...

  13. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions


    Bridget Arend


    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but qualitative data indicate that the way discussions are used and facilitated is vital for encouraging critical thinking. Online discussions typically hav...

  14. Learning through Discussions in Blended Environments (United States)

    Ellis, R. A.; Calvo, R. A.


    This paper reports research into the student experience of learning through discussions in a blended environment. Third year engineering students studying e-commerce engaged in both face-to-face discussions and online asynchronous discussions as key aspects of their learning experience. Adopting a quantitative methodology, questionnaires were…

  15. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann


    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  16. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology


    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.


    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  17. What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion. (United States)

    Scherrer, Kristin S


    While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage.

  18. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.


    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  19. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.


    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  20. Exploring Discipline Differentiation in Online Discussion Participation (United States)

    Redmond, Petrea; Devine, Jo; Basson, Marita


    Online discussion forums are often the only interaction or communication a student in an online learning environment will have with the course instructor and fellow students. Discussion forums are intended to elicit a range of thinking skills from the students, from purely social interaction to metacognition in order to achieve deep learning.…

  1. Preparing Teachers to Lead Mathematics Discussions (United States)

    Boerst, Timothy A.; Sleep, Laurie; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg; Bass, Hyman


    Background/Context: Discussion is central to mathematics teaching and learning, as well as to mathematics as an academic discipline. Studies have shown that facilitating discussions is complex work that is not easily done or learned. To make such complex aspects of the work of teaching learnable by beginners, recent research has focused on…

  2. Online discussion: Enhancing students' critical thinking skills (United States)

    Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling


    Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.

  3. Online Discussion, Student Engagement, and Critical Thinking (United States)

    Williams, Leonard; Lahman, Mary


    Recent research into the merits of online discussion (computer-mediated communication) has shown that it promotes active learning behaviors and enhances learner outcomes. Scholars have also shown that, when instructors employ effective questioning and moderating skills, students can show higher levels of critical thinking in online discussion. In…

  4. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion (United States)

    Cannon, Patrick


    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  5. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance (United States)

    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan


    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  6. Engaging All Students in Mathematical Discussions (United States)

    Bahr, Damon L.; Bahr, Kim


    Many teachers try to engage their students in meaningful mathematical discussions in which one or more students share their thinking about a problem while the other students are expected to listen and learn from the sharing. Indeed, such discussions can help students learn from one another and promote high levels of mathematical proficiency.…

  7. Learning Reading Strategies with Online Discussion (United States)

    Liu, I-Fang; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Wu, Sheng-Yi


    Teachers experience difficulty demonstrating prediction strategies and leading discussions in traditional classrooms. It is also unclear whether online discussion can contribute to reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to create an online reading system to investigate whether learners can acquire reading strategies and enhance their…

  8. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions (United States)

    Arend, Bridget


    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but…

  9. Three discussions on object-oriented typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens


    This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors.......This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors....

  10. The Use of Dream Discussions in Counseling. (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others


    Reviews the historical underpinnings of dream theories and suggests that discussions of dreams in counseling can aid in setting up and maintaining therapeutic contact with clients. A number of theoretical positions on the function of dreams are discussed. Specific dream counseling techniques are also delineated. (JAC)

  11. Improving Classroom Discussion: A Rhetorical Approach (United States)

    Bruss, Kristine S.


    In this article, the author describes a project designed to take the dread out of discussion in a first-year interdisciplinary humanities course at Sewanee: The University of the South, a private liberal arts college in Tennessee. The Responsible Intellectual Discussion project, known as RID, was created in conjunction with the college's Eloquence…

  12. The Lecture-Discussion Format Revisited. (United States)

    Bowman, James S.


    A new look at the standard lecture/discussion format for the large introductory college course is offered, along with suggestions to upgrade its quality. Foci for improvement include organization of lecture material, teacher-student interaction, lecture delivery, feedback, discussion group supervision, and course evaluation. (JMD)

  13. Facilitating online discussions by automatic summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, S.; Verberne, S.; Krahmer, E.J.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den


    In the DISCOSUMO project, we aim to develop a computational toolkit to automatically summarize discussion forum threads. In this paper, we present the initial design of the toolkit, the data that we work with and the challenges we face. Discussion threads on a single topic can easily consist

  14. Proactive Public Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael


    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...... Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration....

  15. United Republic of Tanzania; 2011 Article IV Consultation and Second Review Under the Policy Support Instrument: Staff Report; Debt Sustainability Analysis; Informational Annex; Public Information Notice and Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the United Republic of Tanzania.


    International Monetary Fund


    Tanzania has weathered the adverse shocks of recent years relatively well. Revenue collection for 2010–11 has fallen short of targets, constraining public spending and contributing to the emergence of arrears. Monetary policy has become less accommodative. The near-term economic outlook is subject to a higher-than-average degree of uncertainty with a rising risk of donor aid shortfalls and higher international fuel prices. Over the medium term, growth could gradually rise to 7½ percent––thank...

  16. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report (United States)

    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee


    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  17. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile (United States)


    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  18. Sustainable Public Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil César Costa de Paula


    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss the issue of sustainability in public procurement, given that the government in Brazil is constituted as a great promoter of economic development and needs to adapt its acquisitions worldwide sustainability agenda.

  19. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  20. Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Sack, M; Spieler, D; Wizelman, L; Epple, G; Stich, J; Zaba, M; Schmidt, U


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans. To evaluate for the first time how oxytocin influences the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms and, furthermore, cardiac control in female PTSD patients, we assessed their psychic and cardiac response to trauma-script exposure with and without oxytocin pretreatment in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. We used a within-subject design to study 35 female PTSD patients who received oxytocin and placebo in a 2-week interval. Furthermore, we performed a small pilot study to get an idea of the relation of the stress-modulated endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate - we correlated oxytocin serum levels with the heart rate of 10 healthy individuals before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Intranasal oxytocin treatment was followed by a reduction of provoked total PTSD symptoms, in particular of avoidance, and by an elevation in baseline and maximum heart rate together with a drop in the pre-ejection period, a marker for sympathetic cardiac control. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate both before and after TSST challenge in healthy control subjects. This study provides the first evidence that oxytocin treatment reduces the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms in female PTSD patients. The small size of both samples and the heterogeneity of the patient sample restrict the

  1. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress. (United States)

    Marshall, Eliot


    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  2. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions. (United States)

    Li, L


    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  3. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink


    Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service...... Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision...

  4. DNA barcodes and citizen science provoke a diversity reappraisal for the "ring" butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia (Ypthima: Satyrinae: Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera). (United States)

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James


    The "rings" belonging to the genus Ypthima are amongst the most common butterflies in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the species can be difficult to tell apart, with keys relying on minor and often non-discrete ring characters found on the hindwing. Seven species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is thought to be an underestimate of diversity. DNA barcodes of 165 individuals, and wing and genital morphology, were examined to reappraise species diversity of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia. DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects-School Butterfly Project and Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count-recently conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were included. The new DNA barcodes formed six groups with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) representing four species reported in Peninsular Malaysia. When combined with public DNA barcodes from the Barcode Of Life Datasystems, several taxonomic issues arose. We consider the taxon Y. newboldi, formerly treated as a subspecies of Y. baldus, as a distinct species. DNA barcodes also supported an earlier suggestion that Y. nebulosa is a synonym under Y. horsfieldii humei. Two BINs of the genus Ypthima comprising DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects did not correspond to any species previously reported in Peninsular Malaysia.

  5. [Scenario of the service to damage provoked by accidents and violence against elderly at SUS in Manaus (AM, Brazil)]. (United States)

    dos Santos, Edinilza Ribeiro; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; de Souza, Ana Maria Medeiros; Lima, Rodrigo Tobias de Sousa


    The aim of this article is to describe the public service of Manaus to elderly, either victims of accidents or violence, on three levels of service (32 pre-hospital, 5 hospital and 5 rehabilitation). It is a descriptive study with a quantitative and qualitative approach, where 42 health units were investigated. The results reveal that the emergency services department presents a better physical structure. The organization concerning these matters is still incipient in Manaus. It was detected scarcity in the number of hospital beds and vacancies in the intensive care unit to offer the continuity of the treatment. There's a need for professional qualifications and medical specialties to attend elderly admitted due to injury. Very little has been done in the prevention area. Data entry and notification appear as one of the weakest points on the three levels of attention. The most critical point is related to hospitalization, being this level of attention largely mentioned by managers and health professionals as in great need for re-structuring.

  6. Suppression and repression: A theoretical discussion illustrated by a movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia de Souza Campos Paiva


    Full Text Available The first translations of Freud's work into Portuguese have presented problems because they were not translated from the German language. More than a hundred years after the beginning of Psychoanalysis, there are still many discussions on Freud's metapsychology and a considerable difficulty in obtaining a consensus on the translation of some concepts. This paper refers back to Freud's concepts of primal repression, repression and suppression. In order to discuss such concepts, we have made use of a film, co-produced by Germans and Argentineans, which is named "The Song in me" (Das Lied in mir, released to the public in 2011 and directed by Florian Micoud Cossen. Through this motion picture, the following of Freud's concepts are analyzed, and the differentiation between them is discussed: suppression and repression, as well as the importance of their precise translation.

  7. National library associations: websites and electronic discussion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National library associations: websites and electronic discussion groups. ... Recommended improvements for websites include proper hosting services and URL registrations, promotion through links with weblogs, assistance in training webmasters, and encouragement so that they can network and share experiences.

  8. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Forester-Miller, Holly


    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  9. How To Discuss Sleep With Your Doctor (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How To Discuss Sleep With Your Doctor Doctors might not ... habits. Before you see the doctor, think about how to describe your problems, including: How often you have ...

  10. Investigation of Peer Discussions on Genetic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Westman


    Full Text Available This study is an investigation on how students express their understanding of genetic concepts and their relations during peer discussions. Participants in this study were non-major students from a Swedish upper secondary school. Special attention was paid to how the groups treated the domain- specific vocabulary, how they expressed their understanding of reduction division and how they connected concepts from different biological organization levels. These subject areas have been reported as difficult for students in earlier studies. The results show discussions concerning the three subject areas and in the discussions the students help each other to make the meaning of the genetic concepts clear. The analysis is based on socio-cultural perspectives with focus on how the participants treated the genetic content from the previously presented subject areas in their discussions.

  11. Discussion Paper: Researchers and Open Science


    Picarra, Mafalda


    This discussion paper introduces the concept of Open Science to policymakers and discusses how Open Science is fomenting change in the way scientific research is conducted, communicated, accessed and shared. The key highlights of this paper include an overview of the European Commission’s agenda for transforming science and democratising research through Open Science and considers the implications of Open Science for researchers’ and policymakers.

  12. Discussion of selected themes of life


    Novak, Diana


    The master thesis discusses three selected themes of life (divorce, death and homosexual partnership) and how to deal those themes at school. The first part of the master thesis discusses family, themes of life (divorce, death and homosexual partnership), stress, cooperation between school and family and the sensibility of the mentioned themes. There is also presented a connection between selected themes of life and teaching contents from the first to the sixth grade in two school subjects: ...

  13. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One (United States)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.


    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall, leading to…

  14. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  15. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  16. Effects of electrocautery to provoke endovascular thermal injury Efeitos do eletrocautério para provocar lesão térmica endovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Henrique Rossi


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a new electrocautery device to provoke endovascular venous thermal injury. METHODS: An experimental endovascular electrocautery was placed inside eight ex-vivo bovine saphenous veins models. Each one was divided in eight segments and progressive intensities of electric energy liberated. The macroscopic and microscopic effects were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty bovine saphenous veins segments were studied. The higher the electric energy applied the greater the nuclear picnosis and more intense the cytoplasmatic shrinkage and electrocoagulation effects. CONCLUSION: The experimental endovascular electrocautery device demonstrated to be both capable of inducing the destruction of the intimal layers of the studied vein model and provoke endovascular thermal injury.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos de um modelo experimental de eletrocautério em provocar lesão venosa térmica endovascular. MÉTODOS: O eletrocautério endovascular foi colocado dentro de oito modelos experimentais de veia safena bovina. Cada uma foi dividida em oito segmentos e intensidades progressivas de energia elétrica liberada. Os efeitos macroscópicos e microscópicos foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados quarenta segmentos de veia safena bovina. Quanto maior a energia elétrica aplicada pelo eletrocauterizador endovascular maiores foram as alteraçoes de picnose nuclear e mais intensa a retração citoplasmática observada. CONCLUSÃO: O eletrocautério endovascular experimental demonstrou ser capaz de induzir a destruição da camada íntima e provocar lesão térmica endovascular.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Nowroozi


    Full Text Available "nVasectomy is one of the extensively used methods of contraception in family planning programs. Antisperm antibodies (ASA develop after vasectomy which can result in auto-immune male infertility. The precise sperm antigens involved in the autoimmune response are still poorly defined, therefore we determined the circulating ASA and identified relevant sperm antigens based on localization of binding sites of ASA to sperm cell antigens, using a rapid, inexpensive and clinically relevant assay in vasectomized men. Results showed that 2.5% of men had ASA at the time of vasectomy, whereas 53.5% of the study population subsequently developed ASA. The numbers of men with circulating ASA increased significantly for the first three months after vasectomy. These antibodies were distinguishable into three groups based on their bindings to different sites of sperm cell antigens including against acrosome and tail in 67.56% and 10.8%, respectively; 21.6% of subjects had antibody to the other parts of the sperm cell antigens. The results of this study are discussed in terms of an autoimmune response against sperm antigens and development of ASA.

  18. Renúncia de arrecadação fiscal: subsídios para discussão e formulação de uma política pública Tax expenditures on health care: contributions toward a public policy agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Siliansky de Andreazzi


    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende investigar diversos aspectos relacionados aos incentivos governamentais que permitem o abatimento de parte dos gastos das famílias e empresas com assistência à saúde no imposto de renda. Como tais incentivos são deduzidos da renda tributável das pessoas físicas e do lucro tributável das pessoas jurídicas, a arrecadação fiscal do Estado é forçosamente reduzida. Segundo estimativa da Secretaria da Receita Federal, o valor desta renúncia, considerando as despesas com planos de saúde e os desembolsos diretos com assistência médico-hospitalar, girou em torno de R$ 2,8 bilhões em 2005. Em um quadro de subfinanciamento crônico do SUS, esta problemática será discutida à luz da eqüidade do financiamento e dos conflitos de interesse evidenciados no setor saúde.The work discusses the tax incentives with private medical expenses to families and workers in Brazil. The estimate presented by the Federal Fiscal Authority is R$ 2,8 billions in 2005. Initially, a review of concepts about the matter is performed that stressed the lack of consensus in the academic community, about the meaning of tax expenditures. It discussed, also, the relations between this fiscal policy and demand to private health insurance. After, the article presents the results of a documental research concerning political positions of relevant Brazilian social actors found in the 2000's. The discussion pointed to problems of equity and conflicts of interests that are involved with the changes in the rules that discipline these incentives.

  19. A critique of utilitarian and instrumentalist concepts for the teaching of gross anatomy to medical and dental students: Provoking debate. (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard J; Pais, Diogo


    Medical and dental curricula, together with anatomical sciences courses, are increasingly having to change, mainly because there is a drive to being what is termed, without adequate definition, "clinically relevant." The concept of "clinical anatomy" has accordingly been invented and it is expected that, at all times, the teaching of anatomy is directly focused on clinical scenarios, meaning almost invariably the disease-based model of medicine and dentistry. Furthermore, students are not expected to have a detailed knowledge of gross anatomy and the time devoted to teaching and learning the subject has decreased significantly. The notion being fostered is that knowledge is not required "just in case" but "just in time." However, the absence of agreed core syllabuses that are internationally accepted complicates a discussion about what is relevant practically and what does not need to be taught. In this article, we critique such an utilitarian and instrumentalist approach to the teaching of gross anatomy within medical and dental curricula. We draw attention to the need to embrace the functionality-based model of medicine and dentistry by returning to an understanding that the role of the medical or dental practitioner is to value health and to restore to functionality the ill person or the pathologically affected region/organ/system. A fuller knowledge of anatomy than is presently taught is regarded as a prerequisite for appreciating normality and health. A further problem with the instrumentalist approach to medical education is that, by concentrating on what is seen to be at the time "useful" or "clinically relevant," there is the danger of undermining, or discouraging, future developments that rely on what contemporaneously seems "useless" and "irrelevant" knowledge. Finally, the reliance instrumentalism has on just what is pragmatic and regardless of scientific validity is contrary to the ethos and practice of a university education that values deep learning

  20. A Discussion of the Term Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ida Kristina; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    For almost twenty years, digital architecture of different themes and characters has been produced. Through this time it has become possible to develop new and geometrically free forms, as well as calculate and simulate different technical matters of future constructions using digital tools...... discussions of digital architecture, digital tectonics is a commonly occurring term, and in this article the focus will be on this particular term. The term of tectonics has been used by architectural theorists for several centuries, but through time there have been many different opinions on what the term...... contains. In this article the term tectonics will first be defined through analysing of different architectural theories, and thereafter the term will be discussed in relation to digital architecture. Through this discussion a comprehension of the terms of tectonics and digital architecture is reached...

  1. Science education crisis: Problems, solutions discussed (United States)

    Wolcott, John

    Public concern about the state of science education in America at the pre-college and college levels is widespread, triggered largely by the perception that we are losing ground in the global economy. Science, and particularly technology, are seen as our most likely sources of recovery. For those who recall the public reaction to the launching of Sputnik by Russia in 1957, the present mood is similar, if somewhat less intense.AGU members are in a unique position to influence debate about the science education crisis. Many of us, either as experts in some subset of physical science issues, as teachers at the college level, or even as parents observing our children's experiences in elementary or secondary school classrooms, may offer insight to this debate.

  2. Why discuss spatial justice in urbanism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.


    It is very difficult to discuss the issue of spatial justice within the context of a country that enjoys so much of it. The Netherlands is probably one of the places in the world where the overarching objectives of spatial planning and design have been most fully attained: healthy, fairly

  3. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 30, 2016 ... Dr Samuel Mannikam, Dr Thandi Buthelezi, Dr Philip Janse van Rensburg and Dr Ian. Haynes, however, the prize of R2000 was awarded to Dr Richard Busayo Ulatunji for the most inclusive answer. Answer and discussion paediatric neuroimaging quiz case. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.

  4. Analyzing online political discussions: Methodological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.


    Online political discussions are thought to lead to more political engagement and empowerment of peripheral groups in society and thereby contributing to deliberative citizenship. Because people have increased opportunities to voice their political opinions and publish these for a potentially large

  5. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums (United States)

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena


    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  6. School Education | Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All the issues have no doubt been discussed before, but there was room for a different perspective on some of them, and even if we are not able to offer a different ... that deal with education policies seem to be meetings of people into the management of education rather than teachers who do actual classroom teaching.

  7. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh


    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  8. Political discussions with family and friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten


    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...

  9. The Problem of Retraction in Critical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.


    In many contexts a retraction of commitment is frowned upon. For instance, it is not appreciated, generally, if one withdraws a promise or denies an earlier statement. Critical discussion, too, can easily be disrupted by retractions, if these occur too frequently and at critical points. But on the

  10. Interaction in online interprofessional education case discussions. (United States)

    Waterston, Rosemary


    This study investigated online interaction within a curriculum unit at the University of Toronto, Canada that included an interprofessional case study discussion in a mixed-mode (face-to-face and online) format. Nine of the 81 teams that completed the four-day curriculum were selected for detailed review based on the attitudes students expressed on a survey about the value of collaborating online for enhancing their appreciation of other health care professions. Five of the teams selected were 'positive' and four were 'negative'. The responses to other survey items by members of these teams were then compared, as well as their message posting patterns and the content of their online discussions. Differences between the two sets were situated within a theoretical framework drawn from the contact theory, social interdependence theory, and the Community of Inquiry model. Institutional support in the form of facilitator involvement, individual predispositions to online and group learning, the group composition, the learning materials, task and assignment, and technical factors all affected the levels of participation online. Discourse and organizational techniques were identified that related to interactivity within the online discussions. These findings can help curriculum planners design interprofessional case studies that encourage the interactivity required for successful online discussions.

  11. Discussed Issues in Preventive Intervention Programs (United States)

    Ocak, Sakire


    The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…

  12. Workplace Mobbing: A Discussion for Librarians (United States)

    Hecker, Thomas E.


    Workplace mobbing occurs in libraries but is usually unrecognized and unchecked because the phenomenon has not been described and given a name. This discussion provides the library profession with an overview but also with specific background details to assist with recognizing mobbing and preventing severe harm to employees and organizations.

  13. Developing algebraic thinking through group discussion | Fletcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the potential of group discussion in generating algebraic thinking among learners. Algebraic thinking, particularly the recognition and articulation of generality, is vital and ought to be within reach of all learners if they are to participate fully in society. Furthermore, generalisation, being fundamental to ...

  14. From Good to Great: Discussion Starter Tool (United States)

    Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, 2014


    In the report "From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum," (See full report in ERIC at ED555657) National and State Teachers of the Year shared their views on what helped them become great teachers. This accompanying "Discussion Starter Tool" builds…

  15. Sociolinguistic Transfer: A Classification and Discussion. (United States)

    Beebe, Leslie M.

    A discussion of the role of transfer of native-language knowledge to second language learning proposes that language transfer is as much a sociolinguistic process as a psycholinguistic one. The term "sociolinguistics" is used in a broad sense to incorporate all social factors that affect language, both the relatively static characteristics of an…

  16. Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discussion Meeting on School Education Auditorium, Raman Research Institute, 18 to 20 August 2017 ... Function and plasticity of adult brain. Orange County resort, 25 February 2001 to 28 February 2001. Participants: John Nicholls, Wesley Thompson, C. Michael Bate, Jonathan Bacon, Chun-Fang Wu, Eve Marder, Ken ...

  17. NPS Panel Discusses ISIS Expansion, Policy Options


    Stewart, Kenneth A.


    The Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Department of Defense Analysis, the Naval War College (NWC) Monterey, and the Global Education Community Collaboration Online (GlobalECCO) counter terrorism program recently hosted a panel discussion titled, “The Islamic State: Remaining and Expanding?” in Ingersoll Hall.

  18. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E.S.


    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  19. Human Relations. Discussion Topics and Activities. (United States)

    Lee, Marilyn; And Others

    Designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, this document provides discussion topics, poetry, and activities to help students: (1) recognize the uniqueness of themselves and others; (2) become aware of their uniqueness as members of the human family; (3) become aware of individual differences, emotions, and feelings; (4) recognize…

  20. Structural Changes in Online Discussion Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yang; Medaglia, Rony


    Social networking platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique socio-cultural and institutional environment. This paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different-minded interactions over...

  1. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  2. How to Facilitate Discussions in History (United States)

    Reisman, Abby


    In this article, Abby Reisman offers four instructional practices that educators can use to help students grapple with history's contradictions and engage in meaningful text-based discussions. Reisman details two suggestions that can be used in history classrooms and across the disciplines: orient students to one another and orient students to the…

  3. Rethinking Public Administration Professionalism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Indexed African Journals Online: good governance in the Country. The paper contributes to current discussions on enhancing professionalism of public administration in Nigeria and elsewhere. Key words: professionalism, profession, public administration, public sector, service delivery,. Introduction.

  4. Speak Up! Public Speaking for Libraries


    Felkar, Sarah; Mallette, Michelle; Meunier, Shanna


    Learn about public speaking for libraries in a session that is fun, friendly and not intimidating (as public speaking often can be). The speakers will discuss how public speaking is often an important part of working in a library.

  5. Ombud’s Corner: Respect@CERN - the discussion has started…

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill


    The on-going campaign Respect@CERN was re-launched this year on Tuesday 5 May with a discussion forum led by Alan Richter, an expert consultant in ethics and diversity. Seeing so many colleagues in the Council Chamber for this kick-off event was a clear indication of interest in the topic as well as a willingness to engage in promoting a respectful workplace. Now, the discussion continues through the dedicated website.   “Accelerating Respect @ CERN” was the thought-provoking title of the kick-off event of our campaign and, indeed, the speaker presented several ways of achieving workplace respect with a selection of models that provided us with a springboard for the conversation to start. Participants were invited through an interactive survey to consider four of the building blocks that serve to shape a respectful working place: swift and deep trust; awareness of possible unconscious bias; awareness of cultural differences in ways to address conflict; and an appreciative...

  6. Discussing and prescribing expensive unfunded anticancer drugs in Australia. (United States)

    Karikios, Deme John; Mileshkin, Linda; Martin, Andrew; Ferraro, Danielle; Stockler, Martin R


    Australia has a publicly funded universal healthcare system which heavily subsidises the cost of most registered anticancer drugs. The use of anticancer drugs that are unfunded, that is, not subsidised by the government, entails substantial out-of-pocket costs for patients. We sought to determine how frequently Australian medical oncologists discuss and prescribe unfunded anticancer drugs, and their attitudes and beliefs about their use. Members of the Medical Oncology Group of Australia (MOGA) completed an online survey about their clinical practices over a recent 3-month period. A negative binomial regression model was used to examine the influence of respondent characteristics on the rate of discussions about, and prescription of, unfunded anticancer drugs. Of the 154 respondents (27% of 575 MOGA members), 92% had discussed and 68% had prescribed at least one unfunded anticancer drug in the last 3 months. Respondents reported discussing unfunded anticancer drugs with an average of 2.5 patients per month (95% CI 2.1 to 2.9), and prescribed them to an average of 0.9 patients per month (95% CI 0.7 to 1.2). The rate of discussing unfunded anticancer drugs was associated with being fully qualified (p=0.01), and being in a metropolitan practice (p=0.009), the rate of prescription was associated only with being in metropolitan practice (p=0.006). The concerns about discussing and prescribing unfunded anticancer drugs rated most important were as follows: 'potential to cause financial hardship' and 'difficulty for patients to evaluate the benefits versus the costs'. Australian medical oncologists frequently discuss and prescribe unfunded anticancer drugs, and are concerned about their patients having to face difficult decisions and financial hardship. Further research is needed to better understand the factors that affect how oncologists and patients value expensive, unfunded anticancer drugs.

  7. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun


    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. H. Cavalcante


    Full Text Available Aimed to identify and discuss nursing diagnosis present in 50 Case Studies developed by students of graduation nursing of Federal University of Mato Grosso - Campus of Sinop, in a unit of clinical medical. Documentary research that addressed quantitatively the nursing diagnosis proposed using the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I (2009-2011. It was documented 82 different diagnosis, and covered all the 13 domains. The involvement of all the domains and the large variability of diagnoses identified suggested a possible holistic view of patient care and emphasized the individuality of the care plan. However, it may indicate an immaturity of these students, because often different diagnosis are related, and interventions set to one of these can solve the other, so opting for one avoids large health plans. Researchers and professors should conduct investigations and discussions to be identified teaching methods best suited to the teaching of the diagnostic process.

  9. Skilled Toy Train Discussions about Business Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Beuthel, Marie Rosa


    In this paper we show how industrialists in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to innovate their business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of co-creating new understandings is crucial for work to progress. Based on video data form this participatory i...... encouraging group discussion of the ‘customer journey’, it keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....... innovation session, we investigate how participants get to new concepts through analysing their skilled behaviours, movements, actions and negotiations. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We show why the toy train works: While...

  10. Restorative culture in school. Continuation of discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pentin


    Full Text Available The article deals with the lack of effective ways of building relationships, parenting responsibility and conflict solving in the school community. It is addressed to the whole school community – to the administration, psychologists and social workers, to the faculty, parents and students. We discuss the key concepts and principles of “restorative culture” and the reasons for its introduction in educational institutions. The restorative culture refers to activities on formation and spread of interpersonal relations value in the aspect of its understanding, trust, acceptance of active responsibility, separation of problems and subjects, and focus on the successful experience. We briefly discuss the theory of restorative justice and narrative practice. Particular attention is paid to the typical methods of school response to conflicts, and to zero-tolerance policy. We propose that the school community needs a number of specific technologies that would optimally suit for different types of situations and would constitute a part of the system

  11. Descartáveis urbanos: discutindo a complexidade da população de rua e o desafio para políticas de saúde Urbans discarded: discussing the homeless population complexity and the challenge for public health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varanda


    Full Text Available A condição de precariedade da população adulta de rua é tratada no âmbito da saúde e das intervenções sociais visando levantar subsídios para a implementação de políticas públicas de saúde para essa população. A conceituação dessa população e sua relação com a exclusão social, a cidade, as economias paralelas, a globalização, as estratégias e os circuitos de sobrevivência desenvolvidos se inserem num contexto de oposição aos mecanismos de apartação social e rompimento dos vínculos familiares, bem como na forma de tratamento institucional. A precariedade e insalubridade das ruas, culminando em exposição e riscos cumulativos requerem intervenções e formas de tratamento orientadas, segundo a sua especificidade, desafiando os conceitos gerais de universalidade, integralidade e eqüidade do Sistema Único de Saúde.The adult homelessness is focused in the scope of the health and of social intervention intending to set up subsidies to the implementation of health public policies to this population. The conceptualization of this population and its relation with social exclusion, the city, the underground economies, globalization, strategies and the survival circuits, are inserted in a context of opposition to the social mechanisms that put them apart from society and breaks the family links. It is also related to institutional practices. The precariousness and unhealthiness from the streets results in a cumulative vulnerability which demands intervention and treatment according to a specific health condition, challenging the general concepts of universal access, integrality and equity of national health policies.

  12. Shaping virtual companies: a brief discussion


    Yousef Ibrahim Daradkeh; Postica. Doru; Luis. B. Gouveia


    This work proposes to discuss the emerging virtual enterprise and information management as being two combined issues that requires attention within a knowledge based economy context. We defend that he virtual enterprise as regarded from both the management level and the executive level, must incorporate proficient software and hardware in order to provide the best digital support possible. Also, the virtual company as it is presented and understood, is in fact a transitional form towards a b...

  13. Best Friends’ Discussions of Social Dilemmas


    McDonald, Kristina L.; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H.


    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad...

  14. Discussing three pillars of corporate governance




    This paper is a meaningful attempt to critically analyze the cohesion and relationship between three fundamental pillars of the corporate governance system: the shareholders, the board of directors and the employees. We present the characteristics of each pillar and discuss its relevance in corporate governance. A couple of world-renowned corporate governance models are considered. A synthetic conclusion is drawn based on information presented.

  15. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media (United States)


    can post information using news feeds or forums that only contain a small percent- age of cyber content. A more efficient and effective approach we...moderated set of forums with main topics called sub-Reddit and many indi - vidual threads or discussions under each topic. Twitter data consist of, cell, chip, chord, circuit, clock, credit, current, datasheet, design, electron, film , frac, frequency, fund, graph, hi, invest, microcontroller

  16. Intertextuality in Text-based Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Mohd Ismail


    Full Text Available One  of  the  main  issues  often  discussed  among  academics  is  how  to  encourage  active participation by students during classroom discussions. This applies particularly to students at the tertiary level who are expected to possess creative and critical thinking skills. Hence, this paper reports on a study that examined how these skills were demonstrated by a group of university students  who  employed  intertextual  links  during  a  follow-up  reading  activity involving  small-group  text  discussions.  Thirty  undergraduates  who  were  in  their  fifth semester of a TESL degree programme were prescribed reading texts consisting of two chapters taken  from  a  book.  Findings  reveal  that  intertextual  links  made  during  text discussions created successfully a “collaborative environment” where beliefs and values were shared judicially among participants. Pedagogical implications for ESL classroom practice include  heightening  the  awareness  amongst  academics  and  students  of  the  role  of intertextuality in order to promote students’ use of their critical and creative thinking skills in a supportive classroom environment.

  17. Islamophobia? The German Discussion about Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bötticher


    Full Text Available Islamophobia is a term which is relatively new in the world of social science; it is a neologism. Kofi Annan has warned about it but there is not a clear, undoubted concept to it yet – and it is questionable if there ever will be, especially if one looks into the German controversy about the term. The German discussion is not unique though, and must fall into the pattern of wider, European discussion about the Islamic minority. Prominent figures of Islamic hatred in Europe are for instance Oriana Fallaci and Brigitte Bardot. Against them, there stands a more liberal community that does not want to follow the language of violence and hatred. Two different standpoints are the main poles of discussion. One group wants to use Islamophobia as a concept, the other group opposes the term. In between, there is the scientific concept of Islamophobia that is threatened to be pulverized before it is even fully conceptualized. In the middle position there are also intellectuals known as Islamic reformers who argue that Islamophobia should be replaced by the term Islam-critique.

  18. What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion (United States)

    Scherrer, Kristin S.


    While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage. PMID:20596244

  19. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and

  20. Case-based discussion: perceptions of feedback. (United States)

    Mohanaruban, Aruchuna; Flanders, Lucy; Rees, Huw


    Over recent years there has been a trend towards developing high-quality assessments to assess a doctor's performance in the workplace. Case-based discussion (CbD) is a form of workplace-based assessment that has the potential to provide feedback to trainees on their performance or management of a specific case. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice amongst a UK cohort of medical trainees. This study involved 78 medical trainees at a UK hospital completing a questionnaire rating their last CbD experience, including the duration spent receiving feedback, whether it was pre-planned or ad hoc and how they responded to the feedback received. Focus groups were conducted involving 12 trainees to discuss common themes on feedback arising from the questionnaire, and thematic analysis was carried out following these discussions. Only 19 per cent of assessments were pre-planned and the average duration of assessments was 6-10 minutes, with feedback lasting less than 5 minutes. A total of 76 per cent of trainees responded to the feedback they received by completing self-directed learning or by addressing the specific action points arising from the feedback. The focus groups highlighted the barriers to incorporating these assessments into everyday practice, including appreciating the time constraints and the importance of trainer engagement in the assessment process. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that most trainees appreciate the educational value of CbDs, but more emphasis and training is required in planning these assessments and in providing feedback that is both specific and actionable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  1. Rhinoplasty across Latin America: case discussions. (United States)

    Cobo, Roxana; Montes, Jose Juan; Patrocinio, Lucas G; Pedroza, Fernando; Patrocinio, Jose A


    A presentation of four different rhinoplasty cases performed by four different surgeons in Latin America is presented. For each case, presurgical photographs and discussion of the patient are presented. Intrasurgical photographs and description of surgical techniques employed as well as postsurgical pictures are included for each case. This will give readers the opportunity of seeing how different surgical techniques can be used effectively in treating patients of mixed races with good cosmetic long-term results. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. International trust and public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten


    descriptions of public diplomacy activities, public polls, and scholarly literature. Public diplomacy ideas discussed include lightshow, hand-on cooperation, win-win projects, and the creation of frameworks for self-expression. A central concept is international trust as described by Brewer, Gross, Aday...

  3. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs).

  4. Student decision making in large group discussion (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.


    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  5. Best friends' discussions of social dilemmas. (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H


    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents' social and moral development.

  6. Best Friends’ Discussions of Social Dilemmas (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H.


    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend's reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents’ social and moral development. PMID:23666555

  7. Brain plasticity, memory, and aging: a discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.


    It is generally assumed that memory faculties decline with age. A discussion of the relationship of memory and aging and the possibility of retarding the potential decline is hampered by the fact that no satisfactory explanation of memory is available in either molecular or anatomical terms. However, this lack of description of memory does not mean that there is a lack of suggested mechanisms for long-term memory storage. Present theories of memory usually include first, neurophysiological or electrical events, followed by a series of chemical events which ultimately lead to long-lasting anatomical changes in the brain. Evidence is increasing for the biochemical and anatomical plasticity of the nervous system and its importance in the normal functioning of the brain. Modification of this plasticity may be an important factor in senescence. This discussion reports experiments which indicate that protein synthesis and anatomical changes may be involved in long-term memory storage. Environmental influences can produce quantitative differences in brain anatomy and in behavior. In experimental animals, enriched environments lead to more complex anatomical patterns than do colony or impoverished environments. This raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of the isolated animal which is frequently being used as a model for aging research. A more important applied question is the role of social and intellectual stimulation in influencing aging of the human brain.

  8. Can an exercise bicycle be safely used in the epilepsy monitoring unit?: An exercise method to provoke epileptic seizures and the related safety issues. (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Seo, Ji-Hye; Na, Geon-Youb; Hong, Seung Bong; Joo, Eun Yeon; Seo, Dae-Won


    Long-term videoelectroencephalogram (video-EEG) monitoring is performed to diagnose an epileptic seizure and to investigate the differential diagnosis of paroxysmal events. To provoke an epileptic seizure, an exercise method is performed in some cases during long-term video-EEG recording in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). The purpose of this study was two-fold: to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events associated with the use of an exercise bicycle and to find a way to safely use it in the EMU. A retrospective survey was performed on all epileptic seizure videos recorded in the EMU from January 2012 to December 2013. Three hundred and fifty patients were included in this study. Eleven patients experienced an epileptic seizure while riding the exercise bicycle in the EMU. One patient's foot got stuck between the cycling pedal and its strap, and one patient fell off the exercise bicycle during the epileptic seizure. However, there were no serious adverse events over two years. Epileptic seizures were not frequent while riding the exercise bicycle, and serious injuries did not occur. But, there is a need to improve the safety in the EMU to control the potentially dangerous factors associated with the use of the exercise bicycle and to continuously monitor the patients with help from the staff. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Talking About Sex When Sex Is Painful: Dyadic Sexual Communication Is Associated With Women's Pain, and Couples' Sexual and Psychological Outcomes in Provoked Vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Nealis, Logan J


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent vulvovaginal pain condition associated with psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners, including lower quality of dyadic sexual communication compared to pain-free couples. Although greater sexual communication is associated with positive sexual and relational outcomes for both pain-free couples and couples experiencing painful sex, little is known about its role in women's pain and psychological outcomes, especially in a relational context. The present study examined associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 107 couples in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD via a standardized gynecological assessment. Women completed a measure of pain intensity, and both members of the couple completed measures of their dyadic sexual communication, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women and partners' own perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were associated with their own greater sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning, and lower depressive symptoms. Partners' perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were also associated with women's lower pain and greater sexual satisfaction. Results point to the importance of dyadic coping conceptualizations for both individual and interpersonal outcomes in PVD. Dyadic sexual communication may be a key treatment target for interventions aimed at improving the pain and psychological and sexual impairments of women with PVD and their partners.

  10. Recovery following Thyroxine Treatment Withdrawal, but Not Propylthiouracil, Averts In Vivo and Ex Vivo Thyroxine-Provoked Cardiac Complications in Adult FVB/N Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Saad


    Full Text Available Persistent cardiovascular pathology has been described in hyperthyroid patients even with effective antithyroid treatment. Here, we studied the effect of a well-known antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU; 20 mg/kg/day, on thyroxine (T4; 500 µg/kg/day-induced increase in blood pressure (BP, cardiac hypertrophy, and altered responses of the contractile myocardium both in vivo and ex vivo after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, the potential recovery through 2 weeks of T4 treatment discontinuation was also investigated. PTU and T4 recovery partially reduced the T4-prompted increase in BP. Alternatively, PTU significantly improved the in vivo left ventricular (LV function with no considerable effects on cardiac hypertrophy or ex vivo right ventricular (RV contractile alterations subsequent to T4 treatment. Conversely, T4 recovery considerably enhanced the T4-provoked cardiac changes both in vivo and ex vivo. Altogether, our data is in agreement with the proposal that hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular pathology could persevere even with antithyroid treatments, such as PTU. However, this cannot be generalized and further investigation with different antithyroid treatments should be executed. Moreover, we reveal that recovery following experimental hyperthyroidism could potentially ameliorate cardiac function and decrease the risk for additional cardiac complications, yet, this appears to be model-dependent and should be cautiously construed.

  11. To say or not to say: Dyadic ambivalence over emotional expression and its associations with pain, sexuality, and distress in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia. (United States)

    Awada, Nayla; Bergeron, Sophie; Steben, Marc; Hainault, Victoria-Ann; McDuff, Pierre


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and taxing female genital pain condition. Despite the intimate nature of this pain and the fact that affective factors such as anxiety have been shown to modulate its manifestations, no study has yet explored the emotional regulation of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD. Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is an emotional regulation variable that quantifies the extent to which a person is comfortable with the way she or he expresses emotions. We examined whether the dyadic AEE of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD was differentially associated with women's pain and couples' psychological, sexual, and relational functioning. Couples (N = 254), in which the woman suffered from PVD, completed the AEE questionnaire. A couple typology of dyadic AEE was created. Dependent measures for both members of the couple were the global measure of sexual satisfaction scale, the Beck depression inventory II, and the revised dyadic adjustment scale. The female sexual function index and the sexual history form were used to assess the sexual function of women and men, respectively. Women also completed the pain rating index of the McGill pain questionnaire. Couples, in which both partners were considered low on AEE, had the highest scores on sexual satisfaction (P = 0.02) and function (P sexual, and relational outcomes. Results indicate that emotional regulation may be important to consider in the assessment and treatment of couples coping with PVD. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Linking Bibliographic Data Bases: A Discussion of the Battelle Technical Report. (United States)

    Jones, C. Lee

    This document establishes the context, summarizes the contents, and discusses the Battelle technical report, noting certain constraints of the study. Further steps for the linking of bibliographic databases for use by academic and public libraries are suggested. (RAA)

  13. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  14. Rhizobacterial salicylate production provokes headaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Ran, L.X.; Mercado-Blanco, J.


    Background Salicylic acid (SA) is produced in significant amounts by certain plant growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria, and some of these rhizobacteria have the ability to induce systemic resistance against diseases in plants. Exogenous application of SA to plants has long been known to lead to

  15. Panel discussion: Gas emissions with diesel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)


    The second of three papers in the panel discussion outlined the characteristics of spark-ignited natural gas (SING) engines. Currently, the SING engine is considered less efficient than a diesel engine because of the reduced compression ratio, the use of air-throttles, retarded ignition for low NOx, and increased heat transfer. To improve upon these characteristics and to make the SING engine equal to, or even surpass the diesel engine in efficiency, more research work needs to be done on advanced controls. These include (knock, misfire, humidity detection), various ignition enhancements (variable energy/gap plug, long-life plug, laser ignition), and possibly camless operation (cylinder deactivation, throttleless operation). The late-cycle High Pressure Gas Injection (LaCHIP) as an alternate means of improving the efficiency of natural gas engines was also described.

  16. Discussion of Muskingum method parameter X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiaofang


    Full Text Available The parameter X of the Muskingum method is a physical parameter that reflects the flood peak attenuation and hydrograph shape flattening of a diffusion wave in motion. In this paper, the historic process that hydrologists have undergone to find a physical explanation of this parameter is briefly discussed. Based on the fact that the Muskingum method is the second-order accuracy difference solution to the diffusion wave equation, its numerical stability condition is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn: X ≤ 0.5 is the uniform condition satisfying the demands for its physical meaning and numerical stability. It is also pointed out that the methods that regard the sum of squares of differences between the calculated and observed discharges or stages as the objective function and the routing coefficients C0, C1 and C2 of the Muskingum method as the optimization parameters cannot guarantee the physical meaning of X.

  17. Helping business english learners improve discussion skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucia Uribe Enciso


    Full Text Available Developing discussion skills is a central task in Business English (BE, as doing business involves negotiating meaning and persuasivepower in order to realize one’s transactional intentions. A group of BE learners in Colombia did not recognize L2 verbal and non-verbal turnyieldingconventions, nor did they know how to interrupt or to deal with interruptions successfully. Additionally, they did not know how to dealwith backchannels. Consequently, some classroom activities were aimed at helping learners notice how spoken communication devices workin different cultures, using mechanisms to signpost their turn and deal with unexpected interruptions, and becoming familiar with backchannels.After eight three-hour lessons learners became more sensitive to spoken discourse elements and expanded their gambits and backchannelsrepertoire.

  18. Is rational discussion of open access possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Anderson


    Full Text Available Open Access (OA, like any other model or strategy for the dissemination of knowledge, carries with it clear benefits as well as costs and downsides. These vary depending on the OA strategy in question, and in order for OA to bring maximum benefit to the world of scholarship, its costs and benefits need be examined carefully and dispassionately so that the former can be maximized and the latter minimized. Unfortunately, the OA advocacy community tends to resist all attempts to examine OA in this way, to the point that those who approach OA in a spirit of critical analysis (rather than celebration and evangelism are attacked and punished. This article describes the problem, provides examples of it, and proposes strategies for promoting a more rigorous and analytical discussion of OA.

  19. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: an open discussion. (United States)

    Nagy, Corina; Turecki, Gustavo


    Much controversy surrounds the idea of transgenerational epigenetics. Recent papers argue that epigenetic marks acquired through experience are passed to offspring, but as in much of the field of epigenetics, there is lack of precision in the definitions and perhaps too much eagerness to translate animal research to humans. Here, we review operational definitions of transgenerational inheritance and the processes of epigenetic programing during early development. Subsequently, based on this background, we critically examine some recent findings of studies investigating transgenerational inheritance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain transgenerational inheritance, including transmission of an epigenetic blueprint, which may predispose offspring to specific epigenetic patterning. Taken together, we conclude that presently, the evidence suggesting that acquired epigenetic marks are passed to the subsequent generation remains limited.

  20. Faraday Discussions meeting Catalysis for Fuels. (United States)

    Fischer, Nico; Kondrat, Simon A; Shozi, Mzamo


    Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting. The scene was set by the opening lecture of Prof. Enrique Iglesias (UC Berkeley) and wrapped-up with the concluding remarks by Philip Gibson (SASOL).

  1. Global interprofessional perioperative education: discussing the reality. (United States)

    Ward, Paul R


    Many countries of the world have outlined clearly defined and distinct roles, for the perioperative environment, that are played by various individuals from a range of professions. Each of these professions tends to educate its practitioners in an environment that is almost completely isolated from the other perioperative professions and from its peers in other countries. One can only, currently, imagine the potential benefits to be gained from the sharing of educational and clinical experience between countries and between nursing and non-nursing perioperative team members, for both patient and the entire perioperative team. If such a level of sharing existed then the entire global perioperative community would benefit. The transfer of education and clinical practice, however, between countries needs careful thought. Many educational and professional disciplines have conducted research into ways of transferring/borrowing good practice between established systems and those just commencing similar practices. Perioperative practice needs a similar research base that has explored the dilemmas of transfer and borrowing between countries. It is important to determine what information should be shared, in the best interest of the patients, what sharing is affordable, and what method of sharing will fit in to an overall, global, strategy for perioperative practice. This paper seeks to use a recent example of multi-professional perioperative learning undertaken by Advanced Scrub Practitioners to provide a possible first glance in to the "crystal ball" of future practice. The aim of the discussion is to stimulate further discussion and effective research that, if carried out correctly, will seek to encourage interprofessional and international co-operation between perioperative professionals worldwide.

  2. WTC. A discussion on built space regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mihăilă


    Full Text Available Before 9/11 WTC was an international landmark. The definition of the two high-rise buildings identity, their tourist, social, visual and economic significance, disappeared with the destruction of their materiality. As a result, the contemplative visual and unwritten discourse of the Lower Manhattan disappeared together with the architectural, urban, technological essence and also with the philosophy of stability and equilibrium of a prosperous society. At the social-mental level this event triggers a crisis in personal and collective consciences (of the American Nation but also of the Nations, and a crisis of humanity. The architectural - urban and ideas competition organized to select the best urban-social-architectural concept proved to be a difficult task. Not only it had to “fill” a particular place on earth, but it also needed to configure a philosophy of place that would ‘heal” the wounds of the local and international communities, namely the lack of security and prosperity brought on by a no longer hidden technology of aggression bringing cities and communities under threats never experienced before at times of peace. In its first part the article discusses the competition, proposals and the finalized urban project. The particular challenges related to the selection of design in the case of WTC are doubled by a certain complexity related to the institutional arrangements common to most large urban development projects. It is also clear that there is interdependency between the project governance and the project results. These aspects are discussed in the second part of the article.

  3. Collaboration needed in discussion of ethical issues. (United States)

    Overberg, K R


    Official directives, public tension between moral theologians and the Vatican, and practical decisions about such issues as sterilization and life preservation raise confusion about the role of the Church authority in teaching about healthcare ethics. To alleviate this confusion, it is necessary to clarify the fundamental issues of Church authority, infallibility, and conscience. Many people mistakenly view infallibility as a characteristic of the pope alone in all he says and does. In fact, the heart of infallibility is that the presence of God makes the Church invulnerable to self-destruction, and the characteristic is vested in those who have supreme authority over the whole Church--the college of bishops and the pope as the head of the college. On the other hand, noninfallible but authoritative teachings, such as the documents of the Second Vatican Council and papal encyclicals, are presumed to be true and play an important role in the formation of conscience, acting as privileged sources of guidance and not programs for uniformity. The possibility of error is part of the distinction between infallible and noninfallible teachings. This possibility underlines the necessity for the magisterium to learn from as many sources as possible in preparing noninfallible teachings.

  4. Public Schools (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  5. Literature Discussion Groups: The Role of Teacher Talk in Discussing Social Issues (United States)

    Guay, Mary


    The purpose of this study was to examine how teacher talk influenced the way issues of race, culture, and disability were addressed in literature discussion groups. Discussions of one teacher with two groups of students, of varying reading levels, were studied. The research questions were: 1) How does the teacher's perspective on the students…

  6. Hormones in Dairy Foods and Their Impact on Public Health - A Narrative Review Article (United States)



    Background: The presence of hormones in milk and dairy foods was discussed decades ago but rather more concerns attended to that with respect to finding hormones as biomarkers in milk for diseases and pregnancy diagnosis. Moreover, considerable amount of studies demonstrated that existing of hormones in humans and animals milk are essential for infants growing and immunity. During the last couple of years, increasing body of evidence are indicating another property of hormones in dairy products as possible impact on human health including the role of some estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 in initiation and provoking of breast, prostate and endometrial tumours. Methods: Data was gathered from the published articles in database such as MEDLINE, science direct, Google scholar and web of science. We put no limitation on date of published date. Moreover, our own published and conducted methods and results also are presented. In this review we concentrated on several aspects of presence of hormones in dairy foods with especial emphasize on cow’s milk as a major source of consuming milk for humans especially for children. Results: The collected data from other researchers and our own data are indicating that the presence of steroid hormones in dairy products could be counted as an important risk factor for various cancers in humans. Conclusion: Our gathered data in this review paper may suggest more sophisticate analytical detection methods for oestrogens determination and also could be considered as a remarkable concern for consumers, producers and public health authorities. PMID:26258087

  7. Fragmentation and Polarization of the Public Sphere in the 2000s: Evidence from Italy and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Bodrunova


    Full Text Available After the Arab spring, direct linkage between growth of technological hybridization of media systems and political online-to-offline protest spill-overs seemed evident, at least in several aspects, as ‘twitter revolutions’ showed organizational potential of the mediated communication of today. But in de-facto politically transitional countries hybridization of media systems is capable of performing not just organizational but also ‘cultivational’ roles in terms of creating communicative milieus where protest consensus is formed, provoking spill-overs from expressing political opinions online to street protest.The two cases of Italy and Russia are discussed in terms of their nonfinished process of transition to democracy and the media’s role within the recent political process. In the two cases, media-political conditions have called into being major cleavages in national deliberative space that may be conceptualized like formation of nation-wide public counter-spheres based upon alternative agenda and new means of communication. The structure and features of these counter-spheres are reconstructed; to check whether regional specifics are involved into the formation of this growing social gap, quantitative analysis of regional online news media (website menus is conducted. Several indicators for spotting the formation of counter-spheres and criteria for further estimation of democratic quality of such counter-spheres are suggested.

  8. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.


    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  9. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)


    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  10. A discussion of numerical subduction initiation (United States)

    Buiter, Susanne; Ellis, Susan


    if subduction can numerically initiate. However, once a setup has been found that successfully initiates subduction, a small change in either rheology or geometry can again lead to subduction initiation failure. We will discuss subduction setups that have been known to fail and how to avoid them, thus potentially leading to successful recipes for numerical subduction initiation. A further point we will discuss is how the geometry of weak zones and pre-existing slabs that are used to initiate a subduction model can impact subsequent subduction style and velocity. For example, using simple linear viscous subduction models we find that initiation along shallow initial pre-existing weak zones and/or pre-existing slabs results in shallow, forward dipping slabs, whereas steep initial dip angles lead to steep slab dips and an overturned slab.

  11. Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.

  12. Expert Discussion on Taking a Spiritual History. (United States)

    Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Roser, Traugott; Jobin, Guy


    This article elaborates on the hazards of spiritual history taking. It provides expert insights to consider before entering the field. In summer 2012, a group of spiritual care experts were invited to discuss the complexity of taking spiritual histories in a manner of hermeneutic circle. Thematic analysis was applied to define the emerging themes. The results demonstrate that taking a spiritual history is a complex and challenging task, requiring a number of personal qualities of the interviewer, such as 'being present', 'not only hearing, but listening', 'understanding the message beyond the words uttered', and 'picking up the words to respond'. To 'establish a link of sharing', the interviewer is expected 'to go beyond the ethical stance of neutrality'. The latter may cause several dilemmas, such as 'fear of causing more problems', 'not daring to take it further', and above all, 'being ambivalent about one's role'. Interviewer has to be careful in terms of the 'patient's vulnerability'. To avoid causing harm, it is essential to propose 'a follow-up contract' that allows responding to 'patient's yearning for genuine care'. These findings combined with available literature suggest that the quality of spiritual history taking will remain poor unless the health-care professionals revise the meaning of spirituality and the art of caring on individual level.

  13. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law'' (United States)

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael


    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinakova N. V.


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the origin and development of the «economics of happiness», exploring how the subjective well-being depends on the income level. The paper presents various ways to measure of subjective well-being, the laws and relationships identified through an analysis opinion polls, presented the main conclusions obtained by different research teams. The centerpiece of the article covers the analysis of the debate around the Easterlin’s happiness-income paradox. The main purpose of the paper is to designate questions and discussion of current research topics in «economics of happiness», to identify gaps in approaches to research that gave rise to the debate around the happiness-income paradox. The main result is the identification of differences in the approaches to research that lead different groups of scientists to contradictory conclusions about the happiness-income relationship in the long term. The result can be used both in educational process and in research and development.

  15. [Discussion on twirling reinforcing-reducing method]. (United States)

    Shen, Te-Li


    The essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is discussed to provide theoretical guidance for clinical application of reinforcing-reducing method. Through retrospection on historical literature of twirling reinforcing-reducing method, records and explanatory notes are thoroughly explored. Several existing opinions are analyzed and explained for instance twirling method has connection with circulation direction of channels; twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot; twriling method is related to quantity of stimulus and operation time; twriling method belongs to spiral motion and so on. As a result, it is found that the key of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is the posture of needle-holding hand that defines three-dimensional motion. If twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot and so on, steric effects of lifting-thrusting movement that come along with twirling method could be ignored at the same time. It is that the essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is close to the principle of lifting-thrusting reinforcing-reducing method, enriching effect with slow insertion and fast withdrawal of needle while reducing effect with fast insertion and slow withdrawal, which is recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Nine needle and Twelve Yuan. With this principle as guide, manipulation could be avoided to become a mere formality and illusory metaphysics during clinical application of twirling reinforcing-reducing method.

  16. Assessing clinical competency: reports from discussion groups. (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant; Stone, Elizabeth; Bristol, David; Fuentealba, Carmen; Hardie, Lizette; Hellyer, Peter; Jaeger, Laurie; Kerwin, Sharon; Kochevar, Deborah; Lissemore, Kerry; Olsen, Christopher; Rogers, Kenita; Sabin, Beth; Swanson, Cliff; Warner, Angeline


    This report describes proposed new models for assessment of eight of the nine clinical competencies the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education requires for accreditation. The models were developed by discussion groups at the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Clinical Competency Symposium. Clinical competencies and proposed models (in parentheses) are described. Competency 1: comprehensive patient diagnosis (neurologic examination on a dog, clinical reasoning skills); Competency 2: comprehensive treatment planning (concept mapping, computerized case studies); Competency 3: anesthesia, pain management (student portfolio); Competency 4: surgery skills (objective structured clinical examination, cased-based examination, "super dog" model); Competency 5: medicine skills (clinical reasoning and case management, skills checklist); Competency 6: emergency and intensive care case management (computerized case study or scenario); Competency 7: health promotion, disease prevention/biosecurity (360 degrees evaluation, case-based computer simulation); Competency 8: client communications and ethical conduct (Web-based evaluation forms, client survey, communicating with stakeholders, telephone conversation, written scenario-based cases). The report also describes faculty recognition for participating in clinical competency assessments.

  17. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion. (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W


    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion. (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong


    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  19. Improving Discussion in Astronomy Courses Taught Online (United States)

    Troischt, Parker


    Astronomy courses that are either hybrid in nature or offered in a completely online format are becoming more common at colleges and universities. In particular, faculty members at small colleges are being encouraged to develop courses that can be taught online in order to give students increased flexibility in scheduling classes and reach a separate population of learners. For instructors accustomed to teaching students in person using plenty of interaction, making the switch to teaching even one online course a year can be challenging. However, some topics are developing so rapidly (exoplanets) that it is difficult to imagine having students rely on a standard textbook at all, and the use of online resources become essential. Here, we describe methods used to promote discussion, evaluate its content and effectively incorporate the use of recently released articles in order to keep students engaged. We present efforts to produce a lively classroom atmosphere centered on recent advances and several debated topics. Lastly, we report on successes, challenges and plans for improving online courses in the future.

  20. Public Libraries and the Librarians : Making A Difference In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , roles of public libraries in Nigeria, collection development of public libraries and categories of resources in public libraries. The paper also defined the concept of public librarian and his roles. It further discussed the concept of information and ...

  1. Use of global context for handling noisy names in discussion texts of a homeopathy discussion forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder


    Full Text Available The task of identifying named entities from the discussion texts in Web forums faces the challenge of noisy names. As the names are often misspelled or abbreviated, the conventional techniques have failed to detect the noisy names properly. In this paper we propose a global context based framework for handling the noisy names. The framework is tested on a named entity recognition system designed to identify the names from the discussion texts in a homeopathy diagnosis discussion forum. The proposed global context-based framework is found to be effective in improving the accuracy of the named entity recognition system.

  2. Proxies and consent discussions for dementia research. (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Roter, Debra; Cain, Carole; Wallace, Roberta; Schmechel, Don; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A


    To better understand the nature of informed consent encounters for research involving patients with dementia that requires proxy consent. Audiotaping of informed-consent encounters for a study of genetic markers for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Outpatients at an Alzheimer's disease research center. Patients with dementia and their companions. Audiotapes were analyzed to characterize communication style and coverage of the standard elements of informed consent and, using the Roter Interaction Analysis System, to capture the dynamics of three-way interaction between the patient, their companion, and the physician investigator. Of 26 informed consent encounters, all involved a patient, a companion, and a physician. Patients had a mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 21.8. For patients, 49% of their interactions involved agreement and approval (positive statements), 16% psychosocial information, 7% biomedical information, 7% asking questions, and 7% expressing emotion. Companion interactions involved 37% positive statements and 19% biomedical information. Physician interactions involved emotional expressiveness (30%) and positive statements (19%). Discussion length was positively related to MMSE score (Spearman rho=0.45; Pinformed consent was fairly comprehensive and had no relationship to patients' MMSE scores. These data should inform policies regarding the ethically appropriate ways of conducting research with cognitively impaired adults. For example, patients in this study were more silent than their companions and the physician, but when patients spoke, they primarily agreed with what was said. Although this might first seem to signal assent, such an interpretation should be made with caution for persons with dementia. In addition, previous work on informed consent has focused on its cognitive aspects, but these data reveal that the emotional and social dimensions warrant attention.

  3. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Michael Allan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005 from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188 of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188 of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188 of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005 and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009 or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02. Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. CONCLUSION: While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  4. Experimental Evidence that In Vivo Intracerebral Administration of L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid to Neonatal Rats Provokes Disruption of Redox Status and Histopathological Abnormalities in the Brain. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Leipnitz, Guilhian; de Oliveira, Francine Hehn; Seminotti, Bianca; Wajner, Moacir


    Tissue accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) is the biochemical hallmark of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic inherited disease characterized by neurological symptoms and brain white matter abnormalities whose pathogenesis is not yet well established. L-2-HG was intracerebrally administered to rat pups at postnatal day 1 (P1) to induce a rise of L-2-HG levels in the central nervous system (CNS). Thereafter, we investigated whether L-2-HG in vivo administration could disturb redox homeostasis and induce brain histopathological alterations in the cerebral cortex and striatum of neonatal rats. L-2-HG markedly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (increase of 2',7'-dichloroflurescein-DCFH-oxidation), lipid peroxidation (increase of malondialdehyde concentrations), and protein oxidation (increase of carbonyl formation and decrease of sulfhydryl content), besides decreasing the antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione-GSH) and sulfhydryl content in the cerebral cortex. Alterations of the activities of various antioxidant enzymes were also observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum following L-2-HG administration. Furthermore, L-2-HG-induced lipid peroxidation and GSH decrease in the cerebral cortex were prevented by the antioxidant melatonin and by the classical antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptor MK-801, suggesting the involvement of reactive species and of overstimulation of NMDA receptor in these effects. Finally, L-2-HG provoked significant vacuolation and edema particularly in the cerebral cortex with less intense alterations in the striatum that were possibly associated with the unbalanced redox homeostasis caused by this metabolite. Taken together, it is presumed that these pathomechanisms may underlie the neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities observed in the affected patients.

  5. Discussion forum: management of population education programmes. (United States)


    This discussion adopts a relatively simple management process, which consists of the elements of planning, organization, direction, and control, as the basis for analyzing management activities of population education programs. Each of these elements is analyzed in the context of programming, implementing, and evaluating country programs in population education. The planning process that applies well to population education is that of working out a scheme, a method of design for the attainment of an objective. This involves identifying what is to be done, when, and how; defining objectives; choosing from alternatives; and making a plan of action and communication. A few country programs in population education in Asia are lagging behind the realization of project objectives in part because the organizational scheme has been taken for granted. Specific problem areas include: facilities, equipment, and staff; grouping component jobs; structure of authority; methods and procedures; and selection and training of staff. Despite these problem areas, it is believed that the organization of population education could be enhanced if the following 2 aspects are taken care of: dividing labor and allocationg workloads to individuals as well as groups of individuals; and establishing lines of communication, influence, and authority among individuals and groups of individuals handling allotted work loads to ensure the coordination of their activities in relation to give objective. The soundness of a population education program hinges on efficiency, effectiveness, and continuity. Direction includes motivation, supervision, and coordination, all of which are applicalbe to population education. Direction consists of setting a detailed time and cost framework, initiating and providing leadership in carrying out plans by making decisiions, issuing specific instructions, and guilding, motivating, and supervising. Control consists of evaluation of performance compared to plan

  6. 75 FR 9586 - Solicitation of Participation In and Public Meeting to Discuss Public Safety 700 MHz Broadband... (United States)


    ..., via webinar over the Internet. The registration deadline for participation in the meeting is due by 5... Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, in a multi-vendor...

  7. Discussions around public policies for food sovereignty and family farming in Misiones (Argentina)


    Arzeno, Mariana; Deheza, Rocío del Pilar; Muñecas, Lucila; Zanotti, Aymara Suyai


    El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las políticas para la soberanía alimentaria en Misiones y su relación con las demandas de organizaciones de la agricultura familiar, teniendo en cuenta distintas visiones sobre el tema que tienen los actores involucrados y las acciones que se proponen desde algunas dependencias del Estado provincial y nacional. Para ello se revisaron y sistematizaron fuentes diversas (primarias y secundarias). El trabajo muestra divergencias entre las concepciones de sobera...

  8. Public Administration in the Perspective of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology. A Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoltán Ambrus


      Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a psychosocial discipline provides the axiological and practical foundations for accomplishing successful transition, for dealing with the undesired effects...

  9. Discussing spent nuclear fuel in high school classrooms: addressing public fears through early education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, S. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)


    The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.

  10. Erratum to: Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group. (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T


    The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is owned by the University of Queensland (UQ). The University through its main technology transfer company UniQuest Pty Limited has licensed Triple P International Pty Ltd to disseminate the program worldwide. Royalties stemming from this dissemination activity are distributed to the Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of Psychology, UQ; Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences at UQ; and contributory authors. No author has any share or ownership in Triple P International Pty Ltd. Matthew Sanders is the founder and an author on various Triple P programs and a consultant to Triple P International. Karen Turner is an author of various Triple P programs.

  11. Discussion on a Public Hospital's Practice in Culture Shaping and Innovative Development. (United States)

    Zhang, Peiying


    Culture shaping is an important part of a hospital's quality management to enhance its medical service, improve doctor-patient relations, and cement its brand image (Jianping and Hong in Chinese Hospital Management 29(1):36-37, 2009). First built in 1953, Xuzhou Central Hospital is a tertiary general hospital in the Huaihai Economic Zone and has won a series of honorary titles for its reforms, innovations, and the level of medical services provided. In recent years, the hospital has increased its efforts in culture shaping through the construction of special departments, medical services, hospital culture, and professional ethics. This has resulted in substantial progress in the hospital's medical capabilities and service quality, and laid a solid foundation to achieve its ambitious goal of becoming a nationally prestigious hospital, among the best in Jiangsu and a regional healthcare center in the Huaihai Economic Zone.

  12. Arhitektuur avaliku arutluse teemana = Architecture as a Topic for Public Discussion / Maarja Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Maarja, 1960-


    Tartu Ülikooli ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakonna meediauuringute dotsent Maarja Lõhmus püüab kaardistada kujunenud meediavälja ja esitada neid indikaatoreid, millest praegu sõltub arhitektuuri käsitlemine avalikkuses

  13. Discussion Forum: Privacy Protection and the Increasing Vulnerability of the Public. (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; And Others


    Includes five articles covering privacy issues surrounding the use of government data by the private commercial sector to profile individuals or households for marketing purposes. The creation of a privacy protection commission, Bureau of the Census measures to protect privacy, and the need for legislation, regulation, and enforcement are…

  14. “Infectious Supercarelessness” in Discussing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil S. Greenspan


    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are exhibiting resistance to increasing numbers of antibiotics making it much more challenging to treat the infections caused by these microbes. In many reports in the media and perhaps even in discussions among physicians and biomedical scientists, these bacteria are frequently referred to as “bugs” with the prefix “super” appended. This terminology has a high potential to elicit unjustified inferences and fails to highlight the broader evolutionary context. Understanding the full range of biological and evolutionary factors that influence the spread and outcomes of infections is critical to formulating effective individual therapies and public health interventions. Therefore, more accurate terminology should be used to refer these multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  15. Emergency medicine narratives: a systematic discussion of definition and utility. (United States)

    Hawkins, Seth Collings


    A substantial number of emergency medicine providers are publishing stories and other creative expressions related to their medical experiences. This is a systematic review of such publications, introduces the term "emergency medicine narratives" to describe such pieces, and proposes a framework to classify the various forms of expression. Specifically, six genres of emergency medicine narratives are discussed: medical autobiography, clinical narratives, creative narratives, out-of-hospital narratives, lay exposition, and photojournalism. This review explores the utility of these narratives and the role they play within the field of emergency medicine, provides a bibliography of emergency narratives, and suggests future questions that might be addressed regarding this growing phenomenon in the field of emergency medicine.

  16. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei


    Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  17. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  18. Harm reduction and knowledge exchange—a qualitative analysis of drug-related Internet discussion forums


    Kjellgren, Anette; Soussan, Christophe


    Background: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are continuously and increasingly appearing on the international drug market. Global Internet forums are a publicly available reality where users anonymously discuss and share information about NPS. The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the discussions about NPS on international Internet forums. Methods: The most post-frequent NPS discussions were collected from three “leading edge” international Internet forums. A total of 13,08...

  19. Teacher as Public Art (United States)

    Wright, Sheila


    In this article "teacher as public art" is used as a metaphor to describe and explain the all-too-common perceptions and experiences of professors of color, especially women, within the academy. Highlighted throughout this discussion are: (1) the relevance of locating self within the context of people and place; and (2) the importance of bringing…

  20. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars


    This article takes up recent discussions of nature and the sensorium in order to rethink public reason in deeply divided societies. The aim is not to reject the role of reason-giving but rather to infuse it with new meaning, bringing the reasonable back to its sensorially inflected circumstances....

  1. Censorship in Public Libraries. (United States)

    Biggins, Barbara; Handsley, Elizabeth

    This paper discusses the legal obligations owed by librarians to the users of their facilities, focusing on the viewing of pornography on the Internet in the public library. The meanings commonly ascribed to the word censorship are presented. Australian federal law that governs the classification of films, videos, computer games, and publications…

  2. Review of intense irradiation data and discussion on structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Okubo, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)


    Full text of publication follows: Mechanical property data on austenitic stainless steels and F82H have been reviewed to discuss for developing structural integrity methodologies of intensely irradiated components such as first walls. The following have been already clarified: (1) Fracture ductility is still high even though tensile rupture elongation is reduced remarkably. (2) Strain-hardening occurs in true stress-logarithmic strain (true strain) relationship. Work-softening behavior observed in nominal stress-nominal strain curves is simply resulted from a reduction of work hardening rate accompanied by the increase of flow stress level by irradiation. The review lead to an innovative design concept for application to intensely irradiated components. A special consideration is given to unique feature of bending moment in developing design methodology for preventing ductile fracture of intensely irradiated materials. Another discussion is also made on how to simulate mechanical behavior of intensely irradiated components, because mechanical testing of component-wise specimens after intense irradiation is inevitable for the development of design concepts, although irradiation on such a large scale specimen seems to be almost impossible with current irradiation facilities. (authors)

  3. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott


    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  4. Discussing Ethical Issues in the Classroom: Leveraging Pedagogical Moments that May Otherwise Undermine Important Discussions (United States)

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.


    The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they…

  5. A comparison of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy and lidocaine in the treatment of provoked vestibulodynia: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Corsini-Munt, Serena; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; Steben, Marc; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Delisle, Isabelle; McDuff, Pierre; Aerts, Leen; Santerre-Baillargeon, Marie


    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a frequent form of chronic genital pain, is associated with decreased sexual function for afflicted women, as well as impoverished sexual satisfaction for women and their partners. Pain and sexuality outcomes for couples with PVD are influenced by interpersonal factors, such as pain catastrophizing, partner responses to pain, ambivalence over emotional expression, attachment style and perceived relationship and sexual intimacy. Despite recommendations in the literature to include the partner in cognitive-behavioral therapy targeted at improving pain and sexuality outcomes, no randomized clinical trial has tested the efficacy of this type of intervention and compared it to a first-line medical intervention. This bi-center, randomized clinical trial is designed to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy compared to topical lidocaine. It is conducted across two Canadian university-hospital centers. Eligible women diagnosed with PVD and their partners are randomized to one of the two interventions. Evaluations are conducted using structured interviews and validated self-report measures at three time points: Pre-treatment (T1: prior to randomization), post-treatment (T2), and 6-month follow-up (T3). The primary outcome is the change in reported pain during intercourse between T1 and T2. Secondary outcomes focus on whether there are significant differences between the two treatments at T2 and T3 on (a) the multidimensional aspects of women's pain and (b) women and partners' sexuality (sexual function and satisfaction), psychological adjustment (anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and quality of life), relationship factors (partner responses and dyadic adjustment) and self-reported improvement and treatment satisfaction. In order to detect an effect size as small as 0.32 for secondary outcomes, a sample of 170 couples is being recruited (27% dropout expected). A clinically significant decrease in pain is

  6. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP. All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic

  7. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper


    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities......, Andrew Williams points to a gap in Cohen's argument, alleging that Cohen's interpretation of the difference principle is unlikely to be compatible with the Rawlsian endorsement of publicity. Having explored a possible extrapolation of Cohen's critique to aggregate consumer choices and a resulting...... extension of Williams's charge that the difference principle, on Cohen's reading, fails to meet the publicity constraint because of its informational demandingness, I defend three claims: (a) it is doubtful that Rawls endorses a publicity constraint of the sort that would rule out Cohen's interpretation...

  8. Going Public: Networking Globally and Locally (United States)

    Sachs, Carolyn E.


    Rural sociologists figure prominently in the move towards public sociology. The paper takes up Michael Burawoy's call for public sociology and discusses what rural sociologists have to offer to publics and how we stand to gain as a discipline in working with publics. The paper argues that rural sociologists' ability to adopt a cosmopolitan view…

  9. Konstruksi Prinsip Kinerja Public Relations Dalam Pandangan Syariat Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarok Mubarok


    Full Text Available PR performance principle formulated as part of the management functions to achieve the objectives of an organization. Likewise with the influence of religious scriptures embraced by every individual involved in the communication process. One scripture that the reference human life is the Qur'an as a way of life of Muslims. Related to the practice and science of public relations it is interesting to look at dikontruksi how Islamic law principle of PR performance. The scales of the Shari'a as an integral part of the life of a Muslim will guide how he practice the principles of PR performance. Institutions are trying to get support through activities that can provoke support from the public without coercion or through a stage of conflict. Arthur W. Page mentions a number of principles that can be used in practice and as a philosophical PR in maintaining relations with the public institutions.

  10. Public opinion on public services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evert Pommer


    Original titel: Burgers over de kwaliteit van publieke diensten Most citizens come into contact with public services, for example as a patient, as a student or pupil, as a passenger on public transport or as a museum visitor. More and more importance is being attached to the quality of those

  11. Social marketing in public health. (United States)

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A


    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  12. EDI in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten


    Introduction of EDI in the public administration is apriority for the Danish Government. EDI is both seen as a catlyst for development towards an information society ans as a means for more efficient use of scarce resources. EDI in the banking sector and the retail sector is reviewed, drivers...... and barriers discussed nad Danish public policy initiatieves assessed....

  13. The Historian and Public Policy (United States)

    Franklin, John Hope


    Discusses the role of the historian in the formation of public and foreign policy. Historians should look at the public policies that are claimed to be based in the past and see if that is in fact the case. The history of racial segregation is used as an example. (Author/JK)

  14. Inefficiencies in public environmental services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.; Nentjes, A.; Wiersma, D.

    The paper discusses efficiency issues in the public provision of environmental services, in particular waste water treatment. It is shown that in the face of increasing, respectively decreasing returns to scale the zero profit constraint of a cost minimizing public firm induces underinvestment,

  15. When public service drama travels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Waade, Anne Marit

    This paper will investigate how and to what extent the Danish public service broadcaster DR employs external funding for its drama productions. This investigation is carried out in order to discuss the schisms involved when a public service broadcaster – whose traditional obligations arguably...

  16. Undervalued Areas in Public Librarianship. (United States)

    Houghton, Neville, Ed.

    Public librarians met at a workshop in Albury, Australia on September 19 and 20, 1970 to discuss areas in which they tend to undervalue their responsibility to the community. The following papers were presented, and appear in this volume: (1) Extension activities for children, (2) Youth, (3) The film society and the public library, (4) The…

  17. NASA Publications Guide for Authors (United States)


    This document presents guidelines for use by NASA authors in preparation and publication of their scientific and technical information (STI). Section 2 gives an overview. Section 2 describes types of publication. Section 3 discusses technical, data/information, and dissemination reviews. Section 4 provides recommended standards and gives the elements of a typical report. Section 5 presents miscellaneous preparation recommendations.

  18. Public diplomacy: Basic marketing issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Rada


    Full Text Available Paper discuss the general features build in international activities known under term public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is not one-side process as well as strictly official but have a lot meanings - from economic to cultural. Linking up to economic side of the global national appearance, paper stressing an impact public diplomacy developed on the micro or company level. Some general remarks are mentioned in the case of Montenegro experience.



    M.Sathana Priya; P.Jesintha


    The article discussed the Public Private Partnership among the domestic and foreign players. The mainobjective is to assess the Public Private Partnership project in India and relationship between the foreignplayer and domestic player in PPP. So the paper concludes that the foreign players are investing withdomestic player in PPP projects. Malaysian companies are leading investors in public private partnership(PPP) projects in India, with this observation both foreign and domestic players joi...

  20. Miscellaneous Publications (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Late 19th century Weather Bureau publications and Congressional reports pertaining to weather. Set of Weather Bureau Snowfall Bulletins for Rocky Mountain states...

  1. Public Airports (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  2. Public Affairs (United States)


    information. PA representatives should be involved in OPSEC planning, surveys , and security reviews to prevent the public release of an official spokesperson. This equity should not be a deterrent to participating, but rather a motivating factor. Leave it to the public to...2) Stakeholder(s). Identify stakeholders and what social media site(s) they use. (3) Branding . The name of the social media presence is

  3. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo


    This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...... results suitable to open planning, for instance with citizen participation. Five examples of application of the method are given: (1) evaluation of changes in suburban bus services; (2) evaluation of geographical localities as regards public transport; (3) evaluation of circular bus routes; (4) evaluation...... of flexible work hours versus fixed work hours and, finally; (5) production of user information on transport service....

  4. Online Activity Around Scholarly Astronomy Literature - A Discussion of Altmetrics (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Thompson, Donna; Grant, Carolyn S.; Murray, Stephen S.


    So, your research is mentioned or gets discussed in social media, in blogs and other online channels. Do you care? Should you care? Will this exposure result in better science? Researchers probably should care, and most likely policy makers already care, because it matters how research, funded by them, is being portrayed in society. We have pretty solid ideas about how to quantify the impact of research on itself. This has been studied for decades in the fields of informetrics, bibliometrics and scientometrics. But how do you quantify the societal impact of research? You will need to assume that this impact can be measured in principle, and that is possible to come up with a recipe that quantifies this impact. Assuming that there is a societal impact seems quite reasonable for most disciplines in science. It is definitely true for parts of astronomy and physics. Just think of the attention given to the LHC or to the hunt for exoplanets. Enter the concept of "alternative metrics", or "altmetrics". As a result of the growing interest in altmetrics, various services (like the websites and claim to have found a way to quantify the societal impact of research, either in a person-centric or publication-centric way. On this poster we explore, using data provided by, how astronomy fits in this altmetrics picture. How do popular science articles compare to those in the core astronomy journals? Is there any correlation between the altmetric measure and indicators like downloads, reads or citations? We briefly discuss the benefits that altmetrics might offer and the pitfalls involved in quantifying such measures.

  5. Life and Death Decisions: Using School-Based Health Education to Facilitate Family Discussion about Organ and Tissue Donation (United States)

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark


    Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…

  6. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.


    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  7. Private Archives and Public Needs. (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J.; Walker, Elaine


    Discusses legal, ethical, and pragmatic issues concerning psychologists' willingness or unwillingness to share data from Federally sponsored research projects with other researchers and the public. Presents a proposal to mandate data sharing, and discusses technical and ethical costs and benefits of such a proposal. (Author/MJL)

  8. Online Public Deliberation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Yang, Yang


    Internet discussion platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique context. Adopting the theoretical lens of public deliberation, this paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different...

  9. How do Midwives and Physicians Discuss Childhood Vaccination with Parents? (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Vivion, Maryline; Sauvageau, Chantal; Gagneur, Arnaud; Gagnon, Raymonde; Guay, Maryse


    Even if vaccination is often described as one of the great achievements of public health, results of recent studies have shown that parental acceptance of vaccination is eroding. Health providers' knowledge and attitudes about vaccines are important determinants of their own vaccine uptake, their intention to recommend vaccines to patients and the vaccine uptake of their patients. The purpose of this article is to compare how midwives and physicians address vaccination with parents during pregnancy and in postpartum visits. Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives and physicians practicing in the province of Quebec, Canada. Results of our analysis have shown that physicians adopt an "education-information" stance when discussing vaccination with parents in the attempt to "convince" parents to vaccinate. In contrast, midwives adopted a neutral stance and gave information on the pros and cons of vaccination to parents while leaving the final decision up to them. Findings of this study highlight the fact that physicians and midwives have different views regarding their role and responsibilities concerning vaccination. It may be that neither of these approaches is optimal in promoting vaccination uptake.

  10. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, J I


    The Discussion Series on PURPA Related Topics is composed of five volumes: Metering, Billing, Information to Customers, Load Management Techniques and Master Metering. These reports are based on twenty-five Demonstration and Implementation projects sponsored and directed during the past five years by the US Department of Energy, Office of Utility Systems. Each of the topics bears directly on one or more of the federal standards contained in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). This volume, Load Management Techniques, relates primarily to the Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3. The experiences related in this report deal, in part, with the procedures and equipment which are affected when time-of-day rates are implemented. One goal of this report is to describe how people in a variety of settings have dealt with the many practical issues in load management. Another is to highlight the lessons and summarize the experiences of the Project participants. This report does not stand as a manual nor provide prescriptive guidelines on how to deal with the topic. Rather it offers an account for those charged with the responsibility of implementing PURPA requirements to learn from the insights and problems which occurred during the Rate Demonstration projects.

  11. Public Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    - will be addressed in this book.   Sociology, as the self-proclaimed ‘the science of society', finds itself in an exceptional position within the scientific community in that it studies a universe it itself is part and parcel of. This means that sociology and sociologists are inextricably connected and linked...... by the media? Does the choice of public sociology mean the relinquishment of scientific integrity and critical conviction? These questions will also be addressed in this book - together with a host of others related to the topic of public sociology.   The chapters included in this book are all manuscripts...... presented by our invited keynote speakers at the tenth year anniversary conference of the Sociology Program at Aalborg University. The topic of the conference was Public Sociology. The collection of essays in this book is compiled and edited by Michael Hviid Jacobsen (b. 1971), Associate Professor...

  12. Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg


    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization...... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  13. Writing for publication. (United States)

    Duff, D


    A discussion of the benefits and obstacles of authoring a paper for a nursing journal is followed by an explanation of the process of writing for publication. Benefits include advancing nursing knowledge and professional recognition of the individual author. The barriers addressed are time, failure to recognize expertise, a reluctance to subject one's work and ideas to the public arena for scrutiny, and lack of confidence with scholarly writing. The discussion focuses on choosing a suitable journal and subject, the role of the editor and peer reviewers in a refereed journal, and a procedure for planning, writing, and editing a paper. The process is addressed both in a generic sense, and specifically when writing a paper for AXON. Strategies to get nurses started with writing, such as critical reading of journal articles individually or with a peer group, writing with a mentor or group, and starting with small projects, are also included.

  14. Public Performance (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.


    America’s first planetaria all opened in the 1930s, and each was the distinctive product of local circumstances. In Los Angeles, the populist sensibilities of Griffith J. Griffith prompted him to value the transformative power of a personal encounter with a telescope, and he quickly embraced the idea of a public observatory with free access to all. Griffith Observatory and its planetarium emerged from that intent. Authenticity, intelligibility, and theatricality were fundamental principles in Griffith’s thinking, and they were transformed into solid and enduring scientific and astronomical values by those who actually guided the Observatory’s design, construction, and programming. That said, the public profile of Griffith Observatory was most defined by its inspired hilltop location, its distinctive, commanding architecture, and its felicitous proximity to Hollywood. The Observatory is theatric in placement and in appearance, and before the Observatory even opened, it was used as a motion picture set. That continuing vocation turned Griffith Observatory into a Hollywood star. Because entertainment industry objectives and resources were part of the Los Angeles landscape, they influenced Observatory programming throughout the Observatory’s history. Public astronomy in Los Angeles has largely been framed by the Observatory’s fundamental nature. It has exhibits, but it is not a museum. It has a planetarium, but it is essentially an observatory. As a public observatory, it is filled with instruments that transform visitors into observers. This role emphasized the importance of personal experience and established the perception of Griffith Observatory as a place for public gathering and shared contact with the cosmos. The Observatory’s close and continuous link with amateur astronomers made amateurs influential partners in the public enterprise. In full accord with Griffith J. Griffith’s original intent, Griffith Observatory has all been about putting

  15. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  16. Discussing Sexuality in the English Classroom: Using Bakhtinian Analyses and Positioning Theory to Explore Teacher Talk


    Scott, Brigitte Condon


    This dissertation is an examination of the ways English teachers may be complicit in reproducing an abstinence-based sex education discourse in their own classroom practices and discussions of literature. Working from disciplinary research in sex education, sociology, English education, anthropology, and public health, I explore English teachers\\' experiences in negotiating the effects of, reactions to, and expectations for discussing sexuality, intimacy, and gender in a school community. Usi...

  17. Archaeologists’ perceptions on public outreach and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Rocks-Macqueen


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of archaeologists’ perceptions of public outreach and education, also known as public archaeology. The results obtained indicate that archaeologists’ views on public archaeology are generally positive but with reservations. Those specific reservations being that public archaeology is not perceived as one of the most important aspects of archaeology. This paper ends with a discussion on exactly what this means for public outreach and education in archaeology.

  18. Political Rhetoric and Public Competence: A Crisis for Democracy? (United States)

    Kneupper, Charles W.


    Discusses the quality of current political argument, the relation between this and public attention to politics, the competency of the public to evaluate political argument, and whether political argument and public competence can be improved. (SRT)

  19. Going Public. (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1984


    Describes five local efforts to bring music education to the attention of the public. They range from the New York State School Music Association's "grass-roots network," which is active in the area of government relations, to the Support Music Network, organized as a defensive and offensive effort for music education. (CS)

  20. Going Public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erik J Martin


    .... Just ask Facebook and Groupon, which, along with other Internet-based businesses that provide electronic content -- including Yelp, Zynga, Pandora, and OpenTable -- have gone the initial public offering (IPO). Facebook's IPO in May made one of the biggest splashes ever for a tech company, with a peak market capitalization of more than $104 billion.

  1. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter


    , sins of omission—withholding important information from the public—and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised....

  2. Publication Design. (United States)

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  3. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.


    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  4. 77 FR 14813 - Public Workshop on Minimal Residual Disease; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Public Workshop on Minimal Residual Disease; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop to provide a forum for discussion of the use of minimal...

  5. The Use of Public Library Roles for Effectiveness Evaluation. (United States)

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas A.


    Discussion of public library roles examines roles from the Public Library Association's planning and measurement tools for their usefulness in evaluating public library effectiveness, based on data from the Public Library Effectiveness Study. Indicators of library effectiveness are discussed, and a cluster analysis of libraries with similar role…

  6. Ethics in Online Publications. (United States)

    Vervaart, Peter


    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has

  7. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage (United States)

    Hand, Michael


    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  8. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.


    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  9. The "Facebook" Effect: College Students' Perceptions of Online Discussions in the Age of Social Networking (United States)

    Hurt, Nicole E.; Moss, Gregory S.; Bradley, Christen L.; Larson, Lincoln R.; Lovelace, Matthew; Prevost, Luanna B.; Riley, Nancy; Domizi, Denise; Camus, Melinda S.


    Despite the growing prominence of Facebook in the lives of college students, few studies have investigated the potential of these innovative web-based communication tools for engaging students in academic discussions. This study used a pre-test, post-test design in two introductory-level courses at a large public university to compare students' (n…

  10. The United States and World Energy: A Discussion Paper, Department of State. (United States)

    Smith, Ralph Stuart

    This publication is a summary of the world energy situation and its impact on the United States. A brief review of some interrelated diplomatic, commercial, and technical aspects of the energy crisis and their implications for the U.S. and its foreign policy is presented first. Next, discussions of world supplies, uses and problems with different…

  11. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh. (United States)

    Primich, Tracy


    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  12. The Reception of Hugo de Vries’s Intracellular Pangenesis; the Discussion with August Weismann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, I.H.


    In 1889 Hugo de Vries published Intracellular Pangenesis in which he formulated his ideas on heredity. The high expectations of the impression these ideas would make did not come true and publication was negated or reviewed critically. From the reactions of his Dutch colleagues and the discussion

  13. Beyond “Political” Communicative Spaces : Talking Politics on the Wife Swap Discussion Forum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, T.S.


    Net-based public sphere researchers have examined online deliberation in numerous ways. However, most studies have focused exclusively on political discussion forums. This article moves beyond such spaces by analyzing political talk from an online forum dedicated to reality television. The purpose

  14. Debating Global Warming in Media Discussion Forums: Strategies Enacted by "Persistent Deniers" and Implications for Schooling (United States)

    Bowen, G. Michael; Rodger, Valerie


    Newspapers and other media are often used as a source of information on science issues, both by the public and teachers in classrooms. Over six months, we collected discussions of global warming issues from the online forums of a national newspaper. Our analysis of these contributions suggests there is a considerable effort in these forums,…

  15. Contemporary Scientists Discuss the Need for Openness and Open-Mindedness in Science and Society (United States)

    Mulhall, Pamela J.; Smith, Dorothy V.; Hart, Christina E.; Gunstone, Richard F.


    We report on findings from a qualitative study of Australian scientists whose work brings them into contact with the public. This research sought to understand how a school science curriculum could better represent the work of scientists today. We discuss the views expressed by our participant scientists about the importance of openness and…

  16. Optical coherence tomography and low-frequency mechanics: A moderated discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Dennis M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Ruggero, Mario A. [Knowles Hearing Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois (United States)


    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of “Optical Coherence Tomography” and “Low-Frequency Mechanics”. The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12{sup th} International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  17. Using Technology to Support Discussions on Sensitive Topics in the Study of Business Ethics (United States)

    Fong, Michelle


    There is a dearth of research into teaching strategies and learning approaches for units involving sensitive topics that can provoke an emotional response in students. In a business ethics unit, attempts to strike a balance between conceptual knowledge and theory and skills training can be challenging because the unit can involve personal,…

  18. Emotions under discussion: gender, status and communication in online collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Iosub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. METHODS: We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the [Formula: see text] editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels.

  19. Paradigm shift from New Public Administration to New Public Management: theory and practice in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Vyas-Doorgapersad


    Full Text Available The African continent is facing a number of administrative crises. The recent decline of public administration on the continent has forced some African countries to re-assess their governance systems. Their public service reforms are evidence of the emergence of New Public Management (NPM for improved public sector administrative structures and operations. This article discusses the paradigm shifts from New Public Administration to New Public Management, as a means of meeting public administration challenges in Africa. At a contextual level, the paper examines the practical implementation by some African countries of NPM and the outcomes of NPM-led reform in these countries. Keywords: Public Administration (PA; New Public Administration (NPA; New Public Management (NPM; Public Value Management (PVM; paradigm; paradigm shift; public service reforms; governance Disciplines: Public Management; Political Science; Sociology; Economics

  20. Public relations in Europe: A kaleidoscopic picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; Vercic, D.; Flodin, B.; Buetschi, G.


    Focuses on the Delphi research project, a part of the European Public Relations Body of Knowledge project, which questions the existence of a European authenticity of public relations. Description of the study design; Discussion on public relations as a professional management function; Conclusions.

  1. Competence Development in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin


    The article analyses the popular concept of Competence Development as constructed of at least three different discourses (Life Long Learning, New Public Management and professionalisation) and discusses the relations between the transformations of the public sectors in Scandinavian Welfare States......, Competence Development and Professionalisation/Deprofessionalisation among the public employees....

  2. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness (United States)

    Ringeling, Arthur


    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  3. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  4. Methodology and models in erosion research: discussion and conclusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shellis, R P; Ganss, C; Ren, Y; Zero, D T; Lussi, A


    .... The prospects for clinical trials are also discussed. All models in erosion research require a number of choices regarding experimental conditions, study design and measurement techniques, and these general aspects are discussed first...

  5. An Internet-based discussion forum as a useful resource for the discussion of clinical cases and an educational tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong Deborah


    Full Text Available Introduction: An Internet-based group of plastic surgeons was formed in India in February 2001. It has 1290 members and seeks to facilitate online discussion. These discussions were reviewed to assess their value in education and aiding patient management. Materials and Methods: All messages and discussions between August 2007 and July 2008 were examined retrospectively. Data were collected regarding topics, replies, and use of clinical images. Results: A total of 2217 messages were exchanged within 330 separate discussions (mean = 6.7 messages per discussion, range = 0-45. A total of 164 discussions contained photographs (50%. Mean number of photographs per discussion was five (range = 0-34. Discussions included requests for advice on complex cases (40%, interesting cases and their management/outcome (25% and courses/conferences (30%. Topics discussed include training/courses (26.7%, cleft (15.4%, aesthetics (13.1%, trauma (12.5%, head and neck (8.4%, cutaneous (6.4%, perineal/genital reconstruction (6.1%, and scar management (4.7%. Discussion: Forums like this facilitate discussion between individuals in remote locations. They provide easy access to the expertise of a large cohort of highly experienced surgeons. Most discussions were clinical, involving challenging situations. The discussions are open and nonjudgmental, hence encouraging contribution and healthy debate. We encourage its use as an educational tool and a platform for discussion.

  6. Managing Public Accountability : How Public Managers Manage Public Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas


    Accountability is of growing importance in contemporary governance. The academic literature on public accountability is fraught with concerned analyses, suggesting that accountability is a problematic issue for public managers. This article investigates how public managers experience accountability

  7. Public health and peace. (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli


    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  8. The Fishbowl Discussion: A Strategy for Large Honors Classes. (United States)

    Priles, Maria A.


    Describes the use of the "fishbowl" strategy for fostering class discussion of literary works. Argues that this method, which places one small group of discussants within a larger circle of observers, is an effective means of developing discussion and listening skills. (HB)

  9. Turning Lurkers into Learners: Increasing Participation in Your Online Discussions (United States)

    Alley, Jason; Greenhaus, Karen


    Communication and discussion are keys to student learning and understanding in online environments. With more teachers and K-12 school systems adopting course management tools such as Blackboard and SharePoint, online discussion has become another means of engaging students in curriculum-based learning. Online discussions provide opportunities for…

  10. Parents' Plans to Discuss Sexuality with Their Young Children (United States)

    El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.


    Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…

  11. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney


    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  12. Organizing Parent Discussion Groups in Preschools (A How To Guide). (United States)

    Rousey, Carol G.

    This series of discussion sessions and suggestions for further reading, was designed to serve as a guide for discussion groups made up of parents of preschool children. The first chapter discusses the organization of groups, leaders' qualifications, the general format of sessions, recordkeeping, and suggestions for the first and final sessions.…

  13. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  14. Public Service Communication Satellite Program (United States)

    Brown, J. P.


    The proposed NASA Public Service Communication Satellite Program consists of four different activities designed to fulfill the needs of public service sector. These are: interaction with the users, experimentation with existing satellites, development of a limited capability satellite for the earliest possible launch, and initiation of an R&D program to develop the greatly increased capability that future systems will require. This paper will discuss NASA efforts in each of these areas.

  15. Public-Private Partnership in the EU Public Procurement Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    My PhD research focuses on the relationship between the formation and operation of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and public procurement law as a legal framework for the award of the PPP contract. The complex nature of PPP projects including long term high value contracts, long award process...... to apply when awarding a Public-Private Partnership contract, as well as to analyse if a deregulation of PPP’s award framework could potentially resolve these potential legal challenges. The latter consideration of deregulation of PPP award framework is based on comparison of highly regulated European......, poses legal challenges for the procurement of PPP contracts. The overall research objective of my doctoral thesis is to analyse, clarify and discuss potential legal challenges resulting from European Union public procurement law - provided in Directive 2004/18/EC – which a public authority is obliged...

  16. Brazilian Cinema: A Comparative Study between Fundraising Through Mechanisms of Public Incentive versus the Selling Revenue on the Brazilian Box Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Alaiola Nogueira Dos Santos Júnior


    Full Text Available Responsible for maintaining active the actual cinematographic production, the politics of incentive to cinema do not guarantee an equal state of recourse capture for all the movies produced in the country as well as provoke discussion which relate production quality to volume capture, in which has taken to the creation of the common sense that says that movies which present elevated recourse fund must present best-selling results. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the relation between the recourse volume captured from the mechanisms of public incentive and the selling volume on the Brazilian box offices. Due to that, descriptive research was made, with documentary character and quantitative approach. The data used in this study is related to information towards fundraising and income about the box office of 666 brazilian movies released between 1995 and 2012, while the statistical analysis used was the 'Spearman correlation' coefficient. The results showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variablesanalyzed, revealing a trend of movies with high fundraising are the ones that register the highest grossing box office. Data analysis also revealed that there is a concentration of both incentive funds (61% as income at the box office (75% in films with volume greater uptake of R $ 3 million.

  17. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei


    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the role of the market-type mechanisms within the activity of the organisations from the public sector. The end of the 20th century was defined by the effects of the public sector reform. The public sector is placed within the cultural and political environment of each country and the reforms have aimed to redefine the structures of the state organisations in the economy and the relationships such as market-government, government-bureaucracy, government- citizens, bureaucracy-citizens, civil servants-politicians-citizens. The public sector reform, achieved at the managerial systems, organisational structures and regulations levels is accompanied by specific and structural reforms. Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  18. Writing for publication: the basics. (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen


    Most midwives and nurses do not write for publication. Previous authors on this topic have focussed on the processes of writing and getting published. Although definitive English usage style guides exist, they are infrequently consulted by new midwifery authors. To enable new writers to confidently apply the basic skills of scientific writing when preparing a paper for publication. The basic skills needed for scientific writing are the focus of this paper. The importance of careful word choices is discussed first. Next, the skills of writing sentences are presented. Finally, the skills of writing paragraphs are discussed. Examples of poor and better writing are given in relation to each of these basic elements.

  19. The Development of Social Climate in Virtual Learning Discussion Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avigail Oren


    Full Text Available As the educational use of computer mediated communication (CMC increases there is growing interest among researchers as to social processes evolving within the varied models of group work using Internet – e.g., special interest groups, topical discussion groups, discussion forums attached to virtual courses, and learning communities. In this paper we present a synthetic summary of five studies that explored social climate issues in synchronous and asynchronous online activities in academic courses, focusing on the following questions: Does a social atmosphere develop in online learning discussion groups? What are the different modes of social interaction are manifest in online learning discussion groups? What is the role of the virtual teacher with regards to the social climate in online learning discussion groups? Discussed are the implications of these five studies' on the design of virtual-learning-discussion-groups, and the results for the characterization of teacher moderation functions.

  20. Older Patients' Recall of Lifestyle Discussions in Primary Care. (United States)

    Bardach, Shoshana H; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M


    Despite the known benefits of engaging in healthy diet and physical activity across the life span, suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are pervasive among older adults. While health care providers can promote patients' engagement in health behaviors, patient recall of recommendations tends to be imperfect. This study sought to better understand older adults' recall of dietary and physical activity discussions in primary care. One hundred and fifteen adults aged 65 and older were interviewed immediately following a routine primary care visit on whether and what they recalled discussing pertaining to diet and physical activity. Compared against transcripts, most patients accurately recalled their diet and physical activity discussions. The inclusion of a recommendation, and for diet discussions longer duration, increased the likelihood of patient recall for these health behavior discussions. These findings suggest that specific recommendations and an extra minute of discussion, at least for dietary discussions, increase the likelihood of accurate patient recall.

  1. Public Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel


    on the entrepreneurship–society relationship. SE, as all entrepreneurship practices, operates by social and economic forces (limiting ourselves to those here), and generates social and economic outcomes (amongst others). Its second half, however, dominates the concept of SE, and our analysis seek to remedy this imbalance......In this paper we want to affirm the desiring-social-change that we find in practices presently represented by theorists and policy-makers as examples of ‘social entrepreneurship’ (SE). We do this as an attempt to intensify the presence of the social and sociality in today's discourse...... by focusing on the social productivity of entrepreneurship, on entrepreneurship desiring social change. We suggest ‘public entrepreneurship’ might grasp this as a more balanced concept that will also support a more precise analysis of the entrepreneurship–society relationship....

  2. Public Service Motivation and Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene; Qvistgaard, Lars

    holds a potential to improve public service provision (Belle, 2013, Andersen et al., 2014), it also has dark sides (Van Loon et al., 2015, forthcoming). The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss how one type of public service motivated individuals (paternalistic knights) and constitute a problem...... variables are two dimensions of the PSM construct; namely self-sacrifice and commitment to the public interest, whereas the central independent variable is paternalistic orientation. All three variables are measured with survey constructs in a cross sectional survey design. The survey is made among...

  3. When public service drama travels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Nielsen, Jakob Isak; Waade, Anne Marit


    the last 15 years, our empirical data also show significant new patterns in production culture and international market orientation within DR. Interestingly, however, our study demonstrates the distinctive contribution that precisely DR’s public service remit has made to the quality of its drama......This article provides a detailed analysis of how the Danish public service broadcaster DR employs external funding for its drama productions. This investigation is carried out in order to discuss the schisms involved when a public service broadcaster – whose traditional obligations arguably pertain...

  4. Beyond and within public engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cañada, Jose A.; Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Snell, Karoliina


    Social studies on biobanking have traditionally focused on public engagement, that is, engagement with donors, patients and the general public as an important factor of sustainability. In this article, we claim that, in order to fully understand the way biobanks work, it is necessary to pay......, Spain and Iceland), we identify seven communities, including the public, that emerge as relevant. Such relationships condition the way biobanks develop, act and plan. The discussion illustrates how the relationships with those seven communities are articulated. We conclude that there is a need...

  5. Needles in a haystack : A new approach for identifying and assessing political talk in nonpolitical discussion forums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Todd


    Talking politics online is not exclusively reserved for politically-orientated discussion forums, particularly the everyday political talk crucial to the public sphere. People talk politics just about anywhere online from reality TV discussion forums to numerous other forum genres. Thus, the need to

  6. The Development of a Discussion Rubric for Online Courses: Standardizing Expectations of Graduate Students in Online Scholarly Discussions (United States)

    Wyss, Vanessa L.; Freedman, Debra; Siebert, Cathy J.


    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of a rubric for assessing discussions in online graduate level education courses. The aims of the research were twofold. The first goal was to develop a discussion rubric that provides guidance to graduate students participating in online courses that are heavily discussion based. The second goal was…

  7. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte


    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  8. Adventures in public data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharevitz Dan W


    Full Text Available Abstract This article contains the slides and transcript of a talk given by Dan Zaharevitz at the "Visions of a Semantic Molecular Future" symposium held at the University of Cambridge Department of Chemistry on 2011-01-19. A recording of the talk is available on the University Computing Service's Streaming Media Service archive at (unfortunately the first part of the recording was corrupted, so the talk appears to begin at slide 6, 'At a critical time'. We believe that Dan's message comes over extremely well in the textual transcript and that it would be poorer for serious editing. In addition we have added some explanations and references of some of the concepts in the slides and text. (Charlotte Bolton; Peter Murray-Rust, University of Cambridge Editorial preface The following paper is part of a series of publications which arose from a Symposium held at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge to celebrate the lifetime achievements of Peter Murray-Rust. One of the motives of Peter's work was and is a better transport and preservation of data and information in scientific publications. In both respects the following publication is relevant: it is about public data and their representation, and the publication represents a non-standard experiment of transporting the content of the scientific presentation. As you will see, it consists of the original slides used by Dan Zaharevitz in his talk "Adventures in Public Data" at the Unilever Centre together with a diligent transcript of his speech. The transcribers have gone through great effort to preserve the original spirit of the talk by preserving colloquial language as it is used at such occasions. For reasons known to us, the original speaker was unable to submit the manuscript in a more conventional form. We, the Editors, have discussed in depth whether such a format is suitable for a scientific journal. We have eventually

  9. Cues Matter: Learning Assistants Influence Introductory Biology Student Interactions during Clicker-Question Discussions. (United States)

    Knight, Jennifer K; Wise, Sarah B; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M


    The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA-student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. © 2015 J. K Knight et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  10. The group discussion effect: integrative processes and suggestions for implementation. (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J


    One of the most consistent findings in experimental social dilemmas research is the positive effect group discussion has on cooperative behavior. At a time when cooperation and consensus is critical to tackle global problems, ranging from debt to deforestation, understanding the dynamics of group discussion is a pressing need. Unfortunately, research investigating the underlying processes and implementation of the effect has been inconclusive. The authors present a critical review of existing explanations and integrate these perspectives into a single process model of group discussion, providing a more complete theoretical picture of how interrelated factors combine to facilitate discussion-induced cooperation. On the basis of this theoretical analysis, they consider complimentary approaches to the indirect and feasible implementation of group discussion. They argue that such strategies may overcome the barriers to direct discussion observed across a range of groups and organizations.

  11. The APGAR rubric for scoring online discussion boards. (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Schorn, Mavis N; Moore-Davis, Tonia


    The World Health Organization has called for a dramatic increase in the number of midwives and supports the use of innovative programs to assist students in achieving midwifery competencies. Online discussion boards are excellent educational tools for stimulating in-depth student engagement. However, complex discussions can be difficult to grade without a well-constructed rubric. The 'discussion-board APGAR' provides clear scoring criteria for discussions of midwifery care. The discussion-board APGAR has 5 components: Application, Professionalism, Group work, Analysis, and Rationale and provides scoring criteria for unacceptable, marginal, and proficient performance. The discussion-board APGAR is based on the Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice in the United States (US), consistent with the International Confederation of Midwives Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice, and can be adjusted to be congruent with other midwifery standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ontology-based topic clustering for online discussion data (United States)

    Wang, Yongheng; Cao, Kening; Zhang, Xiaoming


    With the rapid development of online communities, mining and extracting quality knowledge from online discussions becomes very important for the industrial and marketing sector, as well as for e-commerce applications and government. Most of the existing techniques model a discussion as a social network of users represented by a user-based graph without considering the content of the discussion. In this paper we propose a new multilayered mode to analysis online discussions. The user-based and message-based representation is combined in this model. A novel frequent concept sets based clustering method is used to cluster the original online discussion network into topic space. Domain ontology is used to improve the clustering accuracy. Parallel methods are also used to make the algorithms scalable to very large data sets. Our experimental study shows that the model and algorithms are effective when analyzing large scale online discussion data.

  13. Peer discussions in lecture-based tutorials in introductory physics (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.


    This study analyzes the types of peer discussion that occur during lecture-based tutorial sessions. It focuses in particular on whether discussions of this kind have certain characteristics that might indicate success in the post-testing phase. The data were collected during an introductory physics course. The main data set was gathered with the aid of audio recordings. Data-driven content analysis was applied in the analysis to facilitate the placement of students' discussions in particular categories related to different types of discussions. Four major discussion types were found: discussions related to the content knowledge, metalevel discussions including metaconceptual and metacognitive elements, discussions related to practical issues, and creating a base for discussion, seen here in the order of their prevalence. These categories were found to possess individual substructures that involved, for example, asking and answering questions, participating in a dialogue, or disagreeing with a peer. Analyzing the substructures of the categories revealed that there were evident differences between the groups, some of them related to the group size. With regard to the characteristics of discussions considered to be connected to a better learning outcome, it was observed that a great number of lines uttered related to the physics content or metalevel discussions seemed to have a direct bearing on success in the post test at the group level. For individual students, answering content-related questions posed by their peers might also indicate success in the post test. We would encourage researchers to continue this type of research in order to discover the essential characteristics of students' discussions that facilitate learning.

  14. Oral traditions in Malaysia A discussion of shamanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haron Daud


    Full Text Available The article discusses Malay oral traditions and emphasizes the shamanistic aspects of these traditions. Shamans often recite mantras in the execution of their role in society. The role of the shaman, their self proclaimed knowledge, shamans and their economic activities, black magic and healthcare in Malay society are discussed, as well as the shaman’s role in Dayak ritual. Each aspect is discussed in combination with the mantra the shaman utters.

  15. A survey on virtual environment applications to fear of public speaking. (United States)

    Vanni, F; Conversano, C; Del Debbio, A; Landi, P; Carlini, M; Fanciullacci, C; Bergamasco, M; Di Fiorino, A; Dell'Osso, L


    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in Europe and comprises the fear of public speaking as its typical sub-type. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the intervention of choice for SAD, and it includes exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli to induce systematic desensitization and reduce anxiety. Similarly, exposure therapy per se has been used and found effective, although it is not as specific as CBT for the treatment of SAD. Interestingly, exposure to anxiety-provoking situations can be achieved in Virtual Environments (VEs) through the simulation of social situations allowing individuals with public speaking anxiety to live and develop real exposure-like reactions. The Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is the treatment of anxiety disorders based on such VEs. This article aims to provide an overview of the scientific literature related to the applications of Virtual Reality to the treatment of fear of public speaking. We conducted the literature review on PubMed and Google Scholar for studies including the fear-of-public-speaking VEs. Reviewed studies addressed two main aspects: the design parameters of the VEs for adequate reactions to synthetic social stimuli, and the efficacy of VEs for fear of public speaking treatment. VEs resulted effective for triggering as-if-real reactions in relation to public speaking. VE-based exposures reduced public speaking anxiety measurements, decreased scores and maintained them at 3 month follow-up. Studies comparing VRET to pharmacological therapy are lacking, and there are few randomized controlled trials that compare VRET to CBT, especially on fear of public speaking treatment.

  16. Facilitating hospice discussions: a six-step roadmap. (United States)

    Shin, Jennifer; Casarett, David


    Hospice programs provide comprehensive, compassionate care to dying patients and their families. However, many patients do not enroll in hospice, and those who do generally receive hospice care only in the last weeks of life. Although patients and families rely on their physicians to discuss hospice, there is often inadequate communication between patients and physicians about end-of-life issues. We describe a Six-Step Roadmap for navigating discussions about hospice adapted from the SPIKES protocol for delivering bad news: setting up the discussion, assessing the patient's perception, inviting a patient to discuss individual goals and needs, sharing knowledge, empathizing with the patient's emotions, and summarizing and strategizing the next steps.

  17. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.


    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  18. Analyzing Social Media Relationships in Context with Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Choudhury, Munmun De; Counts, Scott


    We present discussion graphs, a hyper-graph-based representation of social media discussions that captures both the structural features of the relationships among entities as well as the context of the discussions from which they were derived. Building on previous analyses of social media network...... and pseudo-cliques, when applied to the analysis of textual social media content. We apply our framework across several domains captured in Twitter, including the mining of peoples' statements about their locations and activities and discussions of the U.S. 2012 elections....

  19. How Do Personality, Synchronous Media, and Discussion Topic Affect Participation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ina Blau; Azy Barak


    ... personality, media characteristics, and discussion topic sensitivity. The relation between anticipated and actual participation was investigated, as well as the interpersonal and gender equalization effects of online communication...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hanim Rahmat


    Full Text Available This quantitative study looked into class discussion strategies used by adult ESL learners. Findings revealed several benefits of class discussions for adult learners. Among some of them are, adult learners practice turn-taking skills in a non-combative environment. The sharing of ideas allowed freedom of thoughts among the learners. On the other hand, adult learners also learn to agree or disagree politely using turn-taking strategies. Finally, the benefits of class discussions may go beyond classroom needs such as improving critical thinking skills among learners. This ability is seen when learners participate in group work and discussions. Learners gain accessibility to participate comfortably in discussions when they are pun in a non-combative environment. This will thus give them the freedom to discuss any topics openly. This freedom will further enhance their general participation in the discussion. However, in a normal conversational process, speakers need to learn to speak up and also to give others space to voice their opinions. Learners need the knowledge of turn-taking skills in order to participate actively in the discussion. This turn-taking skills can be taught in ESL classrooms through class discussions.