WorldWideScience

Sample records for provoked considerable interest

  1. Perspective: Conflict of interest and professional organizations: considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Parke, David W

    2010-01-01

    There are differences in conflicts of interest (COIs) in professional organizations compared with academic medical centers. The authors discuss nine major questions pertaining to industry relationships of professional organizations: (1) What makes COI management different in professional membership organizations? (2) What COI challenges are specific to professional organizations? (3) What are potential impacts of perceived or real COIs involving professional organizations and the management of COIs? (4) Is regulation necessary, or should professional organizations proactively resolve COI issues independently? (5) Are guidelines portable from academic medical centers to professional organizations? (6) What approaches may be considered for managing COIs of the organization's leaders? (7) What approaches are reasonable for managing COI issues at professional meetings? (8) What approaches are important for integrity of educational programs, publications, and products? and (9) What approaches are reasonable for managing and enforcing COI guidelines on an ongoing basis? Responses to these questions focus on four principles: First, a code of ethics governing general behavior of members and safeguarding the interest of patients must be in place; second, the monitoring and management of COI for leadership, including, in some cases, recusal from certain activities; third, the pooling and consistent, transparent management of unrestricted grants from corporate sponsors; and, fourth, the management of industry marketing efforts at membership meetings to ensure their appropriateness. The perspectives offered are intended to encourage individuals and learned bodies to further study and provide commentary and recommendations on managing COIs of a professional organization.

  2. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Henzell,Helen; Berzins,Karen; Langford,Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Helen Henzell,1,2 Karen Berzins,1,3 Jennifer P Langford4 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Carlton, 2Action Centre, Family Planning Victoria, Melbourne, 3Dermatology/Vulval Conditions Clinic, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, 4Clifton Hill Physiotherapy, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifia...

  3. Management of provoked seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure. This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED, that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST, AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.

  4. Management of provoked seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee

    2011-01-01

    A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis) or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure). This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED), that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT) may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.

  5. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzell, Helen; Berzins, Karen; Langford, Jennifer P

    2017-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold: firstly, to summarize current literature concerning PVD pathophysiology and management; secondly, to provide a framework for clinicians unfamiliar with vulvar medicine to understand and manage PVD.

  6. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzell H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helen Henzell,1,2 Karen Berzins,1,3 Jennifer P Langford4 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Carlton, 2Action Centre, Family Planning Victoria, Melbourne, 3Dermatology/Vulval Conditions Clinic, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, 4Clifton Hill Physiotherapy, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold

  7. Provoked vestibulodynia: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzell, Helen; Berzins, Karen; Langford, Jennifer P

    2017-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold: firstly, to summarize current literature concerning PVD pathophysiology and management; secondly, to provide a framework for clinicians unfamiliar with vulvar medicine to understand and manage PVD. PMID:28979166

  8. Animal Testing in the Risk Society and Violation of the Principle of Equal Consideration of Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Speck de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the practice of animal testing under the paradigm of the Risk Society, Animal Rights, and in which point such research hurts the principle of equal consideration of like interests advocated by Peter Singer and other moral philosophers. On the one hand, this paper calls into question the attempt to transfer the results of an experiment with animals to reactions in humans, and the security criteria (or insecurity adopted by science. On the other hand, an evaluation is made of how much these animal models are considered speciesist practice, which does not take into account the interests of non-human sentient species (which are capable of suffering. The historical, comparative and deductive methods have been used in order to reach the intended goals. The sources of research used are mostly bibliographical: books, papers and journals. Theoretical references adopted were the risk society theory proposed by German sociologist Ulrich Beck and the animal ethics theory advocated by the Australian philosopher Peter Singer.

  9. Structural and Dynamic Aspects of Interest Development: Theoretical Considerations from an Ontogenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Presents a collection of theoretical concepts and models that can be used to describe and explore structural and dynamic aspects of interest development from an ontogenic research perspective. Outlines basic ideas of an educational-psychological conceptualization of interest that is based on a dynamic theory of personality. (SLD)

  10. The Effects of Rising Interest Rates on Electric Utility Stock Prices: Regulatory Considerations and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This technical brief identifies conditions under which utility regulators should consider implementing policy approaches that seek to mitigate negative outcomes due to an increase in interest rates. Interest rates are a key factor in determining a utility’s cost of equity and investors find value when returns exceed the cost of equity. Through historical observations of periods of rising and falling interest rates and application of a pro forma financial tool, we identify the key drivers of utility stock valuations and estimate the degree to which those valuations might be affected by increasing interest rates.3 We also analyze the efficacy of responses by utility regulators to mitigate potential negative financial impacts. We find that regulators have several possible approaches to mitigate a decline in value in an environment of increasing interest rates, though regulators must weigh the tradeoffs of improving investor value with potential increases in customer costs. Furthermore, the range of approaches reflects today’s many different electric utility regulatory models and regulatory responses to a decline in investor value will fit within state-specific models.

  11. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs. PMID:24382859

  12. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2013-12-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs.

  13. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela S; Martins, Ana Paula B; Silva, Hugo F R; Passanha, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara H

    2015-10-01

    Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other) often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda) in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  14. Relocation of children after divorce and children's best interests: new evidence and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Ellman, Ira M; Fabricius, William V

    2003-06-01

    Relocation cases, in which a divorced parent seeks to move away with the child, are among the knottiest problems facing family courts. The recent trend is to permit such moves, largely because of Wallerstein's (1995) controversial amica curiae brief, which a recent court (Baures v. Lewis, 2001) interpreted as supporting the conclusion that "in general, what is good for the custodial parent is good for the child" (p. 222). The current study provides the first direct evidence on relocation by dividing college students into groups on the basis of their divorced parents' move-away status. On most child outcomes, the ones whose parents moved are significantly disadvantaged. This suggests courts should give greater weight to the child's separate interests in deciding such cases.

  15. Public-Interest and Level-of-Evidence Considerations in Cold Fusion Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshaw, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Cold fusion (CF) protagonists and antagonists would no doubt agree that scientific processes have been challenged in the CF case. The public interest in CF turns on two questions: What are the potential benefits? What is the probability that CF is ``real''? Potential benefits have been agreed on since CF announcement in 1989. The probability of CF reality may be assessed based on level of evidence (LoE): preponderance of evidence (PoE); clear and convincing evidence (CCE); and beyond a reasonable doubt (BRD). PoE, from civil law, indicates a probability of 50% or higher. BRD, from criminal law, has a probability approaching 90%. CCE, in between, thus has a 70-75% probability. CF experimental evidence, based on: 1) initial affirmations, 2) the large number of corroborations since marginalization, and 3) particularly demonstrative experiments, reasonably indicates at least a PoE level of evidence for excess heat. A case can also be made for a CCE (but probably not for a BRD) LoE. In either the PoE or CCE scenario a clear need is demonstrated for change in policy toward CR, given its potential benefits to humanity.

  16. We want to be provoked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen

    2001-01-01

    are often considered negative. But new views or knowledge are often provocative. To my opinion this is a good and needed provocation. For-given-taken professional values need to be questioned: as well as the usual roles of residents and professionals in the ongoing regeneration projects. My contribution......The title is a quotation from one of the meetings between residents and professionals during the Holmbladsgade regeneration process. During a discussion of future projects somebody asked what the residents expected from the professionals. We want to be provoked a resident answered. Provocations...

  17. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.

  18. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis provoked by furosemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andżelika Schwann-Majewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of generalized pustules, accompanied by elevated body temperature and neutrophilia. Objective. Presentation of a patient with AGEP provoked by furosemide. Case report. We present a case of a 65-year-old patient diagnosed with and treated for generalized pustular eruption, with fever and changes in laboratory tests. Numerous coexisting medical conditions and a great number of frequently changed drugs (ciprofloxacin, allopurinol, folic acid, calcium carbonate, cyclophosphamide, atorvastatin, betaxolol and furosemide hindered identification of the causative factor. Conclusions. On the basis of the medical history and clinical picture, the patient was diagnosed with generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by furosemide.

  19. Hyperventilation provokes symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, U; Afzal, S; Syed, Shakir

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation causes respiratory alkalosis. The nervous system is more excitable in alkalosis. This phenomenon can be observed as paraesthesia in fingers and toes as well as around the lips in anxious patients breathing rapidly. We wanted to test this phenomenon on already irritable nerves like the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We deployed 50 patients who came in to the day case unit for carpal tunnel decompression with electro-physiologically proven diagnosis. We devised a test whereby patients were made to hyperventilate under prescribed conditions and repeated Phalen's test and Tinel's sign for comparison. These were compared with a control group chosen randomly among hospital staff. 86% patients had a positive result which was just behind Phalen's test in sensitivity. It was also 100% specific as there were no false positives. Hyperventilation is a phenomenon which provokes carpal tunnel syndrome. Its clinical value remains to be seen due to cumbersome method and probable patient non-compliance but it is a new discovery. It may be useful in other irritable-nerve-syndromes as a test to add to our available armament. It may be an additional factor or a primary reason for nocturnal paraesthesias in CTS patients.

  20. Alteration in the gut microbiota provokes susceptibility to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mtb in the lungs, liver and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota. Interestingly, dysbiosis of microbes showed significant increase in the bacterial burden in lungs and dissemination of Mtb to spleen and liver. Further, elevation in the number of Tregs and decline in the pool of IFN-γ and TNF-α releasing CD4 T cells was noticed. Interestingly, fecal transplantation in the gut microbiota disrupted animals exhibited improved Th1 immunity and lesser Tregs population. Importantly, these animals displayed reduced severity to Mtb infection. This study for the first time demonstrated the novel role of gut microbes in the susceptibility to TB and its prevention by microbial implants. In future, microbial therapies may help in treating patients suffering from TB.

  1. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  2. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2. This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. The 3rd course of immunochemotherapy was complicated with a thyroid storm manifested by high fever, tachycardia and even transient cardiac arrest. Fortunately, he recovered eventually from this crisis by immediate resuscitation followed by antithyroid dugs. Our case highlights the rare complication of a thyroid storm provoked by IL-2 treatment. Precaution against autoimmune thyroid dysfunction is required during treatment with IL-2 and probably also other kinds of newly-developed immunotherapy to avoid life-threatening complications.

  3. Attitudes, Interests, and Perceived Self-efficacy toward Science of Middle School Minority Female Students: Considerations for their Low Achievement and Participation in STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Ana Lucrecia

    The under participation of minority females in STEM fields has been a chronic problem in the United States, mainly when it is analyzed through the lens of their relative representation in the population. The results of the first or quantitative phase, of this two phase sequential, mixed method study, revealed academic achievement or performance in science accounted for most of the variance of mean scores for students' attitudes and interests in science as measured by the TOSRA Likert-scale survey, when compared to the degree of parent education and ethnicity/ racial background. Additionally, this study investigated possible sources of perceived self-efficacy in eighteen seventh grade Hispanic female students by conducting personal semi-structured interviews. The purpose of this study was to explore if middle school female student ethnic/racial backgrounds and academic performance influence their attitudes and interests toward science and to study the possible effects external (family, school, peers, and community) and internal factors may have for Hispanic student self-efficacy toward science. The results revealed that of the five ethnic/racial groups studied, Asian/Filipino female students expressed higher positive attitudes and interests toward science, than the rest of the student ethnic groups studied, followed by the Hispanic student group. The results indicated that students' perceived encouragement from their mothers, regardless of the mother's degree of education, as being the main source of these girls' perceived self-efficacy in science. However, the lack of perceived school-related, peer-related, and community-related support was evident. These results are encouraging because they demonstrate how verbal persuasion, in the form of encouragement and support, fosters perceived self-efficacy for minority female students.

  4. Do stages of dentistry training affect anxiety provoking situations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post‑hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students' pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping ...

  5. Foods provoking and alleviating symptoms in gastroparesis: patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytiaz, Victoria; Homko, Carol; Duffy, Frank; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional counseling for gastroparesis focuses on reduction of meal size, fiber, and fat to control symptoms. The tolerance of gastroparesis patients for particular foods is largely anecdotal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize foods provoking or alleviating gastroparesis symptoms. Gastroparesis patients completed: (1) Demographic Questionnaire; (2) Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms; (3) Food Toleration and Aversion survey asking patients about experiences when eating certain foods utilizing a scale from -3 (greatly worsening symptoms) to +3 (greatly improving symptoms). Descriptive qualities (acidic, fatty, spicy, roughage-based, bitter, salty, bland, and sweet) were assigned to foods. Forty-five gastroparesis patients participated (39 idiopathic gastroparesis). Foods worsening symptoms included: orange juice, fried chicken, cabbage, oranges, sausage, pizza, peppers, onions, tomato juice, lettuce, coffee, salsa, broccoli, bacon, and roast beef. Saltine crackers, jello, and graham crackers moderately improved symptoms. Twelve additional foods were tolerated by patients (not provoking symptoms): ginger ale, gluten-free foods, tea, sweet potatoes, pretzels, white fish, clear soup, salmon, potatoes, white rice, popsicles, and applesauce. Foods provoking symptoms were generally fatty, acidic, spicy, and roughage-based. The foods shown to be tolerable were generally bland, sweet, salty, and starchy. This study identified specific foods that worsen as well as foods that may help alleviate symptoms of gastroparesis. Foods that provoked symptoms differed in quality from foods that alleviated symptoms or were tolerable. The results of this study illustrate specific examples of foods that aggravate or improve symptoms and provide suggestions for a gastroparesis diet.

  6. Are seizures in the setting of sleep deprivation provoked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John

    2014-04-01

    It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank psleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenomenon of isomorphic provoking responses in cases of limited scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talnikova Е.Е.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the historical origin of the term "Koebner phenomenon". The literature data reflect the etiology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of isomorphic mechanisms provoking responses in lichen planus, psoriasis, scleroder-ma, syphilis. Variants of the Koebner phenomenon's classifications are given. The clinical cases of limited scleroderma after mechanical injury are described.

  8. Health Equity Considerations for Developing and Reporting Patient-reported Outcomes in Clinical Trials: A Report from the OMERACT Equity Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Barton, Jennifer L; Flurey, Caroline; Goel, Niti; Bartels, Christie M; Barnabe, Cheryl; de Wit, Maarten P T; Lyddiatt, Anne; Lacaille, Diane; Welch, Vivian; Boonen, Annelies; Shea, Beverley; Christensen, Robin; Maxwell, Lara J; Campbell, Willemina; Jull, Janet; Toupin-April, Karine; Singh, Jasvinder A; Goldsmith, Charles H; Sreih, Antoine G; Pohl, Christoph; Hofstetter, Catherine; Beaton, Dorcas E; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Guillemin, Francis; Tugwell, Peter S

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances integrating patient-centered outcomes into rheumatologic studies, concerns remain regarding their representativeness across diverse patient groups and how this affects equity. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Equity Working Group aims to determine whether and how to address equity issues within the core outcome sets of domains and instruments. We surveyed current and previous OMERACT meeting attendees and members of the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Group regarding whether to address equity issues within the OMERACT Filter 2.0 Core Outcome Sets and how to assess the appropriateness of domains, instruments, and measurement properties among diverse patients. At OMERACT 2016, results of the survey and a narrative review of differential psychosocial effects of rheumatoid arthritis (i.e., on men) were presented to stimulate discussion and develop a research agenda. We proposed 6 moments for which an equity lens could be added to the development, selection, or testing of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM): (1) recruitment, (2) domain selection, (3) feasibility in diverse settings, (4) instrument validity, (5) thresholds of meaning, and (6) consideration of statistical power of subgroup analyses for outcome reporting. There is a need to (1) conduct a systematic review to assess how equity and population characteristics have been considered in PROM development and whether these differences influence the ranking of importance of outcome domains or a patient's response to questionnaire items, and (2) conduct the same survey described above with patients representing groups experiencing health inequities.

  9. Research needs and priorities for transition and employment in autism: Considerations reflected in a "Special Interest Group" at the International Meeting for Autism Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Hodgetts, Sandra; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Leann E; Shattuck, Paul; Parr, Jeremy R; Conlon, Olivia; Germani, Tamara; Mitchell, Wendy; Sacrey, Lori; Stothers, Margot E

    2017-01-01

    Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidenceinformed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD. The SIG consisted of 120 international delegates, including self-advocates, family members, researchers, program and policy developers, practitioners, and interdisciplinary ASD trainees. Following a summary of the literature, subgroups of attendees were convened in smaller groups to identify research needs and priorities. International researchers facilitated these discussions with notes taken in each subgroup. Using a qualitative analytic approach, key themes across groups were identified. These key themes, outlined in this paper, address the identified need to (a) advance research capacity; (b) build employer capacity relative to employing persons with ASD; and (c) enhance support resources for adults with ASD and their families. Heightened research activity guiding practice and policy, community/employer engagement, and person and family-centered services were recommended. Implications for advancement and implementation are offered. Autism Res 2017, 10: 15-24. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Do stages of dentistry training affect anxiety provoking situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obarisiagbon, A; Azodo, Cc; Omoaregba, Jo; James, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Undetected and unaddressed anxiety negatively affects performance in clinical learning environments. The aim was to investigate the anxiety provoking situations in clinical dental care delivery among students of preclinical and clinical years and house officers. A 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Zung self-rating anxiety scale were the data collection tools. Of the 84 recruited, 79 completed the study giving 94.0% (79/84) response rate. The median age of the participants was 25 years with 50.6% (40/79) being 20-25 years. Gender distribution revealed that males constituted 60.8% (48/79) of the participants. House officers constituted 29.1% (23/79), clinical students 36.7% (29/79), and preclinical students 34.2 (27/79) of the participants. The top anxiety provoking situations using the modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire were extracting wrong tooth 3.24 (1.06), inability to pass examination 3.32 (1.01), achieving examination requirement 3.19 (1.01), fracturing a tooth 3.08 (0.98) and accidental pulp exposure 2.96 (1.04). Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post-hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students' pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children while house officers/clinical students and house officers/preclinical students' pairs were for help in faint episode. Overall, 2.5% (2/79) had severe, 69.6% (55/79) moderate, 26.6% (21/79) mild clinical anxiety while 1 (1.3%) of the participants expressed no clinical anxiety. Data from this study revealed that the clinical anxiety of moderate severity was prevalent among the studied dental healthcare students. The anxiety-provoking

  11. Children's self-speech and self-regulation during a fear-provoking behavioral test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Conducted a behavioral test and a behavioral interview to assess children's spontaneous use of self-speech and self-regulation in a fear-provoking situation. 44 children (aged 8-12 yrs) performed a series of more fear-provoking (e.g., jumping off the high diving board) or less fear-provoking (e.g.,

  12. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzeman K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the

  13. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav

    2013-05-01

    High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.

  14. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-07

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis.

  15. Pain Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Patients with and without Provoked Vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ghizzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD and not exhibiting (FMS comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C. All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip, pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver, and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms.

  16. Home-Schooled Students And Their Teachers: Provoking Curriculum Together Through Child-Driven Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. EFFORD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Child-centered and child-driven learning can provoke the creation of curriculum that is responsive to students’ particular learning needs, is engaging and meaningful, and promotes learner agency. Homeschool settings provide opportunities for parent/educators cognizant of child-centered and child-driven curriculum to meet students’ interests, readiness, growth, and educational drive with responses tailored for each unique situation. This learning space can allow for the relationship between the parent/educator and the student to continually revisit and revitalize learning, expanding on shared experience and potentially spanning the developmental years of the student. The lines between educator and student become blurred as the educator is directed by the unique interests and educational needs of each student. Research into the field of homeschooling curriculum can inspire discussion and innovation in more traditional educational settings. In this paper presentation, the authors will discuss the literature on child-centered and child-driven learning. Next, stories from real homeschools illustrating the co-creation of child- centered curriculum by both the educator/parent and student will be shared. Finally, the presenters will kindle a lively conversation with all participants about the role of students and teachers in curriculum creation, student-centered and student-driven learning in homeschools and in public schools, and imagining the possibilities of both contexts.

  17. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  18. Original article Coffee consumption and propensity to experience aggressive feelings in provoking and frustrating situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zajenkowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on examining whether coffee intake is related to the intensity of aggressive feelings in reaction to various provoking or frustrating situations, along with consideration of sex and culture. Previous studies focused mainly on the dose of caffeine (not the habit of coffee drinking and aggressive behavior. Many of these studies showed a positive relation between the amount of caffeine consumed and aggression, so it was expected that also habitual coffee consumption would be positively related to propensity for aggressive feelings in situ ations of provocation and frustration. Participants from Greece (n = 299 and Poland (n = 300 declared whether they were coffee drinkers (at least 1 mug of coffee per day and completed the Situational Triggers of Aggressive Responses questionnaire. The results showed that in females, coffee drinkers had higher scores in Sensitivity to Provocation (SP and Frustration (SF than nondrinkers, while no differences between drinkers and nondrinkers appeared in males. Moreover, amongst coffee drinkers, females had higher scores in SP and SF than males, while no sex differences were found in nondrinkers. Furthermore, in Poland coffee drinkers had higher SP scores than nondrinkers. Poles also had higher SP scores than Greeks, but only when coffee drinkers were compared.

  19. Recent advances in understanding provoked vestibulodynia [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahinoam Lev-Sagie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulvodynia refers to pain in the vulva of at least 3 months’ duration in the absence of a recognized underlying cause. Provoked, localized vestibulodynia is the term used to describe superficial pain confined to the vulvar vestibule, provoked by touch. This review will focus on provoked vestibulodynia with regard to its suggested causative factors and will discuss the role of inflammation, vulvovaginal infections, mucosal nerve fiber proliferation, hormonal associations, central pain mechanisms, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and genetic factors. Clinical observations, epidemiological studies, and data from basic research emphasize the heterogeneity of vulvar pain syndromes. There is a critical need to perform prospective, longitudinal studies that will allow better diagnostic criteria and subgrouping of patients that would lead to improvements in our understanding of provoked vestibulodynia and its treatment.

  20. Using Knowledge Translation to Craft "Sticky" Social Media Health Messages That Provoke Interest, Raise Awareness, Impart Knowledge, and Inspire Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Sanchia; Gardner, Karen; Sibthorpe, Beverly

    2016-10-05

    In Australia, there is growing use of technology supported knowledge translation (KT) strategies such as social media and mobile apps in health promotion and in Indigenous health. However, little is known about how individuals use technologies and the evidence base for the impact of these health interventions on health behavior change is meager. The objective of our study was to examine how Facebook is used to promote health messages to Indigenous people and discuss how KT can support planning and implementing health messages to ensure chosen strategies are fit for the purpose and achieve impact. A desktop audit of health promotion campaigns on smoking prevention and cessation for Australian Indigenous people using Facebook was conducted. Our audit identified 13 out of 21 eligible campaigns that used Facebook. Facebook pages with the highest number of likes (more than 5000) were linked to a website and to other social media applications and demonstrated stickiness characteristics by posting frequently (triggers and unexpected), recruiting sporting or public personalities to promote campaigns (social currency and public), recruiting Indigenous people from the local region (stories and emotion), and sharing stories and experiences based on real-life events (credible and practical value). KT planning may support campaigns to identify and select KT strategies that are best suited and well-aligned to the campaign's goals, messages, and target audiences. KT planning can also help mitigate unforeseen and expected risks, reduce unwarranted costs and expenses, achieve goals, and limit the peer pressure of using strategies that may not be fit for purpose. One of the main challenges in using KT systems and processes involves coming to an adequate conceptualization of the KT process itself.

  1. Mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate provoked mast cell degranulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Ramachandran, Roshni; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine patients develop attacks several hours after intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate. Due to the short half-life of nitric oxide, this delayed migraine cannot be caused by a direct action of nitric oxide derived from glyceryl trinitrate. The involvement of meningeal...... degranulation after a clinically relevant dose of glyceryl trinitrate. RESULTS: A 6-fold increase in degranulation was observed starting at 2 hours after glyceryl trinitrate infusion. Interestingly, pre-treatment with the effective anti-migraine substances L-nitro-arginine methyl ester and sumatriptan prevented...

  2. Internal derangement as a predictor of provoked pain on mouth opening: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between pain and internal derangement in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods This study analyzed 356 TMD patients (712 temporomandibular joints [TMJs]). The inclusion criteria were the presence of spontaneous or provoked pain on one or both TMJs and having undergone MRI. The patients with provoked pain were divided into 3 groups: pain on palpation, pain on mouth opening, and pain on mastication. MRI was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. T1- and T2-weighted parasagittal and paracoronal images were obtained. According to the findings on the T1-weighted images, another 3 groups were created based on internal derangement: normal, disc displacement with reduction, and disc displacement without reduction. The MRI findings were independently interpreted by 2 experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologists at 2 different times. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using SPSS (version 12.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Provoked pain on mouth opening was found to be correlated with internal derangement in TMD patients (Ppain and provoked pain on palpation or mastication were not associated with internal derangement (P>.05). Conclusion These results suggest that internal derangement was a significant predictor of provoked pain on mouth opening. PMID:29279820

  3. Provokative Elemente einer Didaktik internetgestützter Lehr-Lernarrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Müskens

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Onlinebasiertes kollaboratives Lernen erfordert eine neue Rolle der Lehrenden und damit verbunden auch neue didaktische Methoden. Ausgehend vom Begriff der Provokation wird eine solche Didaktik in Abgrenzung zur Vorstellung eines ausschliesslich selbstgesteuerten Lernens entwickelt. Provokation wird in diesem Zusammenhang als die intendierte Konfrontation eines Lernenden mit einstellungskonträrem Material verstanden. Die Grundlagen der hier vorgestellten Didaktik werden aus einer Vielzahl theoretischer Wurzeln und empirischer Forschungsergebnisse hergeleitet: Es wird auf die Beziehung zum Kompetenzbegriff, zur Systemtheorie, zur Emotionspsychologie, zur Induzierung kognitiver Konflikte, zur Dissonanztheorie und zu Kellys Theorie der persönlichen Konstrukte eingegangen. Als konkrete Methoden der provokativen Didaktik für das E-Learning werden u. a. provokative Statements, das Induzieren einstellungskonträrer Perspektiven und eine an die «Fixed-Role-Therapy» angelehnte Aufgabenstellung diskutiert. Die Methoden der provokativen Didaktik bedeuten eine hochgradige Individualisierung des Lernens und eine Intensivierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Lerner und Lehrendem.

  4. Intrusions and provoked and spontaneous confabulations on memory tests in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Yvonne C M; Oosterman, Joukje M; Walvoort, Serge J W; Eling, Paul A T M; Kessels, Roy P C

    2017-03-01

    Intrusions on verbal memory tests have been used as an index for clinical confabulation. Severe memory impairments in combination with executive dysfunction have been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of confabulation, but to date, this relation is unclear. The aim of this study was (a) to examine the relation between (different types of) intrusions and confabulations in a large sample of confabulating patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and (b) to investigate whether different measures of executive functioning and memory performance are related to provoked and spontaneous confabulation. The Dutch version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and various executive function and memory tests were administered to a group of 51 confabulating patients with KS. Professional caregivers rated the severity of provoked and spontaneous confabulation behavior of the patients using the Nijmegen-Venray Confabulation List-20 (NVCL-20). The total number of intrusions on the CVLT was not related to either provoked or spontaneous confabulation scores. None of the CVLT intrusion scores correlated significantly with any of the confabulation scores, but we did find small-to-medium, positive correlations between unrelated intrusions and both provoked confabulations and spontaneous confabulation. Provoked confabulation behavior was associated with executive dysfunction and poorer memory performances. Spontaneous confabulation was not related to performance on measures of executive function and memory. The total number of intrusions on verbal memory tests and clinical confabulations appear to be different phenomena. Only unrelated intrusions produced on the CVLT might possibly be related to confabulations. The production of provoked, but not spontaneous, confabulation is associated with executive dysfunction and memory deficits.

  5. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  6. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W

    2004-01-01

    in renal cortical membranes fractionated on sorbitol density gradients. Aortic clamp-induced acute hypotension (from 100 +/- 3 to 78 +/- 2 mmHg) provoked a 62% decrease in urine output and a significant decrease in volume flow from the proximal tubule detected as a 66% decrease in endogenous lithium......-density membranes enriched in apical markers. PTH at much lower doses (

  7. Anisocoria in the dog provoked by a toxic contact with an ornamental plant: Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Philippe; Clerc, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    We report an unusual case of anisocoria in the dog provoked by Datura stramonium, and an experimental clinical assay to reproduce the anisocoria using simple contact with part of the plant in four healthy dogs. Any part of the D. stramonium plant produced anisocoria following simple contact with the eye.

  8. MLA Report on Foreign-Language Education Continues to Provoke Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…

  9. Carnitine Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Provoke Cardiotoxicity in an Ifosfamide-Induced Fanconi Syndrome Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule. Cardiac abnormalities in IFO-treated cancer patients were reported as isolated clinical cases. This study examined whether carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress, secondary to Fanconi Syndrome, provoke IFO-induced cardiomyopathy as well as exploring if carnitine supplementation using Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC could offer protection against this toxicity. In the current study, an animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats by D-carnitine-mildronate treatment Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, D-carnitine (DC, 250 mg/kg/day combined with mildronate (MD, 200 mg/kg/day and PLC (250 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 10 successive days. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups were injected with the same doses of normal saline, DC-MD and PLC, respectively for 5 successive days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO (50 mg/kg/day. IFO significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, urinary carnitine excretion and clearance, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA-SH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in cardiac tissues and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP and total carnitine and reduced glutathione (GSH content in cardiac tissues. In carnitine

  10. What are people afraid of during dental treatment? Anxiety-provoking capacity of 67 stimuli characteristic of the dental setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, F.M.D.; de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the anxiety-provoking capacity of the various objects and situations characteristic of the dental setting. The aims of the current study were to establish a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking capacities of a large set of dental stimuli and to determine the differences in

  11. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  12. Recruitment methods in a clinical trial of provoked vulvodynia: Predictors of enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachour, Candi C; Bachmann, Gloria A; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie A; Brown, Candace S

    2017-02-01

    Successful recruitment in clinical trials for chronic pain conditions is challenging, especially in women with provoked vulvodynia due to reluctance in discussing pain associated with sexual intercourse. The most successful recruitment methods and the characteristics of women reached with these methods are unknown. To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of four recruitment methods and to determine socioeconomic predictors for successful enrollment in a National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter clinical trial evaluating a gabapentin intervention in women with provoked vulvodynia. Recruitment methods utilized mass mailing, media, clinician referrals and community outreach. Effectiveness (number of participants enrolled) and efficiency (proportion screened who enrolled) were determined. Socioeconomic variables including race, educational level, annual household income, relationship status, age, menopausal status and employment status were also evaluated regarding which recruitment strategies were best at targeting specific cohorts. Of 868 potential study participants, 219 were enrolled. The most effective recruitment method in enrolling participants was mass mailing ( p recruitment methods ( p = 0.11). Relative to clinician referral, black women were 13 times as likely to be enrolled through mass mailing (adjusted odds ratio 12.5, 95% confidence interval, 3.6-43.1) as white women. There were no differences in enrollment according to educational level, annual income, relationship status, age, menopausal status, or employment status and recruitment method. In this clinical trial, mass mailing was the most effective recruitment method. Race of participants enrolled in a provoked vulvodynia trial was related to the recruitment method.

  13. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kyler

    2016-07-01

    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A case report of successful team approach treatment of provoked vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Simetinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Vulvodynia has been defined as vulvar discomfort, most often described as burning pain, occurring in the absence of relevant findings or a specific, clinically identifiable, neurologic disorder. Vulvodynia is a genital syndrome of multi-causal origin and requires a team approach. The purpose of the case report of provoked vulvodynia is to show the efficacy of individualized, multifaceted and multidisciplinary therapeutic team approach used by a gynaecologist with special knowledge of sexology and a physiotherapist specialising in treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Case report: A 35-year old patient presented with a complaint of genital itching and consequently burning pain which first occurred during sexual intercourse one year previously. Afterwards a gynaecologist with special knowledge of sexology performed a biopsychosocial assessment, broader gynaecological examination and psychoeducation. Diagnosed was provoked vulvodynia. Than she was assessed by the physiotherapist specialising in treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction and treated with TENS. To assess the effectiveness of treatment were used Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire and the visual analogue scale before and after the team approach treatment. Conclusions: In our case individualized, multifaceted and multidisciplinary therapeutic approach proved to be a good choice for treating genital syndrome of provoked vulvodynia of multi-causal origin.

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy for Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F; Thibault-Gagnon, Stephanie; McLean, Linda; Chamberlain, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Non-medical and non-surgical treatments for provoked vestibulodynia target psychological, sexual, and pelvic floor muscle factors that maintain the condition. The goal of the study was to compare the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and physical therapy (PT) on pain and psychosexual outcomes in women with provoked vestibulodynia. In a clinical trial, 20 women with provoked vestibulodynia were randomly assigned to receive CBT or comprehensive PT. Participants were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up by gynecologic examination, structured interviews, and standardized questionnaires measuring pain, psychological, and sexual variables. Outcome measurements were based on an adaptation of the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials recommendations. The primary outcome was change in intercourse pain intensity. Secondary outcomes included pain during the cotton swab test, pain with various sexual and non-sexual activities, and sexual functioning and negative pain cognitions. The two treatment groups demonstrated significant decreases in vulvar pain during sexual intercourse, with 70% and 80% of participants in the CBT and PT groups demonstrating a moderate clinically important decrease in pain (≥30%) after treatment. Participants in the two groups also had significant improvements in pain during the gynecologic examination, the percentage of painful intercourse attempts, the percentage of activities resulting in pain, and the ability to continue intercourse without stopping because of pain. Psychological outcomes, including pain catastrophizing and perceived control over pain, also showed improvement in the two groups. Significant improvements in sexual functioning were observed only in participants who completed CBT. Few between-group differences were identified other than the PT group showing earlier improvements in some outcomes. Nearly all improvements were maintained at the 6-month

  16. Do psychosexual factors play a role in the etiology of provoked vestibulodynia? A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Geneviève; Bergeron, Sophie; Landry, Tina; Jodoin, Mélanie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review was to critically examine published studies concerning the psychosexual aspects of provoked vestibulodynia. Despite the presence of several methodological limitations, some findings were consistently replicated. Overall, women with vestibulodynia demonstrate impaired sexual functioning, namely, lower levels of sexual desire, arousal, and frequency of intercourse. Childhood physical and sexual abuse represent potential risk factors for the development of this condition. Additionally, specific psychological states such as anxiety, fear of pain, hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and depression, are more frequently reported by these women. More rigorous studies are needed to establish which psychosexual variables may exacerbate and/or maintain vestibulodynia.

  17. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G

    1998-03-01

    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.

  18. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F

    1997-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  19. Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-08-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.

  20. Effects of Thought Suppression on Provoked Men's Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized a comprehensive theoretical approach to provide the first data on the impact of thought suppression on provoked men's alcohol-related aggression. A diverse community sample (58% African-American) of males between the ages of 21 and 35 (M = 25.25) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results indicated that acute alcohol intoxication significantly increased physical aggression among lower, but not higher, thought suppressing men. Results suggest that, under conditions of interpersonal provocation, alcohol intoxication produces a myopic focus on hostile thoughts and angry affect in lower, but not higher, suppression men. This pattern of results provides support for the durability of the alcohol myopia effect and highlights the need for continued examination of alcohol's role in the disruption of protective factors for men's aggression. It is important for research to continue to identify modifiable cognitive variables that influence self-regulation of behavior; however, it is imperative that researchers consider the extent to which these variables withstand alcohol's effects.

  1. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehestanie, Parweez; Dogan, Kemal; Berends, Frits; Janssen, Ignace; Wahab, Peter; Groenen, Marcel; Müller, Michael; de Wit, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this observational study, we evaluated improvement of glycemic control and weight loss in the course of the treatment (0 - 24 weeks after DJBL implantation) and analyzed accompanying gut hormone responses. 12 obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were selected for DJBL implantation. Body weight, fat mass, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), were analyzed at 0, 1, 4 and 24 weeks post-implant. Fasting ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) were determined at 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-implant. Besides significant weight loss, fat mass, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also significantly decreased after DJBL implantation and a 42 % reduction was found in diabetes medication (P response in the first 4 weeks post-implant was significantly correlated with the fasting insulin and HOMA-IR response. Fasting ghrelin was found to be significantly elevated, in contrast to the decrease in ghrelin that is found after RYGB surgery. DJBL implantation provoked significant weight loss, a decrease in fat mass, and an early remission of type 2 diabetes, comparable to results seen after RYGB surgery. Gut hormone analyses revealed a potential role of fasting GLP-1 in early remission of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, the DJBL-induced elevation of ghrelin contradicts the suggested role of reduced ghrelin levels after RYGB in improvement of glycemic control.

  2. Experimental activation of the sphenopalatine ganglion provokes cluster-like attacks in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Barløse, Mads; Guo, Song

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundHigh frequency (HF) stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is an emerging abortive treatment for cluster headache (CH) attacks. HF SPG stimulation is thought to exert its effect by physiologically blocking parasympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that low frequency (LF) SPG...... stimulation may activate the SPG, causing increased parasympathetic outflow and thereby provoking cluster attacks in CH patients.MethodsIn a double-blind randomized cross-over study, seven CH patients implanted with an SPG neurostimulator were randomly allocated to receive HF or LF stimulation for 3 min on 2...... separate days. We recorded headache characteristics and autonomic symptoms during and after stimulation.ResultsSix patients completed the study. Three out of six patients (50%) reported ipsilateral cluster-like attacks during or within 30 min of LF SPG stimulation. These cluster-like attacks were all...

  3. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Carroll, Marie-Soleil; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle physical therapy is recommended in clinical guidelines for women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Including isolated or combined treatment modalities, physical therapy is viewed as an effective first-line intervention, yet no systematic review concerning the effectiveness of physical therapy has been conducted. To systematically appraise the current literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function in women with PVD. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, CINHAL, and PEDro was conducted until October 2016. Moreover, a manual search from reference lists of included articles was performed. Ongoing trials also were reviewed using clinicaltrial.gov and ISRCTNregistry. Randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohorts, and case reports evaluating the effect of isolated or combined physical therapy modalities in women with PVD were included in the review. Main outcome measures were pain during intercourse, sexual function, and patient's perceived improvement. The literature search resulted in 43 eligible studies including 7 randomized controlled trials, 20 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 6 case reports, and 6 study protocols. Most studies had a high risk of bias mainly associated with the lack of a comparison group. Another common bias was related to insufficient sample size, non-validated outcomes, non-standardized intervention, and use of other ongoing treatment. The vast majority of studies showed that physical therapy modalities such as biofeedback, dilators, electrical stimulation, education, multimodal physical therapy, and multidisciplinary approaches were effective for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function. The positive findings for the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities in women with PVD should be investigated further in robust and well-designed randomized controlled trials

  4. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Megan K.; Floerke, Victoria A.; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D.; Jung, Malte F.; Urry, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60) to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work

  5. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: the application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Introduction.  Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) report lower sexual arousal than nonaffected women, however, laboratory studies of arousal have reported contradictory results about whether group differences exist in genital and subjective arousal. Aim.  To examine genital and subjective sexual arousal in women with and without PVD. Methods.  Eligible women with and without PVD (N = 42) attended a laboratory session that included an interview, questionnaire completion, and genital imaging. A direct measure of superficial blood flow-laser Doppler imaging-was used to assess vulvar blood flow levels while participants watched three films, including an erotic film. Participants answered questions about their level of sexual arousal before, during, and after the erotic film. Main Outcome Measures.  Average vulvar blood flow levels during the baseline and erotic films, numerical ratings of subjective sexual arousal and anxiety, as well as questionnaire measures of arousal. Results.  There was a significant group difference in genital arousal, whereby the PVD group showed a lower genital response to the erotic film, as well as a significant interaction between baseline blood flow and group membership. Separate group regression analyses demonstrated that baseline blood flow explained a substantial amount of the variance in erotic film blood flow in the control group (70%), while only 27% was explained by this variable in the PVD group. There were no differences in subjective sexual arousal or anxiety between the groups. Across questionnaire measures, women with PVD reported lower sexual arousal than the control group. Conclusions.  The results suggest that women with PVD show lower genital responsiveness than nonaffected women to sexual stimuli in a laboratory setting and that their genital arousal is likely impacted by a number of biopsychosocial factors. Boyer SC, Pukall CF, and Chamberlain SM. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia

  6. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Megan K; Floerke, Victoria A; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D; Jung, Malte F; Urry, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task ( N agents = 60) to conduct an experimental test ( N participants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding-suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work furthers

  7. The abdominal compartment syndrome as a second insult during systemic neutrophil priming provokes multiple organ injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao B; Moore, Ernest E; Masuno, Tomohiko; Moore, Peter K; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Sheppard, Forest R; Cunha-Melo, Jose R; Silliman, Christopher C

    2003-10-01

    In our recent clinical study of damage control laparotomy, the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) emerged as an independent risk factor for postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF). We and others have shown previously that the ACS promotes the systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our study objective was to develop a clinically relevant two-event animal model of postinjury MOF using the ACS as a second insult during systemic neutrophil priming to provoke organ dysfunction. Male adult rats underwent hemorrhagic shock (30 mmHg x 45 min) and were resuscitated with crystalloids and shed blood. The timing of postshock systemic neutrophil (PMN) priming was determined by the surface expression of CD11b via flow cytometry. Finding maximal PMN priming at 8 h, but no priming at 2 h (early) and 18 h (late), the ACS (25 mmHg x 60 min) was introduced at these time points. At 24 h postshock, lung injury was assessed by lung elastase concentration and Evans blue dye extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage. Liver and renal injuries were determined by serum alanine aminotransferase, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. The ACS during the time of maximal systemic PMN priming (8 h) provoked lung and liver injury, but did not if introduced at 2 or 18 h postshock when there was no evidence of systemic PMN priming. The 24-h mortality of this two-event model was 33%. These findings corroborate the potential for the ACS to promote multiple organ injury when occurring at the time of systemic PMN priming. This clinically relevant two-event animal model of PMN organ injury may be useful in elucidating therapy strategies to prevent postinjury MOF.

  8. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Strait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60 to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72 of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous and agent identity (robot, person, and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1 Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2 Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3 Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics

  9. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  10. Referred Pain Patterns Provoked on Intra-Pelvic Structures among Women with and without Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. Materials and Methods In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Results Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, ppain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis. PMID:25793999

  11. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Torstensson

    Full Text Available To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment.In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas.Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7 in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1 in women without CPP, p< 0.0001.Referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis.

  12. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstensson, Thomas; Butler, Stephen; Lindgren, Anne; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha; Kristiansson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, ppain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis.

  13. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  14. Heightened Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone and Altered Contractility in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Khalifé, Samir; Ouellet, Stéphane; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions are reported to be involved in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Although heightened PFM tone has been suggested, the relative contribution of active and passive components of tone remains misunderstood. Likewise, alterations in PFM contractility have been scarcely studied. To compare PFM tone, including the relative contribution of its active and passive components, and muscular contractility in women with PVD and asymptomatic controls. Fifty-six asymptomatic women and 56 women with PVD participated in the study. The PVD diagnosis was confirmed by a gynecologist based on a standardized examination. PFM function was evaluated using a dynamometric speculum combined with surface electromyography (EMG). PFM general tone was evaluated in static conditions at different vaginal apertures and during repeated dynamic cyclic stretching. The active contribution of tone was characterized using the ratio between EMG in a static position and during stretching and the proportion of women presenting PFM activation during stretching. Contribution of the passive component was evaluated using resting forces, stiffness, and hysteresis in women sustaining a negligible EMG signal during stretching. PFM contractility, such as strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance, also was assessed during voluntary isometric efforts. Greater PFM resting forces and stiffness were found in women with PVD compared with controls, indicating an increased general tone. An increased active component also was found in women with PVD because they presented a superior EMG ratio, and a larger proportion of them presented PFM activation during stretching. Higher passive properties also were found in women with PVD. Women with PVD also showed decreased strength, speed of contraction, coordination, and endurance compared with controls. Findings provide further evidence of the contribution of PFM alterations in the etiology of PVD. These alterations should be

  15. Recovery following Thyroxine Treatment Withdrawal, but Not Propylthiouracil, Averts In Vivo and Ex Vivo Thyroxine-Provoked Cardiac Complications in Adult FVB/N Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent cardiovascular pathology has been described in hyperthyroid patients even with effective antithyroid treatment. Here, we studied the effect of a well-known antithyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU; 20 mg/kg/day, on thyroxine (T4; 500 µg/kg/day-induced increase in blood pressure (BP, cardiac hypertrophy, and altered responses of the contractile myocardium both in vivo and ex vivo after 2 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, the potential recovery through 2 weeks of T4 treatment discontinuation was also investigated. PTU and T4 recovery partially reduced the T4-prompted increase in BP. Alternatively, PTU significantly improved the in vivo left ventricular (LV function with no considerable effects on cardiac hypertrophy or ex vivo right ventricular (RV contractile alterations subsequent to T4 treatment. Conversely, T4 recovery considerably enhanced the T4-provoked cardiac changes both in vivo and ex vivo. Altogether, our data is in agreement with the proposal that hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular pathology could persevere even with antithyroid treatments, such as PTU. However, this cannot be generalized and further investigation with different antithyroid treatments should be executed. Moreover, we reveal that recovery following experimental hyperthyroidism could potentially ameliorate cardiac function and decrease the risk for additional cardiac complications, yet, this appears to be model-dependent and should be cautiously construed.

  16. In vivo PTH provokes apical NHE3 and NaPi2 redistribution and Na-K-ATPase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Norian, J M; Magyar, C E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in vivo administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) provokes diuresis/natriuresis through redistribution of proximal tubule apical sodium cotransporters (NHE3 and NaPi2) to internal stores and inhibition of basolateral Na-K-ATPase activity and...

  17. Monoassociation of SCID mice with Helicobacter muridarum, but not four other enterics, provokes IBD upon receipt of T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, HQ; Kushnir, N; Thurnheer, MC; Bos, NA; Cebra, JJ

    Background & Aims: Recently, a number of animal models for different aspects of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been developed. The aim of this study was to use one of these to determine whether particular, ostensibly innocuous, intestinal bacteria could provoke or exacerbate IBD. Methods:

  18. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with provoked vestibulodynia and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Ingrid; Bø, Kari

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and surface EMG activity in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). This was an assessor-masked comparison study including 70 women. Exclusion criteria were any previous pregnancy and presence of candida. Sensitivity of the vulvar vestibule was rated at three sites with Q-tip pressure measurement and a numerical rating scale for pain. VRP and PFM strength and endurance were measured with a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. Pelvic floor muscle activity was measured with surface EMG. The independent samples t test was used to analyze differences between groups. The p value was set to VRP: 20.6 cmH2O (SD 7.1) versus controls: 17.3 cmH2O (SD 4.4), p = 0.02. The PVD group had significantly lower muscle activity during a 10-s holding period; PVD: 465.2 μV (SD 218.4), controls: 591.1 μV (SD 277.7), p = 0.04. Young, nulliparous women with PVD had significantly higher VRP, but this finding was not confirmed by vaginal surface EMG.

  19. Acute Administration of Diazepam Provokes Redox Homeostasis Imbalance in the Rat Brain: Prevention by Simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Guilherme André; Ferreira, Vinícius Vialle; Batista, Camila Ribeiro; Bonde, Henrique LuisPetrek; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Rodrigues, André Felipe; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of acute diazepam (DZP) administration on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, protein carbonyl content, and on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the brain of rats. Additionally, we investigated the antioxidant role of chronic pretreatment with simvastatin on the effects provoked by DZP. Simvastatin was administered (1 or 10 mg/kg by oral gavage) for 30 days. On the 30th day of treatment, groups were randomized and DZP was administered (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection). Control groups received saline. Results showed that DZP enhanced TBARS levels and protein carbonyl content and altered enzymatic activity in the brain of rats. Simvastatin prevented most of the alterations caused by DZP on the oxidative stress parameters. Data indicate that DZP administration causes an oxidative imbalance in the brain areas studied; however, in the presence of simvastatin, some of these alterations in oxidative stress were prevented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Provokes Neuroplasticity in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jeong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed 12 days after rmTBI. After rmTBI, the latency of MEP was prolonged and the amplitude in the right hind limb was reduced in the rmTBI group. The latency of SEP was delayed and the amplitude was decreased after rmTBI in the rmTBI group. In the tDCS group, the amplitude in both hind limbs was increased after tDCS in comparison with the values before rmTBI. Anodal tDCS after rmTBI seems to be a useful tool for promoting transient motor recovery through increasing the synchronicity of cortical firing, and it induces early recovery of consciousness. It can contribute to management of concussion in humans if further study is performed.

  1. [Risk factors for provoking collisions between cyclists and pedestrians in Spain, 1993-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo Requena, Rocío; Pulido Manzanero, José; Lardelli Claret, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    To identify and quantify the factors depending on pedestrians, cyclists and the environment associated with the risk of causing a collision between a cyclist and a pedestrian in Spain from 1993 to 2011. retrospective case series. 1228 pedestrian-cyclist pairs involved in the same number of collisions in an urban area, only one of whom committed an infraction. Register of Traffic Accidents with Victims, supported by the Spanish Traffic General Directorate. committing an infraction (yes/no), age, sex, helmet use (cyclist), hour, type of day, year, existence of sidewalks, place of the accident, and priority regulated. logistic regression model to estimate the strength of the association between the pedestrian's responsibility and independent variables. The association with the cyclist's responsibility was assessed by reversing the value of the odds ratios obtained. In both groups of users, the risk of causing a collision was higher in extreme ages. Female cyclists had a slightly higher risk than male cyclists, while the use of a helmet had a protective effect. The risk of the pedestrian causing an accident was higher in the absence of sidewalks. Cyclists more frequently provoked accidents in crosswalks. We recommend the implementation of safety campaigns aimed at pedestrians and cyclists, with special attention paid to the youngest and older people. Interventions for correct road use would also be advisable. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-injection induced seismicity provoked by superposition of different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Induced microseismicity is a controversial issue related to fluid injection into deep geological formations. The occurring of felt earthquakes after stopping injection especially generates concern, because the correlation between injection and seismic activity is unclear. Thus, advancing in its understanding is crucial to minimize its occurrence. Here, we perform numerical simulations of hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems to analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger co- and post-injection seismicity. Apart from the direct impact of fluid pressure increase, we acknowledge thermal effects due to cooling and stress redistribution due to fault slip. We analyze the effect of these three processes both separately and superimposed. We find that preferential flow through conductive fractures or fault zones provokes pressure and temperature perturbations that result in not only heterogeneous variation of the stress field, but also highly anisotropic variations of the local stress tensor. Anisotropic variations tend to stabilize some fractures, but destabilize others. Moreover, shear slip causes a significant variation of the stress field that enlarges the range of critical fracture orientations. We find that, given the different response times of mechanical, hydraulic and thermal effects, post-injection seismicity may occur on non-critically oriented faults that were originally stable. During injection, such faults become destabilized by thermal and shear slip stress changes, but remain static by the superposition of pressure forcing. However, they become unstable and fail when the pressure forcing dissipates shortly after injection stops abruptly.

  3. Paternal bisphenol a diet changes prefrontal cortex proteome and provokes behavioral dysfunction in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangying; Wei, Ruifen; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2017-10-01

    Relatively little attention has been given paternal effects on next generation. Given that Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous compound in maternal diet, may disrupt brain development and behavior, we hypothesized that paternal BPA diet (PBD) could affect offspring development. Prefrontal cortex (PFC), a vital brain region, is involved in emotion and social behavior. To test whether PBD could alter developing PFC, we carried out a proteomics approach for PFC in male juvenile offspring that responded to PBD (50 mg BPA/kg diet). We found that PBD altered the expressions of binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP), CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), which could reflect endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, downregulation of myelinogenesis genes and myelin basic protein (MBP) could provoke myelin deficiency. Furthermore, PBD significantly increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired social behavior in male offspring. Taken together, these results revealed the alterations of ER stress and myelin destruction related molecules induced by PBD might be a potential mechanism for the behavior deficits in their male offspring. These findings remind us of the importance of paternal effects in the further environmental exposure research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception of experimental pain is reduced after provoked waking from rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, Vivek G; Bentley, Alison J

    2010-06-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain of pain when they wake at night, but the accuracy of their perception of the pain after waking at night is unknown. While cognitive functions are reduced for a short time after waking from sleep, a situation known as sleep inertia, it is unclear how sleep inertia may affect the perception of pain. We investigated the effects of sleep inertia on the perception of experimentally induced pain. Fourteen male volunteers were exposed to a randomized thermal heat stimulus of 43.1 degrees C 'hot' and 46.5 degrees C 'hurting' during provoked waking from Stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Subjects rated their pain on awakening on a Visual Analogue Scale at 30 s after awakening and each minute thereafter for 5 min. We found no change in pain perception over the 5-min period irrespective of temperature used or sleep stage. However, perceived pain when awoken abruptly from REM sleep was significantly lower than the awake score for both the hot (P = 0.0069) and hurting (P = 0.0025) temperatures. Pain perception when woken from Stage 2 sleep or slow wave sleep was not significantly different from perception when awake. Our findings indicate that sleep inertia reduces pain perception when awoken abruptly from REM. This suggests that patients who wake up in pain either perceive accurately the pain they are experiencing, or at worst underestimate the level of pain if woken from REM sleep.

  5. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  6. Interests versus morality in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojčić Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

  7. National interest to TLCAN

    OpenAIRE

    Witker Velásquez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    In this article the author reflects on the concept of national interest, considering its basic referents: State, nation and power. His analysis describes and examines aspects related to the vulnerability of the Mexican national interest on informal policies of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.). This article explores, through a series of antithetical elements, such Mexico’s national interest, in the context of NAFTA, producing chiaroscuro effects for the country. The author prov...

  8. Learner Interest: An Affective Variable in Iterative Course Design Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined interest, a unique affective construct distinct from motivation, as an important instructional design consideration. New interest theory suggests that interest develops along a continuum, and at its earliest stages, may be triggered through intentional use of interesting materials and environments. Instructional designers need…

  9. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2015-04-01

    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Short pain-provoked head-up tilt test for the confirmation of vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Ivan; Mišmaš, Antonija; Zaper, Dinka; Junaković, Anamari; Hajnšek, Sanja; Habek, Mario

    2013-06-01

    We investigated a short pain-provoked head-up tilt (PP-HUT) and the Calgary Syncope Symptom Score in a group of patients with clinically diagnosed vasovagal syncope and group of neurological patients without transient loss of consciousness. We included 127 consecutive patients who were investigated in our laboratory. The group 1 included 56 patients who after appropriate investigations were diagnosed with vasovagal syncope. The group 2 included 70 neurological patients without transient loss of consciousness. The subjects were tilted to 70° for a maximum period of 10 min or until symptoms occurred. If there were no symptoms after initial 10 min, a painful stimulus with the insertion of 0.7 mm needle into the dorsum of hand subcutaneously for 30 s was performed with the patient in the tilted for further 5 min. Calgary Syncope Symptom Score was calculated for all patients. In the group 1, significantly higher number of patients had positive results on PP-HUT (36 vs. 6 patients, respectively; p syndrome (3 vs. 1 patient, respectively; p = 0.32) between groups. PP-HUT had sensitivity of 65.9 % (95 % CI 0.49-0.79) and specificity of 89.7 % (95 % CI 0.75-0.97). The CSSS had sensitivity of 58.5 % (95 % CI 0.42-0.73) and specificity of 46.1 % (95 % CI 0.30-0.63). PP-HUT has a higher diagnostic rate than the CSSS and provides a rapid alternative to conventional methods.

  12. GCH1-polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heddini Ulrika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD is a pain disorder localized in the vestibular mucosa. It is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women and it is associated with general pain hypersensitivity and other chronic pain conditions. Polymorphism in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH1 gene has been found to influence general pain sensitivity and the risk of developing a longstanding pain condition. The aim of this study was to investigate GCH1-polymorphism in women with PVD and healthy controls, in correlation to pain sensitivity. Results We found no correlation between the previously defined pain-protective GCH1-SNP combination and the diagnosis of PVD. Nor any correlation with pain sensitivity measured as pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibule, coital pain scored on a visual analog scale and prevalence of other bodily pain conditions among women with PVD (n = 98 and healthy controls (n = 102. However, among patients with current treatment (n = 36, there was a significant interaction effect of GCH1-gene polymorphism and hormonal contraceptive (HC therapy on coital pain (p = 0.04 as well as on pressure pain thresholds on the arm (p = 0.04. PVD patients carrying the specified SNP combination and using HCs had higher pain sensitivity compared to non-carriers. In non-HC-users, carriers had lower pain sensitivity. Conclusions The results of this study gave no support to the hypothesis that polymorphism in the GCH1-gene contributes to the etiology of PVD. However, among patients currently receiving treatment an interaction effect of the defined SNP combination and use of hormonal contraceptives on pain sensitivity was found. This finding offers a possible explanation to the clinically known fact that some PVD patients improve after cessation of hormonal contraceptives, indicating that PVD patients carrying the defined SNP combination of GCH1 would benefit from this

  13. The recurrent pain and sexual sequelae of provoked vestibulodynia: a perpetuating cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2012-08-01

    Optimal management of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), thought to be the most common form of chronic dyspareunia, is unclear. To integrate recent brain data on chronic pain circuitry with stress-induced neuroendocrine mechanisms in the skin and the stress burden (allostatic load) of women with PVD; to also clarify the typical chronicity and negative sexual sequelae associated with PVD; and then review modulation of pain circuitry by cognitive therapy and mindfulness practice and apply to PVD management. Methods.  Review of scientific publications in the areas of sexual medicine, pain, brain imaging, gynecology, stress response, mindfulness, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). (i) A model of PVD to reflect its etiology, typical chronicity, and the detrimental effects on sexual function; (ii) Interventions of sexual rehabilitation based on principles underlying changes associated with CBT and mindfulness practice. A model emerges which reflects how stress-induced changes of pain amplification (central sensitization), characteristic of chronic pain conditions, may impair sexual response in addition to sexual dysfunction that arises from conscious pain avoidance and/or fear-related inattention to sexual cues. Stress from low self-acceptance may be a major component of the allostatic load present in women with PVD, only to be exacerbated by the sexual dysfunction precipitated by the pain of intercourse. Mindfulness-based CBT appears promising to target both the pain and sexual suffering from PVD. New findings on brain activity associated with recurrent clinical pain, functional brain changes associated with CBT and mindfulness, plus new data on stress systems within the skin along with data on increased stress load in women with PVD, support the use of mindfulness-based CBT for the recurrent pain and sexual suffering from PVD. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Communication and common interest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Godfrey-Smith

    Full Text Available Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  15. Surface electromyography of myopotential oversensing provoked by simultaneous straining and leftward twisting in a patient with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Yoichi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Shoda, Morio; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2017-03-01

    An important step in diagnosing myopotential oversensing is to confirm its reproducibility using specific provocation maneuvers. Although most maneuvers involve the co-contraction of many muscles, no attempt has been made to assess relevant muscle activities by electromyography. We describe a case with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) whose myopotential oversensing was provoked by simultaneous straining and leftward twisting. Simultaneous recordings from real-time ICD telemetry and myopotentials of the rectus abdominis, oblique abdominis, and diaphragm on electromyography during the provocation maneuvers were conducted. It was shown that all three muscles contracted simultaneously during the provocation maneuvers; the diaphragm activity was the main source of noise oversensing, and the twist itself caused oversensing possibly due to the change in the position of the lead. In conclusion, the electromyographic assessment of relevant muscle activities may be useful in assessing each muscle's role and its contribution to myopotential oversensing, especially in a patient whose myopotential oversensing requires complex maneuvers to be provoked.

  16. Interest Rate Liberalization; Some Lessons From Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Turtelboom

    1991-01-01

    This paper undertakes a survey of theoretical considerations and an analysis of the experience of five African countries with interest rate liberalization. Despite substantial progress in monetary policy reforms, liberalization has only partially affected the level and variability of interest rates. Several factors—macroeconomic instability, oligopolistic financial markets, the absence of developed capital markets, as well as the sequencing of the liberalization programs and the asymmetric av...

  17. Privatizing Public Interest Law

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    Financial and legal constraints on nonprofit public interest organizations have focused attention on possibilities for pursuing public interest goals from within market-driven private practice. In this context, the private public interest law firm has been held out as an alternative site for “doing well” and “doing good,” allowing lawyers to take on large-scale social change litigation that nonprofit groups cannot because of resource limits—and big-firm pro bono programs will not because of b...

  18. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain : a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Torstensson, Thomas; Butler, Stephen; Lindgren, Anne; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha; Kristiansson, Per

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for el...

  19. Migration Processes Provoked yy the Break-Up of Yugoslavia and the Agression against Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Domini

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with forced migration caused by Serb aggression in areas of Croatia and the neighbouring countries. The first part presents the relevant facts relating to Croatia and important for an understanding of the migration flows (some demographic data as well as the basic guidelines of migration policy, legal regulations and most important problems connected with expellees, refugees and displaced persons. The main elements of contemporary migration movements in Croatia are indicated – migration based on economic causes (traditional migration, migration provoked by crisis and war destruction in former Yugoslavia and migration flows that are difficult to register (mainly clandestine crossings of the border of the Republic of Croatia and the irregular labour market. The author states that the expellee, refugee and displaced persons crisis (with psychological and material repercussions began in 1991 and reached a climax in 1992 when Croatia became one of the most pronounced refugee countries in the world, with refugees accounting for about 15% of its population. As the war crisis shifted, the areas from which intense forced migration to and from Croatia resulted also shifted as did the mechanisms for regulating these forced migrations (dual citizenship, transit visas, accords with "third countries" for accepting refugees and expellees, ways of resolving and caring for the refugee-expellee populations in the Republic of Croatia. The author concludes that even after seven years from the start of the aggression against Croatia, this humanitarian crisis among expellees, refugees and displaced persons has not yet finished, as testified by the new military conflict in Kosovo and by many open questions in regard to the future organisation of states in this crisis area as well as the creation of mechanisms for monitoring potential conflicts. A fundamental idea is expressed throughout the paper – i.e. the notion that now it is maybe more

  20. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  1. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  2. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...

  3. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Nellore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  4. Arbitrage Interest Rules and School District Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Ward

    1989-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 limited the ability of school districts to borrow money through the sale of tax-exempt bonds and then invest bond issue proceeds at interest rates higher than those paid on the bonds. Discusses practical considerations and public policy ramifications. (MLF)

  5. Stochastic interest rates model in compounding | Galadima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest rates considerations in cash flows are fundamental concepts in finance, real estate, insurance, accounting and other areas of business administration. The assumption that future rates are fixed and known with certainty at the beginning of an investment, is a restrictive and theoretical assumption that is not obtainable ...

  6. "My Grandfather Slammed the Door in Winston Churchill's Face!" Using Family History to Provoke Rigorous Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The idea of using "little stories" to illuminate the "big pictures" of the past was creatively explored in "Teaching History 107," which offered teachers a wealth of detailed vignettes with which to kindle young people's interest and illuminate major historical events. Paul Barrett builds on the ideas explored in that…

  7. Special Interest Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  8. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  9. Role of actinically provoked systemic elastolysis in polymyalgic vascular disease. A study based on serum fluorescence and haptoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J.P.; Argyle, J.C.

    This study of cutaneous elastic tissue and serum fluorescence supports the hypothesis that widespread destruction and resorption of elastic tissue (elastolysis) occurs in the temporal arteritis/polymyalgia rheumatica syndrome. A systemic elastolysis of this nature may be provoked by actinic (radiant) damage to the exposed elastic tissues in the skin and superficial arteries, the archetype of such injury being seen in temporal arteritis. Scattered giant cells are the usual agents of elastolysis but tuberculoid (sarcoid) infiltrates often take over in the later stages. In acute polymyalgia, the phenomenon probably becomes diffuse and humoral. Elastolysis may be a direct pathogenetic link between polymyalgia and other vascular diseases such as idiopathic aneurysm and atherosclerosis.

  10. Celiac disease - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002443.htm Celiac disease - nutritional considerations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Celiac disease is an immune disorder passed down through families. ...

  11. Dental Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5. Plasma Exchange (Plasmapheresis) • If the patient’s exchange protocol involves the use of anticoagulants (blood thinners), including ... should be used with caution to avoid respiratory depression. DENTAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS The MGFA mission is to ...

  12. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  13. Report on stakeholder interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavik, Trond; Aabrekk, Synnøve; Tommerup, Henrik M.

    to be that no actor alone possesses an overall competence to supply a holistic solution. Trustworthiness of the actors is another important factor to take into consideration when developing a one-stop-shop solution. The overall threat is the fact that a simple cost focus leads to limited renovation and reduce...... countries may be similar to a great extent. The various types of actors in the renovation business occur at different stages in the value chain. The traditional first line services such as carpenters, retail stores, heat pump agents, plumbers, electrician, etc. come in direct contact with the customer when......-stop-shop should offer tailor made services for sustainable renovation of a single family house. This should include the building envelope, insulation, window, materials, heating and ventilation system, and even financing. The one-stop-shop should have the knowhow about competent firms who can offer the additional...

  14. Medicine, the media and political interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Morrell, Bronwen; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Forsyth, Rowena

    2012-12-01

    The news media is frequently criticised for failing to support the goals of government health campaigns. But is this necessarily the purpose of the media? We suggest that while the media has an important role in disseminating health messages, it is a mistake to assume that the media should serve the interests of government as it has its own professional ethics, norms, values, structures and roles that extend well beyond the interests of the health sector, and certainly beyond those of the government. While considerable attention has been given to the ways in which uncritical publication of industry perspectives by news media can negatively impact on public understandings of health and health behaviours, we would argue that it is equally important that journalists not become the 'lapdogs' of government interests. Further, we suggest that the interests of public health may be served more by supporting the ongoing existence of an independent media than by seeking to overdetermine its purpose or scope.

  15. Effects of Thought Suppression on Provoked Men’s Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Lisco, Claire G.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study utilized a comprehensive theoretical approach to provide the first data on the impact of thought suppression on provoked men’s alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (58% African-American) of males between the ages of 21 and 35 (M = 25.25) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results Results indicated that acute alcohol intoxication significantly increased physical aggression among lower, but not higher, thought suppressing men. Conclusions Results suggest that, under conditions of interpersonal provocation, alcohol intoxication produces a myopic focus on hostile thoughts and angry affect in lower, but not higher, suppression men. This pattern of results provides support for the durability of the alcohol myopia effect and highlights the need for continued examination of alcohol’s role in the disruption of protective factors for men’s aggression. It is important for research to continue to identify modifiable cognitive variables that influence self-regulation of behavior; however, it is imperative that researchers consider the extent to which these variables withstand alcohol’s effects. PMID:25337430

  16. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  17. Globalization, values, interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the international politics, after the Cold War directed by the U.S. as the only current super-power, are considered in the text. The author’s intention is to stress the main points of divergence between moralistic-valuable rhetoric and the foreign policy practice of the U.S. In that sense, the examples of the American stand, i.e. the active treatment of the Yugoslav crisis, on the one hand, and the crisis in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, is considered. The author’s conclusion is that the foreign policy of the only current super-power is still directed by interests rather then by values. In the concluding part, the author presents an anthropologic argument in favor of reestablishing "balance of power" as the only guarantee for peace and stability of the world.

  18. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  19. Ictal brain SPET during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol: a new diagnostic procedure in drug-resistant epileptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro; Bruno, Isabella; Di Giuda, Daniela; De Rossi, Giuseppe; Troncone, Luigi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168 Roma (Italy); Parbonetti, Giovanni; Colicchio, Gabriella [Department of Neurosurgery, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    Functional brain imaging plays an important role in seizure focus localisation. However, truly ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies are not routinely performed owing to technical problems associated with the use of tracers and methodological and logistical difficulties. In this study we tried to resolve both of these issues by means of a new procedure: technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPET performed during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol, a well-known central and respiratory stimulant. We studied 33 drug-resistant epileptic patients. All patients underwent anamnestic evaluation, neuropsychological and psychodynamic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, interictal and ictal video-EEG monitoring, and interictal and ictal SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. In order to obtain truly ictal SPET, 65 mg of pentylenetetrazol was injected every 2 minutes and, immediately the seizure began, 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected. The scintigraphic findings were considered abnormal if a single area of hyperperfusion was present and corresponded to the site of a single area of hypoperfusion at interictal SPET: the ''hypo-hyperperfusion'' SPET pattern. In 27 of the 33 patients (82%), interictal-ictal SPET showed the hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern. Video-EEG showed a single epileptogenic zone in 21/33 patients (64%), and MRI showed anatomical lesions in 19/33 patients (57%). Twenty-two of the 27 patients with hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern underwent ablative or palliative surgery and were seizure-free at 3 years of follow-up. No adverse effects were noted during pharmacologically provoked seizure. It is concluded that ictal brain SPET performed during pharmacologically provoked seizure provides truly ictal images because {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is injected immediately upon seizure onset. Using this feasible procedure it is possible to localise the focus, to avoid the limitations due to the unpredictability

  20. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travert Carine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%. CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a

  1. Tuberous sclerosis Anaesthetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    Tuberous sclerosis. Anaesthetic considerations. Tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis(TS) was first described by Bourneville in. 1880.1 TS is said to be one of the commonest autosomal domi- nant diseases. Epidemiological studies report an incidence rang- ing between1:10000 to 1:170000.2,3 Two gene loci have been ...

  2. [Type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation for the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan-Wen; Guo, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Feng-Bin; Zhong, Da-Chuan; Fang, Jia-Jie; Li, Fang-Yin

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the type V phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation in the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction. A total of 853 out-patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were divided into an injury and a non-injury group. After scored on IIEF-5 questionnaires, all the patients received oral administration of PDE-5 inhibitors and, 30 minutes later, audio-visual sexual stimulation. The data on penile erection were recorded with Rigiscan Plus. The patients with mild, moderate and severe ED accounted for 18.8, 31.9 and 49.3% in the injury group, and 50.6, 39.8 and 9.6% in the non-injury group, with statistic differences between the two groups in the mild and severe parts (P erectile dysfunction.

  3. ICPD: in whose interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1994-06-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing

  4. [Potential conflicts of interest in biomedical publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In human communication and personal relations, there is the possibility of dissent and have a conflict related to the perception or acceptance of the content of a message. To reach an agreement, it is important that the communication between people is horizontal and bidirectional while the issue is being discussed, in order to bring together the interlocutors' expectations and interests. In the administration of services and goods, friendship and nepotism have been the most frequent forms of potential conflicts of interest. These behaviors arise when a person, like a civil servant or employee, feels influenced by personal considerations when he is doing his work and when he is making decisions. The conflict of perceived interested can be so harmful to the reputation and confidence of an organization, as the real existence of a conflict of interest. In some countries, the law obliges organisms to have codes of ethics that cover these aspects. Thus, it is desirable the incorporation of ethical principles and "moral competences" in the curricula of health professionals. Actually, in medicine and biomedical investigation, conflicts of interest are a condition related to clinicians and researchers, who distort their results and work to obtain personal or financial benefits. In the generation and transmission of knowledge, the circumstances determine if a conflict of interest exists, not the methodology, either the results of the investigation, not even the technology used on their diffusion.

  5. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.375 (2\\3/8\\) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  6. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.750 (3\\3/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  7. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2013. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  8. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  9. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  10. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.250 (3\\1/4\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  11. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.250 (2 \\1/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  12. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  13. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.000 (3) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  14. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2014. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  15. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This ] rate will be 3.625 (3\\5/8\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  16. EDITORIAL: Interesting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-01-01

    `May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a

  17. Indices of Interest Maturity in the Kuder Occupation Interest Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytowski, Donald G.; England, Raymond J. L.

    1995-01-01

    A combination of high occupational score and a low men-in-general or women-in-general score on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey is moderately predictive of interest stability and occupational consistency. (Author)

  18. Interest and Interest-Enhancing Strategies of Adolescent EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This paper's focus is on the little researched and sometimes vague concept of interest, discussed here in relation to EFL learning and the potential interest-enhancing strategies that learners may employ if they do not find learning English interesting enough. The study was undertaken to investigate how adolescent EFL learners evaluate the…

  19. Conflict of interests, vested interests and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    2000-11-01

    This paper examines conflict of interest as it may arise in the activities of research advisory committees and ethical review committees. It distinguishes between vested interests and true conflict of interest. It also examines the ways in which stakeholdings differ from vested interests and conflicting interests differ from conflicts of interest. It explores the overlapping terrain of corruption and conflict of interest. The paper further examines the ways in which scientists, communities and the subjects of medical research all have legitimate stakeholdings in medical research. Each group thus has differently vested interests in the outcomes of the research. The vested interests of medical scientists are particularly complex because scientists have moral commitments to the welfare of patients that may compete with professional and personal interests in the outcome of research performed on those patients as research subjects. The more these interests diverge, the more opportunity will arise for conflict of interest. These observations have implications for the constitution of research advisory and ethical review committees, and the ways in which their discussions are conducted. Some practical help with protocols of discussion can be gained from philosophical and management writings.

  20. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students...

  1. Four models of family interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    In this article, I distinguish between 4 models for thinking about how to balance the interests of parents, families, and a sick child: (1) the oxygen mask model; (2) the wide interests model; (3) the family interests model; and (4) the direct model. The oxygen mask model - which takes its name from flight attendants' directives to parents to put on their own oxygen mask before putting on their child's - says that parents should consider their own interests only insofar as doing so is, ultimately, good for the sick child. The wide interests model suggests that in doing well by my child I am at the very same time doing well by myself. My interests can, and plausibly do, encompass the interests of others; they are, to that extent, wide. There is, then, no sharp separation between the interests of the sick child and the interests of other family members. In the family interests model, families themselves are seen as having interests that are neither identical to the sum, nor a simple function, of the interests of individual family members. The family has goals, values, and aspirations that are essentially corporate rather than individual. According to this model, these family interests can explain why sacrifices can sometimes be demanded of some family members for the sake of others in a medical setting. Finally, the direct model takes a simpler view of family members' interests; it claims that these interests matter simply on their own and should be taken into account in making treatment decisions for a sick child. This model openly considers the competing interests that parents and other family members often have when caring for a sick child, and advocates for weighing those interests when making decisions for and about the sick child. While there is room for all four models at the bedside, I argue that the direct model should be highlighted in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. It Takes Two: Sexual Communication Patterns and the Sexual and Relational Adjustment of Couples Coping With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Flynn, Michelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is associated with sexual and relational consequences for women and their partners. Greater perceived quality of sexual communication has been associated with women's lower pain during intercourse and with couples' better sexual and relational well-being. Whether couples' collaborative (eg, expressing feelings or problem solving) and negative (eg, withdrawing or criticizing) sexual communication patterns (SCPs) are differentially associated with couples' adjustment to PVD is unknown. To examine associations between collaborative and negative SCPs and women's pain and the sexual and relationship adjustment of women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 87) and their partners completed the Sexual Communication Patterns Questionnaire and measurements of pain (women only), sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and relationship satisfaction. (i) Numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function, (iii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, (iv) Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, and (v) Couple Satisfaction Index. When women reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater negative SCP, they reported less relationship satisfaction and had partners who reported greater sexual distress. When partners reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher relationship satisfaction and had female partners who were less sexually distressed. When partners reported higher negative SCP, they also reported less relationship satisfaction. There were no associations between SCP and women's or partners' sexual functioning or women's pain. Collaborative SCP may benefit couples' sexual and relational well-being, whereas negative SCP may impede sexual and relational adjustment to PVD. Findings

  3. What is interesting? Exploring the appraisal structure of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J

    2005-03-01

    Relative to other emotions, interest is poorly understood. On the basis of theories of appraisal process and structure, it was predicted that interest consists of appraisals of novelty (factors related to unfamiliarity and complexity) and appraisals of coping potential (the ability to understand the new, complex thing). Four experiments, using in vivo rather than retrospective methods, supported this appraisal structure. The findings were general across measured and manipulated appraisals, interesting stimuli (random polygons, visual art, poetry), and measures of interest (self-reports, forced-choice, behavioral measures). Furthermore, the appraisal structure was specific to interest (it did not predict enjoyment, a related positive emotion), and appraisals predicted interest beyond relevant traits (curiosity, openness). The appraisal perspective offers a powerful way of construing the causes of interest. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  5. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Doc No: 2012-23732] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  6. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15648] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  7. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31295] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  8. The Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities: Assessing and understanding restricted interests in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerbeck, A

    2017-11-01

    Restricted interests are an established diagnostic symptom of autism spectrum disorder. While there is considerable evidence that these interests have maladaptive consequences, they also provide a range of benefits. This article introduces a new instrument, the Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities, and uses it to examine the nature of restricted interests in autism spectrum disorder. Respondents report substantial benefits of restricted interests as well as areas of difficulty. The Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities assesses Social Flexibility, Perseveration, Respondent Discomfort, Adaptive Coping, and Atypicality. All scales have Cronbach's α > 0.70. Age and socioeconomic status have little effect on Survey of Favorite Interests and Activities scales; nor does gender with the exception of interest Atypicality. The expected pattern of correlations with existing scales was found. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Teratocarcinomas Arising from Allogeneic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Tissue Constructs Provoked Host Immune Rejection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ai; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Kawamura, Takuji; Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Ito, Emiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Masuda, Shigeo; Toda, Koichi; Hatazawa, Jun; Morii, Eiichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-14

    Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs is a promising regenerative treatment for cardiac failure: however, its tumourigenic potential is concerning. We hypothesised that the tumourigenic potential may be eliminated by the host immune response after allogeneic cell transplantation. Scaffold-free iPSC-derived cardaic tissue sheets of C57BL/6 mouse origin were transplanted into the cardiac surface of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and allogeneic BALB/c mice with or without tacrolimus injection. Syngeneic mice and tacrolimus-injected immunosuppressed allogeneic mice formed teratocarcinomas with identical phenotypes, characteristic, and time courses, as assessed by imaging tools including (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In contrast, temporarily immunosuppressed allogeneic mice, following cessation of tacrolimus injection displayed diminished progression of the teratocarcinoma, accompanied by an accumulation of CD4/CD8-positive T cells, and finally achieved complete elimination of the teratocarcinoma. Our results indicated that malignant teratocarcinomas arising from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs provoked T cell-related host immune rejection to arrest tumour growth in murine allogeneic transplantation models.

  10. Responses to scenarios that may provoke acts of conflict and aggression among the general public: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Nathan C; May, David C

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to use empirical research and theory to investigate the context that may provoke individuals to engage in acts of conflict and aggression. A random sample of the general public from a midsouthern state was surveyed to explore this inquiry. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of reaction to a number of situations that often lead people to engage in conflict and/or aggression with other people. Several sociodemographic factors served as control variables in the study. The findings of the Pearson product-moment correlations suggest that respondents were more likely to report that they would respond more aggressively as the situations presented to them were perceived as being more physically threatening to them and/or their loved ones. Also, gender and age were the most significant predictors of engagement in acts of conflict and aggression in the multiple ordinal least squares regression analyses. Strengths and drawbacks of the study and direction of future research are also discussed.

  11. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Caffeine provokes adverse interactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) and related psychostimulants: mechanisms and mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanattou-Saïfoudine, N; McNamara, R; Harkin, A

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant consumption of caffeine with recreational psychostimulant drugs of abuse can provoke severe acute adverse reactions in addition to longer term consequences. The mechanisms by which caffeine increases the toxicity of psychostimulants include changes in body temperature regulation, cardiotoxicity and lowering of the seizure threshold. Caffeine also influences the stimulatory, discriminative and reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs. In this review, we consider our current understanding of such caffeine-related drug interactions, placing a particular emphasis on an adverse interaction between caffeine and the substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’), which has been most recently described and characterized. Co-administration of caffeine profoundly enhances the acute toxicity of MDMA in rats, as manifested by high core body temperature, tachycardia and increased mortality. In addition, co-administration of caffeine enhances the long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. Observations to date support an interactive model of drug-induced toxicity comprising MDMA-related enhancement of dopamine release coupled to a caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors in addition to inhibition of PDE. These experiments are reviewed together with reports of caffeine-related drug interactions with cocaine, d-amphetamine and ephedrine where similar mechanisms are implicated. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will guide appropriate intervention strategies for the management of severe reactions and potential for increased drug-related toxicity, resulting from concomitant caffeine consumption. PMID:22671762

  13. Upregulations of Clcn3 and P-Gp Provoked by Lens Osmotic Expansion in Rat Galactosemic Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lens osmotic expansion, provoked by overactivated aldose reductase (AR, is the most essential event of sugar cataract. Chloride channel 3 (Clcn3 is a volume-sensitive channel, mainly participating in the regulation of cell fundamental volume, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp acts as its modulator. We aim to study whether P-gp and Clcn3 are involved in lens osmotic expansion of galactosemic cataract. Methods and Results. In vitro, lens epithelial cells (LECs were primarily cultured in gradient galactose medium (10–60 mM, more and more vacuoles appeared in LEC cytoplasm, and mRNA and protein levels of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 were synchronously upregulated along with the increase of galactose concentration. In vivo, we focused on the early stage of rat galactosemic cataract, amount of vacuoles arose from equatorial area and scattered to the whole anterior capsule of lenses from the 3rd day to the 9th day, and mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Clcn3 reached the peak around the 9th or 12th day. Conclusion. Galactosemia caused the osmotic stress in lenses; it also markedly leads to the upregulations of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 in LECs, together resulting in obvious osmotic expansion in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Error-provoking conditions in the medication use process: the case of a government hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffuor, George Asumeng; Anto, Berko Panyin; Abaitey, Alfred K

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to explore error-provoking factors prevalent in hospitals that have the potential to cause medication errors and to create awareness of the existence of medication errors. A total of 200 medical folders of in-patients in the health facility were randomly selected and assessed based on a checklist to record potential medication errors. The medication use process and working environment as well as drug packages and labels in the pharmacy were observed, and potential medication errors were documented. Of the 162 valid in-patient folders studied, 60.5% of the patients did not receive the actual quantity of drugs they were supposed to. Illegible handwriting on medication orders and prescription were common observations in the folders studied. Look-alike medicine packages and labeling were found. The working space in the dispensary was congested, and distractions (e.g., ringing personal telephones, being called from one task to attend to another, and unnecessary conversation between personnel) were common. This study has highlighted the vulnerability of the medication use process in the study site to medication errors. The findings may just be a tip of the iceberg; therefore, the researchers plan undertaking a multicenter study. In the absence of that, however, there is a need for a national policy on patient safety, and a national policy on incident reporting would help in determining the incidence, types, and potential causes of medication errors to improve patient safety.

  15. Reduced striatal activation during reward anticipation due to appetite-provoking cues in chronic schizophrenia: a fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, O; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Krebs, L; Zink, M; Smolka, M N

    2012-02-01

    The occurrence of weight gain in schizophrenia (SZ) has profound clinical impact and interacts with antipsychotic medication, life style and disease severity. The functional neuroanatomy underlying altered nutritional behavior is unraveled, but dysregulated reward anticipation might be one of the involved neuronal mechanisms. The striatum, a core region of the reward network and salience attribution, was previously shown to regulate appetite perception and eating behavior. We studied patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia with a stable medication in comparison to age and gender matched healthy adults. Every subject had to undergo a 6h fasting period before a newly developed, appetite-provoking fMRI task was applied. Subjects saw visual stimuli of appetitive food items in a 3Tesla scanner. In healthy controls food images elicited stronger activation in the striatum compared to SZ patients. When adjusting a ROI-based striatal activation for medication and weight, the group difference remained still significant. This points an effect of illness independent of antipsychotic medication. These data underscore the involvement of the striatum into salience attribution, reward anticipation and the neuronal pathways leading to altered eating behavior and weight gain in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproduction and mode of delivery in women with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia: a Swedish register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, L; Josefsson, A; Bladh, M; Lilliecreutz, C; Sydsjö, G

    2015-02-01

    To compare sociodemographics, parity and mode of delivery between women diagnosed with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia (LPV) to women without a diagnosis before first pregnancy. Retrospective, population-based register study. Sweden. All women born in Sweden 1973-83 who gave birth for the first time or remained nulliparous during the years 2001-09. Nationally linked registries were used to identify the study population. Women diagnosed with vaginismus or LPV were compared to all other women. Odds ratios for parity and mode of delivery were calculated using multinominal regression analysis and logistic regression. Parity and mode of delivery. Women with vaginismus/LPV were more likely to be unmarried (P = 0.001), unemployed (P = 0.012), have a higher educational level (P vaginismus/LPV more often delivered by caesarean section (P vaginismus/LPV were more likely to suffer a perineal laceration (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.56-2.25). Women with vaginismus/LPV are less likely to give birth and those that do are more likely to deliver by caesarean section and have a caesarean section based upon maternal request. Those women delivering vaginally are more likely to suffer perineal laceration. These findings point to the importance of not only addressing sexual function in women with vaginismus/LPV but reproductive function as well. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Exogenous interleukin-6, interleukin-13, and interferon-gamma provoke pulmonary abnormality with mild edema in enterovirus 71-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Szu-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal mice developed neurological disease and pulmonary dysfunction after an infection with a mouse-adapted human Enterovirus 71 (EV71 strain MP4. However, the hallmark of severe human EV71 infection, pulmonary edema (PE, was not evident. Methods To test whether EV71-induced PE required a proinflammatory cytokine response, exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines were administered to EV71-infected mice during the late stage of infection. Results After intracranial infection of EV71/MP4, 7-day-old mice developed hind-limb paralysis, pulmonary dysfunction, and emphysema. A transient increase was observed in serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ, but not noradrenaline. At day 3 post infection, treatment with IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ provoked mild PE and severe emphysema that were accompanied by pulmonary dysfunction in EV71-infected, but not herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1-infected control mice. Adult mice did not develop PE after an intracerebral microinjection of EV71 into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS. While viral antigen accumulated in the ventral medulla and the NTS of intracerebrally injected mice, neuronal loss was observed in the ventral medulla only. Conclusions Exogenous IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-γ treatment could induce mild PE and exacerbate pulmonary abnormality of EV71-infected mice. However, other factors such as over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also be required for the development of classic PE symptoms.

  18. Provoking, disturbing, hacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    The article is a discussion of works by two Danish composers who both, with self-constructed instruments challenge computer music both as genre, the understanding and use of conventional technology and the relation to history. At first glance, the use of the homemade instruments appears as a comm...

  19. Provoking, disturbing, hacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    Among the artists on the contemporary Danish scene of computer music and sound art the musician and composer Goodiepal (Gæoudjiparl van den Dobbelsteen or Parl Kristian Bjørn Vester) is by no comparison the most controversial and provocative. This statement is applicable whether we meet him as mu...

  20. Conflicts of interest at medical journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    from the impact factor calculation decreased journal impact factors. The decrease varied considerably between journals, with 1% for BMJ to 15% for NEJM in 2007. For the two journals disclosing data, income from the sales of reprints contributed to 3% and 41% of the total income for BMJ and The Lancet......BACKGROUND: transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest...... for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]). For each journal...

  1. Report of Ethical Considerations Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John

    For more than four decades, planetary protection policy based on the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 has guided space missions in avoiding harmful cross-contamination during exploration. Throughout this time, the main emphasis of the policy has been based on protecting science and avoiding biological contamination. In light of new knowledge about planetary bodies and the diversity and capabilities of terrestrial microorganisms in extreme environments, as well as increased interest in human exploration activities beyond Earth orbit, it is appropriate to con-sider the ethical and policy implications of this approach. In June 2010, a workshop was held at Princeton, New Jersey, to focus on those implications, and to formulate recommendations for the space-faring nations of the world relating to concrete measures that might be undertaken to conduct space science studies and exploration within a sustainable framework that considers additional ethical perspectives as well as science protection. The workshop considered both current planetary protection policy (COSPAR, etc.) and the implications of protecting plan-ets beyond purely scientific considerations, especially in light of possible human missions of exploration. This talk provides a summary of the workshop discussions and results.

  2. Finding Regions of Interest on Toroidal Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Sinha, Rishi R; Jones, Chad; Ethier, Stephane; Klasky, Scott; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Shoshani, Arie; Winslett, Marianne

    2011-02-09

    Fusion promises to provide clean and safe energy, and a considerable amount of research effort is underway to turn this aspiration intoreality. This work focuses on a building block for analyzing data produced from the simulation of microturbulence in magnetic confinementfusion devices: the task of efficiently extracting regions of interest. Like many other simulations where a large amount of data are produced,the careful study of ``interesting'' parts of the data is critical to gain understanding. In this paper, we present an efficient approach forfinding these regions of interest. Our approach takes full advantage of the underlying mesh structure in magnetic coordinates to produce acompact representation of the mesh points inside the regions and an efficient connected component labeling algorithm for constructingregions from points. This approach scales linearly with the surface area of the regions of interest instead of the volume as shown with bothcomputational complexity analysis and experimental measurements. Furthermore, this new approach is 100s of times faster than a recentlypublished method based on Cartesian coordinates.

  3. Cryonics in the Courtroom: Which Interests? Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Richard

    2017-10-25

    In an apparent international first, the High Court has allowed a terminally ill 14-year-old to be cryopreserved after her death. The patient, JS, requested this, as she hoped one day to be reanimated and cured. Jackson J focused on the welfare (or best interests) of JS as she approached the end of her life and particularly on her (apparently) competent wish to be cryopreserved. I consider the interests involved in a decision to undergo cryonics, specifically exploring which interests and whose interests are engaged. Starting with autonomy interests, the judgment implicitly supported a relational account of autonomy, but was dominated by a subjective interpretation of autonomy, which prioritized JS's wishes. Questions nevertheless arise about whether the dying person is entitled to legislate for the reanimated person he or she might become. Temporal concerns also feature when we interpret welfare in terms of happiness, because the dying person and the (potential) future reanimated person might have different interests at different times. Finally, I widen the analysis to accommodate the interests of others, by exploring whether cryonics is in, or contrary to, the public interest. Utilizing different accounts of the public interest, I argue that the case for cryonics is not entirely made out. These observations on autonomy, happiness and the public interest combine to suggest that, although there may not be a decisive case for denying a wish like JS's, there is a case for caution, at least while we seek to clarify and resolve the different interests in issue. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta

    2015-01-01

    on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...... of collective action of businesses. In contrast, we do not find consistent evidence that political institutions produce ‘demand’ for interest organizations by making laws, developing public policy or spending money. This is in contrast to the extensive evidence that such factors affect lobbying practices...

  5. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students......’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....

  6. Point of interest to region of interest conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; de By, R.A.; van Keulen, Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of people contain a vast amount of information on users' interests and popularity of locations. To obtain this information, the places visited by the owner of the device on such a trajectory need to be recognized. However, the location information on a point of interest (POI) in a

  7. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  8. Which Positive Integers are Interesting?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Interesting positive integers; idoneal numbers; Carmichael numbers; Wieferich primes; Mersenne primes; Fermat primes; Bernoulli numbers; Kaprekar constant; Skewes constants; look-and-say sequence; Graham's constant.

  9. Nations: Formation and Interest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Kafirin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of historic conditions leading to the formation of nations, and on the basis of attributive features of a nation the set of national interests is identified. Considering national interests as a variable, the author stresses that they depend both on the wishes of ordinary people and on the ability of the state to streamline them in a constructive manner. National interests are classified according to their dynamic characteristics, and the special role of the state as the mouthpiece of national interests is pointed out.

  10. Specific Considerations for LGBT Eldercare

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    The LGBT community has changed considerably in numbers, awareness, and acceptance in the past few decades. Due to the growing number of LGBT elderly, special considera-tions must be taken into account in planning their care. This study aimed at showcasing considerations that should be taken into account when planning elderly care and future elderly living arrangements. The research questions used were (a) are there special considerations for LGBT seniors? and (b), if so, what are the cons...

  11. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

  12. Attenuation of microRNA-16 derepresses the cyclins D1, D2 and E1 to provoke cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Zou, Xiao; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Liang, Ye-You; Deng, Chun-Yu; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhang, Meng-Zhen; Liao, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yu, Xi-Yong; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclins/retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway participates in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous small non-coding RNAs, were recognized to play significant roles in cardiac hypertrophy. But, it remains unknown whether cyclin/Rb pathway is modulated by miRNAs during cardiac hypertrophy. This study investigates the potential role of microRNA-16 (miR-16) in modulating cyclin/Rb pathway during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. An animal model of hypertrophy was established in a rat with abdominal aortic constriction (AAC), and in a mouse with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and in a mouse with subcutaneous injection of phenylephrine (PE) respectively. In addition, a cell model of hypertrophy was also achieved based on PE-promoted neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte and based on Ang-II-induced neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocyte respectively. We demonstrated that miR-16 expression was markedly decreased in hypertrophic myocardium and hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in rats and mice. Overexpression of miR-16 suppressed rat cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic phenotype of cultured cardiomyocytes, and inhibition of miR-16 induced a hypertrophic phenotype in cardiomyocytes. Expressions of cyclins D1, D2 and E1, and the phosphorylated pRb were increased in hypertrophic myocardium and hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, but could be reversed by enforced expression of miR-16. Cyclins D1, D2 and E1, not pRb, were further validated to be modulated post-transcriptionally by miR-16. In addition, the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and c-Myc were activated during myocardial hypertrophy, and inhibitions of them prevented miR-16 attenuation. Therefore, attenuation of miR-16 provoke cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via derepressing the cyclins D1, D2 and E1, and activating cyclin/Rb pathway, revealing that miR-16 might be a target to manage cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25583328

  13. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa. [Umeaa University, Umeaa University Hospital, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa (Sweden); Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta [Umeaa University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Larsson, Anne [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umeaa (Sweden); Nyberg, Lars [Umeaa University, Department of Psychology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2{+-}4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4{+-}3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF{sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  14. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  15. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  16. Cryonics in the courtroom:Which interests? Whose interests?

    OpenAIRE

    Huxtable, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In an apparent international first, the High Court has allowed a terminally ill 14-year-old to be cryopreserved after her death. The patient, JS, requested this, as she hoped one day to be reanimated and cured. Jackson J focused on the welfare (or best interests) of JS as she approached the end of her life and particularly on her (apparently) competent wish to be cryopreserved. I consider the interests involved in a decision to undergo cryonics, specifically exploring which interests and whos...

  17. Medication interest in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Antolič

    2011-12-01

    Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.

  18. Interest in Mathematics = Interest in Mathematics? What General Measures of Interest Reflect When the Object of Interest Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufer, Stefan; Rach, Stefanie; Kosiol, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Students' motivational characteristics, e.g., subject-related interest, are considered important predictors for successful learning processes. However, few empirical studies provide evidence for the assumed chain of effects between high interest and high achievement in mathematics. One reason for this result might be that the applied measures of…

  19. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  20. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  1. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    . The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems.......This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts...

  2. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    The fundamental values in medical ethics include the following aspects of professional conduct: (i) actions in the best interest of patients; (ii) first, do no harm; (iii) patients' right to refuse or choose treatments; (iv) fairness and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources; and (v) truthfulness and honesty (informed consent). These values have to be considered in all diagnostic steps and therapeutic decisions. They should also form the basis for discussions of potential conflicts of interest among patients, doctors, healthcare financers and politicians. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases represent the most frequent cause of death and a major healthcare problem in most regions of the world. CV prevention is therefore an important task both in individual subjects and as a means to improve health in the general population. While the merits of treatment in patients with established CV diseases, i.e. secondary prevention, are widely accepted and regarded as necessary, primary prevention with drugs in apparently healthy individuals at an increased risk of future CV events is not free of controversies. The different types of prevention envisaged also give rise to ethical questions: Should all the growing number of classical and newly recognised CV risk markers be a reason for intervention or should they be preferably used for calculating a total risk score? What are the compelling or only relative indications for anti-hypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic or platelet-inhibiting drugs? Are pre-hypertension, pre-diabetes and marginally elevated cholesterol levels early diseases justifying drug treatment, regardless of the possibility that some prophylactic interventions may be associated with adverse events? Discussions also often arise concerning the role of age, gender and of non-CV co-morbidities for decisions about long-term prevention with drugs. How reliable and applicable are 'evidence-based' guidelines derived from trials in highly selected

  3. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  4. A review of Web information seeking research: considerations of method and foci of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Martzoukou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background. Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of gaining direct knowledge of behaviour. User-centred research emphasises the importance of holistic approaches, which incorporate physical, cognitive, and affective elements. Problems. Comprehensive studies are limited; many approaches are problematic and a consistent methodological framework has not been developed. Research has often failed to ensure appropriate samples that ensure both quantitative validity and qualitative consistency. Typically, observation has been based on simulated rather than real information needs and most studies show little attempt to examine holistically different characteristics of users in the same research schema. Research also deals with various aspects of cognitive style and ability with variant definitions of expertise and different layers of user experience. Finally the effect of social and cultural elements has not been extensively investigated. Conclusion. The existing limitations in method and the plethora of different approaches allow little progress and fewer comparisons across studies. There is urgent need for establishing a theoretical framework on which future studies can be based so that information seeking behaviour can be more holistically understood, and results can be generalised.

  5. Fecal sacs attract insects to the nest and provoke an activation of the immune system of nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Rodríguez, Laura; Soler, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Nest sanitation is a widespread but rarely studied behavior in birds. The most common form of nest sanitation behavior, the removal of nestling feces, has focused the discussion about which selective pressures determine this behavior. The parasitism hypothesis, which states that nestling fecal sacs attract parasites that negatively affect breeding birds, was proposed 40 years ago and is frequently cited as a demonstrated fact. But, to our knowledge, there is no previous experimental test of this hypothesis. We carried out three different experiments to investigate the parasitism hypothesis. First, we used commercial McPhail traps to test for the potential attraction effect of nestling feces alone on flying insects. We found that traps with fecal sacs attracted significantly more flies (Order Diptera), but not ectoparasites, than the two control situations. Second, we used artificial blackbird (Turdus merula) nests to investigate the combined attraction effect of feces and nest materials on arthropods (not only flying insects). Flies, again, were the only group of arthropods significantly attracted by fecal sacs. We did not detect an effect on ectoparasites. Third, we used active blackbird nests to investigate the potential effect of nestling feces in ecto- and endoparasite loads in real nestlings. The presence of fecal sacs near blackbird nestlings did not increase the number of louse flies or chewing lice, and unexpectedly reduced the number of nests infested with mites. The endoparasite prevalence was also not affected. In contrast, feces provoked an activation of the immune system as the H/L ratio of nestlings living near excrements was significantly higher than those kept under the two control treatments. Surprisingly, our findings do not support the parasitism hypothesis, which suggests that parasites are not the main reason for fecal sac removal. In contrast, the attraction of flies to nestling feces, the elevation of the immune response of chicks, and the

  6. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  7. Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikiew, Suwaree; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. Shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue. In another experiment, the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and respiratory bursts (RBs) were examined after the shrimp had been fed diets containing fucoidan at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-21 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with time. The immune parameters of shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 2.0 g kg(-1) diet after 14 and 21 days. Phagocytic activity and the clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus were significantly higher in shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet compared to those of shrimp fed the 0, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets. In a separate experiment, shrimp that had been fed diets containing fucoidan for 21 days were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 10(6) colony-forming units shrimp(-1). Survival rates of shrimp fed the 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) diets for 96-120 h. We concluded that fucoidan provokes innate immunity of shrimp as evidenced by haemocyte degranulation, proPO activation, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue, and that dietary administration of fucoidan at 1.0 g kg(-1) enhanced the immune response of shrimp and their resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Poliovirus infection and expression of the poliovirus protein 2B provoke the disassembly of the Golgi complex, the organelle target for the antipoliovirus drug Ro-090179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, I V; Carrasco, L

    1997-06-01

    Infection of Vero cells with poliovirus results in complete disassembly of the Golgi complex. Milestones of the process of disassembly are the release to the cytosol of the beta-COP bound to Golgi membranes, the disruption of the cis-Golgi network into fragments scattered throughout the cytoplasm, and the disassembly of the stacked cisternae by a process mediated by long tubular structures. Transient expression of the viral protein 2B in COS-7 cells also causes the disassembly of the Golgi complex by a process preceded by the accumulation of the protein in the Golgi area. Vero cells infected for 3 h show no recognizable Golgi complexes at the ultrastructural level and display an enormously swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with extensive areas of its surface heavily coated. Ro-090179 (Ro), a flavonoid isolated from the herb Agastache rugosa, provokes the specific swelling and disruption of the Golgi complex and strongly inhibits poliovirus infection. Ro provokes the swelling and the disruption of the stacked cisternae and trans-Golgi elements without affecting the cis-most Golgi cisternae much. Moreover, Ro inhibits the fusion of the Golgi complex with the ER in cells treated with brefeldin A and provokes the accumulation of the intermediate compartment membrane protein p58 into ERD2-positive Golgi elements but has no effect on the anterograde transport involved in protein secretion. Our results indicate that the secretory pathway and specifically the Golgi complex are preferential targets of poliovirus.

  9. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... of lobbying actors coded according to different coding schemes. We systematically assess the performance of different schemes by comparing how actor types in the different schemes differ with respect to a number of background characteristics. This is done in a two-stage approach where we first cluster actors...

  10. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  11. In the Early Postpartum Period, Parents are Interested in Newborn Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E.; Bäck, Danielle K.; Liu, Christina; Kalia, Sarah S.; Ringer, Steven A.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Green, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We surveyed parents to ascertain interest in newborn genomic testing and determine whether these queries would provoke refusal of conventional newborn screening (NBS). Methods After brief genetics orientation, parents rated their interest in receiving genomic testing for their healthy newborn on a 5-point Likert scale and answered questions about demographics and health history. We used logistic regression to explore factors associated with interest in genomic testing and tracked any subsequent rejection of NBS. Results We queried 514 parents within 48 hours after birth while still in the hospital (mean age (sd) 32.7 (6.4) years, 65.2% female, 61.2% white, 79.3% married). Parents reported being not at all (6.4%), a little (10.9%), somewhat (36.6%), very (28.0%) or extremely (18.1%) interested in genomic testing for their newborns. None refused conventional NBS. Married participants and those with health concerns about their infant were less interested in newborn genomic testing (p=0.012 and p=0.030, respectively). Mothers’ and fathers’ degree of interest was discordant (≥ 2 categories different) in 24.4% of couples. Conclusions Interest in newborn genomic testing was high among parents of healthy newborns and the majority of couples had similar levels of interest. Surveying parents about genomic sequencing did not prompt rejection of NBS. PMID:25474344

  12. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ahn, Yong [Wooridul spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  13. Realising the child's best interests: lessons from the Child Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the contexts of school discipline and child justice differ considerably there are a number of contact points and points that overlap. Since the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 came into operation in 1996, the Constitutional Court has made several pronouncements on the best-interests-of-the-child concept which ...

  14. Stock Market Capitalisation and Interest Rate in Nigeria: A Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously for the Nigerian capital market to enhance economic growth and development and compare favourably with those of developed market economies, investors will need to be abreast with the happenings and great benefits of the stock market. In this case a lot depends on considerable control of the interest rate, the ...

  15. Interest Traitedness as a Moderator of Interest-Occupation Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Unisex Edition of ACT Interest Inventory and career choice certainty measure were completed by 4,676 12th-graders. Hierarchical regressions were conducted on traitedness, measured by interitem consistency and construct similarity using Holland's personality types. All traitedness indices showed a significant moderating effect on…

  16. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  17. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  18. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  19. Federal Debt and Interests Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    rowing at lower rates would save $0.6 billion The feedback effect of 5 basis points was arbi- in the first year, growing to $3 billion in 1998 trarily...estimate assumes no feedback effects in 1994 and $0.8 billion smaller in 1998 than on interest rates. Some analysts argue, they would have been with no...bread and butter of the Trea- in Britain (which, like other British govern- sury’s financing. Nominal interest rates are ment bonds, are nicknamed gilts

  20. Parent and Public Interest in Whole Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Daniel S.; Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Davis, Matthew M.; Singer, Dianne C.; Tarini, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the baseline interest of the public in whole genome sequencing (WGS) for themselves, parents’ interest in WGS for their youngest children, and factors associated with such interest. Methods A random sample of adults from a probability-based nationally representative online panel was surveyed. All participants were provided basic information about WGS and then asked their interest in WGS for themselves. Those participants who self-identified as parents were asked about their interest in WGS for their children. The order in which parents were asked about their interest in WGS for themselves and their child was randomized. The relationship between parent/child characteristics and interest in WGS was examined. Results Overall response rate was 62% (55% among parents). 58.6% of the total population (parents and non-parents) was interested in WGS for themselves. Similarly, 61.8% of parents were interested in WGS for themselves and 57.8% were interested in WGS for their youngest children. Of note, 84.7% of parents showed an identical interest level in WGS for themselves and their youngest children. Mothers as a whole, and parents whose youngest children had ≥2 health conditions had significantly more interest in WGS for themselves and their youngest children, while those with conservative political ideologies had considerably less. Conclusions While U.S. adults have varying interest levels in WGS, parents appear to have similar interests in genome testing for themselves and their youngest children. As WGS technology becomes available in the clinic and private market, clinicians should be prepared to discuss WGS risks and benefits with their patients. PMID:25765282

  1. Parent and public interest in whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Daniel S; Goldenberg, Aaron J; Davis, Matthew M; Singer, Dianne C; Tarini, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the baseline interest of the public in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for oneself, parents' interest in WGS for their youngest children, and factors associated with such interest. A random sample of adults from a probability-based nationally representative online panel was surveyed. All participants were provided basic information about WGS and then asked about their interest in WGS for themselves. Those participants who were parents were additionally asked about their interest in WGS for their children. The order in which parents were asked about their interest in WGS for themselves and for their child was randomized. The relationship between parent/child characteristics and interest in WGS was examined. The overall response rate was 62% (55% among parents). 58.6% of the total population (parents and nonparents) was interested in WGS for themselves. Similarly, 61.8% of the parents were interested in WGS for themselves and 57.8% were interested in WGS for their youngest children. Of note, 84.7% of the parents showed an identical interest level in WGS for themselves and their youngest children. Mothers as a group and parents whose youngest children had ≥2 health conditions had significantly more interest in WGS for themselves and their youngest children, while those with conservative political ideologies had considerably less. While US adults have varying interest levels in WGS, parents appear to have similar interests in genome testing for themselves and their youngest children. As WGS technology becomes available in the clinic and private market, clinicians should be prepared to discuss WGS risks and benefits with their patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Organizational Change and Vested Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of organizational change and the value of headquarters is derived from a model with costs of delay, vested interests and costs of organizational change.The value of headquarters is derived from imposed organizational change. It is viewed as an institution which is able to prevent surplus

  3. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  4. CENTRE OF THE MAIN INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DELEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the main interests of the debtor is a legal tool meant to settle conflicts that can arise between jurisdictions in cross-border insolvencies, based on the principles of mutual recognition and co-operation.

  5. Preventing Trustee Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpool, David

    1998-01-01

    The potential for conflict of interest in college and university trustees is high. A 1974 court decision (Stern vs. Sibley Memorial Hospital) established guidelines for trustees of nonprofit organizations, and a survey of 566 colleges and universities reveals how institutions are managing such conflicts through policy statements and…

  6. VOCATIONAL INTEREST, COUNSELLING, SOCIO- ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    contribute towards national development. Moreover, the concept of age is attracting more attention from educational psychologists. The girl child is expected to show some level of readiness, and interest in pursuing a vocation with increasing age. Super (1957) reported that reality factors play an increasingly important role ...

  7. Speculation, Hedging, and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul

    of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...

  8. HRCT and bronchial asthma: visualization of the pathophysiologic changes of the pulmonary parenchyma after inhalation provocation; HRCT und Asthma bronchiale: Visualisierung pathophysiologischer Veraenderungen des Lungenparenchyms nach inhalativer Provokation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G.; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Herold, C.J. [Univ. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Abt. fuer konservative Faecher, Vienna (Austria); Riemer, H. [Univ. Klinik fuer Innere Medizin IV, Abt. fuer Pulmologie, Vienna (Austria); Backfrieder, W. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Biomedizinische Technik und Physik; Sertl, K. [Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Floridsdorf (Austria). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin; Pittner, B. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik

    2004-03-01

    alterations of the lung parenchyma subsequent to inhalation provocation. In healthy individuals, these parenchymal alterations were not documented by pulmonary function tests. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei Patienten mit leichtem intermittierenden Asthma bronchiale, aber mit Hyperreaktivitaet auch im freien Intervall, und bei gesunden Probanden sollen mithilfe der hoch aufloesenden Computertomographie (HRCT) roentgenmorphologische Veraenderungen des Lungenparenchyms vor sowie nach inhalativer Histaminprovokation und darauf folgender Lyse durch Salbutamol charakterisiert und mit Ergebnissen von Lungenfunktionstests (FEV{sub 1}, Blutgase) verglichen werden. Methoden: Fuenfzehn Asthmatiker mit bronchialer Hyperreaktivitaet mit FEV{sub 1}-Abfall>20% und PaO{sub 2}-Abfall>10 mmHg nach Provokation (PC20%+), zwoelf Asthmatiker mit FEV{sub 1}-Abfall<20% und PaO{sub 2}-Abfall>10 mmHg nach Provokation (PC20%-) sowie acht Probanden ohne bronchiale Hyperreaktivitaet wurden mit der spirometrisch kontrollierten HRCT bei hohen Fuellungsvolumina vor und nach inhalativer Bronchoprovokation sowie nach Broncholyse untersucht. Es wurden die gesamte und periphere Lungendichte sowie der strukturelle Anteil solider pulmonaler Strukturen bestimmt. Ergebnisse: In allen Gruppen fand sich nach Provokation eine signifikante Abnahme (p<0,0005), nach Broncholyse eine signifikante Zunahme (p<0,0002) der Lungendichte. Die Aenderungen solider Lungenanteile waren nach Provokation und Lyse nicht signifikant unterschiedlich (p>0,05). Bei den hyperreaktiven Patienten fanden sich signifikante PaO{sub 2}-Abnahmen nach Provokation sowie signifikante PaO{sub 2}-Steigerungen nach Lyse (p<0,05). In der Gruppe PC20%+ wurde nach Provokatio ein mittlerer FEV{sub 1}-Abfall von 27,8% beobachtet, in den anderen Gruppen war dieser <20%. Es wurden keine signifikanten Korrelationen zwischen radiologischen und funktionellen Lungentestergebnissen asthmatischer Patienten und Probanden beobachtet. Die bei gesunden Probanden mit der

  9. Interferon-gamma deficiency modifies the motor and co-morbid behavioral pathology and neurochemical changes provoked by the pesticide paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteljohn, D; Mangano, E; Shukla, N; Hayley, S

    2009-12-29

    In addition to nigrostriatal pathology and corresponding motor disturbances, Parkinson's disease (PD) is often characterized by co-morbid neuropsychiatric symptoms, most notably anxiety and depression. Separate lines of evidence indicate that inflammatory processes associated with microglial activation and cytokine release may be fundamental to the progression of both PD and its co-morbid psychiatric pathology. Accordingly, we assessed the contribution of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), to a range of PD-like pathology provoked by the ecologically relevant herbicide and dopamine (DA) toxin, paraquat. To this end, paraquat provoked overt motor impairment (reduced home-cage activity and impaired vertical climbing) and signs of anxiety-like behavior (reduced open field exploration) in wild-type but not IFN-gamma-deficient mice. Correspondingly, paraquat promoted somewhat divergent variations in neurochemical activity among wild-type and IFN-gamma null mice at brain sites important for both motor (striatum) and co-morbid affective pathologies (dorsal hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and locus coeruleus). Specifically, the herbicide provoked a dosing regimen-dependent reduction in striatal DA levels that was prevented by IFN-gamma deficiency. In addition, the herbicide influenced serotonergic and noradrenergic activity within the dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex; and elevated noradrenergic activity within the locus coeruleus. Although genetic ablation of IFN-gamma had relatively few effects on monoamine variations within the locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex, loss of the pro-inflammatory cytokine did normalize the paraquat-induced noradrenergic alterations within the hippocampus. These findings further elucidate the functional implications of paraquat intoxication and suggest an important role for IFN-gamma in the striatal and motor pathology, as well as the co-morbid behavioral and hippocampal changes induced by

  10. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  11. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm(2) forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P palpation

  12. Does the solid-liquid crystal phase transition provoke the spin-state change in spin-crossover metallomesogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyuk, M; Gaspar, A B; Ksenofontov, V; Galyametdinov, Y; Kusz, J; Gütlich, P

    2008-01-30

    crossover behavior at T(1/2) centered around 140 K. The thermal spin transition is accompanied by a pronounced change of color from dark red (LS) to orange (HS). The light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) effect has been investigated in compounds C(6)-2, C(12)-2 and C(18)-2. The T(1/2)LIESST is 56 K (C(6)-2), 48 K (C(16)-2), and 56 K (C(18)-2). On the basis of differential scanning calorimetry, optical polarizing microscopy, and X-ray diffraction findings for C(18)-1, C(12)-2, and C(18)-2 at high temperature a smectic mesophase SX has been identified with layered structures similar to C(6)-1 and C(6)-2. The compounds [Fe(C(n)-trenH)](Cl)2 x sH2O (n = 16 (C(16)-3, s = 3.5, C(16)-4, s = 0.5, C(16)-5, s = 0), 18 (C(18)-3, s = 3.5, C(18)-4, s = 0.5, C(18)-5, s = 0), 20 (C(20)-3, s = 3.5, C(20)-4, s = 0.5, C(20)-5, s = 0)) and [Fe(C18-tren)](F)2 x sH2O (C(18)-6, s = 3.5, C(18)-7, s = 0) show a very particular spin-state change, while [Fe(C18-tren)](Br)2 x 3H2O (C(18)-8) together with [Fe(C18-tren)](I)2 (C(18)-9) are in the LS state (10-400 K) and present mesomorphic behavior like that observed for the complexes C(18)-1, C(12)-2, and C(18)-2. In compounds C(n)-3 50% of the Fe(II) ions undergo spin-state change at T(1/2) = 375 K induced by releasing water, and in partially dehydrated compounds (s = 0.5) the Cr-->SA phase transition occurs at 287 K (C(16)-4), 301 K (C(18)-4) and 330 K (C(20)-4). For the fully dehydrated materials C(n)-5 50% of the Fe(II) ions are in the HS state and show paramagnetic behavior between 10 and 400 K. In the partially dehydrated C(n)-4 the spin transition is induced by the change of the aggregate state of matter (solidliquid crystal). For compound C(18)-6 the full dehydration to C(18)-7 provokes the spin-state change of nearly 50% of the Fe(II) ions. The compounds C(n)-3 and C(18)-6 are dark purple in the LS state and become light purple-brown when 50% of the Fe(II) atoms are in the HS state.

  13. 27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... annual percentage rate of interest will exceed the prescribed rate of interest. (b) Applicability of...

  14. Special Interests and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2017-01-01

    A journalist reports to a voter on an unknown, policy-relevant state. Competing special interests can make claims that contradict the facts but seem credible to the voter. A reputational incentive to avoid taking sides leads the journalist to report special interests’ claims to the voter. In equilibrium, the voter can remain uninformed even when the journalist is perfectly informed. Communication is improved if the journalist discloses her partisan leanings. The model provides an account of persistent public ignorance on climate change that is consistent with narrative and quantitative evidence. PMID:28725092

  15. Consistency problems for Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest rate models

    CERN Document Server

    Filipović, Damir

    2001-01-01

    The book is written for a reader with knowledge in mathematical finance (in particular interest rate theory) and elementary stochastic analysis, such as provided by Revuz and Yor (Continuous Martingales and Brownian Motion, Springer 1991). It gives a short introduction both to interest rate theory and to stochastic equations in infinite dimension. The main topic is the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) methodology for the modelling of interest rates. Experts in SDE in infinite dimension with interest in applications will find here the rigorous derivation of the popular "Musiela equation" (referred to in the book as HJMM equation). The convenient interpretation of the classical HJM set-up (with all the no-arbitrage considerations) within the semigroup framework of Da Prato and Zabczyk (Stochastic Equations in Infinite Dimensions) is provided. One of the principal objectives of the author is the characterization of finite-dimensional invariant manifolds, an issue that turns out to be vital for applications. Finally, ge...

  16. Algunas consideraciones bioéticas en la experimentación en animales, seres humanos y trasplantología Some bioethical considerations concerning transplantology and experimentation with animals and human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiana Galvizu Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una reflexión sobre el origen y conceptualización de la Bioética. Se abordo la etica en la experimentacion con animales de laboratorio y seres humanos, asi como en dilemas que aparecen en el curso de la investigacion cientifica en ambos campos. Asimismo, son tratados aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta en la trasplantologia. Se concluye que el incumplimiento de las normas eticas en la investigacion cientifica genera dilemas bioeticos que deben resolverse en funcion del bienestar humano y animal en contraposicion a los intereses comerciales y politicos.The article revises some of the considerations concerning both the origin and conceptualization of Bioethics. It deals with ethical aspects related to experimentation with laboratory animals and human beings, as well as some of the dilemmas that usually come up during the course of testing. It also considers the ethical aspects of transplantology. As conclusions, it states that breaking ethical standards of scientific research provokes bioethical dilemmas, which must be solved to favor human and animal wellbeing against economical and political interests.

  17. Responding to and Supporting Students with Disabilities: Risk Management Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Anne; Shackelford, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Making the "right" risk management decisions involving students with significant psychological disabilities requires a clear and comprehensive understanding of the legal obligations and duties at issue. It also requires taking into consideration the best interests of these individual students. At the same time, decision makers must focus…

  18. A Subset of Membrane-Altering Agents and γ-Secretase Modulators Provoke Nonsubstrate Cleavage by Rhomboid Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Urban

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhomboid proteases are integral membrane enzymes that regulate cell signaling, adhesion, and organelle homeostasis pathways, making substrate specificity a key feature of their function. Interestingly, we found that perturbing the membrane pharmacologically in living cells had little effect on substrate processing but induced inappropriate cleavage of nonsubstrates by rhomboid proteases. A subclass of drugs known to modulate γ-secretase activity acted on the membrane directly and induced nonsubstrate cleavage by rhomboid proteases but left true substrate cleavage sites unaltered. These observations highlight an active role for the membrane in guiding rhomboid selectivity and caution that membrane-targeted drugs should be evaluated for cross-activity against membrane-resident enzymes that are otherwise unrelated to the intended drug target. Furthermore, some γ-secretase-modulating activity or toxicity could partly result from global membrane effects.

  19. Astrophysically Interesting Resonances; Another Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Roby; Jenkins, David

    2008-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, A. Campbell, S. Colosimo, S. Reeve Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods T. Davinson University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu A. Hurst J.A. Becker Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; G.C. Ball M. Djongolov G. Hackman A.C. Morton, C. Pearson, S.J. Williams TRIUMF; A.A. Phillips, M. Schumaker, University of Guelph H.Boston, A. Grint, D. Oxley, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; We describe a prototype experiment to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with charged particles, inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics. The particles are detected with the Bambino detector modified to a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab.

  20. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  1. 24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon by the mortgagor and mortgagee. (b) Adjustable interest...

  2. Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    REVIEW. Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations. Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem. Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Received 25 May 2014; accepted 27 May 2014. Available online 21 June 2014. KEYWORDS. Genetic imprinting;. Mutations;. Re-sense mutation;. Epigenetic alterations;.

  3. Considerations for GPU SEE Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the considerations an engineer should take to perform Single Event Effects (SEE) testing on GPU devices. Notable topics will include setup complexity, architecture insight which permits cross platform normalization, acquiring a reasonable detail of information from the test suite, and a few lessons learned from preliminary testing.

  4. Nutrition policy in whose interests? A New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2012-08-01

    In the context of the global obesity epidemic, national nutrition policies have come under scrutiny. The present paper examines whose interests - industry or public health - are served by these policies and why. Using an exemplary case study of submissions to an inquiry into obesity, the research compared the positions of industry and public health groups with that taken by government. We assessed whether the interests were given equal consideration (a pluralist model of influence) or whether the interests of one group were favoured over the other (a neo-pluralist model). 2006 New Zealand Inquiry into Obesity. Food and advertising industry and public health submitters. The Government's position was largely aligned with industry interests in three of four policy domains: the national obesity strategy; food industry policy; and advertising and marketing policies. The exception to this was nutrition policy in schools, where the Government's position was aligned with public health interests. These findings support the neo-pluralist model of interest group influence. The dominance of the food industry in national nutrition policy needs to be addressed. It is in the interests of the public, industry and the state that government regulates the food and advertising industries and limits the involvement of industry in policy making. Failure to do so will be costly for individuals, in terms of poor health and earlier death, costly to governments in terms of the associated health costs, and costly to both the government and industry due to losses in human productivity.

  5. Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, M; Spieler, D; Wizelman, L; Epple, G; Stich, J; Zaba, M; Schmidt, U

    2017-02-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans. To evaluate for the first time how oxytocin influences the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms and, furthermore, cardiac control in female PTSD patients, we assessed their psychic and cardiac response to trauma-script exposure with and without oxytocin pretreatment in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. We used a within-subject design to study 35 female PTSD patients who received oxytocin and placebo in a 2-week interval. Furthermore, we performed a small pilot study to get an idea of the relation of the stress-modulated endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate - we correlated oxytocin serum levels with the heart rate of 10 healthy individuals before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Intranasal oxytocin treatment was followed by a reduction of provoked total PTSD symptoms, in particular of avoidance, and by an elevation in baseline and maximum heart rate together with a drop in the pre-ejection period, a marker for sympathetic cardiac control. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate both before and after TSST challenge in healthy control subjects. This study provides the first evidence that oxytocin treatment reduces the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms in female PTSD patients. The small size of both samples and the heterogeneity of the patient sample restrict the

  6. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  7. Balancing commercial and public interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevick Mary

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis. A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.

  8. Balancing commercial and public interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Curt D; Hall, Mark A; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2004-07-07

    Alarge number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis.A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.

  9. Massage treatment and medial tibial stress syndrome; A commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    As students and practitioners we are taught about the treatment and causative factors of medial shin pain, in particular' shin splints' or the more recent term; medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). During the years there have been many theories, conjecture and misunderstandings about the mechanisms of 'shin splints/medial tibial stress syndrome' however the ramifications of these mechanisms on how massage treatment is delivered have not being discussed. The evidence for the treatment of MTSS is largely clinical with little evidence of any treatment being proven to be effective in treating MTSS. The aim of this article is to present a summary of the mechanisms of MTSS and a commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS based on these mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Considerations in Adapting Clinical Trial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. James Hung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of adaptation of trial design during the course of a clinical trial has recently drawn much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. The interest arises partly because statistical decision trees employed to address multiple complex clinical hypotheses within a clinical trial are increasingly complex, and the statistical information generated from learning data prior to designing the trial is often insufficient to provide informative guidance for planning a pivotal trial. While the conventional fixed designs, which usually permit no modification influenced by the internal trial data of key design specifications, often cannot cover the range of complex statistical decision trees that must be prespecified in the study protocol, it seems natural to consider modifications of trial design at some point in the trial. In regulatory practice, some adjustments to study protocols are mostly made known to regulatory agencies in the form of so-called protocol amendments. However, such design modifications may demand careful consideration in dealing with any biases that may be caused by the adaptation, and may impede the interpretability of trial results.

  11. Safety considerations in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanal, E.; Shellock, F.G.; Talagala, L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The authors identify eight areas of potential safety concern during clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These include (a) biologic effects of the static magnetic field; (b) ferromagnetic attractive projectile effects of the static magnetic field; (c) potential effects of the relatively slowly time-varying magnetic field gradients; (d) effects of the rapidly varying radio-frequency (RF) magnetic fields, including RF power deposition concerns; (e) auditory considerations from noise caused by the rapidly pulsed magnetic field gradients; (f) safety considerations concerning superconductive systems, including quenches, use of cryogens, and cryogen storage and handling; (g) psychological effects, such as claustrophobia and anxiety induced because of the examination; and (h) possible effects of the intravenous use of the MR contrast agent gadopentetate dimeglumine. The concerns in each of these categories are elaborated upon, and the available data are presented to clarify their status.155 references.

  12. Effects of electrocautery to provoke endovascular thermal injury Efeitos do eletrocautério para provocar lesão térmica endovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Henrique Rossi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a new electrocautery device to provoke endovascular venous thermal injury. METHODS: An experimental endovascular electrocautery was placed inside eight ex-vivo bovine saphenous veins models. Each one was divided in eight segments and progressive intensities of electric energy liberated. The macroscopic and microscopic effects were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty bovine saphenous veins segments were studied. The higher the electric energy applied the greater the nuclear picnosis and more intense the cytoplasmatic shrinkage and electrocoagulation effects. CONCLUSION: The experimental endovascular electrocautery device demonstrated to be both capable of inducing the destruction of the intimal layers of the studied vein model and provoke endovascular thermal injury.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos de um modelo experimental de eletrocautério em provocar lesão venosa térmica endovascular. MÉTODOS: O eletrocautério endovascular foi colocado dentro de oito modelos experimentais de veia safena bovina. Cada uma foi dividida em oito segmentos e intensidades progressivas de energia elétrica liberada. Os efeitos macroscópicos e microscópicos foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados quarenta segmentos de veia safena bovina. Quanto maior a energia elétrica aplicada pelo eletrocauterizador endovascular maiores foram as alteraçoes de picnose nuclear e mais intensa a retração citoplasmática observada. CONCLUSÃO: O eletrocautério endovascular experimental demonstrou ser capaz de induzir a destruição da camada íntima e provocar lesão térmica endovascular.

  13. Security considerations in distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rhead, Donovan Ross

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates computer security considerations in distributed systems. In particular, it concentrates on assisting managers to gain an appreciation for what distributed systems are, and what are the inherent security issues in these systems. A survey of the literature on computer security was conducted to identify those issues unique to distributed systems. Although many controls are discussed, management must design ...

  14. Macroeconomic effects of high interest rate policy: Mexico’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lopez Gallardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of the high interest rate policy implemented in Mexico under the inflation targeting (IT scheme on the price level and on GDP and its components. We specify a macroeconomic model inspired by the theory of the effective demand, and on this basis we demonstrate, through comparative statics, the complex set of relationships between the variables involved, and the chain of reactions that a shock to the interest rate is likely to provoke. Our main conclusions show that an interest rate rise may be instrumental to control inflation. However, this rise contributes to appreciate the exchange rate, which is the main channel through which inflation is tamed. Currency appreciation raises the share of wages in GDP even as it reduces the debt service of firms indebted in dollars. It follows that the interest rate rise may have, under certain conditions, an indirect positive impact on output. Thus, our results diverge from those entailed by the theory that is at the basis of the inflation-targeting strategy, and even from some contemporary non-conventional approaches.

  15. 7 CFR 3565.211 - Interest credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest credit. 3565.211 Section 3565.211... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.211 Interest credit. (a... assistance in the form of interest credit, to the extent necessary to reduce the agreed-upon rate of interest...

  16. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture... Interest rates. The interest rate for the guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more...

  17. 24 CFR 200.83 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 200.83 Section 200... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.83 Interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) Interest shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4274.325 Section 4274.325 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.325 Interest rates. (a) Loans made by the Agency pursuant to this subpart shall bear interest at a fixed rate of 1 percent per annum over the term of the loan. (b) Interest rates charged by...

  19. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4280.124 Section 4280.124 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.124 Interest rates. (a) The interest rate for the... in similar circumstances in the ordinary course of business. The interest rate charged is subject to...

  20. 24 CFR 232.560 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 232.560 Section 232... Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.560 Interest rate. (a) The loan shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the lender and the borrower. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender and...

  2. CYBERCULTURE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION: some ontological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Zoboli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a synthesis of a philosophical inquiry about epistemological impasses provoked by social and cultural changes in sports cyberculture of electronic games and robotic and its implications in physical education. We define philosophy like a justification and signification of the human questions drawn by the limits of the conscience while experience of the world and the implications of the material conflicts over social relationships. So, our theoretical and methodological horizon derives from materialism dialect (Adorno, ontology (Merleau-Ponty and the semiotics (Peirce and Lévy.

  3. The Interest in Nanomaterials for Topical Photoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Couteau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU No 344/2013 stands at a total of 27 (26 organic filters and one inorganic filter-titanium dioxide. After the development of methods for determining the efficacy of sun protection products (both in vivo and in vitro, a certain number of authors took an interest in the parameters involved in the efficacy of this category of products. The nature of the filter, the concentration used and the influence of certain ingredients in the formula are all criteria to be taken into account. Concerning titanium dioxide, considerable progress has been made in order to increase its efficacy and to facilitate its implementation. The reduction of the size of the particles used has allowed the products to be more transparent (the pale clown’s mask of days passed is just a bad memory and above all, to be more effective. The study of a large number of commercial forms of titanium dioxide enables to conclude that nanoparticular titanium dioxide is far superior to pigmentary titanium dioxide. An emulsion composed of 25% pigmentary titanium dioxide only enables Sun Protection Factor (SPF 5 to be obtained. The same emulsion but with 25% coated nanoparticular titanium dioxide (Tayca MT-100TV enables a Sun Protection Factor of around 40 to be reached. The reduction of the size of the filtering particles thus proves to be indispensable for the development of highly protective sun protection products.

  4. Interest rate changes and stock returns in Spain: A wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moya-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between changes in interest rates and the Spanish stock market at the industry level over the period from January 1993 to December 2012 using a wavelet-based approach. The empirical results indicate that Spanish industries exhibit, in general, a significant interest rate sensitivity, although the degree of interest rate exposure differs considerably across industries and depending on the time horizon under consideration. In particular, regulated industries such as Utilities, highly indebted industries such as Real Estate, Utilities or Technology and Telecommunications, and the Banking industry emerge as the most vulnerable to interest rates. Further, the link between movements in interest rates and industry equity returns is stronger at the coarsest scales. This finding is consistent with the idea that investors with long-term horizons are more likely to follow macroeconomic fundamentals, such as interest rates, in their investment decisions.

  5. Physiology Considerations in Geriatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis, Bret D; Hughes, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Physiology changes at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as people age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system develops higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system undergoes a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin levels, the gastrointestinal system experiences delayed gastric emptying and reduction of hepatic metabolism, and the renal system experiences a diminished glomerular filtration rate. Combined, these changes create a complex physiologic condition. This unique physiology must be taken into consideration for geriatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  7. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  8. Deep-sea mining: Economic, technical, technological, and environmental considerations for sustainable development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    for exploration and mining of seafloor massive sulfides to private entrepreneurs, indicate the continuing interest and support the perception that such deposits may serve as sources of metals in the 21st century. However, there are several considerations...

  9. Psychological considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambro, Bryan T; Wright, Richard J

    2008-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is a unique challenge. In addition to the technical considerations that are inherently more difficult than those of primary cases, the surgeon must also be mindful of the psychological considerations that revision rhinoplasty presents. These patients are by definition unhappy with their prior rhinoplasty experience, and this perception of a suboptimal result is both legitimate and real, even if the surgeon is not in agreement. Tantamount to any intraoperative technique, the preoperative ability of the surgeon to sift through the myriad psychological and psychosocial issues is critical to achieving satisfactory outcomes for both patient and surgeon. Reasons for dissatisfaction with a primary surgery, reasons for seeking revision surgery, and the psychological profiles of revision rhinoplasty patients can differ from those related to other facial cosmetic procedures. This article attempts to provide the reader with a better understanding of the complex interplay of these issues and with this understanding help the reader to distinguish one who is a favorable surgical candidate from one who is best left unrevised.

  10. Biosimilars: Practical Considerations for Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, James G; Popovian, Robert; Jacobs, Ira; Hurst, Susan; Shane, Lesley G

    2017-07-01

    To review the scientific and regulatory aspects of biosimilar development and practical considerations for the use of biosimilars that are relevant to pharmacists. Literature searches of PubMed and congress abstracts for publications pertaining to biosimilars were conducted from January 2016 to January 2017. Individual drug company web pages and governmental, regulatory, and other agency websites were also reviewed. Published articles, regulatory guidelines, and other sources covering biologic/biosimilar development and approval, reporting results of biosimilar studies or survey research, and/or identifying biosimilars in development or approved for use in Europe or the United States were reviewed and included. Biologic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of serious diseases, including hematological or autoimmune disorders and cancers. A biosimilar is highly similar to a licensed biologic (ie, reference or originator) and has no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, and potency. Unlike small-molecule drugs, biologics are large, complex proteins that cannot be exactly replicated, so the concept of a generic equivalent cannot be applied to biologics. Regulatory agencies have provided a framework for biosimilar approval, but there are many practical considerations for pharmacists, including interchangeability, substitution, naming, indication extrapolation, product labeling, therapeutic drug monitoring, manufacturer attributes, logistics of product use, and reimbursement. Pharmacists will play a key role in managing the introduction of biosimilars into health care systems. Understanding the principles of biosimilar development and evolving regulatory guidelines relevant to their use will allow pharmacists to make informed decisions regarding formulary inclusion and educate patients and other health care providers about biosimilars.

  11. Considerations for climate intervention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  12. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  13. Effects of Grade Level, Community of Residence, and Sex on Adolescent Career Interests in the Zone of Acceptable Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory was completed by 567 Indiana 8th graders and 419 11th graders (508 female, 478 male; 592 rural, 394 urban). Career interest scores were not uniformly lower for 11th graders, showing that career interests do not narrow considerably. Rural students had higher realistic interests; those of rural boys were more…

  14. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  15. Development of a Career Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hollie B.

    1974-01-01

    The educational significance of the present study lies in the potential use of the Career Interest by career educators needing to identify students with interests in particular career areas and to counselors placing students into various career courses. (BP)

  16. 37 CFR 251.31 - Financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or blind trust which might have an interest in a prohibited entity but whose decisions to invest or... own interests: (1) The arbitrator's spouse; (2) The arbitrator's minor child; (3) The arbitrator's...

  17. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, M.E. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  18. Cultural variation: considerations and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D

    2001-07-01

    Cultural systems vary widely across the world. Partly this is due to different cultures' occupying different ecological and environmental niches. But partly it is due to similar circumstances giving rise to multiple stable equilibriums, each with a distinct cultural form. Using insights and examples from various fields, this article illustrates the way that multiple equilibriums can emerge and the forces that push a culture toward one equilibrium point or another. Considerations of game theory principles, mutual interdependence, historical circumstance, dependence on initial conditions, and crucial choice points are highlighted in discussing the ways humans create and re-create their culture. Cultural traits develop within physical, social, intracultural, and intercultural niches, and implications of this for how culture might be studied and the benefits of combining an "equilibrium" perspective and a "meaning" perspective are discussed.

  19. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  20. Safety considerations in grinding HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moodie, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Fine-particle HMX powders are of interest for a variety of applications in Department of Energy weapons programs. A process is described for producing these materials in two stages: first, precipitation to yield a relatively coarse, free-flowing product of the desired polymorph, followed by dry grinding in a fluid energy mill using air as the working fluid. Surface area of the final product can be specified over a wide range by varying the parameters of the grinding operation. Inherent safety features of this type of mill are discussed, in addition to several operating procedures which further increase the safety of the grinding process.

  1. Practical Considerations in Sepsis Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex; Modisett, Katharine L; Woods, Christian J

    2017-04-01

    Sepsis is a common condition managed in the emergency department, and the majority of patients respond to resuscitation measures, including antibiotics and i.v. fluids. However, a proportion of patients will fail to respond to standard treatment. This review elucidates practical considerations for management of sepsis in patients who fail to respond to standard treatment. Early goal-directed therapy revolutionized sepsis management. However, there is a paucity of literature that provides a well-defined treatment algorithm for patients who fail to improve with therapy. Refractory shock can be defined as continued patient hemodynamic instability (mean arterial pressure, ≤ 65 mm Hg, lactate ≥ 4 mmol/L, altered mental status) after adequate fluid loading (at least 30 mL/kg i.v.), the use of two vasopressors (with one as norepinephrine), and provision of antibiotics. When a lack of improvement is evident in the early stages of resuscitation, systematically considering source control, appropriate volume resuscitation, adequate antimicrobial coverage, vasopressor selection, presence of metabolic pathology, and complications of resuscitation, such as abdominal compartment syndrome and respiratory failure, allow emergency physicians to address the entire clinical scenario. The care of sepsis has experienced many changes in recent years. Care of the patient with sepsis who is not responding appropriately to initial resuscitation is troublesome for emergency physicians. This review provides practical considerations for resuscitation of the patient with septic shock. When a septic patient is refractory to standard therapy, systematically evaluating the patient and clinical course may lead to improved outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, John; White, Alan

    1990-01-01

    This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to be very tractable analytically. The article compares option prices obtained using the extended Vasicek model with ...

  3. Can Animals have preference-interests?

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Tanne

    2007-01-01

    It has been argued that only moral agents can have preference-interests and this therefore excludes animals. I will present two objections to this argument. The first will show that moral agency is not necessary to have preference-interests. The second will assert that the argument that animals cannot have preference-interests has unwelcome consequences.

  4. Reading Interest in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Nur Hidayanto Pancoro Setyo; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-01-01

    The era of "digital literacy" raises the question of whether the meaning of reading interest may have changed. This study examined psycho-behavioral dimensions of reading interest as these relate to different reading modes and different purposes of reading. Findings show that reading interest is best represented by its subcomponents of…

  5. Interest prohibition and financial product innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We give a rough sketch of the Judaic, Greek, Islamic and Christian positions in the matter of interest prohibition during the last few millennia and discuss the way in which interest prohibition is dealt with in Islamic finance, the problems with authority-based arguments for interest prohibition,

  6. Items of interest from recent ornithological literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hereby introduce a new feature for Scopus: Items of interest from recent ornithological literature. We hope to have this feature in all forthcoming issues of Scopus, switching between topics based on interest and articles received. Besides the Editorial Board occasionally soliciting articles, we welcome pieces from interested ...

  7. ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OF EXCHANGE AND INTEREST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common stock value is affected by two important economic and financial risk factors namely interest rate and exchange rate. Interest rate which reflects the price of money also affects other variables in the financial market. Valuation of stock prices is indirectly affected by interest rates while directly its volatility causes a shift ...

  8. 5 CFR 1655.7 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 1655.7 Section 1655.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.7 Interest rate. (a... interest rate established by the Department of the Treasury in effect on the date the TSP record keeper...

  9. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 3575.33 Section 3575.33 Agriculture... GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4312 Interest rates. (a... such loans either bear interest at a rate that is agreed upon by the veteran and the lender, or bear...

  12. 7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture... rate. (a) The Soldiers and Sailors Relief Act requires that the effective interest rate charged a... Supervisor will send the borrower a letter which states that the interest rate on the borrower's FmHA or its...

  13. 13 CFR 120.932 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 120.932 Section 120.932 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.932 Interest rate. The interest rate of the 504 Loan...

  14. 76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... insured credit unions to have a written policy addressing interest rate risk (IRR) management and an... (FICUs) to have a written policy and an effective program addressing interest rate risk (IRR) as part of...

  15. 7 CFR 1714.4 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1714.4 Section 1714.4 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS General § 1714.4 Interest rates. (a) Municipal rate loans. Each advance of funds on a municipal rate loan shall bear interest at a single rate...

  16. 8 CFR 293.2 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2 Aliens... CASH RECEIVED TO SECURE IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury has determined that effective from date of deposit occurring after April 27, 1966, the interest rate shall be 3...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks... Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and direct lender association shall bear interest at a rate or rates as may be determined by the institution board. The board...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1779.33 Section 1779.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates.... Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in similar circumstances in the ordinary...

  19. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  20. 7 CFR 29.28 - Interested party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interested party. 29.28 Section 29.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.28 Interested party. The owner or other financially interested person...

  1. Following Passionate Interests to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between interests and well-being by conceptualizing interest as both an emotional state and a stable disposition. First, interest is explored as a distinct emotion or affective state, itself a form of well-being that also leads to other forms of well-being by facilitating the development of diverse life…

  2. Dialectical roots for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing

  3. 31 CFR 10.29 - Conflicting interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict of interest. A conflict of interest exists if— (1) The representation of one client will be... more clients will be materially limited by the practitioner's responsibilities to another client, a... existence of a conflict of interest under paragraph (a) of this section, the practitioner may represent a...

  4. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflicts of interest. (a) Retained entity's responsibility. A retained entity working under an arrangement... responsibility. A retained entity shall ensure that all key individuals have no personal conflicts of interest... 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury...

  5. Strike up Student Interest through Song: Technology and Westward Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Sheet music, song lyrics, and audio recordings may not be the first primary sources that come to mind when considering ways to teach about changes brought about by technology during westward expansion, but these sources engage students in thought provoking ways. In this article the author presents a 1917 photograph of Mountain Chief, of the Piegan…

  6. Can an exercise bicycle be safely used in the epilepsy monitoring unit?: An exercise method to provoke epileptic seizures and the related safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Seo, Ji-Hye; Na, Geon-Youb; Hong, Seung Bong; Joo, Eun Yeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-05-01

    Long-term videoelectroencephalogram (video-EEG) monitoring is performed to diagnose an epileptic seizure and to investigate the differential diagnosis of paroxysmal events. To provoke an epileptic seizure, an exercise method is performed in some cases during long-term video-EEG recording in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). The purpose of this study was two-fold: to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events associated with the use of an exercise bicycle and to find a way to safely use it in the EMU. A retrospective survey was performed on all epileptic seizure videos recorded in the EMU from January 2012 to December 2013. Three hundred and fifty patients were included in this study. Eleven patients experienced an epileptic seizure while riding the exercise bicycle in the EMU. One patient's foot got stuck between the cycling pedal and its strap, and one patient fell off the exercise bicycle during the epileptic seizure. However, there were no serious adverse events over two years. Epileptic seizures were not frequent while riding the exercise bicycle, and serious injuries did not occur. But, there is a need to improve the safety in the EMU to control the potentially dangerous factors associated with the use of the exercise bicycle and to continuously monitor the patients with help from the staff. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Talking About Sex When Sex Is Painful: Dyadic Sexual Communication Is Associated With Women's Pain, and Couples' Sexual and Psychological Outcomes in Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Nealis, Logan J

    2016-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent vulvovaginal pain condition associated with psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners, including lower quality of dyadic sexual communication compared to pain-free couples. Although greater sexual communication is associated with positive sexual and relational outcomes for both pain-free couples and couples experiencing painful sex, little is known about its role in women's pain and psychological outcomes, especially in a relational context. The present study examined associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 107 couples in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD via a standardized gynecological assessment. Women completed a measure of pain intensity, and both members of the couple completed measures of their dyadic sexual communication, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women and partners' own perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were associated with their own greater sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning, and lower depressive symptoms. Partners' perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were also associated with women's lower pain and greater sexual satisfaction. Results point to the importance of dyadic coping conceptualizations for both individual and interpersonal outcomes in PVD. Dyadic sexual communication may be a key treatment target for interventions aimed at improving the pain and psychological and sexual impairments of women with PVD and their partners.

  8. To say or not to say: Dyadic ambivalence over emotional expression and its associations with pain, sexuality, and distress in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Nayla; Bergeron, Sophie; Steben, Marc; Hainault, Victoria-Ann; McDuff, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and taxing female genital pain condition. Despite the intimate nature of this pain and the fact that affective factors such as anxiety have been shown to modulate its manifestations, no study has yet explored the emotional regulation of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD. Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is an emotional regulation variable that quantifies the extent to which a person is comfortable with the way she or he expresses emotions. We examined whether the dyadic AEE of couples in which the woman suffers from PVD was differentially associated with women's pain and couples' psychological, sexual, and relational functioning. Couples (N = 254), in which the woman suffered from PVD, completed the AEE questionnaire. A couple typology of dyadic AEE was created. Dependent measures for both members of the couple were the global measure of sexual satisfaction scale, the Beck depression inventory II, and the revised dyadic adjustment scale. The female sexual function index and the sexual history form were used to assess the sexual function of women and men, respectively. Women also completed the pain rating index of the McGill pain questionnaire. Couples, in which both partners were considered low on AEE, had the highest scores on sexual satisfaction (P = 0.02) and function (P sexual, and relational outcomes. Results indicate that emotional regulation may be important to consider in the assessment and treatment of couples coping with PVD. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Perceiving the target's state or state provoked by the target? An analysis of the descriptive and evaluative knowledge in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Astrid; Mollaret, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    In line with the theory of traits as generalized affordances, the present article argues that target's states (TSs) and states provoked by a target (other's states (OSs) towards target) are two components of the meaning of traits referring, respectively, to a descriptive and to an evaluative knowledge of people. A preliminary study confirmed that TS and OS were equally representative of a trait. Two studies were designed to study the effects of practising the use of traits as either TS or OS categories (an induction procedure) on a subsequent person perception task, requiring participants to rate photographed targets on a series of traits. Results show that both the differentiation between targets and evaluative consistency of ratings were enhanced under the OS condition compared to TS and control (with no practice of traits) conditions. Importantly, Study 2 tends to show that the effects of the induction procedure are not limited to the practised traits but also generalize to unpractised traits. Implications of these findings for social perception research are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Using didactical situations to enhance interest in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rask

    2010-01-01

    The theory of didactical situations (TDS) has proven its worth during decades in the French school system. Recently there has been made attempts to transfer this theory form its origin in mathematical education and into science education in general. These attempts seem to be successful......, but this paper discuss whether the transfer of TDS into science education could bring more than just enhanced learning of essential knowledge in a subject area. Here is presented some considerations that might also turn TDS into a powerful tool for interest development in the science education....

  11. Experimental considerations on the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bokyung; Seog, Ji Hyun; Graham, Lauren M; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are one of the leading nanomaterials currently under investigation due to their applicability in various fields, including drug and gene delivery, biosensors, cancer treatment and diagnostic tools. Moreover, the number of commercial products containing nanoparticles released on the market is rapidly increasing. Nanoparticles are already widely distributed in air, cosmetics, medicines and even in food. Therefore, the unintended adverse effect of nanoparticle exposure is a growing concern both academically and socially. In this context, the toxicity of nanoparticles has been extensively studied; however, several challenges are encountered due to the lack of standardized protocols. In order to improve the experimental conditions of nanoparticle toxicity studies, serious consideration is critical to obtain reliable and realistic data. The cell type must be selected considering the introduction route and target organ of the nanoparticle. In addition, the nanoparticle dose must reflect the realistic concentration of nanoparticles and must be loaded as a well-dispersed form to observe the accurate size- and shape-dependent effect. In deciding the cytotoxicity assay method, it is important to choose the appropriate method that could measure the toxicity of interest without the false-negative or -positive misinterpretation of the toxicity result. PMID:21793681

  12. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  13. Rhizobacterial salicylate production provokes headaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Ran, L.X.; Mercado-Blanco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Salicylic acid (SA) is produced in significant amounts by certain plant growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria, and some of these rhizobacteria have the ability to induce systemic resistance against diseases in plants. Exogenous application of SA to plants has long been known to lead to

  14. An Inquiry into Juan Ramon's Interest in Walter Pater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Wilcox

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence for Juan Ramon's interest in Pater, which began around 1920 and was still active twenty years later, is discussed in this paper. Pater's view of death and dying and his attitude toward the decadent persona are described in so far as they indicate the spiritual affinity that exists between him and Juan Ramón. Pater's aesthetic idealism, and the presence of similar ideals in Juan Ramon's own work are then examined. The second part of the paper concentrates on the great interest Juan Ramón took in Pater's evocation of the Mona Lisa. The potential impact of the aesthetic idealism inherent in this passage, its Platonism in particular, receives special analysis in the light of Espacio , and in consideration of Juan Ramon's 1943 remark: "I am, have been, and always will be a Platonist."

  15. Cultural considerations at Three Gorges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rushu [China TGP Development Corporation, Hunbei (China)

    2000-08-01

    More than 100 interesting relics and sites will be affected when the Yangtze Three Gorges dam is impounded in one of the most important historical regions of China. This great tourist attraction has survived for 5000 years. The Chinese government is fully cognisant of the need to protect its inheritance and appropriate plans have been formulated in advance of the lake (surface area 1084 km{sup 2}) which will be formed. The article discusses protection measures, policies and laws for cultural protection, and the fate of relics found. The types of relics in the area are listed and a summary of the project programme is given. The plans are in place to build a first class hydro scheme whilst protecting the environment and protecting cultural relics and heritage.

  16. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile A. van den Heuvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic. This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings.

  17. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  18. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  19. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  20. Examining the Significance of Social Class in the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsed Cosmetic Advertisements by Emily Forster -2009- A Dissertation presented in part consideration for the degree of MSc International Business.

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Celebrity endorsements have become the most used and prevailing marketing strategy of advertising today in the UK. The ever-increasing public interest and fascination with celebrities provides marketers with the vast potential to promote their brands and expand their markets by capitalising on this phenomenon. Social class is conceptually complicated and methodologically challenging and yet continues to provide provoking insights into consumption choices. This study examines the impact ...

  1. Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Suzi; Hansen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;......Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;...

  2. Dangers of neglecting non-financial conflicts of interest in health and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Miriam; Kerridge, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2017-11-24

    Non-financial interests, and the conflicts of interest that may result from them, are frequently overlooked in biomedicine. This is partly due to the complex and varied nature of these interests, and the limited evidence available regarding their prevalence and impact on biomedical research and clinical practice. We suggest that there are no meaningful conceptual distinctions, and few practical differences, between financial and non-financial conflicts of interest, and accordingly, that both require careful consideration. Further, a better understanding of the complexities of non-financial conflicts of interest, and their entanglement with financial conflicts of interest, may assist in the development of a more sophisticated approach to all forms of conflicts of interest. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Temporal stability of occupational interest inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrella, K L; Schuerger, J M

    1990-06-01

    Test-retest reliability data gathered from 83 sources (62 independent samples) were analyzed using a multiple-regression method to estimate the effects of several factors on the temporal stability of occupational interest inventories. Seven self-report inventories were examined--the Act Interest Inventory, the Career Assessment Inventory, the California Occupational Preference System Interest Survey, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, Form T325 of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Samples encompassed a wide range of subjects. Subjects' ages and retest intervals were significant predictors of reliability. Number of items and homogeneity had anomalous relations with stability. Subjects' sex and sample size did not significantly affect reliability. A summary table provides expected reliability coefficients tabulated for combinations of age by test-retest interval.

  4. Can Animals have preference-interests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tanne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that only moral agents can have preference-interests and this therefore excludes animals. I will present two objections to this argument. The first will show that moral agency is not necessary to have preference-interests. The second will assert that the argument that animals cannot have preference-interests has unwelcome consequences.

  5. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari

    2015-12-01

    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.

  6. THE NATIONAL INTEREST, WESTMINSTER, AND PUBLIC CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    There has been increasing scrutiny of government policy decisions and advice in recent years. The supremacy of the national interest has been questioned and self interest theories explored. Administrative systems have been reformed, and the role of the Westminster model of government decision-making endlessly reviewed. Increased interest by economists in the policy process has created a new subject area in economics, namely, public choice theory. It places greater emphasis on individual choic...

  7. Vested interest and environmental risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Crano, William D.; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2014-01-01

    found (both at "between cities" and "within city" levels). Study 2 (N=444) looked at the moderating role of VIT-based risk communication messages on the relationship between vested interest and behavioral intentions. Components of vested interest moderate attitude-intention consistency, suggesting a new......Vested interest theory (VIT), first investigated on environmental risk, suggests that the hedonic relevance of an attitude object moderates relations between attitudes, intentions, and responses to danger. Emphasizing vested interest may maximize impacts of risk communications. Study 1 (N=215...

  8. Conflicts of Interest in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Conflict of interest is common in the practice of medicine, and likely more so in the practice of sports medicine at the highest levels of competition. Two areas where conflict of interest frequently manifest in sports medicine are confidentiality and clinical decision making. Confidentiality can be challenging by the team physician's dual responsibilities to the player-patient and the team. Clinical decision making, traditionally associated with a patient's long term health interests, can be complicated by short term interests rooted in pursuit of winning. These issues are reviewed, hopefully to increase awareness in clinicians who find themselves in these unique situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Evidence that In Vivo Intracerebral Administration of L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid to Neonatal Rats Provokes Disruption of Redox Status and Histopathological Abnormalities in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Leipnitz, Guilhian; de Oliveira, Francine Hehn; Seminotti, Bianca; Wajner, Moacir

    2018-02-06

    Tissue accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) is the biochemical hallmark of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic inherited disease characterized by neurological symptoms and brain white matter abnormalities whose pathogenesis is not yet well established. L-2-HG was intracerebrally administered to rat pups at postnatal day 1 (P1) to induce a rise of L-2-HG levels in the central nervous system (CNS). Thereafter, we investigated whether L-2-HG in vivo administration could disturb redox homeostasis and induce brain histopathological alterations in the cerebral cortex and striatum of neonatal rats. L-2-HG markedly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (increase of 2',7'-dichloroflurescein-DCFH-oxidation), lipid peroxidation (increase of malondialdehyde concentrations), and protein oxidation (increase of carbonyl formation and decrease of sulfhydryl content), besides decreasing the antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione-GSH) and sulfhydryl content in the cerebral cortex. Alterations of the activities of various antioxidant enzymes were also observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum following L-2-HG administration. Furthermore, L-2-HG-induced lipid peroxidation and GSH decrease in the cerebral cortex were prevented by the antioxidant melatonin and by the classical antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptor MK-801, suggesting the involvement of reactive species and of overstimulation of NMDA receptor in these effects. Finally, L-2-HG provoked significant vacuolation and edema particularly in the cerebral cortex with less intense alterations in the striatum that were possibly associated with the unbalanced redox homeostasis caused by this metabolite. Taken together, it is presumed that these pathomechanisms may underlie the neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities observed in the affected patients.

  10. Active and Passive Components of Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia: A Perspective Based on a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Morin, Mélanie

    2015-11-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions, especially elevated tone or tension, are suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). However, the involvement of the PFMs remains misunderstood as the assessment of muscle tone is complex and requires a thorough understanding of muscle physiology in relation to the characteristics and limitations of current PFM assessment tools. The aim of this review was to describe the structures and mechanisms involved in muscle tone in normally innervated muscle, and to discuss and relate these concepts to the PFM findings in women with PVD. A narrative overview of the literature retrieved from searches of electronic databases and hand searches. Muscle tone in a normally innervated muscle comprises both active (contractile) and passive (viscoelastic) components. Current methods for evaluating PFM tone such as digital palpation, ultrasound imaging, pressure perineometry, dynamometry, and electromyography may evaluate different components. Research findings suggestive of PFM hypertonicity in women with PVD include elevated general PFM tone, changes in viscoelastic properties, and at least in some women, abnormal increases in electrogenic activity. There is a growing body of evidence to support the involvement of PFM hypertonicity in the pathophysiology of PVD. Limitations of the instruments as well as their properties should be considered when evaluating PFM tone in order to obtain better insight into which component of PFM tone is assessed. Future research is required for further investigating the underlying mechanisms of PFM hypertonicity, and studying the specific effects of physiotherapeutic interventions on PFM tone in women with PVD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Can Fear, Pain, and Muscle Tension Discriminate Vaginismus from Dyspareunia/Provoked Vestibulodynia? Implications for the New DSM-5 Diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Marie-Andrée; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir; Boyer, Stephanie; Faaborg-Andersen, Marie; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2015-08-01

    Fear has been suggested as the crucial diagnostic variable that may distinguish vaginismus from dyspareunia. Unfortunately, this has not been systematically investigated. The primary purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether fear as evaluated by subjective, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures could differentiate women with vaginismus from those with dyspareunia/provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) and controls. A second aim was to re-examine whether genital pain and pelvic floor muscle tension differed between vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD sufferers. Fifty women with vaginismus, 50 women with dyspareunia/PVD, and 43 controls participated in an experimental session comprising a structured interview, pain sensitivity testing, a filmed gynecological examination, and several self-report measures. Results demonstrated that fear and vaginal muscle tension were significantly greater in the vaginismus group as compared to the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Moreover, behavioral measures of fear and vaginal muscle tension were found to discriminate the vaginismus group from the dyspareunia/PVD and no-pain control groups. Genital pain did not differ significantly between the vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD groups; however, genital pain was found to discriminate both clinical groups from controls. Despite significant statistical differences on fear and vaginal muscle tension variables between women suffering from vaginismus and dyspareunia/PVD, a large overlap was observed between these conditions. These findings may explain the great difficulty health professionals experience in attempting to reliably differentiate vaginismus from dyspareunia/PVD. The implications of these data for the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder are discussed.

  12. Assessment of Cognitive Communications Interest Areas for NASA Needs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Madanayake, Arjuna

    2017-01-01

    This effort provides a survey and assessment of various cognitive communications interest areas, including node-to-node link optimization, intelligent routing/networking, and learning algorithms, and is conducted primarily from the perspective of NASA space communications needs and benefits. Areas of consideration include optimization methods, learning algorithms, and candidate implementations/technologies. Assessments of current research efforts are provided with mention of areas for further investment. Other considerations, such as antenna technologies and cognitive radio platforms, are briefly provided as well.

  13. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A

    2004-01-01

    With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss.

  14. How do local government associations influence policy? Assessing conditions for policy influence of interest groups in Brazil and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In recent years a considerable number of studies have been undertaken concerning the impact of interest groups' influence in the European and North American policy-making process.

  15. International convergence of capital market interest rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and

  16. Interest organization demography research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.; Lowery, D.; Halpin, D.; Gray, V.

    2015-01-01

    European population ecological studies of interest organizations are rare. The concern about the Schattschneiderian upper-class accent motivating such studies in the United States never gained much traction in European ‘organized’ interest systems. There have been, however, several large-n studies

  17. Social Influences on Interest. Presidential Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Where does enduring individual interest come from? One answer is, through social experience that derives from a need for belongingness. Because of this need, students seek social links that influence the development of individual interest. This may occur through experiences with parents, friends, passionate affinity groups, competition, public…

  18. Increasing the Interest of Students in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strgar, Jelka

    2007-01-01

    On first contact, students express less interest in plants than in animals. With suitable didactic methods, however, the teacher can actively interest students in plants. In our research we attempted to quantify the influence of these methods. 184 students of three age groups took part in the experiment. We used eight plants (one artificial). We…

  19. The Vocational Interests of Homeless, Unemployed Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, William S.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the vocational interests and personality characteristics of 69 homeless unemployed men using the Vocational Preference Inventory. Results indicated significant occupational interest, comparable to data reported on employed adults and numerous vocational "types." Personality scales, however, were indicative of possible behavioral…

  20. An Investigation of Vocational Interests and Noctcaelador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between vocational interests and noctcaelador, defined as strong interest in, and psychological attachment to, the night sky. University students (N = 134) completed the Vocational Preference Inventory (Form C) and the Noctcaelador Inventory. The results indicated that students scoring higher on noctcaelador…

  1. Modeling Students' Interest in Mathematics Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Yuan, Ruiping; Xu, Brian; Xu, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the factors influencing mathematics homework interest for Chinese students and compare the findings with a recent study involving U.S. students. The findings from multilevel analyses revealed that some predictors for homework interest functioned similarly (e.g., affective attitude toward homework, learning-oriented reasons,…

  2. Inflation targeting and interest rate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the

  3. Congruence of Strong and Kuder Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.

    1971-01-01

    Scores on scales with identical or similar names on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Women and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey were compared by means of both scale and profile analyses. The individual scales were only moderately intercorrelated; however, the total profiles revealed substantial agreement for most subjects. (Author)

  4. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…

  5. School Discipline, Educational Interest and Pupil Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the concept of school discipline will be explored in relation to that of educational interest. Initially, Clark's account of two different kinds of school order (discipline and control) will be explained. The interest-based theory of school discipline advanced by Pat Wilson will thereafter be analysed. It will be argued that both…

  6. Situational interest in engineering design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means...

  7. Situational Interest in Engineering Design Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n = 46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students' interests were investigated by means of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies.

  8. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  9. Object interest in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCDUFFIE, ANDREA S.; LIEBERMAN, REBECCA G.; YODER, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social communication treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder examined the effect of treatment on object interest. Thirty-two children, 18–60 months, were randomly assigned to the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (RPMT) condition. Assessment of object interest was conducted in an unstructured play session with different toys, activities, adult, and location than experienced in treatment. Results indicated children in the RPMT condition showed greater increases in object interest as compared to children in the PECS condition. Because child characteristics such as interest in objects may influence response to interventions using object play as contexts for treatment, it is important to improve our understanding of whether intervention can affect object interest. PMID:22133872

  10. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  11. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  12. Interest in medical therapy for celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Christina A.; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A gluten-free diet is the treatment for celiac disease, but pharmaceutical agents are being developed. The level of interest amongst patients in using a medication to treat celiac disease is unknown. This study examined the level of interest amongst patients in medication to treat celiac disease. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to celiac disease patients and data were collected on demographics, presentation, and interest in medication. Three validated celiac disease-specific instruments were incorporated: Celiac Disease Associated Quality of Life, the Celiac Symptom Index, and the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Results: Responses were received from 365 individuals with biopsy-proven celiac disease. Respondents were 78% (n = 276) female, 48% (n = 170) over 50 years of age, and experienced a classical (diarrhea predominant) presentation in 44% (n = 154). Of the 339 individuals answering the question regarding use of a medication to treat celiac disease, 66% were interested. Interest was greatest in older individuals (71% >50 years of age versus 60% celiac disease are interested in using a medication. Interest was highest among men, older individuals, frequent restaurant customers, individuals dissatisfied with their weight or concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet, and those with a worse quality of life. PMID:24003336

  13. The declining interest in an academic career.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roach

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that science & engineering PhD students lose interest in an academic career over the course of graduate training. It is not clear, however, whether this decline reflects students being discouraged from pursuing an academic career by the challenges of obtaining a faculty job or whether it reflects more fundamental changes in students' career goals for reasons other than the academic labor market. We examine this question using a longitudinal survey that follows a cohort of PhD students from 39 U.S. research universities over the course of graduate training to document changes in career preferences and to explore potential drivers of such changes. We report two main results. First, although the vast majority of students start the PhD interested in an academic research career, over time 55% of all students remain interested while 25% lose interest entirely. In addition, 15% of all students were never interested in an academic career during their PhD program, while 5% become more interested. Thus, the declining interest in an academic career is not a general phenomenon across all PhD students, but rather reflects a divergence between those students who remain highly interested in an academic career and other students who are no longer interested in one. Second, we show that the decline we observe is not driven by expectations of academic job availability, nor by related factors such as postdoctoral requirements or the availability of research funding. Instead, the decline appears partly due to the misalignment between students' changing preferences for specific job attributes on the one hand, and the nature of the academic research career itself on the other. Changes in students' perceptions of their own research ability also play a role, while publications do not. We discuss implications for scientific labor markets, PhD career development programs, and science policy.

  14. The declining interest in an academic career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that science & engineering PhD students lose interest in an academic career over the course of graduate training. It is not clear, however, whether this decline reflects students being discouraged from pursuing an academic career by the challenges of obtaining a faculty job or whether it reflects more fundamental changes in students’ career goals for reasons other than the academic labor market. We examine this question using a longitudinal survey that follows a cohort of PhD students from 39 U.S. research universities over the course of graduate training to document changes in career preferences and to explore potential drivers of such changes. We report two main results. First, although the vast majority of students start the PhD interested in an academic research career, over time 55% of all students remain interested while 25% lose interest entirely. In addition, 15% of all students were never interested in an academic career during their PhD program, while 5% become more interested. Thus, the declining interest in an academic career is not a general phenomenon across all PhD students, but rather reflects a divergence between those students who remain highly interested in an academic career and other students who are no longer interested in one. Second, we show that the decline we observe is not driven by expectations of academic job availability, nor by related factors such as postdoctoral requirements or the availability of research funding. Instead, the decline appears partly due to the misalignment between students’ changing preferences for specific job attributes on the one hand, and the nature of the academic research career itself on the other. Changes in students’ perceptions of their own research ability also play a role, while publications do not. We discuss implications for scientific labor markets, PhD career development programs, and science policy. PMID:28922403

  15. Why Having a (Nonfinancial) Interest Is Not a Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, Lisa A; Grundy, Quinn

    2016-12-01

    A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of interest" with "interests" in general serves to muddy the waters about how to manage conflicts of interest. We call for heightened disclosure of conflicts of interest and policy action beyond disclosure as the sole management strategy. We propose a different strategy to manage interests more broadly to ensure fair representation and accountability.

  16. Why Having a (Nonfinancial Interest Is Not a Conflict of Interest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Bero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of interest" with "interests" in general serves to muddy the waters about how to manage conflicts of interest. We call for heightened disclosure of conflicts of interest and policy action beyond disclosure as the sole management strategy. We propose a different strategy to manage interests more broadly to ensure fair representation and accountability.

  17. Interest Deductibility and the BEPS Action Plan: nihil novi sub sole?

    OpenAIRE

    Traversa, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Interest payments between affiliated companies which aim at shifting profit from high to low tax countries are a well-known and frequently used tool in international tax planning. It is therefore not surprising that in the OECD Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) (Action Plan) considerable attention is given to the measures limiting the deductibility of (excessive) intra-group interest payments.1 The Action Plan does not, however, provide any clear guidance as to which, amo...

  18. The improbability of Harris interest points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    An elementary characterization of the map underlying Harris corners, also known as Harris interest points or key points, is provided. Two principal and basic assumptions made are: 1) Local image structure is captured in an uncommitted way, simply using weighted raw image values around every image...... location to describe the local image information, and 2) the lower the probability of observing the image structure present in a particular point, the more salient, or interesting, this position is, i.e., saliency is related to how uncommon it is to see a certain image structure, how surprising it is......, the characterization provides a compelling case in favor of Harris interest points over other approaches....

  19. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN USING RFID WITH CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Boeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID has recently garnered significant interest in the area of customer relationship management by tagging consumers wirelessly and automatically identifying them at a distance. Through a descriptive meta-analysis, this article provides results that indicate that the use of RFID technology in consumer applications raises relatively important ethical and moral concerns, particularly in terms of privacy. The results of our descriptive meta-analysis reveal little empirical research and therefore highlight the need to deepen our knowledge on the ethical considerations brought forth from using RFID. The most important ethical considerations were in terms of privacy, which includes capturing shopping habits, consumer demographic information, and tracking of a person's movements. Literature emphasized technological solutions to counter RFID ethical issues, leaving industry normative procedures and regulatory frameworks in the background.

  1. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  2. Fairness requires deliberation: The primacy of economic over social considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eHochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  3. Adoption consideration and concerns among young adult female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene

    2017-02-01

    We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.

  4. Sexual and relationship intimacy among women with provoked vestibulodynia and their partners: associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; McDuff, Pierre; Grégoire, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent subtype of vulvodynia. Women report negative consequences of PVD on their sexual and romantic relationships. Researchers have recently highlighted the importance of examining interpersonal factors such as intimacy, and of including both women and their partners in study designs. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual and relationship intimacy as defined by the Interpersonal Process Model of Intimacy and their associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity among women with PVD and their partners. Ninety-one heterosexual women (M age = 27.38, SD = 6.04) diagnosed with PVD and their partners (M age = 29.37, SD = 7.79) completed measures of sexual and relationship intimacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; (iii) Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale; and (iv) visual analog scale of pain intensity during intercourse. After controlling for women's age, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.49, P satisfaction and higher pain self-efficacy (β = 0.39, P = 0.001), beyond the effects of partners' sexual intimacy. Also, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.24, P = 0.05) and women's greater relationship intimacy (β = 0.54, P = 0.003) were associated with greater women's sexual function, beyond the effects of partners' sexual and relationship intimacy. Women's self-reported sexual and relationship intimacy in the couple relationship may promote higher sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy, as well as possibly foster greater sexual well-being among women with PVD. The authors discuss implications for the inclusion of emotional and interpersonal aspects of the couple's dynamic in clinical interventions and future research in PVD. © 2013

  5. A comparison of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy and lidocaine in the treatment of provoked vestibulodynia: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini-Munt, Serena; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; Steben, Marc; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Delisle, Isabelle; McDuff, Pierre; Aerts, Leen; Santerre-Baillargeon, Marie

    2014-12-23

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a frequent form of chronic genital pain, is associated with decreased sexual function for afflicted women, as well as impoverished sexual satisfaction for women and their partners. Pain and sexuality outcomes for couples with PVD are influenced by interpersonal factors, such as pain catastrophizing, partner responses to pain, ambivalence over emotional expression, attachment style and perceived relationship and sexual intimacy. Despite recommendations in the literature to include the partner in cognitive-behavioral therapy targeted at improving pain and sexuality outcomes, no randomized clinical trial has tested the efficacy of this type of intervention and compared it to a first-line medical intervention. This bi-center, randomized clinical trial is designed to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral couple therapy compared to topical lidocaine. It is conducted across two Canadian university-hospital centers. Eligible women diagnosed with PVD and their partners are randomized to one of the two interventions. Evaluations are conducted using structured interviews and validated self-report measures at three time points: Pre-treatment (T1: prior to randomization), post-treatment (T2), and 6-month follow-up (T3). The primary outcome is the change in reported pain during intercourse between T1 and T2. Secondary outcomes focus on whether there are significant differences between the two treatments at T2 and T3 on (a) the multidimensional aspects of women's pain and (b) women and partners' sexuality (sexual function and satisfaction), psychological adjustment (anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and quality of life), relationship factors (partner responses and dyadic adjustment) and self-reported improvement and treatment satisfaction. In order to detect an effect size as small as 0.32 for secondary outcomes, a sample of 170 couples is being recruited (27% dropout expected). A clinically significant decrease in pain is

  6. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP. All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic

  7. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  8. Liberia: National Security Interests in Transformational Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Carolyn I

    2008-01-01

    Liberia is of national security interest to the United States of America. Liberia's 14-year civil war ended in 2003, leaving the country with a collapsed government and failing economic, physical, and social infrastructures...

  9. Liberia: National Security Interests in Transformational Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Carolyn I

    2008-01-01

    ... that can threaten the national security. This paper explores why Liberia is of national security interest to the United States, describes elements of adolescent personal development that were neglected while the nation was in conflict...

  10. Does interest broaden or narrow attentional scope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Billy; Yih, Jennifer

    2015-08-10

    Theory proposes that interest is a positive emotion that may either broaden attention to facilitate processing of new information, or narrow attention to preserve engagement with new information. To our knowledge, no research has directly examined the effect of interest on attentional scope. Across four experiments, we show that traits associated with the propensity to experience interest-specifically, trait curiosity and internal boredom proneness-are associated with a narrower scope of attention. We also find that, instead of broadening, interest actually narrows attentional scope in comparison to a neutral state and awe. Challenging the conventional notion that all positive emotions broaden cognition and attention, our findings suggest that specific emotions influence attention in ways that extend beyond a general emotional valence effect.

  11. Interest in medical therapy for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Christina A; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne; Green, Peter H R

    2013-09-01

    A gluten-free diet is the treatment for celiac disease, but pharmaceutical agents are being developed. The level of interest amongst patients in using a medication to treat celiac disease is unknown. This study examined the level of interest amongst patients in medication to treat celiac disease. A questionnaire was distributed to celiac disease patients and data were collected on demographics, presentation, and interest in medication. Three validated celiac disease-specific instruments were incorporated: Celiac Disease Associated Quality of Life, the Celiac Symptom Index, and the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Responses were received from 365 individuals with biopsy-proven celiac disease. Respondents were 78% (n = 276) female, 48% (n = 170) over 50 years of age, and experienced a classical (diarrhea predominant) presentation in 44% (n = 154). Of the 339 individuals answering the question regarding use of a medication to treat celiac disease, 66% were interested. Interest was greatest in older individuals (71% >50 years of age versus 60% women, p = 0.0083), frequent restaurant customers (76% versus 58%, p = 0.0006), those dissatisfied with their weight (73% versus 51%, p = 0.0003) and those concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet (77% versus 64%, p = 0.0176). Length of time since diagnosis, education, presentation, and symptoms with gluten exposure did not demonstrate any effect. Interest in medication was associated with a worse quality of life (CD-QOL 69.4 versus 80.1, p celiac disease are interested in using a medication. Interest was highest among men, older individuals, frequent restaurant customers, individuals dissatisfied with their weight or concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet, and those with a worse quality of life.

  12. [Considerations on the cerebral organization of left-handed persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, L; Piccirilli, M

    1983-01-01

    Left-handedness, being exception to the rule of right-handedness, has provoked several questions about its origins and the significance of its relationships with some individual traits, like cognitive style, personality, creativity, motor abilities. Investigations on left-handedness in recent years suggest that hand preference is linked to the peculiar functional organization of the two hemispheres of the brain.

  13. Personality and specialty interest in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Zuckerman, Marvin

    2008-01-01

    Research on the relationship between personality and specialty interest is important because of its implications in student career counseling and in forecasting future specialty distribution. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: 1. Students interested in 'surgical' specialties would obtain higher scores on a measure of 'impulsive sensation seeking' and lower scores on a measure of 'neuroticism-anxiety'. 2. Students interested in 'hospital-based' specialties would score lower on a measure of 'sociability' whereas those interested in 'primary care' would score higher on this measure. In addition to these two hypotheses, gender differences on personality were also examined. Study participants were 1,076 students who matriculated at Jefferson Medical College between 2002 to 2006. A short version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ) measuring five personality factors of 'impulsive sensation Seeking', 'neuroticism-anxiety', 'aggression-hostility', 'sociability', and 'activity' was completed by research participants at the beginning of medical school. Students were also asked to note their specialty interests. Multivariate statistical analyses confirmed the first and partially confirmed the second research hypotheses. Results also showed that men scored higher on 'impulsive sensation seeking,' and women outscored men in the 'neuroticism-Anxiety' and 'activity' scales. Findings suggest that information about the personalities of medical students can help to predict their career interests. Implications for career counseling are discussed.

  14. Automatic Detection of Dominance and Expected Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia; Vitrià, Jordi; Anguera, M. Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Social Signal Processing is an emergent area of research that focuses on the analysis of social constructs. Dominance and interest are two of these social constructs. Dominance refers to the level of influence a person has in a conversation. Interest, when referred in terms of group interactions, can be defined as the degree of engagement that the members of a group collectively display during their interaction. In this paper, we argue that only using behavioral motion information, we are able to predict the interest of observers when looking at face-to-face interactions as well as the dominant people. First, we propose a simple set of movement-based features from body, face, and mouth activity in order to define a higher set of interaction indicators. The considered indicators are manually annotated by observers. Based on the opinions obtained, we define an automatic binary dominance detection problem and a multiclass interest quantification problem. Error-Correcting Output Codes framework is used to learn to rank the perceived observer's interest in face-to-face interactions meanwhile Adaboost is used to solve the dominant detection problem. The automatic system shows good correlation between the automatic categorization results and the manual ranking made by the observers in both dominance and interest detection problems.

  15. One editor's views on conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, T S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of recognizing conflict of interest or bias situations in the peer review and publication process of research papers and to identify some important guidelines or policies that help to minimize these situations. Communication of thoughts, ideas, and information is the basis of how we function as a society. Communicating research results requires us to clearly and accurately communicate all aspects of the research process, including the appropriate interpretation of results. A working definition for conflict of interest or bias with regard to publishing research results is that conflict of interest is a situation in which personal benefit (either direct or indirect) takes priority over the clarity and(or) accuracy of reporting research. These situations are ethical issues and can represent either real or assumed situations. It is true that the review and publication process is not perfect; thus, some bias probably is always present and can be brought to the review and publication process by either the author or those responsible for the process. However, conflict of interest or bias that detracts from the objective evaluation of research or the integrity of a scientific journal is inappropriate. Conflict of interest or bias situations can occur at all levels of the review and publication process and should be dealt with on a factual basis. This article describes several situations as examples and several important guidelines that help minimize the occurrence of conflict of interest or bias.

  16. Design Considerations of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    Permanent magnet transverse flux machine (PMTFM) is well known for its high torque density and is interested in various direct-drive applications. Due to its complicated 3-D flux components, design and design optimization of a PMTFM is more difficult and time consuming than for radial flux...... electrical machines. This paper addresses two important design considerations for PMTFM—the influence of permanent magnet leakage flux, which plays an important role in the determination of machine output torque, and the leakage inductance. A new simple method to provide a quick estimation of the armature...

  17. Entropy production and generation: Clarity from nanosystems considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2015-06-01

    The interest in designing of nanosystems is continuously growing. In engineering many optimization approaches exist to design macroscopic machines. If these methods could be introduced in the nanosystems designing, a great improvement would be obtained in nanotechnologies. But, it is necessary to obtain a link between classical thermodynamics and nanosystems. The aim of this letter is to obtain a first step towards this link. Some considerations on the role of power, time and non equilibrium temperature are discussed and a link between non equilibrium temperature and macroscopic thermodynamic quantities is suggested. This last result opens to new questions.

  18. REQUEST FOR EXPRESSIONS OF INTEREST For Background ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sbickram

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... Submission of report for publication in a peer-reviewed journal (month 5-7). Methodology. Each background study will consist of a review of the scientific literature and a scan of grey literature. (policy documents, reports, web resources, etc.) to identify key cross-cutting issues for consideration in the design ...

  19. A Scoring System for Measuring College Interest with the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Form DD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Bert A.; Vicinanza, Paul

    1971-01-01

    While evaluating a project designed to improve certain skills and motivation of disadvantaged tenth graders, the authors developed a unique test for measuring college interest with the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey For DD. (Authors)

  20. Some considerations on using monetary policy to promote financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current period of crisis on credit markets has highlighted the crucial role of the behaviour of banks in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. This paper summarises our considerations on how monetary policy, as the main instrument, acts in order to promote financial stability and to stabilize the banking system. Central banks have a variety of tools for implementing monetary policy, but the tool that has received the most attention in literature is the interest rate. We observe that the financial crisis that erupted in the summer of 2007 has refocused attention on other channels of monetary policy, notably the transmission of policy through the supply of credit and overall conditions in the capital markets. Monetary policy has important macroeconomic effects only to the extent that it moves financial market prices that really matter—like long-term interest rates, stock market values, and exchange rates.

  1. Why Having a (Nonfinancial) Interest Is Not a Conflict of Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bero, Lisa A.; Grundy, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of int...

  2. Financial conflicts of interest in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    2012-01-01

    This Article proposes a new direction for addressing financial conflicts of interest, which plague biomedical research and threaten scientific integrity. This Article descriptively states the controversy surrounding financial conflicts of interest by explaining how these conflicts arise and the damage that can be created as a result. By describing the scientific process, the Article explains that changes to the academic environment may allow the public-private interaction to proceed, without creating the problems associated with financial conflicts of interest. Financial conflicts of interest are created when the profit-seeking motive of a private funding source unduly influences an academic scientist's primary responsibilities. The problem with financial conflicts of interest has grown since the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980. The cornerstone of current policies to address financial conflicts of interest is disclosure, which is inadequate and unsatisfying. The analysis herein changes the trajectory of current approaches in this area by proposing that an analysis of the underlying environment and behavior leading to conflicts of interest must be considered. This Article proposes the use of behavioral economics to craft a policy that effectively addresses conflicts of interest. To this end, this Article applies research from the field of psychology to understand both the environment of academic scientists as well as to begin to understand how academic scientists make decisions. Drawing on psychology literature, this article proposes that academic scientists may experience cognitive dissonance when faced with a situation in which a conflict of interest may arise. This helps to understand why an academic scientist may make a decision that creates a conflict of interest. In addition, this Article utilizes the results of an empirical study conducted by myself and a colleague. In this study, we asked faculty at five medical schools to respond to an anonymous survey

  3. [Substitutive and dietetic approaches in childhood autistic disorder: interests and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjiej, H; Doyen, C; Couprie, C; Kaye, K; Contejean, Y

    2008-10-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder that requires specialized therapeutic approaches. Influenced by various theoretical hypotheses, therapeutic programs are typically structured on a psychodynamic, biological or educative basis. Presently, educational strategies are recommended in the treatment of autism, without excluding other approaches when they are necessary. Some authors recommend dietetic or complementary approaches to the treatment of autism, which often stimulates great interest in the parents but also provokes controversy for professionals. Nevertheless, professionals must be informed about this approach because parents are actively in demand of it. First of all, enzymatic disorders and metabolic errors are those most frequently evoked in the literature. The well-known phenylalanine hydroxylase deficit responsible for phenylketonuria has been described as being associated with autism. In this case, adapted diet prevents mental retardation and autistic symptoms. Some enzymatic errors are also corrected by supplementation with uridine or ribose for example, but these supplementations are the responsibility of specialized medical teams in the domain of neurology and cannot be applied by parents alone. Secondly, increased opoid activity due to an excess of peptides is also supposed to be at the origin of some autistic symptoms. Gluten-free or casein-free diets have thus been tested in controlled studies, with contradictory results. With such diets, some studies show symptom regression but others report negative side effects, essentially protein malnutrition. Methodological bias, small sample sizes, the use of various diagnostic criteria or heterogeneity of evaluation interfere with data analysis and interpretation, which prompted professionals to be cautious with such diets. The third hypothesis emphasized in the literature is the amino acid domain. Some autistic children lack some amino acids such as glutamic or aspartic acids for example and this deficiency

  4. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  5. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  6. 7 CFR 1703.310 - Environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1703.310 Environmental considerations. Prospective recipients of funds received from the deferment of loan payments are encouraged to consider the potential environmental impact of their proposed projects... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1703.310 Section 1703...

  7. 42 CFR 405.378 - Interest charges on overpayment and underpayments to providers, suppliers, and other entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the Secretary of the Treasury after taking into consideration private consumer rates of interest... determines an additional overpayment during the cost settlement process, interest will accrue from the date... provider seeks judicial review of a decision of the Provider Reimbursement Review Board, or a subsequent...

  8. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  9. Consumer interest in social sustainability issues of whitefish from capture fisheries in the north-east Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, Linda J.L.; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Berentsen, Paul B.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Bokkers, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    Capture fisheries in the north-east Atlantic account for approximately 10% of all fish consumed from capture fisheries globally. The literature shows that consumers show considerable interest in social sustainability of products in general and of fish specifically. This interest, however, has not

  10. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  11. Interesting properties of some iron(II), copper(I) and copper(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tridendate ligands with nitrogen centers, generally well-known as the tripod ligands, have been of considerable interest to inorganic chemists dealing with the preparation of model compounds for hemocyanin, tyrosinase etc. We have found that such ligands when complexed with iron(II) and copper(II) and copper(I) ions ...

  12. Public service motivation ad fonts : Personality traits as antecedents to serve the public interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Esteve, M.; Boyne, G.

    2017-01-01

    Public Service Motivation (PSM) is a topic that has generated considerable interest among Public Administration scholars. Research on PSM has mainly focused on either defining what PSM is and how this construct can be measured or on testing how PSM affects individual and organizational variables.

  13. Web-based tailored lifestyle programs: exploration of the target group's interests and implications for practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    An important challenge in Web-based health promotion is to increase the reach of the target audience by taking the target groups' desires into consideration. Data from 505 members of a Dutch Internet panel (representative for Dutch Internet users) were used to asses the target group's interests and

  14. Career Assessment of Ultraorthodox Jewish Men: Reliability, Validity, and Results of the Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Ultraorthodox men spend years studying religion and delay entry into the workforce until their early 30s. They then face barriers such as insufficient education and work experience, religious restrictions, and a lack of career information and self-knowledge. Although there is considerable interest in assessment, no measure has been validated…

  15. Interests and attitudes of engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Brian

    2007-12-01

    Engineering programs have been less successful than other professions in achieving gender equity. Analyses of gender differences in the attitudes and interests of engineering students may help illuminate ways to combat the underrepresentation of women in engineering. This study examined data collected from 863 engineering students who attended 15 American universities from fall 2005 through spring 2006 using an online survey. The survey was designed to understand the backgrounds, academic preparation, motivation, interests, and attitudes of engineering students. To determine whether males and females received different academic preparation prior to entering engineering, the survey examined participants' mathematics, science, and technical coursework taken in high school. The questions probed students' comfort and interest level in mathematics, science, and technology/engineering and investigated student interest in the three fundamental engineering activities by asking 49 design, build, and analyze questions on topics covering a variety of engineering disciplines. A combination of question formats was used including pre-categorized demographic information, 5-point Likert scales, and open-ended responses. Gender similarities and differences were identified and their implications were considered for the recruitment and retention of engineers. Female engineering students in this study were equally or better prepared than males to major in engineering based on the number and types of science and mathematics classes taken in high school. However, statistically significant gender differences were found in the attitudes and interests of engineering students. The difference in the comfort level, interest in learning, being able to demonstrate, or in performing stem skills depended on the question topic rather than gender. The areas with the highest comfort and interest level were often different for females and males. Several topics and curriculum areas of high interest to

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of Californian Youth Interests in the Outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marni Goldenberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has found connections between youth participation in recreational activities and academic achievement, civic involvement, and improved health. To investigate California youth outdoor recreation attitudes, behaviors, and constraints, eight focus groups were conducted with community recreation center youth participants. Youth answered 10 questions about their experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of outdoor recreation. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Three to seven axial codes were identified for each question. Results showed that youth want to have more access to outdoor recreational activities. However, there are frequently considerable constraints for the youth to overcome including draws of technology, family obligations, and laziness. Safety was a recurring concern among participants. Understanding youth attitudes and perceptions allows managers to meet youth needs, program for youth interests, and provides a strong foundation for marketing and as a rational for funding grants.

  17. Managerial interests and personal attributes of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, M A; Biordi, D L; Gillies, D A; Minnick, A

    1990-01-01

    This study replicated another by Hanson and Chater (1983) that investigated the relationship between interest in management roles and personality, demographic, and career background characteristics of female nurses. For the present study, 128 sophomore, senior, and master's degree students were asked to participate and a self-selected convenience sample of 69 was obtained. Three instruments were used: The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), to measure personality traits; a demographic data questionnaire, to measure demographic variables; and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, to measure managerial interests. The total sample of nurses exhibited an artistic-social-intellectual profile. The subhypothesis that nurses of different education levels would exhibit different personality profiles was supported. Analysis of VPI scores demonstrated a statistically significant association between higher educational levels of nurses and higher acquiescence scores, (F = 5.1729 with a significance level of 0.0082). Analysis of variance of Vocational Preference Inventory scale scores showed a statistically significant association between nurses interested in management and higher scores on the enterprising attribute (F = 5.7753 with a significance level of 0.0266). No significant difference was found between management and nonmanagement interest groups in demographic and career characteristics. The findings of this study contribute more insight and knowledge about nurses who select management and administrative roles.

  18. Violence on television. Unpleasant, interesting or morbid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fernández Villanueva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many research studies have contributed to the study of the effects of violence on TV, but very few of them have paid attention to the reasons why violence arouses interest or rejection among viewers. The objective of this article is to analyse the discourses, arguments and moral criteria used by the audience to justify their interest or disinterest in TV violence. Methods: The study is based on 16 focus groups carried out in Madrid and segmented by sex, age and education level. Results: The study indicates that audience’s attitudes towards representations of violence on TV range from rejection to morbid interest, including intolerance, lack of interest and self-protection. These attitudes vary depending on whether the representations of violence are real or fictional. Conclusions: The results contradict the popular idea that TV audiences are generally attracted to the TV representations of violence and indicate that this “emotional interest” in violence is actually accompanied by an interest in learning about this phenomenon and developing ethical reflections.

  19. Interest-free and Interest-bearing Money Demand: Policy Invariance and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Kia

    2001-01-01

    This paper, using quarterly Iranian data for the period of 1966-1998, extends the literature by investigating the stability of the interest-free money demand function. The study also examines the stability of economic agents' behavior in demanding interest-bearing and interest-free money. It was found, contrary to interest-bearing demand or money, both short- and long-run demand for interest-free money functions are stable and their coefficients are invariant with respect to policy and other ...

  20. Consideration of subsidence in land use planning policies and procedures in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, D. [U.K. Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    A widespread potential for subsidence requires consideration within a planning system which aims to control development in the public interest. A research strategy involving review at the national level of causes of subsidence followed by specific studies to develop techniques for use by planners provides the basis for planning guidance on the development of unstable land. This is now being taken forward with specific respect to subsidence to enable proper consideration in development plans and in considering applications for planning.

  1. Interest in science: a RIASEC-based analysis of students' interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Pay O.; Höffler, Tim N.; Blankenburg, Janet S.; Peters, Heide; Parchmann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Considering the reported lack of interest in the STEM-domain and the consequential difficulties in recruiting talented and interested young academics, the development of effective enrichment measures is indispensable. This requires a precise picture of students' interests. The paper presents an approach to characterize interest profiles in explicitly science-related activities. Adapting Holland's RIASEC-model, an instrument was developed and tested which allows the description of interest in activities along Holland's dimensions (and a seventh dimension networking) within the confined science domain. The findings of a study with N = 247 students (age cohorts 12-19 years) uncovered interest differences for the environments school, enrichment, and (prospective) vocation. The mutual importance of the performed activity and the environment the activity is performed in is confirmed by a cross-classified model. Contrasting different subgroups revealed multiple results, e.g., girls showed more interest in artistic and social activities within the science domain. High achieving students showed more interest in science-related activities in all dimensions. In conclusion, using our adapted model, students' interest structure can be described in a differentiated manner. This could lay the foundation for further analyses of students' interest profiles and thereby contribute to future development of effective and congruent enrichment measures, thus enhancing interest in science.

  2. Syskill & Webert: Identifying interesting web sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzani, M.; Muramatsu, J.; Billsus, D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We describe Syskill & Webert, a software agent that learns to rate pages on the World Wide Web (WWW), deciding what pages might interest a user. The user rates explored pages on a three point scale, and Syskill & Webert learns a user profile by analyzing the information on each page. The user profile can be used in two ways. First, it can be used to suggest which links a user would be interested in exploring. Second, it can be used to construct a LYCOS query to find pages that would interest a user. We compare six different algorithms from machine learning and information retrieval on this task. We find that the naive Bayesian classifier offers several advantages over other learning algorithms on this task. Furthermore, we find that an initial portion of a web page is sufficient for making predictions on its interestingness substantially reducing the amount of network transmission required to make predictions.

  3. Enhancing Students’ Interest through Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmidar, A.; Darhim, D.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    A number of previous researchers indicated that students’ mathematics interest still low because most of them have perceived that mathematics is very difficult, boring, not very practical, and have many abstract theorems that were very hard to understand. Another cause is the teaching and learning process used, which is mechanistic without considering students’ needs. Learning is more known as the process of transferring the knowledge to the students. Let students construct their own knowledge with the physical and mental reflection that is done by activity in the new knowledge. This article is literature study. The purpose of this article is to examine the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract approach in theoretically to improve students’ mathematics interest. The conclusion of this literature study is the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract approach can be used as an alternative to improve students’ mathematics interest.

  4. Conflict of interest in spine research reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Brian P; Sheth, Sameer A; Nahed, Brian V; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2012-01-01

    Medical studies are more likely to report favorable findings when a conflict of interest is declared. We aim to quantify and determine the effect of author disclosure of conflict of interest on scientific reporting. Abstracts from an international spine research meeting (North American Spine Society 2010) were selected that specifically evaluated a device, biologic, or proprietary procedure. They were then made anonymous to reviewers. An item of interest was established in each of the abstracts in order to standardize evaluation. Next, three blinded reviewers independently rated the abstracts as favorable, neutral, or unfavorable with regard to the item of interest. Additionally, the blinded reviewers attempted to predict whether a related disclosure was made. The meeting disclosure index was used to tabulate the minimum US dollar value attributable to disclosures. Of the 344 total abstracts, 76 met inclusion criteria. In 79%, a related conflict of interest was reported. The amount of the disclosure was incompletely reported in 30% of cases. Where available, it averaged a cumulative minimum of $219,634 USD per abstract. The results of the abstracts were judged to be favorable, neutral, and unfavorable in 63%, 32% and 5% of abstracts, respectively. There was no correlation between the presence of a related disclosure and the findings of the studies (p = 0.81), although interpretation of this is limited by a small sample size and an overall apparent bias to report favorable studies. Additionally, the blinded reviewers were unable to predict whether a related disclosure was made (p = 0.40). No association existed between the presence of a related disclosure and the results of the studies. While the actual compliance with reporting a potential conflict of interest is unable to be determined, the value amount related to the disclosures made was inadequately reported according to meeting guidelines.

  5. Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-10-07

    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest (COIs) because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.

  6. Declarations, accusations and judgement: examining conflict of interest discourses as performative speech-acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over conflicts of interest (COI) in academic research and medical practice continue to provoke a great deal of discussion. What is most obvious in this discourse is that when COIs are declared, or perceived to exist in others, there is a focus on both the descriptive question of whether there is a COI and, subsequently, the normative question of whether it is good, bad or neutral. We contend, however, that in addition to the descriptive and normative, COI declarations and accusations can be understood as performatives. In this article, we apply J.L. Austin's performative speech-act theory to COI discourses and illustrate how this works using a contemporary case study of COI in biomedical publishing. We argue that using Austin's theory of performative speech-acts serves to highlight the social arrangements and role of authorities in COI discourse and so provides a rich framework to examine declarations, accusations and judgements of COI that often arise in the context of biomedical research and practice.

  7. Using Situational Interest to Enhance Individual Interest and Science-Related Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David; Dixon, Jeanette; Archer, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Situational interest is a relatively transient reaction to highly stimulating factors in the immediate environment, whereas individual interest is a relatively long-term preference for a particular subject or activity. It has been proposed that regular experiences of situational interest in a subject may eventually lead to the development of individual interest in that subject. Importantly, this should also result in an increase in behaviours related to that domain. For example, a student who develops an individual interest in science would be expected to spend more time on science-related activities such as reading about science, talking with other people about science, or watching science shows on TV. However, the extent to which this does happen has not yet been established. The purposes of this study were to find out whether regular experiences of situational interest in science classes can enhance individual interest in science and whether there is an associated increase in science-related activities. The participants were primary teacher education students who were enrolled in a semester-length science course. Data were collected using a survey, an interest inventory, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. It was found that regular experiences of situational interest during the course were associated with positive changes in individual interest in science and increased participation in science-related activities. These changes remained relatively stable over a delay period of 10 months after the end of the course.

  8. variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... The objective of this study was to determine genetic variability, strength of association and level of heritability among agronomic interest traits. Phenotypic and genotypic variations and heritability of 14 traits were estimated in 61 accessions at Institut de Développement Rural (IDR), Gampela in Burkina Faso ...

  9. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  10. A NOVEL SAMARIUM COMPLEX WITH INTERESTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Fluorescent materials, particularly blue fluorescent materials have gained strong interest because ... emitting complexes in different technical applications, such as emitting materials for organic light emitting ..... properties of three novel two-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with mixed aromatic ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.856-5 - Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-5 Interest. (a) In general. In computing the percentage... other security) for the loan after the trust's commitment is binding, the real property loan value is... agreement an amount is received or accrued by the trust with respect to an obligation which includes both a...

  12. Some interesting structural features and metallated hypervalent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The metallation of hypervalent species/electron deficient molecules 1 of main group elements with transition metals through nucleophilic substitution reactions has resulted in the isolation of some novel products 2. These synthetic species have some interesting structural features. An overview of our experience in this field is ...

  13. Interest Rate Liberalization, Financial Development and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most studies completed on this work are majorly from the Latin America and Asia. However, there is now increasing interest in this topic on its effect on Africa. ..... institutions can vary greatly depending on its history and geography, and can prove to be a significant cause of a country's development (or lack thereof). It can be ...

  14. Evaluating College Student Interest in Pet Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamle, Kathleen N.; Riley, Tracy A.; Carlson, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college can be extremely stressful, especially for students residing on campus. Objective: The authors obtained information from college freshmen about their relationships with pets and investigated interest in a pet therapy program as social support for transient stressful periods. Participants: As part of a university…

  15. Teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Pournara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing acknowledgement that teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics is multifaceted and topic specific. Given the paucity of research on the teaching and learning of financial mathematics in general, little can be known about teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest. However, since financial mathematics is a component of the school curriculum in South Africa, and an important element of financial literacy more broadly, attention needs to be given to knowledge for teaching financial mathematics, and compound interest in particular. Drawing from a larger study in which the author taught a financial mathematics course to pre-service secondary mathematics teachers, a theoretical elaboration is provided of the underlying mathematics of compound interest, and connections with the world of banking. Based on findings from the study, two key student errors are identified: the over-generalisation of linear thinking in multiplicative scenarios, and the over-generalisation of reversible operations in percentage-change scenarios. Taken together, teachers’ knowledge of relevant mathematics, of the banking context and of learners’ conceptions will contribute to building a knowledge-base for teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest.

  16. RANGE ECONOMICS RESEARCH (THE NATIONAL INTEREST)

    OpenAIRE

    Crom, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  17. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation.

  18. Interest Rates, Inflation, and the National Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Government must act more fiscally responsible. The government must put the brakes on an economy it has allowed to run free, and citizens must be willing to support a government that will act tough in the domestic market in order to lower interest rates, reduce inflationary pressure, and increase employment. (Author/RM)

  19. 76 FR 69126 - Graduated Retained Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... retained interest, or other payment from the property for life, for any period not ascertainable without... specified period (as opposed to payments that were payable to the decedent prior to the decedent's death but... the end, of a payment period (see Table K or J of Sec. 20.2031- 7(d)(6)) by the section 7520 rate...

  20. Robotic Cooperative Learning Promotes Student STEM Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pauline; Ardito, Gerald; Scollins, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The principal purpose of this investigation is to study the effect of robotic cooperative learning methodologies on middle school students' critical thinking, and STEM interest. The semi-experimental inquiry consisted of ninety four six-grade students (forty nine students in the experimental group, forty five students in the control group), chosen…

  1. An interesting spectroscopic method for chromofluorogenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    537–543. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1051-y. An interesting spectroscopic method for chromofluorogenic detection of cyanide ion in aqueous solution: Disruption of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). ABDOLHAMID ALIZADEHa,b∗. , SOHRAB GHOUZIVANDa, MOHAMMAD M KHODAEIa,∗.

  2. Gender Interest Differences with Multimedia Learning Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passig, David; Levin, Haya

    1999-01-01

    This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  3. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Cheng

    Full Text Available As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS. Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.

  4. Interest organization demography research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, scholars in several European countries have initiated system-wide, population ecological studies (e.g. Halpin & Jordan 2011b, Messer, Berkhout & Lowery 2010) or have started data collection on such populations of interest organizations (e.g. Fisker 2013, Klüver 2012, Naurin & Borang 2012).

  5. 31 CFR 800.228 - Voting interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voting interest. 800.228 Section 800.228 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  6. Making Introductory Quantum Physics Understandable and Interesting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Making Introductory Quantum Physics Understandable and Interesting. Ranjana Y Abhang. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 63-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Liberia: National Security Interests in Transformational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    analyzing ideas, and the quest for understanding. Youth in Liberia have high illiteracy rates, lack social skills, and have massive unemployment ... Youth Ex-Combatants CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Liberia is of national security interest to the United States of America (US). The 14-year...strengthening democratic government and development trajectory, Liberian youth must be integrated as full citizens before they become disenfranchised and

  8. On recall rate of interest point detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Lindbjerg Dahl, Anders; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    , and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors where we...

  9. On Recall Rate of Interest Point Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    , and for each scene we have 119 precisely located camera positions obtained from a camera mounted on an industrial robot arm. The scene surfaces have been scanned using structured light, providing precise 3D ground truth. We have investigated a number of the most popular interest point detectors. This is done...

  10. Self-interest, deregulation and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvör Nordal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss Milton Friedman’s thesis that the social responsibilityof business is to maximize the shareholders’ profit. I examine the underlyingassumption of self-interest and argue, contrary to the neoliberal thesis ofderegulation, that the profit motive must be constrained by strong state regulations.Furthermore it facilitates keeping the division between business andgovernment intact. The financial crisis shows that the emphasis on a profitmotive without the external constraints of tight regulations has serious implicationsfor the trustworthiness of business. In the latter part of the paper I willdiscuss trust in relation to self-interest. The overemphasis on self-interest isparticularly unfortunate in connection with business, and not least the financialsector, as this institution is grounded in trust, without which it cannot survive.Seen from this angle, it can be claimed that a business model, celebratingprimarily self-interest, profit-motive and deregulation, is not going to be sustainablein the long run.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i2.1719

  11. Marketing Environment Group Project Stimulates Student Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastas, George, III

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Marketing Environment Group Project to be used by a marketing instructor. Indicates that through this teaching method, students have an increased interest in marketing and a greater understanding of how an organization's marketing strategy must adapt to its changing environment. (JOW)

  12. Career Education Interest Inventory Assessment. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Ellyn S.

    Career education stresses the importance of increasing the individual's awareness of the world of work, expanding career horizons, and helping students make realistic choices among various adult roles. Career interest inventories are intended to broaden a student's awareness of job requirements and to bring to their attention occupations that…

  13. Commonalities between Adolescents' Work Values and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Zytowski, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the chief work values, assessed by Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (D. G. Zytowski, 2004b), across interest groups organized by the 6 Holland theme scales of the Kuder Career Search (D. G. Zytowski, 2004a). Results strengthen vocational theory through clarification of gender differences and conceptual commonalities…

  14. [Best interests in the 'vegetative state'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jox, R J

    2011-10-01

    Treatment decisions for patients in the vegetative state often have to be based on the patient's best interests, if the patient's will is not known. Physicians are, however, highly uncertain what kind of treatment is in such a difficult situation the patient's best interests. This article presents new insights from neuroscience and shows how treatment decision making should proceed to reach an ethically justified decision. Pivotal elements are a careful diagnosis using validated behavioural scales, an informed judgment about the existence of awareness and sentience, and an early prognostic assessment. As new imaging techniques and treatment options are not yet clinical standard due to low evidence, the best interests have to be judged in the context of uncertainty. The leading question should be whether the preferred treatment goal can be achieved with a realistic probability and a justifiable benefit-harm-ratio. This has to be judged for the individual patient, considering his personality and communicating with the family members. There cannot be a general answer to the question of best interests in the vegetative state, but only an individual answer in shared responsibility and based on the particular features of a special case. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. VOLUNTARY INTEREST ARBITRATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    right to engage in a collective bargaining and to lay down the procedure for ... A labor law which fails to recognize interest disputes cannot achieve its objective of maintaining industrial peace or others. Recognizing a dispute often leads to ..... exercised power in excess of their mandate and the award can get set aside.27.

  16. Ordinal Position Research Related to Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1974-01-01

    Birth order studies directly related to vocational interest were reviewed to discern support for certain theoretical susumptions: firstborns are more directing, controlling, and organizing than later borns and later borns are more sociable, empathic, and sympathetic than firstborns. The research was inconsistent, contradictory, and speculative.…

  17. 11 CFR 7.10 - Financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially, or appears to conflict substantially, with the employee's duties and responsibilities. (3) A... Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees or... financial interest that conflicts substantially, or appears to conflict substantially, with his or her...

  18. Scientific interests of petroleum specialists in the area of biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Julio C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Lima, Gilson Brito A.; Barros, Sergio R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The environmental risks of the petroleum industry have driven most of the companies to proceed for the mitigation of its impacts. In this sense, the choice of methods and processes that are better adapted to the petroleum business depends on the improving of the knowledge of most recent technologies. This article aims to identify the technological and knowledge needs of the petroleum industries in the area of biodiversity. For the last few years, the authors have been working with the biodiversity corporate department of a petroleum company and throughout this period, the researchers were able to identify the staff focus and interests for the generation of knowledge. The identification of the desired knowledge was constructed based on the selection of scientific papers that were sent to the company staff, who evaluated its concern. Over 400 articles were sent to the company staff that were published between 2004 and 2007 and about 190 were selected. From the selected pool of articles an analysis of the keywords, name of journals and most frequently selected authors. It is concluded that the petroleum company focused its scientific interests in applied subjects. It was further verified that a considerable amount of work has been carried out by petroleum companies that, sometimes make their reports available in their home pages, but it is probable that many works remain unpublished. (author)

  19. Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are special considerations for older Americans. Changing Physiology: With aging, the physiology and function of the nose changes. The nose ... American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. ...

  20. Incest: psychological, legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinor, J; Miller, A M

    1989-01-01

    The psychological, legal and ethical considerations in treating victims and prosecuting offenders in the United States are described, and the dilemmas highlighted by the use of a detailed case study of an incest victim.

  1. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Šlampová, A. (Andrea); Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2016-01-01

    Additional considerations on quantitative aspects of electrolysis in EME have been evaluated. The most likely reasons for back-extraction of analytes during EMEs have been examined and efficient approaches for electrolysis elimination have been proposed.

  2. Habermas’ Cognitive Interests: Teacher and Student Interests and their Relationship in an Adult Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-03

    20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leaveblank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 3 Sep 97 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS HABERMAS ... HABERMAS ’ COGNITIVE INTERESTS: TEACHER AND STUDENT INTERESTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP IN AN ADULT EDUCATION SETTING Stephen Lee Butler Doctor of Education...cognitive interest theory of German philosopher Jhrgen Habermas provided the theoretical foundation for this research. Habernas believes that all

  3. [Pathological consideration of indolent and clinically non-significant prostate cancer definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaba, Ferran

    2014-06-01

    Serum PSA determination has provoked a great increase of prostatic biopsies and detection of neoplasias that passed inadvertent in the past. When these neoplasias are excised a non-negligible number of them have low biologic aggressiveness and may be considered as indolent or clinically non-significant, so that the possibility of conservative attitude is taken into consideration. How to recognize clinically non-significant carcinomas is one of the main challenges and is based on clinical criteria, but mainly pathological. The objective of this review is to analyze the state of this issue. We selected those articles reviewing the topic in a general view over the last ten years. Trying to be as specific as possible search criteria have been refined to Gleason grade with an increase of Gleason 4 patterns (all cribiform patterns). In cases with two separated foci of carcinoma in the same biopsy core, it has been proposed to include as neoplasia the non-tumoral tissue between them. Obviously, with this there is lower sensitivity and it entails that there is no unanimous agreement (or consensus) about how to establish the criteria of clinically non-significant carcinoma. Therefore, once again, it is completely mandatory that urologists and pathologists work together, and while no consensus is reached both must know perfectly the guidelines of the center they work in.

  4. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows...... for rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global...... mitigation policies reduce global fossil fuel producer prices, relative to unconstrained emissions, providing a substantial terms of trade boost to structural fuel importers. Combined, these gains are on the order of or greater than estimates of mitigation costs. These results highlight the interests of most...

  5. Explaining Underrepresentation: A Theory of Precluded Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C

    2010-10-01

    What processes best explain women's underrepresentation in science, math, and engineering fields in the U.S.? Do they also explain men's underrepresentation in the humanities? Two survey studies across two U.S. West Coast universities (N = 62; N = 614) addressed these questions in the context of two fields: one male-dominated (computer science) and the other female-dominated (English). Among a set of social predictors-including perceived similarity to the people in the field, social identity threats, and expectations of success-the best mediator of women's lower interest in computer science and men's lower interest in English was perceived similarity. Thus, changing students' social perceptions of how they relate to those in the field may help to diversify academic fields.

  6. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Taiwan Relations:” “Trends in J-Pop [Japanese popular music] music, fashion, fast food, television soap operas, movies , karaoke, computer games, books...branch under the mandate of the TRA. This placement serves at least two functions: it keeps an extremely sensitive international issue in the scales of...competition with Japan in Taiwanese markets, basic economic interests between Taiwan, Japan, and the U.S. achieve a symbiosis of sorts, with top- brand

  7. Protons, Aerospace, and Electronics: A National Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Turflinger, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    The aerospace and semiconductor industries lost 2000 hours annually of research access when IUCF closed. An ad hoc team between the U.S. government and industry was formed to evaluate other facility options. In this presentation, we will discuss: 1) Why aerospace, semiconductor manufacturers, and others are interested in proton facility access, as well as, 2) Some of the basics of a typical test for electronics, and 3) We'll conclude with the brief current status on progress.

  8. Promoting Education Regarding Conflict of Interest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takako

    2016-01-01

    Even among highly educated health professionals, there is inconsistency in the knowledge and perception concerning both conflict of interest (COI) itself and COI disclosure. The key issue is the credibility of the manuscript, which relies heavily on transparency of COI for the reader. The tendency to disregard the importance of COI disclosure among journal editors has been recently highlighted. For all types of COI, the primary question is how it is managed. To ensure the enforcement of the d...

  9. Accepted Common Interest Community (CIC) Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    These are the 18 accepted proposals for the three Common Interest Community (CIC) sessions at IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research (SYTAR), June 5-8, 2014, in Austin, Texas and published in the Final Program Guide and CIC Works for SYTAR 2014. The sessions were CIC#1 Rehab Professionals: Bridging the Past with the Future and CIC#2a & CIC#2b Mental, Emotional and Spiritual Health.

  10. [Interests of applied anthropology to oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soum-Pouyalet, Fanny; Hubert, Annie; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    From now on the introduction of social and human sciences studies in the field of oncology has not always been conclusive. This article aims to analyze the bounds that border the meeting and the understanding between physicians, patients and anthropologists. It also treats the problems due to the introduction of applied anthropology in the field of oncology and points up the interests and practical contributions that this disciplinary bring and could bring.

  11. Women in science: What keeps them interested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Teresa Lynn

    The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of five factors on the interest and persistence of females in science. The five factors were: (1) science teachers; (2) parents; (3) one-on-one mentoring; (4) summer and extracurricular science programs; and (5) the media (television, movies, radio, computers). Data was collected through 201 questionnaires distributed equally to three groups of scientists: (1) science teachers; (2) research faculty; and (3) community professionals. Data analysis consisted of nonparametric statistical tests of significance to determine which of the five factors are the most influential. The results of the data analysis revealed the relative order of importance of the five factors on the interest and persistence of females in science as: (1) Science teachers and (2) parents. (3) Summer/extracurricular science programs. (4) Mentors. (5) Media. Three conclusions were derived from this study. First, females are influenced more by people than programs. Unlike males, females define themselves in relation to other people. The people who have the most influence in young females are those people such as teachers and parents who have the most contact with young girls. Females feel safe in such relationships and with a sense of trust comes a feeling of confidence to pursue desires and interests. Second, females place importance on lasting relationships. The relationships that have the most influence on young females are those where trust and confidence have a chance to form over time. Women in the position of long term relationships with young girls such as teachers and parents, need to become active mentors in helping girls choose careers. Third, elementary teachers are not influential towards the interest and persistence of females in science. Many elementary teachers are not comfortable teaching science and therefore spend little time teaching science to their classes. Stronger emphasis in teacher education programs on science and

  12. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osvald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization all the companies try to find the effective ways of maximizing their profit. One of the instruments is the system of the transfer pricing that helps to optimize the costs and allocate effective the resources of the company. Transfer pricing has detrimental effect on the economy of countries, though the governments use the regulations to minimize this effect on their economy. In this case the conflict of interests appears. Paper deals with an analysis of the functions and reasons of the economic agents which use the transfer prices to demonstrate the conflict of interests in transfer pricing. The purpose of the study is the determination of the best ways to solve the conflict situations in the process of transfer pricing according to the economic interests of the agents: company and government and within the company: headquarters and subsidiaries. The main point of resolving the conflict between company and government is to make clear regulations of transfer pricing for enterprises and productive relations between company and government. The methods to resolve the conflict within the company are: clear guidelines, decentralization and motivation for stuff members.

  13. VARIATION ANALYSIS ON NATIONAL STANDARD INTEREST RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ferreira Cardia Haddad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study’s main objective is to analyse an econometric model for forecasting purposes concerning the interest rate which is adopted as standard reference within the Brazilian economy, namely, the Actual-Selic rate, so as to verify the feasibility of performing short term predictions as to its variations. Thus the major variables that impact the Actual-Selic rate, such as price variations of agricultural and power commodities, national industrial production level, exchange rate and public sector net debt, are detailed. The modern macroeconomic approach describes the relevance of the Central Bank upon achievement of its goals so as to maintain the economic stability, amongst which lies the convergence of verified interest rates with the Selic rate target, as set forth by the Monetary Policy Committee (COPOM. Furthermore, this study poses to explain the relevance in forecasting, with a reasonable level of accuracy, the benchmark interest rate of Brazilian economy. The proposed model may be used to support decision making concerning investment strategies and as an additional tool for the monitoring of the achievement of macroeconomic policy objectives.

  14. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation Study of a General Subject-matter Interest Measure: The Individual Interest Questionnaire (IIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome I. Rotgans

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion and relevance: The results suggest that the IIQ is a reliable and valid instrument to measure individual interest across different disciplines and demonstrated adequate predictive validity for cognitive engagement and on-task behaviors and attitudes. The IIQ fills the gap in the literature for a generic instrument to measure individual interest.

  16. A Review of Conflict of Interest, Competing Interest, and Bias for Toxicologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the issues often associated with scientific misconduct is conflict of interest (CoI). Although there is a lack of uniformity in the definition of CoI, many express concerns that competing interests may bias research methods and the interpretation of data and conclusions. ...

  17. What makes science interesting? Investigating middle school students' interest in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarat, Su L.

    Given the reasonable assumption that interest motivates learning, an important goal of science education ought to be to foster students' interest in science. Recent research, however, has reported a trend of low or declining interest in science among young students, which suggests that school science has not been effective in meeting this goal. A review of relevant literature reveals that current knowledge on what makes science interesting to students is very limited. This dissertation research is thus aimed at contributing to our understanding of what makes science interesting, and for whom, with a focus on school science. Using instructional episodes as the unit of analysis, this study investigated the effect of curricular elements, learning environment factors, and individual student characteristics on student interest. Using a mixed method approach involving large-scale questionnaires (quantitative) and in-depth in situ studies (qualitative), middle school students' interest both in hypothetical learning situations and as it occurs in actual science classrooms was examined. The findings indicate that when judging the interestingness of an instructional episode, students focus on the form of activity rather than content topics and learning goals. In particular, activities that allow students to be actively engaged (either physically or intellectually) elicit relatively high interest, whereas activities that are passive in nature tend to be perceived as uninteresting. From the individual perspective, students' motivation orientations seem to explain much of the between-individual differences, with students who prefer challenging learning situations and who care about scientific issues demonstrating higher interest in science. The findings also suggest that the most effective factor that enhances interest is likely to be whether an instructional episode offers the potential for students to gain new knowledge, and surprisingly, such opportunities are reported to be

  18. The troubled employee. Legal and ethical considerations in managing the troubled employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, W W

    1986-01-01

    Programs installed to deal with troubled employees are not simple to design because of many legal and ethical issues. The best interest of the employer can be in conflict with individual freedoms and result in a dilemma. The author addresses ethical, constitutional, and other legal considerations that bear.

  19. Technical bulletin : geotechnical considerations for dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The safety of dams requires a thorough understanding of the geotechnical elements of dam design. This technical bulletin outlined methods for conducting geotechnical assessments as part of dam safety analyses. It included an overview of methods for minimizing and control seepage, as well as preventing internal and surface erosion. Geotechnical considerations for foundation, abutments, and reservoir bank slope conditions were also presented. Geotechnical safety assessment techniques were presented for earthfill, embankment, and rockfill dams. Appurtenant structures, reservoir rims, and foundations were examined. Hazards and failure modes included overtopping, internal erosion, slope instability, and earthquake liquefaction. Foundation irregularities and surface erosion assesment methods were presented. Geotechnical considerations for loading conditions, shear strength, discontinuities, compatibilities, foundation permeability, and foundation compressibility were presented along with analysis, design, and remedial considerations. 53 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Whose interests and under whose control?: Interest convergence in science-focused school-community collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deb

    2016-10-01

    In this dialogue with Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, I engage the critical race theory (CRT) tenet of interest convergence. I first expand Derrick Bell's (1980) initial statement of interest convergence with subsequent scholarly work in this area. I then explore ways CRT in general and interest convergence specifically have been applied in the field of education. Using this framing, I examine how interest convergence may be shed new insights into Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's study. For example, the tenet of interest convergence is used to frame why it was beneficial for the White artist, Jacob, and the Achievement Scholars to collaborate in the service-learning mural. Then the idea of interest divergence is brought into explore the ways in which Jacob benefitted from his participation in the service learning project while the Achievement Scholars were left with an unfinished project which they had to problem solve. To conclude, I provide future directions for the application of interest convergence and divergence to issues facing science education.

  1. Are neurology residents interested in headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Veiga, A B; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    The years of residency are the pillars of the subsequent practice in every medical specialty. The aim of our study is to evaluate the current situation, degree of involvement, main interests, and perceived quality of the training received by Spanish residents of neurology, specifically in the area of headache. A self-administered survey was designed by the Headache Study Group of the Spanish Society of Neurology (GECSEN) and was sent via e-mail to all residents who were members of the Society as of May 2015. Fifty-three residents completed the survey (N = 426, 12.4%): 6% were first year residents, 25.5% second year, 23.5% third year, and 45% fourth year residents, all from 13 different Spanish autonomous communities. The areas of greatest interest are, in this order: Vascular neurology, headache, and epilepsy. Of them, 85% believe that the area of headache is undervalued. More than half of residents (52.8%) do not rotate in specific Headache Units and only 35.8% complete their training dominating anaesthetic block and toxin infiltration techniques. Of them, 81.1% believe that research is scarce or absent; 69.8% have never made a poster/presentation, 79.3% have not published and only 15% collaborate on research projects in this area. Lastly, 40% believe that they have not received adequate training. Headache is among the areas that interest our residents the most; however, we believe that we must improve their training both at a patient healthcare level and as researchers. Thus, increasing the number of available courses, creating educational web pages, involving residents in research, and making a rotation in a specialised unit mandatory are among the fundamental objectives of the GECSEN. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  3. On the theory of interest rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Peter Spahn

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A new consensus in the theory of monetary policy has been reached pointing to the pivotal role of interest rates that are set in accordance with central banks' reaction functions. The decisive criterion of assessing the Taylor rule, inflation and monetary targeting is not the macrotheoretic foundation of these concepts. They serve as "languages" coordinating heterogeneous beliefs among policy makers and private agents, and should also allow rule-based discretionary policies when markets are in need of leadership. Contrary to the ECB dogma, the Fed is right to have an eye on the risks of inflation and unemployment.

  4. Youth slang is the linguistic interesting phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Barannyk, E.; Vereshchak, A.; Malyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Raising of problem. That such the Ukrainian youth slang? He is named now the interesting linguistic phenomenon existence of that limit not only by certain age–old scopes, as it clear from his name, but also by social, temporal, spatial scopes. He exists mainly in the environment of young people, that studies, but is clear for other.Analysis of previous researches. The problem of youth slang plenty of scientific works is sanctified to: to research of Ukrainian–language slangy and substandard v...

  5. FDAMA Section 114: Why the Renewed Interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Eleanor M; Burke, Laurie; Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Gaballah, Mena

    2015-05-01

    The FDA regulates the use of information by biopharmaceutical companies in their promotional activities. Section 114 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) was specifically designed to allow companies to more readily disseminate health care economic information (HCEI) to those who need it for formulary decision making. However, very little HCEI has been distributed promotionally under this provision over the past 17 years. There are recent discussions by stakeholders regarding the need for updates, revisions, or guidance regarding Section 114.In light of recent renewed interest in Section 114 of the FDAMA, the purpose of this commentary is to equip managed care decision makers with the information they need to understand and respond to industry communications that are governed by Section 114. This commentary reviews and synthesizes the regulatory history and language of the statute and changes to the promotion regulation generated by Section 114. It explores the reasons for the section's limited use to date, for recent renewed interest, and why changes by various stakeholders are suggested at this time. Also discussed is what managed care pharmacists need to know about Section 114, and suggestions are included regarding the active role pharmacists can play in this change process. Renewed interest in FDAMA Section 114 appears to stem largely from the increasingly visible and growing interest in comparative effectiveness research, the emergence of "big data," the expanding range of data sources available for deriving HCEI, and recent court decisions that might indicate a change in the regulatory environment. Various stakeholders are proposing recommendations regarding changes to FDAMA Section 114. Managed care pharmacists should be aware that companies are restricted when communicating HCEI promotional messages; this may mean seeing the use of FDAMA Section 114 as the "competent and reliable" effectiveness standard in promotion. If the

  6. Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient.

  7. The impact of interest: how do family medicine interest groups influence medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jonathan R; Seaton, M Bianca; Zimcik, Heather; McCabe, Jennifer; Feldman, Kymm

    2008-01-01

    To describe the knowledge of, and experience with, the Interest Group in Family Medicine (IgFM) at the University of Toronto, among undergraduate medical students; to explore the effects of the IgFM on undergraduate medical students; and to help determine future directions for the IgFM and other family medicine interest groups in Canada. Qualitative descriptive design and focus groups. The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 45 students in the undergraduate medical school program at the University of Toronto participated in this study. Approximately equal numbers of students from each year were represented in the sample. Focus groups were conducted to determine students' knowledge of, experiences with, and perspectives on the IgFM. The focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for themes using qualitative content analysis. Data were collected until saturation of emerging themes was reached. The students were generally knowledgeable about the IgFM and many had attended IgFM events. The IgFM had different effects on students depending on their level of interest in family medicine (FM). For those already interested in FM, the IgFM helped to maintain and support that interest. For students still undecided about their career choices, the IgFM helped to support continued interest in FM by dispelling negative myths about the discipline, providing positive peer influences, and supplying information about careers in FM. For students not interested in FM, the IgFM provided helpful information about the discipline. Students also had many useful suggestions regarding the future direction of the IgFM. The IgFM has been successful in increasing medical student exposure to FM and in supporting students' interest in this discipline. Information from this study also provides strategies for future direction to the IgFM and other family medicine interest groups in Canada and the United States.

  8. Opening up education - some pedagogical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Kjær, Arne

    2016-01-01

    would we need universities? Libraries could do the job!” In order to open up education, we need to develop a pedagogical framework for knowledge building to supplement the tradition for knowledge acquisition in higher education. In this article we present our strategic considerations for organising...... at universities and university colleges, but also teachers at high schools and primary schools, and staff involved with informal learning at museums and/or educational planning in companies, plus prospective future students. The focus in this article is on the strategic pedagogical considerations, whereas...

  9. TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE AND CONTEXT CONSIDERATION IN GOOGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sena Darmasetiyawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing the translation methods of this tool through equivalence and context consideration which also suggest the account of language database within. The data was taken from Google Translate because it is one of the most reliable tools of translation through internet service. Results showed that there are three basic reference methods of frequency, graphology, and contextual matching database in the translation. Context in discourse and equivalence in translation are used in order to analyze the extent of this consideration.

  10. Physicians, social media, and conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, Matthew

    2013-02-01

    Physicians and patients increasingly use social media technologies, such as Facebook, Twitter, and weblogs (blogs), both professionally and personally. Amidst recent reports of physician misbehavior online, as well as concerns about social media's potential negative effect on trust in the medical profession, several national-level physician organizations have created professional guidelines on social media use by physicians. Missing from these guidelines is adequate attention to conflict of interest. Some guidelines do not explicitly mention conflict of interest; others recommend only disclosure. Recommending disclosure fails to appreciate the unique features of social media that make adequate disclosure difficult to accomplish. Moreover, in emphasizing disclosure alone, current guidelines are inconsistent with medicine's general trend toward management or elimination, not just disclosure, of potential conflicts. Because social media sites typically rely on physicians' voluntary compliance with professional norms, physicians necessarily play a major role in shaping these norms' content and scope. To achieve the benefits of social media and ensure the veracity of social media content while preserving trust in the profession, physicians must reaffirm their commitment to disclose potential conflicts; advocate for better electronic disclosure mechanisms; and develop concrete management strategies-including, where necessary, the elimination of conflicts altogether.

  11. Social Inclusion Facilitates Interest in Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a life history framework, variability across an organism's lifespan necessitates trade-offs between behaviors that promote survival and those that promote reproduction. Adopting this perspective, the current work investigates how social acceptance or rejection can influence the differential priority placed on mating and survival motivations. Because social acceptance is an important survival-related cue (i.e., group living provides protection from predators and sharing of resources, we predicted that recent experiences of social acceptance should increase people's motivation to mate. In support of this prediction, Study 1 found that participants who were included in an electronic ball-toss game showed more interest in mating (regardless of the potential mate's attractiveness than excluded and control participants. In Study 2, participants who recalled an experience of social acceptance viewed sexual affiliation as more important than did participants in rejection and control conditions. Collectively, these results suggest an adaptive trade-off such that interest in mating increases upon satiation of affiliative needs. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the experience of social acceptance can have unique effects and should not be treated as the sole comparison condition when studying social rejection.

  12. READING FOR YOUTH INTEREST DURING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia, MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and images conquer them permanently and irrevocably even children from the earliest age. For instance, I can say that as they grow departs books. So many young people arrive at teens refuse to read a book, even electronically. Children considered mandatory reading something imposed by adults and tries to escape, finding other concerns. They also have no motivation, the universe discovered through books hardly seems interesting, which is, in their opinion, obsolete. The environment in which I work led me to satisfy my curiosity namely that of finding out to what extent reading is among the priorities of young people today. This research considers the study of attitudes, behaviors, opinions and intentions of young people their interest in reading, be it physical or books in electronic format. Then I directed a questionnaire to students of the Faculty of Management Marketing in Economic Affairs Rm. Valcea. For example, we chose a target group of young people aged between 18 and 25 years.

  13. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-03-22

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  14. Ethical considerations for sleep intervention in organizational psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K

    2017-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest into the role of sleep in the workplace has grown. The theoretical shift from research questions examining sleep as an outcome to placing sleep as the independent variable has increased experimental approaches to manipulating sleep in organizational studies. This is an exciting trend that is likely to continue in the organizational sciences. However, sleep experimentation can also pose special challenges for organizational researchers unaccustomed to sleep science. In this commentary, I discuss five ethical considerations of conducting negative sleep interventions in organizational psychology research. I also provide recommendations for organizational researchers-or even other researchers in disciplines outside of sleep science-who wish to implement sleep interventions in their studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ethical considerations of teaching spirituality in the academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Annette L

    2009-11-01

    Despite evidence in college students indicating a hunger for spiritual insight and spirituality's application in health care, there continues to be guardedness within the academy towards inclusion of curricula that address spirituality. The purpose of this article is to examine the ethical considerations of teaching spirituality in the academy by describing current trends, issues relevant to nursing education and practice, legitimate concerns of the academy, and the importance of an ethical instructional response when teaching about spirituality. Data supporting the interest and desire by students to explore meaning and purpose in the context of spirituality will be presented. Challenges and barriers inherent in teaching this topic will be described, including the affective response, the lack of a universally accepted definition of spirituality, and spirituality's relationship to religion. Pedagogical strategies consistent with an ethical instructional response will be discussed as the key to eliciting trust within the academy. A model of teaching spirituality and health will be offered to illustrate these possibilities.

  16. Geotechnical Considerations For Road Development In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geotechnical Considerations For Road Development In The Meander Belt Of The Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. ... fills would be required. Such fills will serve as surcharge for ground improvement and also elevate ground level above maximum expected flood height. Keywords: Geotechnical, Road, Meander belt, Niger Delta

  17. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  18. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen...

  19. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  20. 7 CFR 1781.11 - Other considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other considerations. 1781.11 Section 1781.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND...

  1. 32 CFR 215.4 - Legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES § 215.4 Legal considerations. (a) Under the Constitution and laws of the United States, the protection of life and property and the... to execute or enforce the laws, except as authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress. (c) The...

  2. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  3. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  4. CONSIDERATION OF MULTISPECIES INTERACTIONS IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONSIDERATION OF MULTISPECIES INTERACTIONS IN THE ANTARCTIC: A PRELIMINARY MODEL OF THE MINKE WHALE – BLUE WHALE – KRILL ... Future projections show a gradual increasing trend in blue whale abundance and a gradual decrease in minke abundance, with large amplitude oscillations ...

  5. Surviving the Downsizing: Ethical and Economic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Gerri

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the psychological and economic costs of downsizing, school administrators need planning and procedural guidelines. Administrators should have clear reduction-in-force policies, performance standards, employee development guidelines, and alternatives to layoffs. In the layoff mode, administrators should give careful consideration to those…

  6. 10 CFR 72.90 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General considerations. 72.90 Section 72.90 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact of the ISFSI or MRS must be investigated and assessed. (b) Proposed sites for the ISFSI or... proposed site for an MRS, the potential for radiological and other environmental impacts on the region must...

  7. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  8. Existential Considerations for Contemporary Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This article was written to remind career counselors of the potential depth and subjective impact of both unemployment and employment transitions. An existential framework is used in discussing today's world of work, previous and contemporary career counseling models, existential theory in career counseling, and existential considerations for…

  9. Animal Welfare Considerations: Should Context Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314545255; Putman, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Much consideration of animal welfare issues, as well as the bulk of welfare legislation, is closely related to context, with clear distinction between defined responsibilities towards farm-, laboratory-, companion- and wild animals. It has however been recognised that such distinction leads to

  10. Adult Learners: Considerations for Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more adults seek out education and training programs to help them become more competitive in the job market, it provides an opportunity for career and technical education. Those who teach adult learners should take into consideration their particular learning traits. This article highlights a framework of core principles to be…

  11. 20 CFR 332.2 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General considerations. 332.2 Section 332.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... train-and-engine service, yard service, dining-car service, sleeping-car service, and other Pullman-car...

  12. 32 CFR 310.15 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Collecting Personal Information § 310.15 General considerations. (a) Collect directly from the individual. Collect to the greatest extent practicable personal information directly from... for program integrity and national security when information about an individual is disclosed outside...

  13. Conversion Therapy: Ethical Considerations in Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  15. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant considerations. 51.8 Section 51.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST... which is brought to the board's attention. (b) The applicant's capability to serve. In determining the...

  16. Negative Interest Rates: Central Banks Initiated an Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey N. Burenin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative interest rates appeared as a consequence of economic problems that countries with market economy came across after the crises of2007-2008. The attempts of monetary authorities to stimulate economies with the help of quantitative easing didn't bring the desired result. That's why the central banks once again resorted to a traditional tool of their monetary policy of changing interest rates. But this time they launched an experiment, they used negative interest rates. The European Central Bank, the Swedish Riksbank, the Bank of Japan, and the National Bank of Hungary introduced negative rates in order to stimulate economic growth and fight the threat of deflation, the Danish National Bank and the Swiss National Bank tried to deter appreciation of their currencies. Negative rates of the central banks brought about negative yields of government and nongovernment securities in several countries. The problem acquires an aggravated form due to the fact that negative rates appeared in several European countries simultaneously at the moment when global financial markets were not in crises. Some questions arise concerning the negative rates, for example, how low can central banks bring down the rates in the future, what is their influence on the stock markets, what is the reaction of depositors to the introduction of negative deposit rates by commercial banks, must one consider a negative rate as a rate of interest or payment to store money of the depositor, in which circumstances negative rates can be justified to fight deflation. The last question plays an important role, because recent studies find that positive economic growth is possible during deflation. If central banks don't take this nuance into consideration, they can create economic imbalances by increasing liquidity. Negative rates are not as inoffensive as it may seem at first glance. Not far ago an investor, who tried to averse risk, was buying government securities. Their yields

  17. Findings of interest from immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Les

    2007-05-01

    The biopsychosocial paradigm is now the main model when dealing with most human health disorders. One of the strengths of this model is that it encourages broader thinking when assessing and managing patients. It also encourages broader reading into areas not traditionally associated with manual therapy. Immunology and neuroscience are amongst the fastest growing medical sciences. These fields come together in the relatively new area of psychoneuroimmunolgy. This article examines some findings from these fields that are not widely discussed in the physical therapy professions. These findings are of relevance to many of the disciplines within the physical therapies. It is the authors aim to stimulate further interest in the relevant, yet often under explored areas of immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

  18. Evolutionary medicine: its scope, interest and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Stephen C

    2012-11-07

    This review is aimed at readers seeking an introductory overview, teaching courses and interested in visionary ideas. It first describes the range of topics covered by evolutionary medicine, which include human genetic variation, mismatches to modernity, reproductive medicine, degenerative disease, host-pathogen interactions and insights from comparisons with other species. It then discusses priorities for translational research, basic research and health management. Its conclusions are that evolutionary thinking should not displace other approaches to medical science, such as molecular medicine and cell and developmental biology, but that evolutionary insights can combine with and complement established approaches to reduce suffering and save lives. Because we are on the cusp of so much new research and innovative insights, it is hard to estimate how much impact evolutionary thinking will have on medicine, but it is already clear that its potential is enormous.

  19. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  20. Ethical considerations and challenges in first-in-human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Laothavorn, Junjira; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-11-01

    First-in-human (FIH) research is a translational process to move a new potential therapy from bench to bedside. Major ethical challenges of an FIH trial arise because of the indeterminate nature of the risks involved and the controversial risk-benefit justification. Severe adverse events and death of subjects who participated in FIH research in the past have led to an increased attention on ethical considerations in the design and conduct of such research. Furthermore, novel therapies in the current decade, such as molecular-targeted, gene transfer, and pluripotent stem cells therapies, have led to numerous emerging ethical challenges or different ethical assessment and justification frameworks for FIH research. This article presents, discusses, and interlinks ethical considerations and challenges in FIH research through a review of related ethical principles and their application to each ethical issue with given examples. Possible solutions to address each ethical challenge are presented. The scope of this article focuses on 4 major ethical issues in FIH research: risk-benefit assessment and justification for the conduct of research, selection of a suitable target population, informed consent, and conflict of interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Considerations for RNA-seq analysis of circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Grant, Gregory R; Hogenesch, John B; Hughes, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are daily endogenous oscillations of behavior, metabolism, and physiology. At a molecular level, these oscillations are generated by transcriptional-translational feedback loops composed of core clock genes. In turn, core clock genes drive the rhythmic accumulation of downstream outputs-termed clock-controlled genes (CCGs)-whose rhythmic translation and function ultimately underlie daily oscillations at a cellular and organismal level. Given the circadian clock's profound influence on human health and behavior, considerable efforts have been made to systematically identify CCGs. The recent development of next-generation sequencing has dramatically expanded our ability to study the expression, processing, and stability of rhythmically expressed mRNAs. Nevertheless, like any new technology, there are many technical issues to be addressed. Here, we discuss considerations for studying circadian rhythms using genome scale transcriptional profiling, with a particular emphasis on RNA sequencing. We make a number of practical recommendations-including the choice of sampling density, read depth, alignment algorithms, read-depth normalization, and cycling detection algorithms-based on computational simulations and our experience from previous studies. We believe that these results will be of interest to the circadian field and help investigators design experiments to derive most values from these large and complex data sets. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. STIMULATING STUDENT INTEREST IN DESIGN HISTORY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoulla Hadjiyanni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With history being an established course in design education and sparking creativity being one of design education’s primary objectives, questions arise as to: What forms of history teaching capture student interest? How can the lessons of history resonate with youth in ways that tie the past to the present? How can assignments spark excitement in students and engender a passion for the subject? And, where can faculty draw inspiration from in re-envisioning the role that history can play in their program and profession? Two interior design educators from the University of Minnesota share techniques, assignments, and pedagogies that respond to the above questions and help set a trajectory for both creatively teaching design history and sparking students’ interest and creative potential. Going beyond traditional methodologies and discourses around the teaching of history, these educators take a unique perspective and strive for a diverse set of objectives. Employing techniques such as digital games and free-hand sketching, they challenge students to engage with the material first hand. By tying a design project into a history course, they present students with the opportunity to conceive of ways to bridge the past, present, and future. Infusing history classes with creative and critical thinking that encompasses and responds to pressing social concerns reinforces the meaning of history classes and makes history relevant to students’ lives. Through this sharing, the authors aim to spark a dialogue across the disciplines around the teaching of history and makes history relevant to students’ lives. Through this sharing, the authors aim to spark a dialogue across the disciplines around the teaching of history and the renewed role it can play in design education.

  3. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  4. Psychosocial predictors in consideration of cosmetic surgery among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerini, Amanda; Matera, Camilla; Stefanile, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of psychosocial factors on the consideration of cosmetic surgery. The authors hypothesized that the internalization of thin ideals and social comparisons mediate the relationship between media pressure, family and peer influence (appearance conversations, perception of teasing, and peer attributions), and the desire to pursue cosmetic surgery. The study participants were 429 Italian women (mean age, 33 years). They completed a questionnaire containing the Appearance Conversations With Friends Scale, the Perception of Teasing Scale for Friends, the Peer Attribution Scale, the "Pressure and Internalization-General" subscales of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale, the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale, and the "Consider" subscale of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Hierarchical linear regression was performed. The results indicated that media pressure and appearance conversations with peers predicted the outcome variable through the full mediation of internalization of thin ideals. The relation between peer attributions and interest in cosmetic surgery was partially mediated by internalization of thin ideals. Although social comparison was significantly related to both sociocultural variables and consideration of cosmetic procedures, it was not a significant mediator of this relationship. Neither family influence nor perception of teasing predicted the outcome variable. Overall, these results provide important information about the factors implicated in the consideration of cosmetic surgery by women. This research confirms that cosmetic surgeons need to adopt a base psychological approach. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. 26 CFR 301.6621-1 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 301.6621-1 Section 301.6621-1... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Interest Interest on Underpayments § 301.6621-1 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate established under section 6621 shall be— (1) On amounts outstanding before July...

  6. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  7. Equilibrium real interest rates and secular stagnation: An empirical analysis for euro area member countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Klose, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Is secular stagnation a valid concern for Euro Area countries? We tackle this question using the well-established Laubach-Williams model to estimate the unobservable equilibrium real interest rate and compare it to the actual real rate. We apply our approach to twelve Euro Area countries, since heterogeneity among member countries has become considerably extensive since the beginning of the financial crisis. Hence, the question of secular stagnation has to be answered at the country level. Ou...

  8. Polynomial Chaos Expansion Approach to Interest Rate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Di Persio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE technique allows us to recover a finite second-order random variable exploiting suitable linear combinations of orthogonal polynomials which are functions of a given stochastic quantity ξ, hence acting as a kind of random basis. The PCE methodology has been developed as a mathematically rigorous Uncertainty Quantification (UQ method which aims at providing reliable numerical estimates for some uncertain physical quantities defining the dynamic of certain engineering models and their related simulations. In the present paper, we use the PCE approach in order to analyze some equity and interest rate models. In particular, we take into consideration those models which are based on, for example, the Geometric Brownian Motion, the Vasicek model, and the CIR model. We present theoretical as well as related concrete numerical approximation results considering, without loss of generality, the one-dimensional case. We also provide both an efficiency study and an accuracy study of our approach by comparing its outputs with the ones obtained adopting the Monte Carlo approach, both in its standard and its enhanced version.

  9. Inclusion and Implementation of Socio-Economic Considerations in GMO Regulations: Needs and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Binimelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic considerations are included in the regulatory frameworks on genetically modified organisms (GMOs of many countries. This is a reflection of an increasing interest in and recognition of the necessity to consider a broader range of issues when conducting a GMO risk assessment. At the same time, there are discussions about how socio-economic considerations can be identified and how their assessment can be carried out. To provide an understanding of the advances achieved so far, we describe the state of the art of existing biosafety institutional frameworks, legislation and policies with provisions on socio-economic considerations. We analyse the scope of the socio-economic considerations that have been included, the methodological options taken and the role of participatory processes and stakeholders involvement in the GMO-related decision-making. Since many of the countries that have legislation for assessing socio-economic considerations lack implementation experience, we provide an analysis of how implementation has evolved in Norway with the intention to illustrate that the inclusion of socio-economic considerations might be based on a learning process. Norway was the first country to include broader issues in its GMO assessment process, and is at present one of the countries with the most experience on implementation of these issues. Finally, we emphasise that there is a great need for training on how to perform assessments of socio-economic considerations, as well as reflection on possible ways for inclusion of participatory processes.

  10. Making space more interesting to elementary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, J.

    When in life do we take the big decision of deciding which path in our career we are going to take? Is this decision made from our experiences in school or is it taken before? Do our family or our friends hopes and dreams for us have any impact on our decision? These are questions that are useful for understanding why some people choose to work with science and why other has chosen another career. In my work to help the university to recruit new student to their master of science in space engineering programme, I have been visiting an elementary school and talked about different topics in space science. The pupils were very interested but when I did a survey of their dream jobs and future career I saw that most of them have hopes of a career that are based on their present talent and not on what education they are going to have. 11 out of 17 students that did this survey wanted to be some kind of artist or soccer professional. Only 4 of them had chosen a career that there are educations for. I do not think this is the situation only for this school, I think this situation is common for children I this age. Since the chance of being a pro in any sport is a really hard thing, probably the most of them have to give up their dream and chose a more realistic approach to their future career. This leaves us with a majority of the students that have not yet had their path chosen and hopefully with help of teachers and special lectures we can make science more attractive to them. This sound like an easy problem, since most of the students finds space really interesting. But there are some problems. The teachers do not have the kind of education, especially in elementary school that is needed for the kids to get proper answer to their questions. The solution is not easy. Should the teachers take more courses in physics and chemistry or should it be their responsibility to search for facts when these kinds of questions appear? I found that in some cases the student have

  11. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitorac Ruxandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study the Romania’s monetary policy, in the period 1996-2013. The research starts with a theoretical review of the monetary policy, whose main purpose is influencing the broad money supply and the lending requirements and the institution in charge of achieving this objective is the Central Bank, highlighting its impact upon the economic activity, through the Keynesian analysis model IS-LM and a correlation between the monetary policy measures and the phases of the economic cycle whose results indicate that during the recession periods it is recommended to reduce interest rates in order to stimulate investments, by raising the money supply, and during the expansion period it is recommended to increase the interest rate in order to cut back the money supply. Starting from this premises, the research takes into account the study of the monetary policy measures adopted by the governmental authority of Romania, making a quantitative analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators: the real interest rate, the lending interest rate, the deposit interest rate and the broad money supply and through a multifactorial regression, highlighting the impact of the interest rates upon the monetary aggregate M2. Moreover, a comparison between the monetary policy measures adopted in Romania and the monetary policies recommended by specialized literature has been done, and the results have indicated that during recession periods the attention of the governmental authorities is focused upon adopting the right measures, but during the expansion periods this doesn’t happen. The results of this research highlight the economic situation in Romania and the way in which the governmental authority intervened, through the monetary policy measures, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the cyclical fluctuations.

  12. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  13. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  14. Local anesthesia in dentistry - Clinical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmraaj Subramaniam; Prasanna Neelakantan

    2013-01-01

    Local anaesthesia is commonly employed prior to most dental procedures. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms by which local anaesthetics work, so that their efficacy can be improved for painless dental care. Local anaesthesia also has major clinical implications in that it can precipitate emergencies in patients with an underlying systemic disease. It is imperative that a dentist have a thorough knowledge of the considerations one must take when administering local anaesthesia in pat...

  15. D. S. Anichkov and his philosophic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Vozchikov V. A.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of distributing of philosophic knowledge in Russia of XVIII century a prominent role was played by the lecturer of Moscow University Dmitry Sergeevich Anichkov. As a philosopher he was not an independent mind, his considerations were mostly an interpretation of european philosophical thought. But such a period of scientific «apprenticeship» is an indispensable part, preceding any formation of national way of philosophizing, that’s why creative works of D.S. Anichkov should be f...

  16. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  17. Unaccompanied Children: Discourse Considerations and Policy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Unaccompanied Children and the U.S. Immigration System: Challenges and Reforms,” Journal of International Affairs 2, no. 68 (2015);. 46 Terrio... environment , including the roles of political culture and socioeconomic conditions. 22 height of the unaccompanied children increase to a year and a half... CHILDREN : DISCOURSE CONSIDERATIONS AND POLICY OUTCOMES by Marie Louise Byrne March 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: John Rollins Lauren

  18. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  19. GENERAL CONSIDERATION OF GUILLIAIN BARRE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Zeel A. Gandhi, Brijal A. Maisuria, Rajesh G. Patel and Bhoomi Arora*

    2012-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare but important disease that can lead to life threatening respiratory failure. This review summarises the verified consideration of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) which are thought to be caused by direct autoimmune attack on peripheral nerves. Aim- Nerve conduction study helps differentiate the heterogeneous subtypes of GBS. Patients exhibit a progressive paralysis that reaches a plateau phase. Treatment and Result- Treatment with both intravenous immunoglobulin...

  20. 76 FR 64964 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2011, the interest rates for...