Conceptualizes a framework for conducting critical classroom-discourse analysis. Critiques the scope and method of current models of classroom-interaction analysis and classroom-discourse analysis and advocates using poststructuralist and postcolonialist understandings of discourse to develop a critical framework for understanding what actually…
van Leeuwen, Theo
This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples...... of recent work in the critical analysis of multimodal discourse....
This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…
Smith, Jennifer L
Critical discourse analysis is a useful and productive qualitative methodology but has been underutilized within nursing research. In order to redress this deficiency the research presented in this article represents an exploration of the way in which critical discourse analysis may be applied to the analysis of public debates around policy for nursing practice. In this article the author discusses the history of the application of critical discourse analysis and provides an example of its application to the debate around the use of nurse practitioners within the Australian healthcare system.
In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…
Johnson, Susan L
The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... attitudinal transformation for sustainable socio-economic and political development. Considering the nature of literature as a social discourse (Fowler 1981), the study will be posited in the theoretical framework of critical discourse analysis CDA (van Dijk, 1993b). Critical discourse analysis is a type of discourse analytical ...
Huckin, Thomas; Andrus, Jennifer; Clary-Lemon, Jennifer
Over the past two decades, critical discourse analysis has emerged as a major new multidisciplinary approach to the study of texts and contexts in the public sphere. Developed in Europe, CDA has lately become increasingly popular in North America, where it is proving especially congenial to new directions in rhetoric and composition. This essay…
Irving, Catherine J.; English, Leona M.
Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision…
Hyde, Andrea M.
This article offers a comparative self-reflection on two seemingly disparate teaching practices: hatha yoga and critical social theories of education. As some have already discovered, the two enacted fields share many core principles and practices; deal with strikingly similar content; and are primarily self-reflective. As an…
The Critical Discourse Analysis is a growing discipline which is being applied to various fields and subjects and the political discourse is one of the most prominent of those. This thesis based on Critical Discourse Analysis analyzes the political discourse of the Balkan politicians. The context of the discourse fragments analyzed is related to political or economical summits or forums, where the high-profile Balkan politicians give their speeches. The aim of th...
Desrochers, Geneviève; Bergeron, Sophie; Landry, Tina; Jodoin, Mélanie
The aim of this review was to critically examine published studies concerning the psychosexual aspects of provoked vestibulodynia. Despite the presence of several methodological limitations, some findings were consistently replicated. Overall, women with vestibulodynia demonstrate impaired sexual functioning, namely, lower levels of sexual desire, arousal, and frequency of intercourse. Childhood physical and sexual abuse represent potential risk factors for the development of this condition. Additionally, specific psychological states such as anxiety, fear of pain, hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and depression, are more frequently reported by these women. More rigorous studies are needed to establish which psychosexual variables may exacerbate and/or maintain vestibulodynia.
Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud
The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…
Jahedi, Maryam; Abdullah, Faiz Sathi; Mukundan, Jayakaran
This article aims to present detailed accounts of central approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis. It focuses on the work of three prominent scholars such as Fairclough's critical approach, Wodak's discourse-historical approach and Van Dijk's socio-cognitive approach. This study concludes that a combination of these three approaches can be…
Full Text Available Abstract: The German discourse researcher Siegfried JÄGER from Duisburg is the first to have published a German-language book about the methodology of discourse analysis after FOUCAULT. JÄGER integrates in his work the discourse analytic work of Jürgen LINK as well as the interdisciplinary discussion carried on in the discourse analytic journal "kultuRRevolution" (Journal for Applied Discourse Analysis. JÄGER and his co-workers were associated with the Duisburger Institute for Language Research and Social Research (DISS, see http://www.diss-duisburg.de/ for 20 years, developing discourse theory and the methodology of discourse analysis. The interview was done via e-mail. It depicts the discourse analytic approach of JÄGER and his co-workers following the works of FOUCAULT and LINK. The interview reconstructs JÄGERs vita and his academic career. Further topics of the interview are the agenda of JÄGERs discourse studies, methodological considerations, the (problematic relationship between FOUCAULDian discourse analysis and (discourses, linguistics, styles and organization of research and questions concerning applied discourse analytic research as a form of critical intervention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603219
This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…
The focus is on aspects of the Mood structure of the clause that emphasize meaning as exchange of information, goods and services between interactants, namely, ... Keywords: interpersonal meaning, critical discourse analysis, political discourse, power relations, systemic functional linguistics, inaugural political speeches
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an approach to analysing the discourses that operate in social contexts, such as classrooms in schools, and their material effects on people, such as teachers and learners. CDA offers a range of ways of engaging with the relationship between texts in context and the power they exercise. In this article, I…
In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…
Cots, Josep M.
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) sees discourse as a form of "social practice", in which language use is seen at the same time as socially influenced and influential. Another characteristic of CDA is that it is engaged and committed; it intervenes in social practice and attempts to reveal connections between language use, power, and ideology. The…
...; they presented arguments that are not addressed in the Western narrative. Two texts in Arabic by the prominent Muslim preacher, Mohammad Hassan and by the Muslim orator Fadhel Sliman are analysed from a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) viewpoint...
In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…
Patricia Amigot Leache
This book brings together for the first time an international collection of studies of CDA (Critical Discourse Analysis) from a feminist perspective. The book makes visible a wide range of analyses concerned with gender inequalities in contemporary discourse. It shows both the persistence of such inequalities and how heterogeneous forms of such inequalities arise in different institutional, cultural and geographical contexts. The chapters in the book are especially relevant in exploring prese...
This research critically evaluates the depiction of Israelis and Palestinians in World History textbooks and World History teachers' instructional discourse. Employing a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis methodology, this study offers a comparison between written narratives and spoken discourse in order to analyze the portrayals found in…
Garoon, Joshua P; Duggan, Patrick S
Growing recognition of the threat of pandemic influenza to global health has led to increased emphasis on pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Previous analysis of national pandemic preparedness plans has revealed that those plans paid scant attention to the needs and interests of the disadvantaged. This paper investigates those findings via critical discourse analysis of the same plans as well as World Health Organization guidance documents. The analysis reveals that the texts operate within and as parts of an ordered universe of discourse. Among the six discourses which emerge from the analysis the scientific, political, and legal dominate the social, cultural, and ethical. This order of discourse delineates a specific regime of truths within which the lives, needs, and interests of the disadvantaged are masked or neglected. Unless the plans recognize their discursive construction, implementation of the policies and practices they prescribe runs the risk of further disadvantaging those very populations most likely to require protection.
Elok Putri Nimasari
In Indonesian context, it is mostly found that reading material and its exercises examine of what have been explicitly discussed. Critical thinking is less introduced within reading texts and somehow it makes the students less understandable to know what is exactly meant by the author. However, when the students are able to think critically, they will also be able to connect between ideas and to solve the problems with logical reasons. From this reason, it is clearly seen that critical thinki...
This article is situated at the intersection of the applied linguistic fields of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), Collective Action Framing (CAF) and a sociolinguistic field recently referred to as “Queer Linguistics” (QL). Drawing on a qualitative method of analysis, the article investigates the discursive (re)production of ...
This article reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the lifestyle magazine Cosmopolitan. It aims to demonstrate how a CDA framework was used to investigate the linguistic construction of gender ideology. In order to pursue this goal, an appropriate analytic framework was derived by combining methodologies from ...
This article investigates a corpus of herbalist pamphlets – fairly common, everyday texts found in (South) African cities – which promote the services of traditional healers and promise solutions to a plethora of ailments and life problems. The article's multi-pronged approach brings feminist critical discourse analysis (FCDA), ...
Bladergroen, Moira; Chigona, Wallace; Bytheway, Andy; Cox, Sanet; Dumas, Chris; van Zyl, Izak
This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of Primary School Educators' dialogue on the use of ICT in an under-resourced schooling context. Educators play a pivotal role in the education system. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interventions in schools will be effective only if educators are willing and able to…
Sep 22, 1996 ... Keywords: LGBT, homophobia, Critical Discourse Analysis, framing, Queer Linguistics. 1. Introduction ... How are religious counterframes used to challenge homophobic and heteronormative ideologies in .... recent years, as the use of birth control has limited the extent to which heterosexual sex leads.
Kucukaydin, Ilhan; Cranton, Patricia
In this article, the authors critically examine the way discourse enters into and becomes embedded in transformative learning theory, especially from the extrarational or depth psychology perspective. The authors begin by providing an overview of how transformative learning theory has developed in diverse directions, including the extrarational…
This article aims to investigate the linguistic construction of gender ideology in the men's lifestyle magazine For Him Magazine (FHM), by investigating its approach to masculine sexuality. A critical discourse analytic (CDA) framework, based on Fairclough (2003), as well as Kitis and Milapides (1997), was used to ...
Johns, Clinton L; Tooley, Kristen M; Traxler, Matthew J
Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) rarely causes aphasias marked by clear and widespread failures of comprehension or extreme difficulty producing fluent speech. Nonetheless, subtle language comprehension deficits can occur following unilateral RHD. In this article, we review the empirical record on discourse function following right hemisphere damage, as well as relevant work on non-brain damaged individuals that focuses on right hemisphere function. The review is divided into four sections that focus on discourse processing, inferencing, humor, and non-literal language. While the exact role that the right hemisphere plays in language processing, and the exact way that the two cerebral hemispheres coordinate their linguistic processes are still open to debate, our review suggests that the right hemisphere plays a critical role in managing inferred or implied information by maintaining relevant information and/or suppressing irrelevant information. Deficits in one or both of these mechanisms may account for discourse deficits following RHD.
Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim
"Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between
This article explores the use of Critical Discourse Analysis in truth-telling in education research. I argue that without critical reflexivity Critical Discourse Analysis can become a means of reinforcing and reinscribing some of the same dominant discourses that we critique. Here I suggest the recognition that in the role of teacher and…
Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate how Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA can be used as a conceptual framework for investigating gender stereotypes in political media discourse. Language and gender studies in media discourse work with a diverse theoretical standpoint underpinning each particular work, and are generally bound by a concern for the reproduction of ideology in language use, which is also one of the aims of CDA. However, CDA has previously been criticized for selecting and using only a small number of texts, leading to concerns of representativeness of the texts selected, and thus susceptibility to the researcher's bias in text selection for an intended analysis. In this paper, we used news reports with reference to the former Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra of Thailand as the case study to examine how gender stereotypes related to female politicians are linguistically generated in media text. We demonstrate how an abstract concept such as stereotyping can be investigated through systematic linguistic analysis and how such criticisms, especially that of representativeness of the texts selected, or cherry-picking data, can be addressed when conducting a CDA research project. We propose that the potential bias in data selection can be minimized or even eliminated by systematically obtaining a data set large enough to be a representative sample. Doing so can help increase the ability to describe texts, and more thoroughly convince the reader of the resulting claims regarding how gender stereotypes in politics are reproduced and generated through language used in media.
This study examines how a contested fast food chain in the middle of on-going image transformation efforts opens the distorted discourse about CSR with a social media campaign and enables the interference of official corporate communication and stakeholder critique. The study examines how...... as a transparency campaign. Therewith the company is able to co-opt its critical consumers, address long-lasting critique and at the same time emphasis the commitment to its new values....
Boyd, Jade; Kerr, Thomas
In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper to explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Department (VPD) policy reports on "Vancouver's mental health crisis" from 2008-2013, which include recommendations for action. Analyzed is the VPD's role in framing issues of mental health in one urban space. This study is the first analysis to critically examine the VPD reports on mental health in Vancouver, B.C. The reports reproduce negative discourses about deinstitutionalization, mental illness and dangerousness that may contribute to further stigma and discrimination of persons with mental illness. Policing reports are widely drawn upon, thus critical analyses are particularly significant for policy makers and public health professionals in and outside of Canada.
McIntyre, Meredith; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne
This paper provides an example of the use of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the area of maternity care policy and describes the process of CDA as an effective research method for understanding the influences of change in the context of Australian maternity services. CDA is a methodological approach that examines how discourse is formed and given power, as a result of how power is used, who uses it and the context within which this usage takes place. The application of CDA is described in this study for the purpose of examining key-stakeholder use of knowledge and power for the purpose of influencing the direction of the maternity services reform. The CDA theoretical framework guided discourse identification and analysis of the purpose behind the discourse through examination of power relationships between key stakeholders. The use of a theoretical lens in the form of neoliberalism to supplement the theoretical framework facilitated the exposure of forces intrinsic to the maternity care context driving change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Røberg, Anne-Stine Bergquist; Feiring, Marte; Romsland, Grace Inga
This article applies a critical discourse analysis of two Norwegian White Papers published within a period of 10 years, and that focused on rehabilitation policies. Concerning the way medical and socio-political conceptual models are embedded in the texts, the analysis has revealed three orders of rehabilitation discourse: The discourse of reaction, the discourse of action, and the discourse of pro-action. The analysis outlines the repositioning of rehabilitation to adhere to socio-political ...
Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh
The present study investigated the impact of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on TEFL students' critical thinking (CT) ability in "Reading Journalistic Texts" classes. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 24 participants in the control group and 29 participants in the experimental group. The results of a pretest indicated…
Full Text Available In the aftermath of September 11, Muslim scholars made numerous attempts to explain Islamophobia from the Islamic perspective; they presented arguments that are not addressed in the Western narrative. Two texts in Arabic by the prominent Muslim preacher, Mohammad Hassan and by the Muslim orator Fadhel Sliman are analysed from a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA viewpoint. This analysis aims to demonstrate how language is inextricably linked with ideology. This paper demonstrates that textual strategies in the Arabic Islamic discourse and their ideological implications show distinct characteristics some of which add to the present literature on discourse. The aim of the chosen texts is to educate and create solidarity between the speakers and the audience in fighting Islamophobia. The reliance of the speakers on tactics such as quoting from the Holy Qur’ān and ḥadīth to defend Islam, and choice of words and sentence structures may instigate discussions about the persuasive power of the Arabic Islamic narrative.
Светлана Григорьевна Бугай
Full Text Available The peculiarity of scientific and critical reception of history and theory of Ukrainian literature in studios of Mykhaylyna Kotsiubynska is considered in the article. It is given the detailed analysis of scientific approaches and attitudes in literary interpretation of the key issues of artistic discourse: features of genre-thematic, compositional structure, imagery and stylistic palette of writing, specific of writer’s artistic thinking, ethical and philosophical foundations of creativity, originality of associative relationships, understanding artistic heritage in the context of the time
Full Text Available This study explored how political elites can contribute to power enactment through using language. It started with a theoretical overview of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, and then presented a corpus consisting of speeches of eight political elites, namely, Malcolm X, Noam Chomsky, Martin Luther King, Josef Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, Winston Churchill, J.F. Kennedy and Adolph Hitler. This study analyzed speeches in terms of figures of' speech, and interpreted them from the point of view of CDA using the framework introduced by Fairclough (1989 as a three-dimensional approach to the study of discourse (Description, Interpretation, Explanation and van Dijk (2004 as the theory of critical context analysis.. Speech figures are classified in this study into six main categories as Comparison, Grammar, Meaning, Parenthesis, Repetition and Rhetoric. The result of analyses reveals that while there are differences in the type and degree of speech figures employed by our selected individual political elites, there is one striking pattern which is common among all speeches: the frequent use of figures of Grammar, Repetition and Rhetoric
Using the ethics of care as a theoretical lens, alongside the techniques of discourse analysis, I critically analyze texts from Alberta's Inspiring Education policies. On the basis of this analysis, I identify two discourses: the sentimental treatment of care and the "facilitator discourse." I argue that a caring teacher-student…
Full Text Available E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1 critical applied linguistics (CAL aspects and (2 critical discourse analysis (CDA. After analysing the website using CAL and CDA, it was found that the website was adequate for beginner, in which it provided fun learning through games as well as challenged learners’ to test their vocabulary. Despite of these strengths, there were several issues required further thinking in terms of learners’ broad knowledge, such as, some of learning materials focused on states in America. It was quite difficult for EFL learners if they did not have adequate general knowledge. Thus, the findings implied that the website could be used as a supporting learning material, which accompanied textbooks and vocabulary exercise books.
Valderama-Wallace, Claire P
Social inequities threaten the health of the global population. A superficial acknowledgement of social justice by nursing's foundational documents may limit the degree to which nurses view injustice as relevant to nursing practice and education. The purpose was to examine conceptualizations of social justice and connections to broader contexts in the most recent editions. Critical discourse analysis examines and uncovers dynamics related to power, language, and inequality within the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics, Scope and Standards of Practice, and Social Policy Statement. This analysis found ongoing inconsistencies in conceptualizations of social justice. Although the Code of Ethics integrates concepts related to social justice far more than the other two, tension between professionalism and social change emerges. The discourse of professionalism renders interrelated cultural, social, economic, historical, and political contexts nearly invisible. Greater consistency would provide a clearer path for nurses to mobilize and engage in the courageous work necessary to address social injustice. These findings also call for an examination of how nurses can critique and use the power and privilege of professionalism to amplify the connection between social institutions and health equity in nursing education, practice, and policy development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Benbow, Sarah; Gorlick, Carolyne; Forchuk, Cheryl; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Berman, Helene
This article overviews the second phase of a two-phase study which examined experiences of health and social exclusion among mothers experiencing homelessness in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis was employed to analyze the policy document, Realizing Our Potential: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2014-2019. In nursing, analysis of policy is an emerging form of scholarship, one that draws attention to the macro levels influencing health and health promotion, such as the social determinants of health, and the policies that impact them. The clear neo-liberal underpinnings, within the strategy, with a focus on productivity and labor market participation leave little room for an understanding of poverty reduction from a human rights perspective. Further, gender-neutrality rendered the poverty experienced by women, and mothers, invisible. Notably, there were a lack of deadlines, target dates, and thorough action and evaluation plans. Such absence troubles whether poverty reduction is truly a priority for the government, and society as a whole.
edited by Ilaria Moschini
Full Text Available The language section of LEA - edited by Ilaria Moschini - is dedicated to the Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse, an approach that encompasses the linguistic and semiotic detailed investigation of texts within a socio-cultural perspective. It features an interview with Professor Theo van Leeuwen by Ilaria Moschini and four essays: “Retwitting, reposting, repinning; reshaping identities online: Towards a social semiotic multimodal analysis of digital remediation” by Elisabetta Adami; “Multimodal aspects of corporate social responsibility communication” by Carmen Daniela Maier; “Pervasive Technologies and the Paradoxes of Multimodal Digital Communication” by Sandra Petroni and “Can the powerless speak? Linguistic and multimodal corporate media manipulation in digital environments: the case of Malala Yousafzai” by Maria Grazia Sindoni.
Sexuality education debates are layered with discourses based on markedly different constructions of sexuality. Rather than seeing these discourses as purely oppositional, this article frames them as complex and varied. It provides a new framework for understanding sexuality education which differentiates 28 discourses by orientation to education,…
Whitehead, Cynthia; Kuper, Ayelet; Freeman, Risa; Grundland, Batya; Webster, Fiona
We rely upon formal accreditation and curricular standards to articulate the priorities of professional training. The language used in standards affords value to certain constructs and makes others less apparent. Leveraging standards can be a useful way for educators to incorporate certain elements into training. This research was designed to look for ways to embed the teaching and practice of compassionate care into Canadian family medicine residency training. We conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of compassionate care in recent formal family medicine residency training documents. Critical discourse analysis is premised on the notion that language is connected to practices and to what is accorded value and power. We assembled an archive of texts and examined them to analyse how compassionate care is constructed, how notions of compassionate care relate to other key ideas in the texts, and the implications of these framings. There were very few words, metaphors or statements that related to concepts of compassionate care in our archive. Even potential proxies, notably the doctor-patient relationship and patient-centred care, were not primarily depicted in ways that linked them to ideas of compassion or caring. There was a reduction in language related to compassionate care in the 2013 standards compared with the standards published in 2006. Our research revealed negative findings and a relative absence of the construct of compassionate care in our archival documents. This work demonstrates how a shift in curricular focus can have the unintended consequence of making values that are taken for granted less visible. Given that standards shape training, we must pay attention not only to what we include, but also to what we leave out of formal documents. We risk losing important professional values from training programmes if they are not explicitly highlighted in our standards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mohammad Reza Amirian; Ali Rahimi; Gholamreza Sami
The significant role of the media, in general, and the movies, in particular, in disseminating information and creating images of the real life by use of the language as a powerful social tool is totally irrefutable. Although critical analysis of the movie discourse is a fashionable trend among the critical discourse analysts, there is a paucity of research on movie discourse in Iran. Besides, the increasing number of the anti-Iranian movies produced in the last decade and the growing tendenc...
Xiong, Tao; Qian, Yamin
In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation…
This paper applied this theory to legal discourse with the aim of exposing how the question-answer sequences of a direct and cross examination, turn-taking, objections, and other legal proceedings create unequal relationship among participants. It draws its motivation from the enormous works on legal discourse in western ...
Wiehe, Elsa M.
This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…
This paper presents findings of a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the linguistic encoding of HIV and AIDS discourse by the Kwayedza newspaper in Zimbabwe. The study examined the linguistic environment of keywords from a corpus of 8 205 word types and 20 996 tokens. The results reveal that ...
Bethune, Jennifer; Gonick, Marnina
This paper is a critical discourse analysis of teacher resource materials about girl bullying. The "mean girl" phenomenon has been widely taken up as one of the current key narratives about schools and school girls. This paper argues for the importance of understanding the origins of this discourse within behavioural psychology, which…
Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf
This paper attempts to provide an ideological approach within a critical discourse analysis (CDA) in order to investigate the Islamic discourse and to trace the ideological devices in Amr Khalid's sermons. In so doing, this paper tries to show how language, employed in Khalid's sermons, reflects the common conceptual structures and…
Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark
The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…
Pitts, Margaret Jane; Brooks, Catherine F.
Set within the context of a global pursuit towards the internationalisation of higher education, this paper critically examines student discourse in a globally connected classroom between learners in the USA and Singapore. It makes salient some of the cultural assumptions and tensions that undergird students' discourse in collaborative…
Gordon E. Dames
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to focus renewed attention on ethics in contemporary dialogue through value-based leadership. This is done with reference to the value of meaning in social research and critical discourse analysis within a framework of leadership discourse praxis. Discourse constructs, such as dominance and power, are analysed in the (reproduction of oppression, injustice and inequality. The objective is to analyse the way in which human ideas and the actions of powerful and dominant leadership elites are influencing and dominating ethical and/or unethical public enactments. The hypothesis is that ethical discourse enactments (practices could foster authentic ethical and transformational leadership.
Cicchino, Marc I
Previous research indicates the importance of student discourse in the construction of knowledge and the fostering of critical thinking skills, especially in the field of problem-based learning (PBL...
Dixon, Kathleen A
The aim of this study was to uncover and critically examine hidden assumptions that underpin the findings of nurses' unethical conduct arising from inquiries conducted by the Nurses Tribunal in New South Wales. This was a qualitative study located within a post-structural theoretical framework. Transcripts of five inquiries conducted between 1998 and 2003 were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings revealed two dominant discourses that were drawn upon in the inquiries to construct nurses' conduct as unethical. These were discourses of trust and accountability. The way the nurses were spoken about during the inquiries was shaped by normalising judgements that were used to discursively position the nurse through narrative.
de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Bañon Hernández, Antonio Miguel
The present study aims to get to know the philosophical, conceptual and methodological aspects of Critical Discourse Analysis, as a theoretical-methodological framework for research in the mental health area. Initially, the study presents a reflection on psychiatric discourse in history and at present, with the goal of introducing concepts and presuppositions that would guide the analysis of discursive processes. Discussions are presented about the historical milestones of Critical Discourse Analysis as an analytical framework in social sciences. Finally, the study presents its conceptual and methodological applications to research in the mental health area.
Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda
This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…
Adriane Marie Salm Coelho
Full Text Available Up to now, very few business genres have been described, there is a need to investigate more about the genres in this area (Salm, 2000. In order to contribute to this area of research, academic agreements for international cooperation from higher educational institutions were analyzed in order to make a critical study of this particular discourse. The analysis draws on principles of critical discourse analysis, Fairclough’s (1992 tri-dimensional model of Critical Discourse Analysis, Halliday’s (1994 Functional Grammar, Ramos’s (1965 ‘Redução Sociológica’ and genre studies (Meurer, 1998. Results have shown evidence of the power relation between discourse participants.
Tengelin, Ellinor; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth
This paper describes the discourses underlying nursing teachers' talk about their own norm-critical competence. Norm criticism is an approach that promotes awareness and criticism of the norms and power structures that exert an excluding effect in society in general and in the healthcare encounter in particular. Given the unequal relationships that can exist in healthcare, for example relationships shaped by racism, sexism and classism, a norm-critical approach to nursing education would help illuminate these matters. The studied empirical material consisted of focus group interviews. Nursing teachers discussed their norm-critical competence based on the university course "Norm-Aware Caring" in which they had recently participated. Through a critical discourse analysis, three discourses were identified in their talk, all of which had the potential to disrupt traditional, normative nursing education. However, in all three discourses there was an underlying discourse of normality, clearly positioning the teachers as exemplifying the "normal." The binary constructed between normality and otherness contradicts a basic tenet of the norm-critical approach and may hamper the development of genuine norm-critical competence in nursing education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Through a strategic selection of linguistic items, power elites control the actions of others, and whoever controls ... selective linguistic choice masks the ideology, belief, and worldview which underlie his speech and to which he ... force, information, authority, discourse, and other scarce societal resources. Such control may.
language investigations is to ask “questions which are socially critical” (Kamler 1994: 2). The question that I ... is an exercise in discourse analysis” and the analysis of language, and how it positions difference is ..... The cover of the book is opaque green with the title written in cursive with orange and yellow detail. The size ...
Cummings, Kristina M.
The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of these skills. The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to identify and analyze the discursive strategies used in intermediate science texts and curricula that address socioscientific topics and the extent to which the discourses are designed to promote or suppress the development of scientific literacy and a critical pedagogy. Three curricula that address the issue of energy and climate change were analyzed using Gee's (2011) building tasks and inquiry tools. The curricula were written by an education organization entitled PreSEES, a corporate-sponsored group called NEED, and a non-profit organization named Oxfam. The analysis found that the PreSEES and Oxfam curricula elevated the significance of climate change and the NEED curriculum deemphasized the issue. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula promoted the development of scientific literacy while the NEED curricula suppressed its development. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula both promoted the development of the critical pedagogy; however, only the Oxfam curricula provided authentic opportunities to enact sociopolitical change. The NEED curricula suppressed the development of critical pedagogy. From these findings, the following conclusions were drawn. When socioscientific issues are presented with the development of scientific literacy and critical pedagogy, the curricula allow students to develop fact-based opinions about the issue. However, curricula that address socioscientific issues without the inclusion of these skills minimize the significance of the issue and normalize the hegemonic worldview promoted by the curricula's authors. Based on these findings
Chouliaraki, Syragoula Milner
critical discourse analysis, deliberative democracy, media discourse, nationalism, recontextualization......critical discourse analysis, deliberative democracy, media discourse, nationalism, recontextualization...
Boyd, Jade; Kerr, Thomas
In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Departme...
The paper explores the construct of Employee Engagement from a critical and discourse perspective. It is argued that the win-win discourse which characterizes much discussion on EE within a traditional management paradigm presents a decontextualized, depoliticized vision of the organization. The paper examines mainstream critiques of the construct of employee engagement and the contribution of HRD, and notes that HRD processes and practices are seen as important contributors to engagement. It...
Aim: To examine how the New York Times portrays Melania Trump in her role as First Lady. Methodology: A qualitative discourse analysis of newspaper articles from the New York Time’s online publication. The main theoretical and methodological foundation is Fairclough’s concept of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and Yvonne Hirdman’s theories about gender system and gender contract. Main results: The main results of the analysis is that Melania Trump is depicted as absent, non-traditional, irr...
The paper critically evaluated the discursive practices on the Moderated Discussion Board (MDB) of Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP). The paramount objective of the study was to conduct a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the MDB on the Learning Management System (LMS) of VUP. For this purpose, the academic power relations of the students…
Agiro, Christa Preston
This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…
This article highlights certain practical and professional difficulties in providing end-of-life (EOL) care for patients in critical care units and explores discourses arising from guidelines for critical care services. A significant number of patients die in critical care after decisions to withdraw or withhold treatment. Guidelines for provision of critical care suggest, wherever possible, moving patients out of critical care at the EOL. This may not necessarily be conducive to a 'good death' for patients or their loved ones. There is a moral responsibility for both nurses and doctors to ensure that decision-making around EOL issues is sensitively implemented, that decisions about care includes families, patients when able, nurses and doctors, and that good EOL care is provided. A critical discourse analysis (CDA) of four key UK critical care documents published since 1996. The key documents give little clear guidance about how to provide EOL care in critical care. Discourses include the power dynamic in critical care between professions, families and patients, and how this impacts on provision of EOL care. Difficulties encountered include dilemmas at discharge and paternalism in decision-making. The technological environment can act as a barrier to good EOL care, and critical care nurses are at risk of assuming the dominant medical model of care. Nurses, however, are in a prime position to ensure that decision-making is an inclusive process, patient needs are paramount, the practical aspects of withdrawal lead to a smooth transition in goals of care and that comfort measures are implemented.
This paper reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the New Labour (1997-2010) discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, and how it was understood and enacted by policymakers in England and in Wales within the context of devolved government across the UK. By SEL I mean universal school-based programs, located in the…
Joergensen, Kim; Praestegaard, Jeanette
Patient participation is one of the most prevalent focus areas in the Danish healthcare debate. Patient participation is generally presented as a fundamental democratic right, and is stated in an objective language with legal requirements for healthcare professionals to ensure that patients systematically participate in their own courses of care and treatment. In the research literature, it is not clear what is meant by 'patient participation', and several discourses on patient participation exist side by side. This study explores how discourses of patient participation unfold and are at play in the articulations in official legal and political documents and patient records relating to a Danish psychiatric context. The documents and patient records have been analyzed using a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse approach which is concerned with how power is exercised through language. The research findings show that patient participation within Danish psychiatric healthcare is governed within a neoliberal discourse where underlying discourses; discourse of biomedicine, paternalism, management, evidence and ethics of care are embedded, and a discourse that seems to ascribe stigmatizing traits to mentally ill patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anna Tso Wing-bo
Full Text Available Chinese readers have shown excessive interest in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House (1879 since progressive Chinese intellectuals such as Lu Xun (1881–1936 and Hu Shi (1891–1962 translated and introduced the play to China in the early twentieth century. However, until today, not many have noticed or mentioned issues that could arise from translation. While Chinese scholars vigorously study Ibsen and modern Chinese drama, few care to read the original play (in Dano-Norwegian or the English translation, let alone comparing them with the Chinese version(s, which most Chinese readers actually read. In view of this, we look into three translations of A Doll’s House – namely Peter Watts’s English version, Pan Jiaxun’s Chinese version, and Cao Kaiyuan’s Taiwanese version. By using the critical discourse analysis (CDA approach, we discover that the discourse and power struggle of Nora and Torvald in Watts’s and Pan’s versions differ in various interesting ways. In this article, we will use the conversation between Nora and Torvald in the last scene of Act III to demonstrate how omissions, additions and alterations brought about by translations can change the discourse and create different ideological effects on gender relations and identities (192 words.
Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten
This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough's three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean's concepts of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients' active role, lifestyle, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already activated, while others remain subjugated to certain roles. For example, they may be labeled as "vulnerable." © The Author(s) 2015.
Escobar Alméciga Wilder Yesid
Full Text Available This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: Visión 2019 issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It characterizes discursive strategies which, in turn, unveil power structures, means of control, and subject positioning of submission and dominance inherent in three main categories: Being bilingual, being successful, and being Colombian. It concludes that discourses are being strategically employed by the Colombian Ministry of National Education to change or preserveideologies and to widen gaps between socio-economic groups to protect the interests of only a small segment of the population.Este reporte postula una problemática de relaciones desequilibradas de dominio, poder, control y de la desproporcionada distribución de recursos en la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia, lo cual es perpetrado por discursos que moldean la identidad, en el documento Educación: Visión 2019 publicado por el Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia. El estudio sigue los principios del análisis crítico del discurso. Esta investigación caracteriza estrategias discursivas que a su vez develan estructuras de poder, medios de control, y posicionamiento de sumisión y dominio en tres categorías: ser bilingüe, ser exitoso y ser colombiano. El estudio sugiere que el Ministerio de Educación Nacional está empleando discursos para manipular ideologías y generar inequidad entre grupos sociales en tanto que protege los intereses de un segmento de la población exclusivamente.
Saleh Ali Almahfali, Mohammed
The research aims to language analysis of the Arab critical speech, which dealt with the study of narrative, in the theoretical and practical side, using pragmatic mechanisms, including holdings of terms, and effective tools in linguistic studies. It’s the starting point for many of the process of modern literary criticism. The study has taken two ways: first, the side of theoretical through summary preface to pragmatic and its main ideas, second: study of the literary critical speech languag...
Mohammad Reza Amirian
Full Text Available The significant role of the media, in general, and the movies, in particular, in disseminating information and creating images of the real life by use of the language as a powerful social tool is totally irrefutable. Although critical analysis of the movie discourse is a fashionable trend among the critical discourse analysts, there is a paucity of research on movie discourse in Iran. Besides, the increasing number of the anti-Iranian movies produced in the last decade and the growing tendency among the English students to watch American movies, have established the need for conducting a research to investigate the images of Iranians represented in the Western movies. Thus, in this article an anti-Iranian movie called Iranium, allegedly labeled as documentary, has been critically analyzed using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. For this purpose, Van Dijk’s framework (2004 has been utilized to uncover the ideological manipulations and misrepresentations of this movie. The analysis revealed that the dichotomy of in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation is a very effective discursive strategy at the disposal of the movie makers who have used language as a weapon to attack Iran by representing a distorted and unrealistic image of the Iranians’ history, culture and ideologies. The findings of the present study imply that adopting a critical discourse analysis perspective in the EFL classes is a necessity which needs the development of the required materials, by the curriculum developers, that raise the students’ critical awareness as well as their language skills and proficiency.
Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes
This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.
This qualitative case study is an exploration of the phenomenon of the ways in which Urdu as the national language is represented in discursive practices of senior business academia. The research design, built on Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) model (2009) is of dialectical-relational approach. The participant in this single case…
Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda; Schott, Christopher; O'Brien, Kathryn; Trigos-Carrillo, Lina; Starkey, Kim; Chasteen, Cynthia Carter
This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field.…
Rashidi, Nasser; Khormaei, Alireza; Zarei, Maryam
This study takes a critical discourse analysis approach to the investigation of the representation of men and women in Bozorg Alavi's short stories. The principal aim of this study is to find how different statuses of men and women are reflected in their languages. To this end, four short stories were selected and their discursive sentences were…
Johnson, Lindy L.
Drawing on sociocultural perspectives and New Literacies Studies this study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a tool to closely analyse one way the Common Core State Standards in the United States are being produced, disseminated and consumed. The analysis focuses on a section of the CCSS, a model lesson given by one of the primary…
Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen
Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…
Gary Wickham; Gavin Kendall
.... Drawing on some of WEBER's methodological insights, an argument is developed that critical discourse analysis, in taking on the FOUCAULTian approach, gives up the best traditions of description, explanation and the identification of causes in favour of the expression, in many different forms, of the teleology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070246
Brissett, Nigel; Mitter, Radhika
We conduct a critical discourse analysis of the extent to which Sustainable Development Goal 4, "to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education for all and promote lifelong learning," promotes a utilitarian and/or transformative approach to education. Our findings show that despite transformative language used throughout the Agenda,…
In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…
English, Leona M.
This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…
Samaie, Mahmoud; Malmir, Bahareh
This article exploits the synergy of critical discourse studies and Corpus Linguistics to study the pervasive representation of Islam and Muslims in an approximate 670,000-word corpus of US news media stories published between 2001 and 2015. Following collocation and concordance analysis of the most frequent topics or categories which revolve…
Barrett, Brian; Bound, Arron M.
This article presents a critical discourse analysis of "no promo homo" policies and their effects in US schools. "No promo homo"--short for "no promotion of homosexuality" (Eskridge, 2000, p. 1329)--polices have been adopted across nine states and several local school districts in the United States. They direct…
Cheng, Annie Y. N.
Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…
Mora, Raul A.
The following study explored the structures and themes found in a few episodes of a popular TV sitcom ("Friends"). Drawing on James Gee's ideas about critical discourse analysis as the main analytical lens for this study, this study discussed the language found in a sitcom and analyzed the complexity of structures and vocabulary in the…
Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy
This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit…
Alaei, Mahya; Ahangari, Saeideh
The linguistic study of literature or critical analysis of literary discourse is no different from any other textual description; it is not a new branch or a new level or a new kind of linguistics but the application of existing theories and methods (Halliday, 2002). This study intends to determine how ideology or opinion is expressed in Joseph…
Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther
Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…
Researchers in China have keenly explored how lifelong education and lifelong learning, as imports from "the West," may become localized in China, although a small chorus has also tried to revitalize Confucianism to bear on the field. This paper adds to this domain of discussion with a critical discourse analysis of Chinese lifelong…
Byungura, Jean Claude; Hansson, Henrik; Masengesho, Kamuzinzi; Karunaratne, Thashmee
With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis,…
Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Rashid, Athar
The article presents the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the first part of King Martin Luther's speech "When I Have a Dream" in socio-political context. The study investigates how it lies on the basis of application of Fairclough version of CDA in the first part of the text. Moreover, it explicates the terms like social, cultural…
Cox, Robin S; Long, Bonita C; Jones, Megan I; Handler, Risa J
This article is a critical discourse analysis of the local print-news media coverage of the recovery process in two rural communities following a devastating forest fire. Two hundred and fifty fire-related articles from the North Thompson Star Journal (2003) were analyzed. Results revealed a neoliberal discursive framing of recovery, emphasizing the economic-material aspects of the process and a reliance on experts. A sequestering of suffering discourse promoted psychological functionalism and focused attention on a return to normalcy through the compartmentalization of distress. The dominant 'voice' was male, authoritative, and institutionalized. Implications for disaster recovery and potential health consequences are discussed.
Bounds, Dawn; Delaney, Kathleen R; Julion, Wrenetha
The Internet has emerged as a major expediter of the commercial sex (CS) industry. While use of web-based CS industry sites is brisk, the full extent of their impact remains unclear particularly how they influence users' views of the CS industry. This research study sought to uncover the nuances of buyers' interactions on an online CS website. Six hundred sixty-six online posts from 363 unique members were collected and analyzed using critical discourse analysis. Via the use of language and dialogue, particular ways of thinking about and talking about buying sex are normalized and reinforced. Evident within these discursive patterns are mechanisms by which assumptions are forwarded, perceptions shaped, and authority established. Information about how CS industry websites establish beliefs, relationships, and practices among its users may increase understanding of how the CS industry seeks to gain acceptance in the American culture and normalize its activities.
Full Text Available This article emerges from macroanalysis of several works of critical writing in the field of digital poetry, which have been documented in the ELMCIP Knowledge Base. The problems addressed in this context are the self-referentiality exhibited by authors who are both practitioners and theoreticians, and the need for a wider selection of digital poems in critical discourse. The dataset consists of monographs and Ph.D. dissertations on digital poetry (1995-2015, which have been exported into visualization software. Macro and network analyses enable new debate concerning the outlined problems and new findings. My findings suggest that criticism in this domain is chiefly endogenous and that a limited number of poems is being canonized. Therefore, a meta-discourse perspective can pave the way for an external view of the field, concerning its epistemology and evolution. The dataset is available online for download and can be tested and reconsidered by other researchers.
Full Text Available The paper critically evaluated the discursive practices on the Moderated Discussion Board (MDB of Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP. The paramount objective of the study was to conduct a critical discourse analysis (CDA of the MDB on the Learning Management System (LMS of VUP. For this purpose, the academic power relations of the students and instructors were evaluated by analyzing whose discourse was dominant in communication with each other on MDB. The researcher devised a model based on the blended theoretical framework of Norman Fairclough and Teun van Dijk to critically analyze the linguistics, ideological, semiotic and socio cognitive-cultural undercurrents in the production and reception processes of MDB discourse. The primary data of the MDB of English Comprehension (ENG101 course was randomly selected to be qualitatively analyzed for this research study. The findings demonstrated that the learners were at a disadvantage because of their lack of command of the English language. However, quick and pertinent replies from instructors revealed students’ empowerment in an educational discursive practice. The results indicated a balance of power relations amongst instructors, students and the University. However, the need to improve the critical thinking of the students to further empower them was strongly felt.
Margarita Rosa Vargas Torres
Full Text Available This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world.
Lo Bartolo, Luciano; Sheahan, Marie
The 2005 WorkChoices legislation delivered a significant diminution of Australian workers' rights in the form of choice and control over numerous aspects of working life. WorkChoices extended previous neoliberal reforms and consolidated the negative impacts of those reforms on marginalized groups of workers, especially those in precarious employment. This paper reports on the findings of an occupational science-based, critical discourse analysis of a government newspaper advertisement that promotes the reforms. The construction of a WorkChoices discourse, one that was based on and sought to extend neoliberal hegemony, is identified by exploring the ways that particular ideas are presented as natural and mutually beneficial and, in response, the development of a counter-hegemonic argument, based on occupational justice theory, is discussed. The broader application of critical social research is also recommended in extending the occupational justice paradigm.
McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A
Despite its prominence in the abortion debate and in public policy, the discourse of 'unborn patient' has not been subjected to critical scrutiny. We provide a critical analysis in three steps. First, we distinguish between the descriptive and normative meanings of 'unborn child.' There is a long history of the descriptive use of 'unborn child.' Second, we argue that the concept of an unborn child has normative content but that this content does not do the work that opponents of abortion want it to do, namely, to establish the independent moral status of fetuses and their rights, the right to life in particular. Third, we argue that the normative content of 'unborn child' should be dependent moral status, not independent moral status. We conclude that the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient should replace the discourse of "unborn child" when that phrase is used normatively.
Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie
With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…
Bakke, Mathilde Aarvold
In this thesis I explore how 11 commercial, Norwegian bloggers construct themselves as microcelebrities on their blogs, how the relationship between the bloggers and the readers is discursively constructed and maintained and what characterizes the commercial blog as a genre. The bloggers are women, between 18 and 35 years old, personal and commercial lifestyle bloggers. I have done a critical discourse analysis of the textual content of blog posts written by these bloggers in September 2016. ...
Cicchino, Marc I
Previous research indicates the importance of student discourse in the construction of knowledge and the fostering of critical thinking skills, especially in the field of problem-based learning (PBL). Further, a growing body of research on game-based learning (GBL) draws parallels between playing certain types of games and the solving of ill-structured problems, citing similar conditions for learning (student centered, small student groups, teachers as facilitators, problems as vehicles for d...
Boyd, Jade; Kerr, Thomas
In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Department (VPD) policy reports on “Vancouver’s mental health crisis” from 2008–2013, which include recommendations for action. Analyzed is the VPD’s role in framing issues of mental health in one urban space. This study is the first analysis to critically examine the VPD reports on mental health in Vancouver, B.C. The reports reproduce negative discourses about deinstitutionalization, mental illness and dangerousness that may contribute to further stigma and discrimination of persons with mental illness. Policing reports are widely drawn upon, thus critical analyses are particularly significant for policy makers and public health professionals in and outside of Canada. PMID:28496294
Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between social presence and critical thinking is useful for gaining insight into the interaction and discourse of learners online. Further study of how these two presences interact is important because research has shown a wide variety of relationships, both positive and negative, between social presence and critical thinking. The aim of this study is to investigate social presence and critical thinking using discourse analysis in the hope that it will deepen and broaden our understanding of the relationship between these important facets of learner discourse. Using quantitative analysis, an online forum used by students at a national university in Korea (n=219 was analyzed by taking 900 forum posts to determine the levels of social presence and critical thinking in each post. The relationships between social presence and critical thinking were analyzed and the results show that social presence and critical thinking have a negative correlation. This highlights the need for awareness of learner discourse, as an increase in social presence may lead to a decrease in critical thinking and vice versa. The likely cause of this is that learners tend not to change the discourse once the discourse within a particular context has been set.
Svendsen, Annemari Munk; Svendsen, Jesper Tinggaard
This article investigates and problematises how contesting discourses about Physical Education (PE) as a school subject are immersed within textbooks used in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in Denmark. The paper considers PETE textbooks as powerful documents that construct and maintain discourses about PE, and at the same time as…
Berring, Lene L; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels
Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R), and Fairclough's critical discourse analysis was used to identify short narrative entries depicting patients and staffs in typical ways. The narratives contained descriptions of complex interactions between patient and staff that were linked to specific circumstances surrounding the patient. These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient's behavior. Such response might impede implementation of new strategies for managing aggression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Henzell,Helen; Berzins,Karen; Langford,Jennifer
Helen Henzell,1,2 Karen Berzins,1,3 Jennifer P Langford4 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Carlton, 2Action Centre, Family Planning Victoria, Melbourne, 3Dermatology/Vulval Conditions Clinic, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, 4Clifton Hill Physiotherapy, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifia...
Science holds significant power in shaping many of our everyday choices. Thus, it is important for science education to foster the development of scientific literacy for all students, so that they can navigate science-related issues in their daily lives. This study carries out a critical discourse analysis of the US Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through an actor network theory framework to explore how the NGSS document is shaping the discourse of science education. The findings of this study show that the NGSS delivers a highly technocratic document that leaves little room for democratic engagement. It seems to place an emphasis on science education that is necessary for entry into STEM fields. The NGSS appears to have co-opted the notion of a "science for all" approach to push a neoliberal agenda of science education that serves to fuel the economic market and privileges a select few.
Putri Sukma Ari Ragil
Full Text Available As the advancing of technology, bullying became online, it moved to social media, which was then called cyberbullying. Instagram is one of social media that contain a lot of cyberbullying, it usually happened to public figure. It became interesting when the public figure in the bully is LGBTQ, namely Dena Rachman (transgender. This study explored how discourse formed the logic of truth which naturalize the perpetrators to commit cyberbullying act without hesitation. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA method and Teun A. van Dijk’s analysis technique and data interpretation. This study found that the logic of truth that became the basis of cyberbullying is already a natural logic and became the perpetrator’s mindset because it has been institutionalized in everyday life through education, religion, social life, and state regulations.
Caddick, Nick; Varela-Mato, Veronica; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacey; Yates, Tom; King, James A
This article moves beyond previous attempts to understand health problems in the lives of professional lorry drivers by placing the study of drivers' health in a wider social and cultural context. A combination of methods including focus groups, interviews and observations were used to collect data from a group of 24 lorry drivers working at a large transport company in the United Kingdom. Employing a critical discourse analysis, we identified the dominant discourses and subject positions shaping the formation of drivers' health and lifestyle choices. This analysis was systematically combined with an exploration of the gendered ways in which an almost exclusively male workforce talked about health. Findings revealed that drivers were constituted within a neoliberal economic discourse, which is reflective of the broader social structure, and which partly restricted drivers' opportunities for healthy living. Concurrently, drivers adopted the subject position of 'average man' as a way of defending their personal and masculine status in regards to health and to justify jettisoning approaches to healthy living that were deemed too extreme or irrational in the face of the constraints of their working lives. Suggestions for driver health promotion include refocusing on the social and cultural - rather than individual - underpinnings of driver health issues and a move away from moralistic approaches to health promotion.
Full Text Available This article presents some interpretive understanding of a critical moment in my teaching profession. Different from the widely conducted Classroom Action Research (CAR which tends to be focused on the very practice of teaching-learning activities in the classroom, the article refers to post-activity evaluative comments from students as data to start the discussion. The students giving the evaluative comments were participants of my course units of Speaking I and Discourse Analysis, Undergraduate Program, English Department, Faculty of Letters, State University of Malang, Indonesia. In the light of Ortega's concept about the "exuberances and deficiencies" of utterances and the notion of "the said and the unsaid" of discourse, the article interpretively assesses the tensions instead of unidirectional-deterministic understanding of the seemingly-simple-yet-complex teaching-learning activities. The article also argues that students' evaluative feedback as discourse bears paradoxes, indeterminacy, and tentativeness. The corollary is that teachers need not be impulsive and, instead, need to be open to students' evaluative feedback, be it positive or negative.
Borgstrom, Erica; Walter, Tony
End of life care in England has recently been framed by two very different discourses. One (connected to advance care planning) promotes personal choice, the other promotes compassionate care; both are prominent in professional, policy and media settings. The article outlines the history of who promoted each discourse from 2008 to early 2015, when, why and how and this was done. Each discourse is then critically analysed from a standpoint that takes account of bodily decline, structural constraints, and human relationality. We focus on the biggest group of those nearing the end of their life, namely frail very old people suffering multiple conditions. In their care within contemporary healthcare organisations, choice becomes a tick box and compassion a commodity. Informed choice, whether at the end of life or in advance of it, does not guarantee the death the person wants, especially for those dying of conditions other than cancer and in the absence of universally available skilled and compassionate care. Enabling healthcare staff to provide compassionate, relational care, however, implies reversing the philosophical, political and financial direction of healthcare in the UK and most other Anglophone countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology: A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA, was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results: The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion: Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby
Hakimnia, Roya; Holmström, Inger K; Carlsson, Marianne; Höglund, Anna T
Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers' different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all callers.
Hakimnia, Roya; Holmström, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Höglund, Anna T.
Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all
Dahl, Berit Misund; Andrews, Therese; Clancy, Anne
Health care is under constant change creating new and demanding tasks for public health nurses. The curriculum for public health nursing students is controlled by governmental directives that decide the structure and content of their education. This paper analyses manifest and latent discourses in the curriculum, in order to reveal underlying governmental principles for how public health nurses should promote health and prevent diseases. A critical discourse analysis of the Norwegian public health nursing curriculum was conducted. The study indicates i) 'a competing biomedical and social-scientific knowledge-discourse', with biomedical knowledge dominating the content of the curriculum; ii) 'a paternalistic meta-discourse', referring to an underlying paternalistic ideology despite a clear focus on user participation; and iii) 'a hegemonic individual discourse'. Even though the curriculum stipulates that public health nurses should work at both an individual and a societal level, there is very little population focus in the text. Recent political documents concerning public health nursing focus more on health promotion, however, this is not sufficiently explicit in the curriculum. The lack of emphasis on social scientific knowledge, and the blurred empowerment and population perspective in the curriculum, can lead to less emphasis on health promotion work in public health nursing education and practice. The curriculum should be revised in order to meet the recent governmental expectations.
Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne
PURPOSE: To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. METHOD: It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from...... to make use of research in knowledge translation and adapt it to fit with the ways in which new ideas and recommendations are implemented in local rehabilitation contexts. Implications for Rehabilitation Successful implementation of standardised outcome measurements depends on whether occupational...
Grytvik, Linn Marie Reklev
The Syrian refugee crisis has both highlighted the limitations of, and created new possibilities for, burden-sharing in refugee protection. This thesis conceptualises burden-sharing as an international norm. The implementation of international norms, however, depends upon domestic political processes, actors and structures. The thesis therefore conducts a critical discourse analysis of the Norwegian political field, until late September 2015. The analysis uncovers three dominant discourses in...
Edirisingha Arachchige Gamini Fonseka
Full Text Available According to the theory of dialogism propounded by Mikhail Bakhtin, all discourse in the novel is a product of a process of dialogic imagination. Yet heteroglossic situation in the novel differs from general narration, as it involves interaction among two or more characters speaking in their respective voices to represent different aspects of reality in a form of dramatisation. Authors depict certain situations in the reported speech as they can be portrayed in terms of straightforward accounts and certain situations in dialogue as they need dramatization in order to enable readers to realize the actual conflicts or interactions they wish to simulate. Dialogue engendered through the participation of two or several characters is considered heteroglossic situation because of the heterogeneity of the language shades and voices in which they express themselves. While reading a novel for both language development and literary perception, the heteroglossic situations sometimes create problems for the readers as they need more pragmatic knowledge to understand the actual conversations and the messages conveyed through them. There a discourse analysis-based critical approach becomes crucial as it is required to deal with the identities and asymmetrical power relations the characters maintain throughout their conversations, other than the speech acts they carry out, the social atmospheres they help to engender, the messages they help to communicate, and the concepts they help to foreground in relation to their contexts. In regard to this, this paper attempts to develop a discourse analysis-based critical approach to the contextual interpretation of heteroglossic situation in the novel.
Full Text Available The literature of ELT is perhaps overwhelmed by attempts to enhance learners’ writing through the application of different methodologies. One such methodology is critical discourse analysis which is founded upon stressing not only the decoding of the propositional meaning of a text but also its ideological assumptions. Accordingly, this study was an attempt to investigate the impact of critical discourse analysis-based (CDA instruction on EFL learners’ writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 60 female intermediate EFL learners were selected from among a total number of 100 through their performance on a piloted sample PET. Based on the results, the students were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group with 30 participants in each. Both groups underwent the same amount of teaching time during 17 sessions which included a treatment of CDA instruction for the experimental group. A writing posttest was administered at the end of the instruction to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through a MANOVA. The results led to the rejection of the three null hypotheses, thereby demonstrating that the learners in the experimental group benefited significantly more than those in the control group in terms of improving their writing CAF. To this end, it is recommended that CDA instruction be incorporated more frequently in writing classes following of course adequate syllabus design and materials development.
Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P
Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis.
Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo
Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.
Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine
Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The FOUCAULTian governmentality approach, in relying on a teleology—the ultimate purpose of human endeavour is the quest for ever-growing human reason, a reason that is the universal basis of moral judgements, especially moral judgements about political and legal actions—leads not to description, explanation and the possible identification of causes, but to critique, to the inappropriate conflation of, on the one hand, description, explanation and the identification of causes with, on the other, political criticisms sourced in the teleology. Drawing on some of WEBER's methodological insights, an argument is developed that critical discourse analysis, in taking on the FOUCAULTian approach, gives up the best traditions of description, explanation and the identification of causes in favour of the expression, in many different forms, of the teleology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070246
Cummings, Kristina M.
The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of…
Koch, Tomas F; Leal, Valentina J; Ayala, Ricardo A
The discussion of teaching and learning in nursing has been prolific. Whereas most of the debate tends to focus on core contents of nursing programmes, little has been discussed about the teaching in 'supporting subjects' with relevance to both nursing education and nursing practice. This article offers a perspective on sociology scholarship for applied professions by using the case of nursing programmes. Syllabus is a rich source of data, and in its representational capacity it becomes both a discursive construction and a vehicle of ideology. Accordingly, we present a Critical Discourse Analysis of syllabi of nursing schools in Chile as to identify core contents and ideologies, and implied challenges for nursing education. We argue that while the syllabus as a discourse discloses a significant cleavage, the biggest challenge is precisely to challenge the ideologies constructed by and embedded in the syllabi. Our reflection thus points to a better interdisciplinary dialogue as to enhance the actual contribution of sociology to nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study reports on the latest and newest hot topic in the world, the United States Presidential Election. So, this is the newest attempt to explore and discover interrelation of discourse structures and ideological structures of Donald Trump’s acceptance speech in the United States Presidential Election, 2016 as a good sample of his language use in presidential campaign. In so doing, the current study utilizes Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA model to unmask the use of power and hidden strategies through language use. Also we analyze and uncover the experiential, relational and expressive values of the wordings, metaphors and grammatical structures of Trump’s language use. Furthermore, this study tries to show that there are linguistic traces that depict the strategy and ideology in the text as well. The findings of the present study can be provocative for English foreign language learners to promote their analytical skills. Therefore, findings of the present article can be applied to English Reading Comprehension and Reading Journalistic Texts classes.
Fox, Ann; Reeves, Scott
There has been sustained international interest from health care policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in developing interprofessional approaches to delivering patient-centred care. In this paper, we offer a critical exploration of a selection of professional discourses related to these practice paradigms, including interprofessional collaboration, patient-centred care, and the combination of the two. We argue that for some groups of patients, inequalities between different health and social care professions and between professionals and patients challenge the successful realization of the positive aims associated with these discourses. Specifically, we argue that interprofessional and professional-patient hierarchies raise a number of key questions about the nature of professions, their relationships with one another as well as their relationship with patients. We explore how the focus on interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred care have the potential to reinforce a patient compliance model by shifting responsibility to patients to do the "right thing" and by extending the reach of medical power across other groups of professionals. Our goal is to stimulate debate that leads to enhanced practice opportunities for health professionals and improved care for patients.
Johansson, Karin; Lilja, Margareta; Park, Melissa; Josephsson, Staffan
Today an increasing number of people with functional limitations are ageing in their homes. Although the home has become an arena for assessment and implementation of services, little is known about how the interrelationships between ideological and practical circumstances influence the allocation of such welfare services. This explorative study applied a combination of critical discourse analysis and a narrative approach to closely examine such relationships in home modification services to older persons in Sweden. Data consisted of focus group discussions with street-level bureaucrats from two institutional contexts in the organisational field of home modification services and official documents related to such services. Findings showed that the attempts of street-level bureaucrats to allocate resources in accordance with the good were complicated by competing local definitions of 'the good'. The process of forming local perceptions of the good included complex balancing acts between hegemonic discourses within the organisational field which influenced and shaped how 'the good' was practised. Understanding the moral dimensions that enter into the complexity of allocation of home modification services across institutional settings has implications for the policies of and practices for the allocation of welfare resources.
Full Text Available This qualitative case study is an exploration of the phenomenon of the ways in which Urdu as the national language is represented in discursive practices of senior business academia. The research design, built on Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA model (2009 is of dialectical-relational approach. The participant in this single case study is a senior member of the academia from a business school. Methodologically, the analysis trailed four stages and followed CDA’s transdisciplinary traditional methods of social practices in three semiotic categories: genre, discourse and style. Findings of the study indicated that despite strong emotional links with the national language, the participant recognized the utilitarian value of English in academic and in professional domains; additionally, his perspective was that Urdu was largely marginalized due to its perceived lack of utilitarian value. The participant also expressed the viewpoint that this social injustice was needed by the social order because the business school requires English for academic and professional purposes. The study recommends a more inclusive addition of Urdu courses in business studies.
Full Text Available A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure. This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED, that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST, AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.
Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee
A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis) or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure). This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED), that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT) may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week.
Funk, Laura M
This paper addresses how families' roles and responsibility for care are constructed within home health (in contrast to the responsibility of home health). A discourse analysis informed by a critical theoretical approach was used to analyze qualitative interviews with 13 home health managers and clinical leaders in British Columbia, alongside home care documents. When referring to family involvement, there was an emphasis on the importance of supporting a client's choice to stay at home. Government and agency documents describe family members as primary providers, with home health having a supplementary role. Agencies seek to avoid "substituting" for family care. Family responsibility is characterized as having both moral and structural value. Nonetheless, some participants advocated flexibility and recognized potential caregiving challenges. Data provide examples of how agency expectations are communicated to clients and families and become embedded within practice and policy. Findings are viewed within the broader organizational context as representing the "responsibilization" of support. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.
Carmen Helena Guerrero
Full Text Available The spread of English in the world today is not only the result of colonizing campaigns (Canagarajah, 1999, 2005; Pennycook, 1994a, 1998a, 2000; Phillipson, 1992, 2000 but also of the compliance of the governments associated with the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 1986. Colombia is a good example of this phenomenon, because its national government is implementing a National Bilingualism Project (pnb where there is an explicit interest in the promotion of English over all other languages spoken in the country. This article is a critical discourse analysis of the handbook that sets the standards for competences in English. The analysis of data follows Fairclough¿s textual analysis and shows that the authors of the handbook perpetuate mainstream concepts about the symbolic power of English as the one and only necessary tool for academic and economic success.
Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis
This article reports on a federally funded research project in which old lesbians were invited to separate out and examine the complicated strands of lives lived through times of great social change-times in which notions of "woman," "sexuality," and "subjectivity" have been both over- and under-determined by dominant discourse (Stein, 1997). We argue, with Haug (1992), that close attention to the personal is central to critical feminist perspectives and that writers can become more aware of normalizing cultural influences when they pay close attention to language. In this article, we support our position with a case study of one participant in our "language school" (Haug, 1992). As we analyzed her written life narratives and oral testimony, we conclude that she was able to reconsider comfortable "coming out" narratives in order to construct new meaning and to challenge her understandings of the past.
Chun, Christian W.
Racialized multicultural discourses emerge in the TESOL classroom via textbook representations of immigrant success stories and perceived racial and cultural differences among students. Although liberal multicultural discourses may be well intentioned, these discourses warrant closer examination for the ways in which they can essentialize cultural…
R. Panca Pertiwi Hidayati
Full Text Available Students’ ability in writing anessay, as one of language skills which can improve the creativity in language, is a serious problem that should be investigated by a deep research. Besides for showing that language as a thinking tool, writing competence can be seen as a product if we take a look from critical thinking ability measurement aspect and also as a process if we take a look at the individual development itself aspect. One of indicator for measuring the students’ critical is by the ability in delivering their argumentation style which is showed in their essay. The goal of this research is obtaining the objective discourse analysis model critical thinking map oriented in improving students’ argumentation style skills in writing anessay, hence can be used as a modelling for the growing of students’ creativity in a variety of writing skills. Based on paired-samples t test, the pre-test/post-test paired-sample is significant, because the significance (2-tailed is less than 0.05 in the standard of 95%. This is mean, there is a real difference between the ability before and after getting the treatment. The sample’s ability after getting the treatment is better than before. As well as if be compared with control class, experiment class shows the significant superiority for all aspects of essay writing assessment.
This paper uses critical discourse analysis of English higher education institutions' policy statements about access to explore the changing ways that institutions have used language to shift their market positionality away from widening participation for all and the process of higher education to "fair access" (i.e. social mobility for…
Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.
Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…
This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…
Training writing center tutors to work collaboratively with students on their writing is a complex and challenging process. This practitioner action research uses critical discourse analysis (Gee, 2014a) to interrogate tutors' understandings of their work, as expressed in their written reflections on video-recorded tutoring sessions, to facilitate…
Savaria, Michael; Monteiro, Kristina
Men outnumber women in the enrollment of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate majors. Course syllabi are distributed to students during open enrollment and provide key insights into the courses. A critical discourse analysis of introductory engineering syllabi at a 4-year public university revealed limited to no…
Tran, Thao Thi Kim
In recent years, the practice of the ballot initiative has shifted the role of policymaking from legislators and experts to voters generating propositions--including in the area of education policy. This critical discourse analysis project examines the English for the Children group's discursive strategies in their efforts to dismantle bilingual…
Costley, Jamie; Lange, Christopher
Understanding the relationship between social presence and critical thinking is useful for gaining insight into the interaction and discourse of learners online. Further study of how these two presences interact is important because research has shown a wide variety of relationships, both positive and negative, between social presence and critical…
Samadikhah, Mehran; Shahrokhi, Mohsen
In spite of the crucial importance of textbooks, their increasing development day by day, and their significant effects on saving time, energy, and budgets, only few studies have been done on textbooks evaluation from a critical discourse analysis perspective. This study aimed to analyze and compare the gender representation in "Top…
Cyn, Khoo Wei; Ganapathy, Malini
The ideology of Chinese racial pride in an online essay "Proud to be born a Chinese" by Dr. Chan-Lui Lee is described and analysed by using the sociocognitive approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA). The research design is based on the notion that Chinese racial pride is a tool to persuade Chinese Malaysians to prioritise their…
This paper aims at describing, based on the French Discourse Analysis and Cultural History, the discursive practices of contemporary representation of the reader through some reflections on the specialized and amateur critics. It is used as corpus cut one piece of news published on the entertainment portal UOL, under the title "Literary Market: will the booktubers replace the specialized critics?", signed by Rodrigo Casarin. It seeks to list and understand the discursive formations of the gen...
Gholam Reza Abbasian
Full Text Available This study was planned to investigate the effect of explicit teaching of some Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA techniques on Iranian EFL learners' Reading Comprehension. It was attempted to explore any change in the students’ abilities in revealing the implied meaning of the texts. Any change in the students’ views toward learning English was also explored in this study after critical reading instruction through CDA techniques. To this end, two news articles were selected from online sources. The participants were 60 undergraduate students of Law at Bandar Anzali Azad University. They were assigned to two groups of 30 students. The experimental group were required to hand in a reflective essay on each reading article. They also responded to a questionnaire to reveal any change in their attitudes toward English language learning or any increase in their motivation to learn it. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group after being instructed to read between lines through CDA. Their motivation also increased in learning English after becoming familiar with the field of CDA.
Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Johnson, Susan; Liu, Fuqin; Boutain, Doris M
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a promising methodology for policy research in nursing. As a critical theoretical methodology, researchers use CDA to analyze social practices and language use in policies to examine whether such policies may promote or impede social transformation. Despite the widespread use of CDA in other disciplines such as education and sociology, nursing policy research employing CDA methodology is sparse. To advance CDA use in nursing science, it is important to outline the overall research strategies and describe the steps of CDA in policy research. This article describes, using exemplar case studies, how nursing and health policy researchers can employ CDA as a methodology. Three case studies are provided to discuss the application of CDA research methodologies in nursing policy research: (a) implementation of preconception care policies in the Zhejiang province of China, (b) formation and enactment of statewide asthma policy in Washington state of the United States, and (c) organizational implementation of employee antibullying policies in hospital systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Each exemplar details how CDA guided the examination of policy within specific contexts and social practices. The variations of the CDA approaches in the three exemplars demonstrated the flexibilities and potentials for conducting policy research grounded in CDA. CDA provides novel insights for nurse researchers examining health policy formation, enactment, and implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Declarations for sustainability in higher education are often seen as a set of guiding principles that aid institutions of higher learning to incorporate the concept of sustainability into their various institutional dimensions. As the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development draws to a close and in the shadow of the 20th anniversary of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, it seems appropriate to re-evaluate how these declarations have changed over the past two decades. In this study, we apply critical discourse analysis to examine how sustainability and the university are socio-politically constructed within these documents. Our analysis uncovers evidence of ideological assumptions and structures that are potentially misaligned with notions of sustainability often discussed in the Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE literature. It is not the purpose of this study to provide a definitive reading of the documents, but rather to ply a novel critical lens to help elucidate how some taken-for-granted assumptions present in the declarations may work against their stated goals.
Mungky Diana Sari
Full Text Available For so many years, peace in Papua has become a high critical thing in Indonesian politics. In order to find the solution, the paradigm has been shifted from security to welfare or economic approach. Article explored the impact of religion affiliation toward news making and news frame, especially in economic news published by mass media. This research was developed to explore the framing formed by three media outlets which each of them affiliated with certain religion. This research focused on the analysis of economic articles published by three media outlets; Sinar Harapan, Republika, and Kompas daily. The method of framing analysis was based on Robert N. Entman theory, while the critical discourse analysis method was based on Norman Fairclough theory. Political economics theories such as Vincent Mosco, Robert E. Babe, and D.W. Smythe to analyze the influence of religion affiliation in news production were also used. Meanwhile, some political communication theories such as Brian McNair, Dann Nimmo, Noam Chomsky and Denis McQuail were also used to know how media stands in Papua conflict. From the research, it is discovered that the religion affiliation has a big impact on news media and its content, and also the frame that is built. Not only political-economic matters, but "the-sense-of-belonging" of the owner through particular religion gives impact to media policy. The content and frame are finally influencing political communication in Indonesia in Papua conflict particularly.
Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen
Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne
Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.
Full Text Available A critical analysis of the press discourse in the covering of the disappearance of 43 young students in Guerrero (México in September 2014 is suggested. For that purpose, the corpus of 2107 journalistic documents was explored over a period of three months, following the newspapers Reforma and La Jornada; the purpose of this exploration was to identify the discourse strategies used in the press to report on the fact, from the lexical frequency and the nominal phrasing occurrence. Four strategies were specifically identified: negation, and neutralization, which are used to hide the State responsibility in the violent acts and the historization and accreditation as part of the dissident discourse. All of the strategies are oriented to the dispute of the lexical fields that give sense to the forced disappearance and the violation of human rights. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.
Henzell, Helen; Berzins, Karen; Langford, Jennifer P
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold: firstly, to summarize current literature concerning PVD pathophysiology and management; secondly, to provide a framework for clinicians unfamiliar with vulvar medicine to understand and manage PVD.
Full Text Available Helen Henzell,1,2 Karen Berzins,1,3 Jennifer P Langford4 1Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Carlton, 2Action Centre, Family Planning Victoria, Melbourne, 3Dermatology/Vulval Conditions Clinic, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, 4Clifton Hill Physiotherapy, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia Abstract: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold
Henzell, Helen; Berzins, Karen; Langford, Jennifer P
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) refers to vulvar pain of at least 3 months duration, localized to the vestibule, provoked by touch and sexual activity and occurring in the absence of a clear identifiable cause. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild with distressing discomfort through to severe and disabling pain. Current understanding is that PVD is one of many chronic pain conditions characterized by sensitization of peripheral and central nociceptive pathways, with pain arising due to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the absence of painful stimuli. Pathophysiology is not well understood but is likely a complex interplay of environmental, genetic, psychological and immune factors. Care is multidisciplinary and follows general principles of chronic pain management with the addition of specific therapy tailored to address pelvic floor overactivity, and sexual and relationship difficulties. More recently, the therapeutic use of placebo is gaining traction in chronic pain research and is a very promising adjunctive therapy. The majority of women with PVD are managed outside of tertiary clinic settings, and care depends on availability and affordability of specialized services; however, much can be done by the primary health provider. PVD is common, and highly treatable, especially with early intervention, but unfortunately, many clinicians are unaware of this condition, and the biggest hurdle for women accessing treatment is obtaining a diagnosis. With treatment, most women can expect significant improvement, often with fairly simple interventions, although some women will benefit from referral to specialized centers. The aims of this article are twofold: firstly, to summarize current literature concerning PVD pathophysiology and management; secondly, to provide a framework for clinicians unfamiliar with vulvar medicine to understand and manage PVD. PMID:28979166
This qualitative social scientific study explores professional texts of healthcare ethics to understand the ways in which ethical professionalism in medicine and nursing are culturally constructed in Finland. Two books in ethics, published by Finnish national professional organizations-one for nurses and one for physicians-were analyzed with the method of critical discourse analysis. Codes of ethics for each profession were also scrutinized. Analysis of the texts sought to reveal what is taken for granted in the texts as well as to speculate what appeared to be relegated to the margins of the texts or left entirely invisible. Physicians' ethics was discovered to emphasize objectivity and strong group membership as a basis for ethical professionalism. The discourses identified in the physicians' ethics guidebook were universal ethics, reductionism, non-subjectivity, and threat. Nursing ethics was discovered to highlight reflectivity as its central focus. This idea of reflectivity was echoed in the identified discourses: local ethics, enlightenment, and moral agency. The analysis exposes a cultural gap between the ethics discourses of medicine and nursing. More work is needed to bridge ethics discourses in Finland in a way that can support healthcare professionals to find common ground and to foster inclusivity in ethical dialogue. Further development of bioethical practices is suggested as a potential way forward.
Schofield, Irene; Tolson, Debbie; Fleming, Valerie
Delirium is a common presentation of deteriorating health in older people. It is potentially deleterious in terms of patient experience and clinical outcomes. Much of what is known about delirium is through positivist research, which forms the evidence base for disease-based classification systems and clinical guidelines. There is little systematic study of nurses' day-to-day practice of nursing patients with delirium. The aim was to uncover the kinds of knowledge that informs nurses' care and to explicate the basis of that knowledge. Critical Discourse Analysis is underpinned by the premise that powerful interests within society mediate how social practices are constructed. Links were made between the grammatical and lexical features of nurses' language about care in interviews and naturalistic settings, and the healthcare context. Care focused on the continuous surveillance of patients with delirium by nurses themselves or vicariously through other patients, and containment. Nurses influenced by major discourses of risk reduction and safety, constructed patients with delirium as risk objects. The philosophy of person-centred and dignified care advocated in nursing literature and government policy is an emerging discourse, though little evident in the data. The current dominant discourses on safety must give space to discourses of dignity and compassion. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available A host of organizations and citizens groups have convincingly pointed out that so called “Free Trade Agreements” have done more harm than good to the U.S. and other countries involved. Thanks to their protests, for the moment, the most ambitious multinational, neoliberal project of our young century, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, has been defeated. If the agreement had been adopted, the TPP would have shaped new rules of trade for over 8 million people, spanning 40% of the global economy. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, my study shows how the complex language of the actual treaty compared to its more simplistic and optimistic summary on the US Trade Representative website reveals the TPP to be a corporate power grab, depriving nation states, public institutions and individual citizens of their democratic rights. Due to its central importance in a number of realms (entertainment copyrights, pharmaceuticals, the internet, my analysis focuses on the Intellectual Property (IP chapter of the TPP. As labor leaders, environmentalists, internet defenders, concerned physicians, and others have pointed out, the IP chapter essentially would have essentially enforced a ratcheted-up version of US intellectual property law across member nations. Given the TPP’s raw financial motivation and the unequal economic status of signatory nations, an analysis of the IP chapter requires a methodology which centers on uncovering ideologies, power imbalances, gender inequalities and the like. CDA works well for this purpose as it aims to expose socially-constructed inequality by uncovering how public discourses such as laws and treaties relate to power structures and actually construct power itself. Using CDA, I will show how rhetorical devices such as implied audience, genre and style, as well as socio-economic, and historical/contextual representations hide power imbalances and erase subjectivities. CDA also welcomes quantitative measures such as
Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
Organizational discourse has emerged as a large research field and references to discourse are numerous. As with all dominating approaches problematizations of assumptions are important. This article, partly a follow up of the authors’ frequently cited 2000 Human Relations article, provides...... a critical and perhaps provocative overview of some of the more recent work and tendencies within the field. It is argued that discourse continues to be used in vague and all-embracing ways, where the constitutive effects of discourse are taken for granted rather than problematized and explored. The article...... identifies three particular problems prevalent in the current organizational discourse literature: reductionism, overpacking, and colonization and suggests three analytical strategies to overcome these problems: counter-balancing concepts — aiming to avoid seeing ‘everything’ as discourse — relativizing...
Pringle, Richard; Pringle, Dixie
Health and physical education teachers have become subject to epistemological and ethical tensions associated with competing obesity and physical activity discourses. The dominating obesity discourse, underpinned by truth claims from science, encourages educators to pathologise fatness, treat exercise as a medicine and survey student activity…
John Jairo URIBE SARMIENTO
Full Text Available In recent years, it has seen a growing interest in inquiring about the narratives that predispose people to establish a course of action towards people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to analyze the dominants speech of disability in Colombia, trough the review of 42 videos of the Teletón Foundation, an institution that organizes an annual television event of 27 continuous hours, though which it seeks obtain financial resources to support rehabilitation centers dedicated to providing care to people with physical disabilities. The methodological path was drawn from the critical discourse analysis of Van Dijk (1999. The results shows four categories: rehabilitation as a panacea, disability as something difficult, solidarity towards disability as a persuasion from us, against those who requires our help; and the people’s family with disabilities, as a savior, who is in charge of disability, like the problem was personal. We conclude that the narrative structure of the videos analyzed converges on a representation of disability as something sad, frustrating and limiting that requires heroes –family– and solidarity from society that still moves prevalently in the duality normality/abnormality.
Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the debate about the digital divide. We first focus on what to us constitutes the root problem: the typical approaches to the development of people through and by the use of information and communication technologies (ICT. In contrast to governmental, political and technological attempts that focus almost exclusively on providing access to digital communication technologies, and expect “development” naturally to flow from that, we argue for a focus on “development” which is based on our notion of sustainable socio-economic development. We refer to “technocentric approaches” when the approaches propose and pursue technological interventions and show little regard for the actual needs of the people involved. At the other end of the scale, where the focus is on people and their developmental needs, we will speak of “sociocentric approaches”. This presents us with a different divide, which we will refer to as the “socio-techno divide”. We argue that it is this divide that has to be addressed – not the digital divide – and then present an analysis of the socio-techno divide. This analysis takes the form of two types of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, namely Foucauldian and Habermassian. The analysis of the South African government’s rhetoric illuminates the issues that need our attention and indicates an agenda for constructive engagement about the use of ICT for development in the Third and Fourth worlds.
Full Text Available The present study employed a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA approach to investigate the linguistic representation of male and female social actors in Family and Friends 4, 5 and 6. To this end, van Leeuwen’s (1996 representational framework and Halliday and Matthiessen’s (2004 Transitivity Theory Model were adopted to reveal the ideology behind the constructions. The findings indicated a “sexist attitude” in favor of male social actors in which males were portrayed more than females and also had high activity. In addition, it was revealed that there was attempt to avoid traditional stereotypes of females in most parts of textbooks and women were not portrayed at home as housewives engaged in child care, however, it can be claimed that they suffered most obviously from low visibility. The findings may help EFL teachers, material developers and policy makers to be aware of equality/inequality issues in textbooks in order to make an equality perspective to learners.
Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Kennedy, Kimberly; Moll, Sandra; Pineda, Carolina; Mitchell, Lisa M; Stephenson, Peter H; Cadell, Susan
Grief following child loss is profoundly destabilizing with serious long-term repercussions for bereaved parents. Employed parents may need time away from work to deal with this loss. The purpose of this study was to reflect upon the ways labour policies and practices respond to parental bereavement. Critical discourse analysis was used to examine labour policies and practices related to employment leave for bereaved parents in Canada. Results were compared to international labour standards. Universally, employment policies provide only for the practical issues of bereavement. Commonly, leave is three days, unpaid, and meant to enable ceremonial obligations. Policies do not acknowledge the long-term suffering caused by grief or the variable intensity of different kinds of loss. Managerial, moral, normative and neoliberal values embedded in these policies efface the intensely personal experience of grief, thereby leaving employees at risk for serious health and workplace safety issues. Bereavement leave currently understands grief as a generic, time-limited state with instrumental tasks and ceremonial obligations. In contrast, research characterizes responses to child loss as intense, highly personal experiences for which healing and recovery can take years. This disconnect is especially problematic when viewed through the lens of employee wellbeing, reintegration and workplace productivity.
Full Text Available In the paper, the specific narrative structure of the novel “Cloud Atlas” has been analyzed. The array of philosophical questions that determine the post-postmodern literature has been outlined. In the novel, the motif connected with the rebirth of the human being has being explicated; the belief related to the irrational bond between the events in the past, present and future, about memory as a special sphere where the crossing of different temporal modes is possible has been visualized. Changeable in this transformation system are such factors as sex, gender, social positions, religious affiliations, etc. The immanent essence of the “humanity” has been defined. This, Sonmi~451 in the fifth story struggles against the totalitarism which cultivates the industry of consumerism transforming entertaining ads and other forms of leisure into the ideology. The forms of criticism toward the consumerism and the bonds between memory, knowledge, and power have been explained. In the paper, the author focuses on the features related to the transition from postmodernism to post-postmodernism in contemporary English literature. The key features of postmodernism in accordance with the theoretical approaches I. Hassan, M. Foucault, F. Kermode, D. Fokkema, etc. have been outlined. The categories of inconsistency and immanence that determine the characteristics of the postmodern sensibility have been emphasized. The conflicts between reason and intuition, myth and technology, religion and science have been analyzed in the discourse of post-postmodernism.
Discourse (DA) and conversation (CA) analysis, two qualitative research methods, have been recently suggested as potentially promising for the study of family therapy due to common epistemological adherences and their potential for an in situ study of therapeutic dialog. However, to date, there is no systematic methodological review of the few existing DA and CA studies of family therapy. This study aims at addressing this lack by critically reviewing published DA and CA studies of family therapy on methodological grounds. Twenty-eight articles in total are reviewed in relation to certain methodological axes identified in the relevant literature. These include choice of method, framing of research question(s), data/sampling, type of analysis, epistemological perspective, content/type of knowledge claims, and attendance to criteria for good quality practice. It is argued that the reviewed studies show "glimpses" of the methods' potential for family therapy research despite the identification of certain "shortcomings" regarding their methodological rigor. These include unclearly framed research questions and the predominance of case study designs. They also include inconsistencies between choice of method, stated or unstated epistemological orientations and knowledge claims, and limited attendance to criteria for good quality practice. In conclusion, it is argued that DA and CA can add to the existing quantitative and qualitative methods for family therapy research. They can both offer unique ways for a detailed study of the actual therapeutic dialog, provided that future attempts strive for a methodologically rigorous practice and against their uncritical deployment. © FPI, Inc.
Full Text Available This research attempts to reveal representation of Kim Jong-Un’s succession in BBC News through textual and discursive practice analysis. The data of this thesis are taken from BBC News website on 29 and 31 December 2011. The theory applied to seek the objective of the research is Critical Discourse Analysis developed by Fairclough. Through textual and discursive practice analysis, the writer finds pthat BBC employs more passive material clauses than active material clauses in depicting Kim Jong-Un’s succession. BBC also represents Kim Jong-Un’s succession as premature process where Kim Jong-Un is portrayed as a young and inexperienced leader. Besides the prematurity of the succession, the present writer finds that BBC represents Kim Jong-Un’s succession as continuity of Kim’s family dynasty. Thus, the succession is based on his resemblance to Kim Il-Sung, the founder of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, rather than Kim Jong-Un ability and competency.
Dyson, Heather; Gorvin, Lucy
This research took a social constructionist stance and explored how Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is constructed by Twitter users who identify with this diagnostic label. Consistent with this position, a critical discourse analysis (CDA) methodology was employed. The data comprised two-hundred and twenty-five tweets. Tweets from professionals, or links to blogs, were excluded, in an attempt to ensure only personal tweets were used. Two interpretative repertoires were produced from the analysis: BPD as an existence of tension and BPD as a different existence. The findings indicated that authors were involved in a negotiation between themselves and BPD, which had an impact upon their felt sense of agency/control over BPD. Likewise, authors constructed themselves in opposition to individuals who did not identify with the diagnosis of BPD. Whilst this provided more favourable positions, it potentially limited access to healthcare professionals and services. The research highlights the importance of the terminology and language clinicians employ when working with clients and other professionals, as they may inadvertently disempower or stigmatise. As CDA does not assume equivalence between individuals' accounts and their internal experiences, future research may need to explore the experience of stigmatisation through social networking sites.
Nader Assadi Aidinlou
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to assess the translation quality of a political literary text, i.e. Orwell’s Animal Farm, from the viewpoint of critical discourse analysis (CDA and explore the degree to which ideology and power relations play major roles in the two Persian translations. Adopting the CDA framework of Van Dijk under Lefevere’s notion of ideology, change and power in literature and society, this paper examined two different English-Persian translations of an excerpt from Animal Farm, The Seven Commandments, to pinpoint the interwoven relation between ideology, change and power and translation. To discover the impact of these phenomena on each other, a detailed contrastive/comparative study at the micro/macro-level in terms of fore/back-grounding mechanisms was conducted to examine, describe and subsequently interpret the patterns in the source text (ST and its target texts (TTs. The findings of the study illuminated that too significant ideological distortions and manipulation were made in the translations to consider them as adequate translations.
O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
The discipline of health promotion is responsible for implementing strategies within weight-related public health initiatives (WR-PHI). It is imperative that such initiatives be subjected to critical analysis through a health promotion ethics lens to help ensure ethical health promotion practice. Multimedia critical discourse analysis was used to examine the claims, values, assumptions, power relationships and ideologies within Australian WR-PHI. The Health Promotion Values and Principles Continuum was used as a heuristic to evaluate the extent to which the WR-PHI reflected the ethical values of critical health promotion: active participation of people in the initiative; respect for personal autonomy; beneficence; non-maleficence; and strong evidential and theoretical basis for practice. Ten initiatives were analysed. There was some discourse about the need for participation of people in the WR-PHI, but people were routinely labelled as 'target groups' requiring 'intervention'. Strong evidence of a coercive and paternalistic discourse about choice was identified, with minimal attention to respect for personal autonomy. There was significant emphasis on the beneficiaries of the WR-PHI but minimal attention to the health benefits, and nothing about the potential for harm. Discourse about the evidence of need was objectivist, and there was no discussion about the theoretical foundations of the WR-PHI. The WR-PHI were not reflective of the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion. So what? Health promotion researchers and practitioners engaged in WR-PHI should critically reflect on the extent to which they are consistent with the ethical aspects of critical health promotion practice.
This article depicts the dominant discourses on intimate partner violence (IPV) in newspaper reports and discusses how the myths about IPV are perpetuated in news reporting in Hong Kong. The myths about IPV consist of a set of prevalent assumptions in society that adversely affect the help-seeking behavior of survivors and impede social change. It is sometimes assumed that the victims cause the abuse and are personally responsible for solving the problem. This study reveals how news reporting in Hong Kong perpetuates the myths about IPV by engendering unequal power relations through the language and text used in newspapers. A critical discourse analysis is performed to depict the language used in the text and the embedded meanings in discourses on IPV in two popular local newspapers, Apple Daily and Ming Pao The findings indicate that the two newspapers tend to use five major discursive frameworks in their reporting on IPV, namely, (a) gender symmetry, (b) stereotyping the abuser, (c) labeling the abused, (d) blaming the victim, and (e) ignoring women's rights. The study reveals evidence of the systematic stereotyping of IPV abusers and blaming of survivors in newspaper reporting. These powerful discourses may perpetuate the myths about IPV and marginalize IPV survivors in society. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fonseka, Edirisingha Arachchige Gamini
According to the theory of dialogism propounded by Mikhail Bakhtin, all discourse in the novel is a product of a process of dialogic imagination. Yet heteroglossic situation in the novel differs from general narration, as it involves interaction among two or more characters speaking in their respective voices to represent different aspects of…
This paper presents selected findings from a historical analysis of change in the discursive construction of social identity in UK education policy discourse from 1972-2005. My chief argument is that through its linguistic forms of self-identification the government construes educational roles, relations and responsibilities not only for itself,…
The emerging counter-defamation discourse is a morally but above all legally flawed development. The concept has stirred politicians and academics alike. In the political bodies of the UN, it has divided state representatives into two vehemently opposing camps. In academia, it has largely resulted
Since the late 1990s, when massive backlash against genetically modified organisms emerged worldwide, the mainstream political economic powers, i.e., the US government and transnational biotech companies, have been actively and deliberately engaged in the discourse of biotechnology for the poor to
Sigauke, Aaron T.
Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…
J.M. Engelbert (Jiska)
textabstractBy drawing on Norman Fairclough's seminal study New Labour, new language?, this article sets out to address and overcome a problematic issue in a ‘Faircloughean' CDA: the premise that discourse's rhetorical orientation is geared towards the concealment of problematic ‘extra-discursive'
Full Text Available Learner autonomy has been called for by many researchers in language teaching. Learner independence can be achieved through empowering students (Ss by training them on ways to learn certain learning strategies rather than just teaching them certain linguistic features. This goal can be attained through implementing the learner-as-researcher approach called for by many researchers due to its potential ability to involve Ss in their learning process. This paper presents the findings of a multifaceted action research project intended to enhance Ss’ critical skills through implementing the Riggenbach Model (1999 to a linguistic micro aspect; learn more about Teacher –Student (T-S interactions through critically analyzing a number of T-S interactions using Dobbs’ analysis model presented in Celce-Murcia and Olstein (2000, and use critical classroom discourse analysis (CCDA to provide a macro-analytic explanation of identity and power relations of the Ss by examining student reflections and final products.
In general, Japanese-style management is characterized as bottom-up from the viewpoint of leadership, while American-style management is typically identified as top-down. Such an interpretation, however, is perhaps inaccurate from other points of view. This paper aims to give a critical interpretation of the bottom-up process in Japanese companies through discourse analysis of a follower’s perception of leadership. As a result, it was found that American-style leaders with their defined visio...
Sidnéa Nunes Ferreira
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2013n64p111 Drawing on Fairclough’s (1995 three-dimensional framework of discourse analysis of communicative events, in this paper we carry out a multimodal analysis of a diners Club international magazine advertisement. Moving from the description of how textimage (Mitchell 1995 constructs a problem-solution structure in the advertisement to the discussion of its discourse and sociocultural practices, the paper foregrounds a multi-layered ideological message, besides the construal of a need (problem for a product (solution. Through its multimodal structure, the advertisement seems to tap on two important sociological issues: the avoidance of human togetherness and the colonization of travelling by consumer markets (bauman 2007.
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kolbæk, Raymond
policies as powerful actors and explores how effects of a concrete policy are adapted for intersectorial collaboration in Danish healthcare. The paper is based on a critical discourse analysis of a central policy document in Danish health-care known as the ‘Health Agreements’. Using Fairclough’s three......-dimensional model for discourse analysis, we explored the document to clarify the construction of actors participating in intersectorial collaboration. The analysis revealed the Health Agreement as a ‘negotiated text’, appearing as an overriding document legitimising one possible discourse regarding the premises...
centrality of strong personalities in the clash of titans narrative, the theme of mindless militarization, in the words of Pierre Bourdieu , directs the...www.boston.com/bigpicture. Bourdieu , Pierre . The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Trans. by Susan Emanuel. Stanford, CA...65 Bourdieu (trans. 1996), 167. 127 discourse, derived from various aspects of US national security culture, did play a significant role in
Cuthbert, Denise; Molla, Tebeje
A feature of HE reform discourse is the tendency to construct the rationale for reform in terms of averting calamity and risk. We refer to this risk talk as "crisis discourse." This study examines the formulation of PhD crisis discourse internationally and in Australia. We find that a key feature of PhD crisis discourse is that…
Bell, Erica; Robinson, Andrew; See, Catherine
Unprecedented global population ageing accompanied by increasing complexity of aged care present major challenges of quality in aged care. In the business literature, Senge's theory of adaptive learning organisations offers a model of organisational quality. However, while accreditation of national standards is an increasing mechanism for achieving quality in aged care, there are anecdotal concerns it creates a 'minimum standards compliance mentality' and no evidence about whether it reinforces learning organisations. The research question was 'Do mandatory national accreditation standards for residential aged care, as they are written, positively model learning organisations?'. Automatic text analysis was combined with critical discourse analysis to analyse the presence of learning concepts from Senge's learning organisation theory in an exhaustive sample of national accreditation standards from 7 countries. The two stages of analysis were: (1) quantitative mapping of the presence of learning organisation concepts in standards using Bayesian-based textual analytics software and (2) qualitative critical discourse analysis to further examine how the language of standards so identified may be modelling learning organisation concepts. The learning concepts 'training', 'development', 'knowledge', and 'systems' are present with relative frequencies of 19%, 11%, 10%, and 10% respectively in the 1944 instances, in paragraph-sized text blocks, considered. Concepts such as 'team', 'integration', 'learning', 'change' and 'innovation' occur with 7%, 6%, 5%, 5%, and 1% relative frequencies respectively. Learning concepts tend to co-occur with negative rather than positive sentiment language in the 3176 instances in text blocks containing sentiment language. Critical discourse analysis suggested that standards generally use the language of organisational change and learning in limited ways that appear to model 'learning averse' communities of practice and organisational
Full Text Available This paper aims at describing, based on the French Discourse Analysis and Cultural History, the discursive practices of contemporary representation of the reader through some reflections on the specialized and amateur critics. It is used as corpus cut one piece of news published on the entertainment portal UOL, under the title "Literary Market: will the booktubers replace the specialized critics?", signed by Rodrigo Casarin. It seeks to list and understand the discursive formations of the general reader and the professional player, this understood as the professional literary criticism that serves as an institutionalized reading. It wonders: why is the formal literary criticism of prestige, but when you want to sell the works and move the publishing market, it is necessary, at present, to promote the amateur comment? What are the limits between the general reader and the expert critical? Why does posting a video on the Internet give social capital to the one that is called a voracious reader and bring together readers and writers? In terms of language, what is said about reading at the time of cyberculture? To account for these reflections, theoretical reflections found in the works of Orlandi (2012, Foucault (2010 and Chartier (1998, 2010 are used.
Depression has received increasing attention as a significant public health issue over the past ten years, both in Canada and elsewhere in the industrialized west. During the same period, many of the social and economic policies adopted by governments in these jurisdictions have reflected neoliberal goals and orientations. The purpose of this article is to explore the points of contact between these two features of contemporary social and political life in the industrialized west, using the Canadian province of British Columbia as an empirical site. My analysis draws on the Foucauldian literature on governmentality in presenting a close reading of provincial government documents concerned with depression and mental health literacy that have been produced since the election of the Liberal Party to office in British Columbia in 2001. This analysis identifies discourses of "responsibilization" circulating in these documents, within which individuals, families, communities and workplaces - rather than publicly-funded services - appear as key resources in responding to experiences of mental distress. It also points to a number of strategies visible in the documents that work to align the interests of individuals and their practitioners in pursuing particular approaches to treatment with a governing interest in reducing public spending on services and supports. The article concludes by identifying a number of resistive discourses and proposing further research in a range of empirical contexts within which they may be evident.
This critical discourse analysis examines articles about the academic level of nurse education that appeared in British national newspapers between 1999 and 2009. British newspaper journalists regularly attribute problems with recruitment into nursing and nursing care to the increasing academic nature of nurse education. It is impossible to separate discourse about nurse education from the wider nursing discourse. Many journalists laud a traditional and stereotypical construct of nurse identity and suggest that increasing nurse education produces nurses who are 'too clever to care'. This article argues that whilst nurses lack a voice in the National press, they have little input into the construction of newspaper discourse about nurse education and subsequently, limited influence on resulting public opinion, government policy and the morale of nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available During the Celtic Tiger period, Ireland grows faster than the Eurozone only to later suffer the harsh impact of the recession. This coincides with increased in-group essentialism leading to prejudice against minorities (Zagefka et al. 2013. Whilst extremist politicians justify anti-immigration beliefs, racism becomes a problem in Ireland. Attacks on certain groups rise dramatically: Women, Travellers, Africans or homosexuals endure verbal and physical mistreatment. Financial crises cause social and discursive marginalisation (Gabrielatos and Baker 2008, and intolerance inevitably contributes to discriminatory views underpinning old-fashioned values. In such a context, we argue that there will be a tendency to nurse the demonisation of the Other (Said 1978, and that the ideological bent of the media sources (see Fowler 1991, Rosen 1999, Barnhurst 2005, van Dijk 2006 will have some impact on how otherness is portrayed. The latter justifies an analysis of how bias fostering exclusion is reinforced in the public domain (Wodak and Chilton 2005. Given Irish gays’ new status following the controversy around same-sex marriage, here we examine newspaper articles to observe the discourse construction of homosexuality (Collier 1995, Stychin 1995, Naidoo 1997, McGhee 2001, Baker 2005, and detect any instances of homophobia. To do so, a corpus-based critical discourse analysis is conducted with our focus on the notion of transitivity (Halliday and Matthiessen 2014 as a means to reveal people’s perspectives on the topic at hand.
Full Text Available This article aims to illustrate that the politics of language marked power relations framed by a form of power between the dominating and the dominated in the Act Regulating Matters Pertaining to Specific Autonomy for Papua (hereinafter called UU Otsus Papua. The politics of language involves a high degree of knowledge and power that is marked by the symbolic interactions in the ethnic diversity of the archipelago UU Otsus Papua is a form of political discourse and the medium of language diplomacy containing an authority and political competence of the central government over the people of Papua; including a number of authorities and policies, as well as to explore the power of language in the language politics networks through the system of government of the Republic of Indonesia. Politics of language in this article will be disclosed through the paradigm of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. This article will focus on the efforts of uncovering: “Language Politics in UU Otsus Papua”, by projecting the problems including: (i the form of the politics of language, and (ii the political function of language in the UU Otsus Papua.
Full Text Available In this article I will address the complex relations between linguistic vulnerability as it is understood and construed by Judith Butler, and the freedom of expression in an antagonistic society that was conceptualized by Chantal Mouffe. The purpose of this article is to move away from the dominant moralizing discourse which tackles the emergence of fascistic and hateful discursive practices uncritically and in a politically neutral manner, and then offer an alternative view of the paradox between the freedom of expression and the regulation of hate speech. First, I concentrate on the performative functioning of words that injure and the question of how to subvert this discursive subjection that the hate speaker is seeking to constitute in a way that will enable the critical agency of the one injured. Butler’s post-structuralist view on the performance of discursive acts reveals potential sites and possibilities for critical agency. With her critical analysis of moderate consensus politics, Mouffe identifies the narrowing of the political space for articulation of antagonistic relations in society as the effect of the dominant post-political rationality. At the end I come to the conclusion that generating open discursive spaces is of crucial importance for the facilitation of critical subversion of hateful contents and restoring a state of normality.
Mai Samir El-Falaky
Full Text Available The study explores gender differences and the role of the ideological background in portraying the roles of the males and the females. Socio-economic statuses affect the description of gender differences and this is proclaimed within the analysis of a recent phenomenon of poor quality street songs. The study represents a detailed description of male and female relationship, so as to spot the light on the literary and societal implications of this newly propagated genre. The study analyses two common songs spreading among commoners distorting the woman’s image predefined in the Egyptian culture. Negative cultural and societal conceptions are explicitly mentioned about the relation between males and females. Keywords: gender, media representation, discourse analysis
Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed. These results differ dramatically from those obtained from my similar analysis of depictions of gender-crossing males. It also became evident that the three descriptions of gender-crossing women were not based on actual observations, but only on hearsay, which makes their use as primary sources questionable.
KUTAY, RIZA ACAR
The dissertation engages in a critical analysis of the involvement of the Brussels- based European NGOs in European governance. It conducts a survey on the European Commission’s relevant initiatives after the 1990s and interrogates the implications of these initiatives on one of the prominent...... European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... in Europe. With respect to this goal, it has encouraged the Social Platform to act like its interlocutor vis-à-vis the NGO community organised both at national and European level. Deriving from the Foucaultian concept of governmentality, I inquiry into the effects of this discourse on the Social Platform...
Full Text Available This paper presents the Role and Reference Grammar (RRG analysis that aims to reveal possibilities required for carrying out the interdisciplinary research development within Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. It takes a closer look at conflicts, considering the example of a conflict situation occurred in reaction to the opening of the inclusive academic programme at one of St. Petersburg’s secondary schools. Role and Reference Grammar application demonstrates that the use of different verb types and macroroles has led to the various interpretations. These findings confirm that RRG could influence the increase of objectivity of the transcript analysis in qualitative social research. RRG provides new information which in combination with other methods can help us to understand the positions of participants involved into conflicts
Full Text Available Emanating from the notion of “social myth” that Frazier put forward in his ethnographic research on the black community in the United States, this paper seeks to capture the U.S.-based Chinese diasporic media’s “re-coding” of news events. By comparing the reports from a Chinese diasporic newspaper and its mainstream counterpart USA Today about Obama hosting a naturalization ceremony, the paper uncovers and accounts for their major narrative differences, and thereby reveals the Chinese diasporic media’s representations of American government and Chinese immigrants that constitute a larger picture of a “social myth”. The paper employs critical discourse analysis by Fairclough as a major analytical tool, while drawing on methodologies from Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics. In this way, it attempts to shed light on how Chinese diasporic media actively mediate between the ethnic minority and centers of powers in mainstream society.
Mahmood Reza Atai
Full Text Available In this study, Van Dijk’s (1998 model of CDA was utilized in order to examine the representation of Iran’s nuclear program in editorials published by British news casting companies. The analysis of the editorials was carried out at two levels of headlines and full text stories with regard to the linguistic features of lexical choices, nominalization, passivization, overcompleteness, and voice. The results support biased representation in media discourse, in this case Iran’s nuclear program. Likewise, the findings approve Bloor and Bloor (2007 ideological circles of Self (i.e., the West and Other (i.e., Iran or US and THEM in the media. The findings may be utilized to increase Critical Language Awareness (CLA among EFL teachers / students and can promise implications for ESP materials development and EAP courses for the students of journalism.
This article examines the discursive strategies used by two major daily newspapers from the South from 1981 to 1994 as they construct the story of AIDS and represent gay identity and desire to the "general public." The research employs a cultural studies approach to communication to analyze power relationships at work in the discourse of these media texts. The research here makes use of and extends a previous study on the highly conservative Oklahoma City newspaper, The Daily Oklahoman, by comparing the findings to coverage in the more liberal Alabama daily, The Birmingham News. These were chosen because they offer examples of broadly circulated regional media and because they seemingly espouse opposing political orientations. Although the political positions of the two papers appear to be quite different, both papers marginalize and keep under surveillance gay identities, desire, and sexualities through coverage of AIDS; moreover, the press in both cases represents AIDS and gay identity in such excessive ways that marginalization and surveillance strategies are made to seem like a rational response to AIDS and gay desire. Finally, a cultural studies approach to media allows for an explanation of the recent media silence about AIDS and gay identity.
Full Text Available This study is to analyze songs from Eminem which is related to his life story. In examining the songs, the researchers used the three inter-related processes of analysis tied to three inter-related dimensions of discourse proposed by Faiclough’s model of CDA. This study applied qualitative design with the content analysis approach. The analysis of this research focused on the words used such as African American Vernacular English variety, Informal language and American slang in the lyrics of the song Love The Way You Lie Part II and explain them. The result findings showed that there was a transcultural process or cross cultural in the song lyrics. There was a hiphop culture which was moved, changed and reused to create a new identity of the Eminem. There were 25 words and clauses of AAVE, 3 words of Informal language and 1 word of American slang language in the lyrics of the song of Love The Way You Lie.
Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un análisis crítico de discursos en la formulación de políticas sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia)
Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid
This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…
Belleau, Shelly N.; Otero, Valerie K.
We compared contextual characteristics that impacted the nature and substance of "summarizing discussions" in a physics and a chemistry classroom in an Hispanic-serving urban high school. Specifically, we evaluated structural components of curricula and classrooms necessary to develop a culture of critical inquiry. Using the Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum in the physics course, we found that students demonstrated critical thinking, critical evaluation, and used laboratory evidence to support ideas in whole-class summarizing discussions. We then implemented a model similar to PET in the chemistry course. However, chemistry students' statements lacked evidence, opposition and critical evaluation, and required greater teacher facilitation. We hypothesize that the designed laboratories and the research basis of PET influenced the extent to which physics students verbalized substantive scientific thought, authentic appeals to evidence, and a sense of empowerment to participate in the classroom scientific community.
Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…
Patton, Lori D.; Sharp, Sacha; Sánchez, Berenice
A critical discourse analysis of comments written in response to an online article related to the University of Connecticut's announcement about the ScHOLA2RS House, a culturally-themed residential program to retain and support African American male students is presented. Following this announcement, articles were published in various online media…
This paper presents a neocommunitarian conception of citizenship identified in two textbooks of the programme "Education for Democratic Citizenship," organised by the Council of Europe. Critical discourse analysis is applied to the key themes of the textbooks "T-Kit 7: Under construction: Citizenship Youth and Europe" and…
Patton, Lori D.
In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…
Adrián Tarín Sanz
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the strategic profile of the discourse with which wars are narrated has been reinforced. This discourse has also varied in the light of a recent – and alleged – peace culture permeating Western societies. Whereas the war discourse in Russia during the Second Russian-Chechen War has been widely studied, this has not been the case of the rhetoric of the Chechen Islamist guerrillas. The aim of this paper is to contribute to bridging this gap in the academic literature on the North Caucasus, employing to this end a critical discourse analysis (CDA of a selection of texts posted by the Kavkaz Center (KC news agency. On the basis of this analysis, it can be concluded that one of the main discursive strategies revolved around the construction of an “us” embodying the Chechen victims of the initial aggression in a conflict provoked by the Russian “other”.
have attempted to critically rethink Foucault’s ideas. This is the first volume that attempts to revisit and expand studies of governmentality by connecting it to the theories and methods of discourse analysis. The volume draws on different theoretical stances and methodological approaches including...... critical discourse analysis, conversation analysis, dialogic analysis, multimodal discourse analysis, the discourse-historical approach, corpus analysis and French discourse analysis. The volume is relevant to students and scholars in the fields of critical discourse studies, conversation analysis......, international studies, environmental studies, political science, public policy and organisation studies....
Transmasculine people assigned female sex at birth but who do not identify with this classification have traditionally received little consideration in the voice literature. Some voice researchers and clinicians suggest that transmasculine people do not need attention because testosterone treatment leads to a satisfactory masculinization of their voice organs and voices. Others, however, argue that transmasculine people are a heterogeneous group whose members might not share the same body type, gender identity or desire for medical approaches to gender transitioning. Therefore, testosterone-induced voice changes may not necessarily meet the needs and expectations of all transmasculine people. To evaluate the gender-related discursive and empirical data about transmasculine people's vocal situations to identify gaps in the current state of knowledge and to make suggestions for future voice research and clinical practice. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed academic and clinical literature was conducted. Publications were identified by searching seven electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Thirty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Discourses and empirical data were analysed thematically. Potential problem areas that transmasculine people may experience were identified and the quality of evidence appraised. The extent and quality of voice research conducted with transmasculine people so far was found to be limited. There was mixed evidence to suggest that transmasculine people's vocal situations could be regarded as problematic. The diversity that characterizes the transmasculine population received little attention and the complexity of the factors that contribute to a successful or unsuccessful vocal communication of gender in this group appeared to be under-researched. While most transmasculine people treated with testosterone can expect a lowering of their pitch, it remains unclear whether the extent of the pitch change is enough
Jaeger Pedersen, Tonny; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne
To investigate discourses relating to the implementation of standardised outcome measurement within rehabilitation practise. It is a critical discourse analysis of texts in professional occupational therapist (OT) and physiotherapist (PT) journals, along with transcriptions from three focus group interviews with 25 OTs and PTs in local rehabilitation settings. Although positive attitudes towards outcome measurement were expressed in the professional journals, OTs and PTs in local settings had professional reservations about standardisation of the rehabilitation practise. The therapists were caught in what they considered to be a dilemma between taking a holistic approach and performing standardised practise. Systematic outcome measurement challenged the core values of their practise. Therapists often felt that 'it did not make sense' to use outcome measurement and this became a barrier to its implementation. If the use of standardised outcome measurement is to be increased, reflection is needed on how the measurements can be integrated to provide a meaningful contribution to individual rehabilitation processes. To optimise implementation, it is essential to make use of research in knowledge translation and adapt it to fit with the ways in which new ideas and recommendations are implemented in local rehabilitation contexts. Implications for Rehabilitation Successful implementation of standardised outcome measurements depends on whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists have an experience of the measurements as being meaningful. Enforcement of standardised outcome measurements must be done by means of more than a few isolated arguments, if professional acceptance is to be gained. To reject established dogmas on, e.g. standardisation, deliberate and conscious reflections in local settings are needed. It is necessary to go beyond normal and familiar professional reflections. To this end, newcomers' opinions are valuable.
are often considered negative. But new views or knowledge are often provocative. To my opinion this is a good and needed provocation. For-given-taken professional values need to be questioned: as well as the usual roles of residents and professionals in the ongoing regeneration projects. My contribution......The title is a quotation from one of the meetings between residents and professionals during the Holmbladsgade regeneration process. During a discussion of future projects somebody asked what the residents expected from the professionals. We want to be provoked a resident answered. Provocations...
Aviles de Bradley, Ann
A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…
Recently, Bakhtinian philologists have charged scholars of education with misapplying Bakhtin's scholarship in their field. In this critical essay, Eugene Matusov reviews two recent edited collections relevant to this issue: Arnetha F. Ball and Sarah Warshauer Freedman's Bakhtinian Perspectives on Language, Literacy, and Learning and Bonny Norton…
Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.
Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…
Evans, Michael P.; Radina, Rachel
Family, school, and community partnerships are a critical part of student achievement, but the successful establishment of meaningful partnerships with low-income and minority populations remains elusive. In 1994, legislators in the United States passed a version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that seeks to address this…
This article demonstrates, through critical analysis, how words and pictures are manipulated in 'The beauty of sport', a regular feature section in SA Sports Illustrated (hereafter SASI), to construe images of sportswomen that resonate with female stereotypes shaped by the male gaze. Three stereotypes of women seem to ...
Gul, Raisa B.; Khan, Shehla; Ahmed, Azra; Cassum, Shanaz; Saeed, Tanveer; Parpio, Yasmin; Schopflocher, Donald; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne
The literature reveals that educators find it challenging to foster critical thinking (CT) in their students if they have not learned how to use CT in their educational system or training. This paper reports findings from a national research project that was undertaken to enhance the educators' ability to promote CT in their teaching practices.…
Heffernan, Lee; Lewison, Mitzi
Critical literacy practices in a third-grade classroom involved working with texts that disrupted commonplace assumptions about social norms. As students read and talked about social issues such as racism, ageism, and sexism, they became "border crossers" in their school lunchroom. Without informing their teacher, they worked on a social action…
This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law.…
Everett, Kimberly Deion
Academic journals serve as a discipline's official discourse reflecting what has been deemed important in that discipline at a specific point in time. For the better part of 20 years, discourses in the field of student affairs have constructed Black men as a population in need of specific attention. The proliferation of scholarship on Black men…
Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok
This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show…
Full Text Available Nineteen months after the proclamation of Fidel Castro in which the president of Cuba for almost half a century left her post due to an illness that placed him between life and death, the New York Times, published on its opinion page on February 20, 2008 editorial "Twilight of the Dictators: And a Chance for Cuba -and the US". This article is an argumentative discourse study of Cuba in New York Times editorials (2008-2015, whose main objective is to analyze the construction of journalistic discourse in this American newspaper about Cuba regarding diplomatic relations between the two countries. This work aims to take steps in order to articulate the historical-cultural approach in psychology to Discourse Analysis (AD, and from an integrated and holistic perspective plan a discourse analysis as a fulcrum to a better understanding of journalistic discourse about Cuba in Internet.
Dodds, Antonia; Chamberlain, Kerry
Nutritional science has assumed a fundamental importance in shaping food meanings and practices in the developed world. This study critically analysed the content of one weekly nutrition column written by a nutritional expert in a popular New Zealand magazine, from a social constructionist perspective, to investigate how nutritional advice constructs food, food practices and eaters. The analysis identified a range of ways in which the nutrition information communicated in the articles was potentially problematic for readers. The articles advocated eating for health with recommendations based on nutritional science, but depicted nutritional information as inconclusive, changeable and open to interpretation. Fear-based messages were used to motivate making 'healthy' food choices, through linking 'unhealthy' food choices with fatness and chronic ill health. Unhealthy foods were portrayed as more enjoyable than healthy foods, social occasions involving food were constructed as problematic, and exercise was defined only as a way to negate food consumption. Healthy eating was portrayed as a matter of personal choice, obscuring the situational factors that impact on food choice and health. We conclude that the nutritional advice analysed in this study constructs a way of understanding food that, if internalised by eaters, may evoke anxiety, confusion and dissatisfaction around food and eating. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Discourse analysis is a method with up to now was less recognized in nursing science, althoughmore recently nursing scientists are discovering it for their purposes. However, several authors have criticized thatdiscourse analysis is often misinterpreted because of a lack of understanding of its theoretical backgrounds. In thisarticle, I reconstruct Foucault’s writings in his “Archaeology of Knowledge” to provide a theoretical base for futurearchaeological discourse analysis, which can be categorized as a socio-linguistic discourse analysis.
Eris D Schoburgh
Full Text Available Local development, whether construed broadly as community development or more narrowly as local as economic development (LED is not always associated with local government but rather is the purview of a central government department or agency in Anglophone Caribbean policy systems. However with the emergence of ‘local place - and people-oriented approaches’ to development that offer new propositions about how to respond to risks and opportunities brought by globalization, local government is seen increasingly as an appropriate institutional context in which to pursue short-range objectives, such as creation of market opportunities and redressing the disparities within national economies; as well as the long-range goal of social transformation. A developmental role for local government raises two questions that form the central concerns of this paper: What are the institutional and organisational imperatives of a developmental role for local government? To what extent have these imperatives been addressed in reform? A critical analysis of local government reform policies in Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica revealed substantive convergence around local development as an outcome of reform but also important divergence in the approach to achieving this goal which suggests the absence of a cohesive model. The paper argues for a new agenda in reform that links local government more consistently with a local development strategy. It asserts that such a strategy must incorporate gender equality, the informal economy and institutional organisational capacity in the process of transformation and as a basis for creating a local context in which all types of resources can be maximized in the process of wealth creation in a locality.
The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland
Simmie, Geraldine Mooney
The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…
The present paper is concerned with the Dictatorship legislative texts (1967-1974) related to issues about the Greek-speaking education of the Greeks abroad. The legislative texts about education are presented as discourse in which the cultural and political practice is articulated; and is also composed by other cultural and political practices conducive to its dialectic association with other dimensions of society. The critical analysis of the Dictatorship legislative texts focuses on the d...
Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il
This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.
.... Engendering the discourse of masculinities to reflect a relationship between child protection and the experience of refugee parenting for African men in both pre- and post-resettlement contexts will...
Jackson, Phoebe A.; Seiler, Gale
Latecomers to science are students who take non-traditional routes into postsecondary science because they are initially missing prerequisites. Latecomers have a lower rate of persistence than traditional science students. This critical discourse analysis of an online forum thread uses Gee's toolkit to explore how latecomers, who have histories of not being recognized as smart enough to do science, find new ways to identify with science. Applying a theoretical lens in which identity is viewed as a process of continual negotiation, which is constrained and afforded by the resources of the relevant figured worlds, it is shown how four latecomers shared reinterpreted histories of being recognized as not smart enough to do science and in doing so, formed solidarity. As part of this process they co-produced a new cultural model in which the ability or inability to ask questions led respectively to success (good grades) or failure (low grades) in science. Used in conjunction with their solidarity, they were not only able to successfully position themselves in the elite figured world of science, but also to reify the result in a form that could potentially support future identification with science. Aspects of the online forum that supported the co-production are explored, including its ability to help students draw on resources from outside of the science program. The importance of encouraging students to discuss their struggles with science and the accompanying construction of solidarity is also discussed. This research is of particular interest to practitioners and researchers interested in supporting non-traditional science students such as latecomers, especially those wishing to move away from deficit views of these students and towards a more complex and agentic understanding of persistence and identity in science.
Lara N. Sinelnikova
Full Text Available The article is an analytical review of three volumes of the Bulletin of the Russian University of Friendship of Peoples on the problem of discourse. The author has formed a number of headings, the complex of which allows to judge the priority areas of modern scientific knowledge, an essential part of which is discourse. The heading «Pragmatics and metapragmatics of discourse» was formed mainly on the basis of the articles of famous foreign researchers. In each article there are curious ideas, and the generalization of the thesis can be as follows: the evaluation category has a direct relation to the pragmatics, and the estimated semantics of the word is manifested in communication. In the section «Synchronization of paradigmatic relations: text, discourse, style, utterance, speech act, genre» the articles are presented, the material of which is important for revealing the paradigmatic relations between the phenomena named in the heading, including the culturally conditioned features. In the heading “Institutional discourses and problems of hybridization of discourses”, the material of articles of both Russian and foreign researchers is summarized, which makes it possible to identify both the general (even universal orientation of discourse studies and specific approaches and characteristics due to the peculiarities of social processes and national cultural codes . The heading «Identity in its relation to the language / discursive personality» focuses on understanding the close relationship of the category of identity with the problems of discourse and various types of communication. Many authors of the articles present a retrospective of the development of the concepts under consideration, describe the path of their development from the moment they enter the scientific space to the present. At the same time, ways of coordination and integration of methods and approaches are outlined, which is necessary for understanding the prospects
Oldfield, Margaret; MacEachen, Ellen; MacNeill, Margaret; Kirsh, Bonnie
Background Advice on fibromyalgia, a chronic illness primarily affecting women, often presents it as incompatible with work and rarely covers how to remain employed. Yet many women do. Objectives We aimed to understand how these women, their family members, and workmates portrayed employees with fibromyalgia, and how these portrayals helped women retain employment. Methods We interviewed 22 participants, comprising five triads and three dyads of people who knew each other. Using the methodology of critical discourse analysis, we analysed the interview data within and across the triads/dyads through coding, narrative summaries, and relational mapping. Results Participants reported stereotypes that employees with fibromyalgia are lazy, malingering, and less productive than healthy workers. Countering these assumptions, participants portrayed the women as normal, valuable employees who did not 'give in' to their illness. The portrayals drew on two discourses, normalcy and mind-controlling-the-body, and a related narrative, overcoming disability. We propose that participants' portrayals helped women manage their identities in competitive workplaces and thereby remain employed. Discussion Our findings augment the very sparse literature on employment with fibromyalgia. Using a new approach, critical discourse analysis, we expand on known job-retention strategies and add the perspectives of two key stakeholders: family members and workmates.
Full Text Available Abstract - Trade Unions have been the most important constituency of the British Labour Party since 1900. The relationship between the party and workers' organizations has undergone deep changes, resulting in the open confrontation that characterised the years of the latest Labour governments (1997-2010. Labour Prime Ministers' speeches to the annual conference of the Trade Union Congress form a genre on their own as they are addressed to a distinctive discourse community and respond to specific purposes (Swales 1990. They are institutionalised ways of acting semiotically (Fairclough 2003, 2006, thus aspects of the social practice of governing. This article provides a critical genre analysis of speeches by Labour Prime Ministers to the TUC from 1969 to 2007 to reveal the frictions inside the Labour discourse community.
Jean Daniel Jacob
Full Text Available Drawing on a situational analysis of a recent anti-stigma campaign in psychiatry (Defeat Denial: Help Defeat Mental Illness this paper seeks to engage with the reader on the use of an expert discourse that focuses on the brain and its disruption as a way to address stigma associated with mental illness. To begin, we briefly highlight key statistics regarding the impact of mental illness in Canada and introduce the concept of stigma. We then introduce the Defeat Denial media campaign and describe the analytical process employed for this paper - Situational Analysis with a specific focus on discourse. We then expand on the use of the expert discourse in the awareness campaign by making connections with Rose’s concept of biological citizen and, in the final sections, present recent studies on stigma that highlight the paradox and contested construction of the (biopsychiatric self
Shaw, Sara E; Greenhalgh, Trisha
Health research is fundamental to the development of improved health and healthcare. Despite its importance, and the role of policy in guiding the kind of research that gets addressed, there are very few empirical studies of health research policy. This paper redresses this, exploring the means by which one area of health research policy is shaped, enabled and constrained. We ask: what are the historical, social and political origins of research policy in primary care in England? What are the key discourses that have dominated debate; and what are the tensions between discourses and the implications this raises for practitioners and policymakers? To answer these questions we employed a Foucauldian approach to discourse analysis to explicitly recognise the historical, social and ideological origins of policy texts; and the role of power and knowledge in policy development. We adapted Parker's framework for distinguishing discourses as a means of selecting and analysing 29 key policy documents; 16 narrative interviews with historical and contemporary policy stakeholders; and additional contextual documents. Our analysis involved detailed deconstruction and linking across texts to reveal prevailing storylines, ideologies, power relations, and tensions. Findings show how powerful policy discourses shaped by historical and social forces influence the type of research undertaken, by whom and how. For instance, recent policy has been shaped by discourse associated with the knowledge-based economy that emphasises microscopic 'discovery', exploitation of information and the contribution of highly technological activities to 'UK plc' and has re-positioned primary care research as a strategic resource and 'population laboratory' for clinical research. Such insights challenge apolitical accounts of health research and reveal how health research serves particular interests.
Ashton, Jennifer Randhare
Co-teaching is a model of inclusive instruction that has become increasingly popular throughout schools as a way to meet the needs of students with disabilities in general education settings. Despite being the focus of significant educational research for more than two decades, traditional deficit discourses of disability persist in educational…
Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Meisenbach, Rebecca J.
Legal decisions about affirmative action in higher education do more than impact how admissions policies are structured. The discourse produced in these decisions structures how race is talked about, understood, and enacted in the context of higher education and beyond. However, critique of affirmative action rhetoric in the legal realm tends to…
Cohen, Jennifer L.
Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…
This study focuses on a recording from a week of third-grade classroom sessions. The recording was used to train new teachers in a certification program and provided data for a learning community that was studying classroom discourse. The third-grade teacher was described as being "outstanding" and "culturally responsive" by…
This paper discusses how the rhetoric of "diversity" is mobilised within New Labour HE policy discourse around widening participation (WP). The paper argues that these constructions of diversity derive an important element of their symbolic power from an association with notions of "equality"--and yet the radical/egalitarian…
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kolbaek, Raymond; Beedholm, Kirsten
It is widely recognised that the delivery of services across health-care sectors faces multiple challenges related to incoherence in patient pathways. There are multiple reasons for this incoherence, which are often dealt with through national legislation and policy-making. This paper discusses policies as powerful actors and explores how effects of a concrete policy are adapted for intersectorial collaboration in Danish health-care. The paper is based on a critical discourse analysis of a central policy document in Danish health-care known as the 'Health Agreements'. Using Fairclough's three-dimensional model for discourse analysis, we explored the document to clarify the construction of actors participating in intersectorial collaboration. The analysis revealed the Health Agreement as a 'negotiated text', appearing as an overriding document legitimising one possible discourse regarding the premises of intersectorial collaboration. The premises of intersectorial collaboration are maintained through a specific presentation of actors leaving little room for discussion, where professionals are constructed as actors who are expected to develop ways of collaborating according to the Triple Aim approach in order to promote productivity and efficiency. Furthermore, this presentation constructs citizens and patients as active, participating individuals who consciously prioritise and act with the purpose of controlling their life situation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The text presents the attempt of critical discourse analysis present in theTV series “Rodzinka.pl” with regard to promotion of childhood and a happy family,as well as their potential compatibility with the value system of the consumptionsociety. The author proposes a thesis that the image of a child and a parents, s well astheir bilateral relations, may slightly support the formation of some social attitudestoward a happy childhood as the childhood oriented mostly toward consumption.The author confronts these images with the conclusions from the analyses of mucholder images from the time of the Polish People’s Republic.
Khoo Wei Cyn
Full Text Available The ideology of Chinese racial pride in an online essay “Proud to be born a Chinese” by Dr. Chan-Lui Lee is described and analysed by using the sociocognitive approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA. The research design is based on the notion that Chinese racial pride is a tool to persuade Chinese Malaysians to prioritise their Chinese racial identity over the Malaysian national identity, leading to national disunity and racial fissures in society. This notion runs parallel to the concept of the dynamicity and fluidity of the construction of identity, as explored by Jones, McEwen and Abes in their Reconceptualised Model of Multiple Identities (2007. As the degree to which Malaysians identify with the national identity over other group identities determines the success of national unity (Liu et al, 2002, Dr. Chan-Lui Lee’s essay provides insight into the overall success of national unity in Malaysia. “Proud to be born a Chinese” is analysed through three components: the discursive, cognitive and social components, which not only confirm that the essay prioritises Chinese racial identity over Malaysian national identity using Chinese racial pride, but also that the essay and its strategies are a response to the socio-political circumstances in Malaysia and the creation of neo-nationalist identities in the relatively new nations of Southeast Asia. Keywords: critical discourse analysis, sociocognition, racial pride, racial identity, national identity, national unity, multiple identities, southeast asia, neo-nationalism, socio-politics
Full Text Available The Orchard Gallery opened in Derry in 1978. It was set up by Derry City Council, which appointed a then young artist and art teacher, Declan McGonagle, as its first exhibition director. In 1979-80, D. McGonagle convinced the council that the money it wanted to allocate to acquire works and establish a collection should be used to commission artists and art critics to produce artists’ books and publications. The artistic programme of the Orchard gallery aimed to exhibit a wide range of artists including external artists of international reputation who were asked to produce works specifically for the gallery. The additional publishing material furthered the representation of ‘the gallery’s ethos, which was about the place, and the interaction and the relationship between the artist who comes from outside and the place’. Till its closure in 2003, and under the direction in the 1990s successively of Noreen O Hare, Liam Kelly and Brendan McMenamin, the gallery maintained a high profile publishing policy, collecting in prints artists’ ideas as well as critical discourses commissioned from a wide range of critics, artists and art historians. This paper focuses on the critical essays published by the Orchard Gallery, underlining both their role in explicating the aesthetic propositions they accompanied, and in providing a unique contribution to the critical assessment of the history of Northern Ireland as seen from the contemporary socio-political context of the Troubles. They addressed a large range of issues, such as the politics of representation, historical discourse and the visual arts, the role and use of language(s, conflicting identities, cultural transfers, and British and Irish art history. The analysis looks at the authors’ recurrent concern with the conditions of visual interpretation, the range of iconographical themes outlined by the texts, and ultimately the rallying attempt to reach a universal realm of significance, in
Eduardo Fernández Rodríguez
Full Text Available This article aims at carrying out a political analysis of the discourse of training based on competences offering elements of reflection that distort the readiness with which this model of teaching training has been assumed in Spain. The article is divided into two sections. In the first one, competence-based training is framed within the new ways of work organisation in a postfordian economy and the main elements of a curricular design based on a professional-competence approach are described. In the second section some mythologies associated to training for employability and to competence-based learning are explored.
Louay M. Safi
Full Text Available In over a century of discourse and action, the Islamic movement has grown and expanded markedly. The once elitist movement today commands the support of an increasing segment of society, yet important questions regarding the nature of the Islamic society and the correct strategy for achieving it are still unsettled. The dispute between reformists and traditionalists regarding the characteristics of the ideal Islamic society continues to be a source of sharp division between the two groups. The following discussion explores the major trends in the Islamic movement, and examines the main ideas and strategies advanced by its leaders
Murray, Helen Margaret
English: This thesis looks at the presentation of ethnic minority groups in the UK in Access to English: Social Studies. The research question is “How are ethnic minority groups in the UK presented in chapter five of Access to English: Social Studies?” This research question is broken down into three sub-questions: “What are the Discourses on ethnic minorities in chapter five of Access to English: Social Studies?”, “How close to the reality of the situation for ethnic minorities in the UK ...
Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Hafferty, Frederic W
The effects of globalization on health are the focus of administrators, educators, policy makers and researchers as they work to consider how best to train and regulate health professionals to practice in a globalized world. This study explores what happens to constructs such as medical competence when the context of medical practice is discursively expanded to include the whole world. An archive of texts was assembled (1970-2011) totaling 1100 items and analyzed using a governmentality approach. Texts were included that articulated rationales for pursuing global education activities, and/or that implicitly or explicitly took a position on medical competencies in relation to practicing medicine in international or culturally diverse contexts, or in dealing with health issues as global concerns. The analysis revealed three distinct visions, representative of a primarily western mentality, for preparing physicians to practice in a globalized world: the universal global physician, the culturally versed global physician and the global physician advocate. Each has its own epistemological relationship to globalization and is supported by an evidence base. All three discourses are active and productive, sometimes within the same context. However, the discourse of the universal global physician is currently the most established. The challenge to policy makers and educators in evolving regulatory frameworks and curricula that are current and relevant necessitates a better understanding of the socio-political effects of globalization on medical education, and the ethical, political, cultural and scientific issues underlying efforts to prepare students to practice competently in a globalized world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
According to the literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parenting, refugee parenting practices and styles that are normative in countries of origin may not be sanctioned in Australia. In the case of refugee parenting, beliefs, practices, and values may be decentered in pre-resettlement contexts where survival becomes the primary concern. Engendering the discourse of masculinities to reflect a relationship between child protection and the experience of refugee parenting for African men in both pre- and post-resettlement contexts will inform culturally competent practice, intervention, and community development that is inclusive of their gender-specific needs. This article brings an expanded masculinities perspective to the ecology of refugee parenting for resettled African men resulting from larger research findings with focus group participants. Incorporating notions of masculinity into the child protection discourse is an attempt not only to reduce existing gender under- and misrepresentation among South Australian refugees but also to ensure greater visibility and increase the role of refugee men in the process of developing culturally relevant and appropriate policies, practices, and services to assist successful resettlement transitions while strengthening family well-being. The concept of masculinities, this article argues, must be treated as integral to any approach to working with refugees, particularly in areas that penetrate and may define the quality of their life experiences, expectations, and aspirations. Masculinities matter. Exploring refugee male perceptions, interpretations, and enactment of masculinity may unmask the differential experiences of refugee women from men and ensure the integration and operationalization of these differences into child protection services and practice. © The Author(s) 2011
Full Text Available This volume, edited by Iris DZUDZEK, Caren KUNZE and Joscha WULLWEBER and published as part of the transcript series Sozialtheorie [Social Theory], can be read as an attempt to combine materialistic critical social theory with poststructuralist thinking. Most contributions refer to GRAMSCI's concept of hegemony and LACLAU and MOUFFE's theory of discourse. However, aside from elaborating on continuities and options for synthesis between both perspectives, which is of indisputable value, the papers in this collection do not completely hit the mark promised in the editors' foreword in terms of social critique and political involvement, as well as of methodological questions of empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302176
Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Bairros, Fernanda; Mueller, Betânia; Monteiro, Débora; Oliveira, Lidiane Pellenz de; Collaziol, Marceli Emer
This qualitative study aims to describe the trajectories of female victims of gender violence in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The methodology included in-depth interviews with women and staff, attempting to map the critical paths of women when they made the decision to seek professional help. We interviewed 21 women victims of gender violence and 25 professionals, including law enforcement officials, health and social workers, and nongovernmental organizations. The women's trajectories in the services were mapped, identifying facilitating factors and obstacles in the process of breaking with gender violence. The victims reported: pressure by professional staff to return to their marriages and police inefficiency in providing protection. The discourse of law enforcement officials and health and social workers showed a range of different concepts regarding violence, medicalization of violence, and network fragmentation.
Nadia Tiara Antiksari
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study, entitled “Visible Boys, Invisible Girls: The Representation of Gender in Learn English with Tito (A Critical Discourse Analysis of English Language Textbooks for Primary School”, is aimed at revealing the representation of gender in a series of Indonesian primary school English textbooks which are published by PT. Mutiara Permata Bangsa, Yogyakarta in 2007. The study is also aimed at gaining information about the editor’s perspective upon the issue and investigating the underlying ideology behind the representation. This research employs the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. The main data are six textbooks for primary school. This study also conduts an inteview with the book editor. The text analysis utilizes transitivity system of Halliday which focuses on investigating Participants, Processes, and Circumstances of a clause. It is supported by lexical choise analysis of the text and a qualitative analysis of the interview. The findings show that the books favor males than females. Male characters are more visible in that they occur dominantly and they appear to hold more important roles of Participant. In terms of Gender stereotyping, males are perpetually associated with a more well-paid jobs i.e. ‘doctor’ and ‘pilot’ for male characters and ‘teacher’ for females’. Meanwhile, females are more likely valued by their physical appearance and personality i.e. ‘slim’, ‘fair-skinned’, ‘beautiful’, ‘kind’, and diligent’. At the end of the research, the editor admitted the lack of concern on the issue of gender in composing her textbooks. These seem to indicate male domination as the underlying ideology behind the representation.
Full Text Available Vulvodynia refers to pain in the vulva of at least 3 months’ duration in the absence of a recognized underlying cause. Provoked, localized vestibulodynia is the term used to describe superficial pain confined to the vulvar vestibule, provoked by touch. This review will focus on provoked vestibulodynia with regard to its suggested causative factors and will discuss the role of inflammation, vulvovaginal infections, mucosal nerve fiber proliferation, hormonal associations, central pain mechanisms, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and genetic factors. Clinical observations, epidemiological studies, and data from basic research emphasize the heterogeneity of vulvar pain syndromes. There is a critical need to perform prospective, longitudinal studies that will allow better diagnostic criteria and subgrouping of patients that would lead to improvements in our understanding of provoked vestibulodynia and its treatment.
Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen
The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.
Nielsen, Anne Ellerup; Nørreklit, Hanne
management guidebook in order to examine whether it matches the general development of society into high modernity. By means of a critical discourse analysis (Fairclough's model) we examine the rhetorical articulation of the coaching concept in terms of established discourses of management. Our analysis...
The purpose of this study was to describe how the text of gender-based violence against the woman, and illustrate how gender-based injustice is run and produced in the Novel I am Malala, through the texts that have been written. This study used a qualitative descriptive of critical perspective (Genre of Critical Theory), perspective/paradigm used to explain the description of gender-based violence (violence against women) in the novel I am Malala. Data analysis technique this study is Critica...
Abdunasir I. A. Sideeg
Full Text Available This research article aims to explore and critically examine six cases in which traces of ideology are explicitly or implicitly involved in the context of translating the Qurān into English. It attempts to answer questions pertinent to the nature and effect of traces of ideology on translating the Qurān in English and the way they shape the Qurānic message. The article employs a critical qualitative framework that allows for the researcher’s subjective interpretations of relevant texts. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA is used for the analysis of data as this approach provides a convenient mode of critical thinking to carry out the present thesis. In this article, six texts across twenty versions of the Qurān in English are investigated in terms of their salient features that reflect peculiar ideological readings. Major findings indicate that complex traces of ideology may contribute to a particular choice in translating the salient features in the texts investigated. The case of Helminski, for instance, shows how cultural and linguistic backgrounds, Sufi doctrines, and feminist agendas all combine to produce a radical reading of the Qurān in English where she consistently refers to Allah (SWT with the combination he/she. Sufi ideologies are crucial in translating some pronouns with controversial references in some Qurānic verses. As well, gnostic interpretations have their own legacy such as the alteration in Khalifa’s ‘authorized version’. Plus, Neo-Mutazilite and Qurānist traces of ideology significantly contribute to produce alien readings of some Qurānic texts as illustrated in cases (5 and (6 in this research article.
Stich, Amy Elizabeth; Reeves, Todd D.
In this paper, we critically analyze institutional mission statements as discursive texts replete with symbolic meaning, as we believe these texts reveal a great deal about the ways in which higher education remains increasingly stratified. We argue that beneath the generalized rhetoric of institutional mission statements, lie powerful messages…
Klik-suri sa Online Community ng mga Lesbiyana sa Facebook Gamit ang Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA at Natural Language Processing (NLP (Click-analysis of a Lesbian Online Community in Facebook Using the CDA and NLP
Full Text Available This study aims to describe the discourse on the online community of lesbians in the Philippines. The organization of Lesbian Community or LESCOM was chosen as subject of the study based on high number of ‘likes’ they received in Facebook. The texts were automatically gathered, filtered, shortlisted, and harvested from their Facebook page using the Natural Language Processing (NLP. The theoretical framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA was used in analysing the data in order to describe online discourses that reflect the identity and community of lesbians based in the Philippines. The result of analysis were the following:  the emotions projected by exclamatory mark displayed their identity;  some plural words served as their voice for being group-oriented;  frequent usage of personal names manifested their inclusive community; and  social consciousness was part of their organizational agenda.
peer-reviewed Introduction Discourse is all around us: as McCarthy, et al. (2002: 55) so succinctly put it: ‘Life is a constant flow of discourse – of language functioning in one of the many contexts that together make up a culture.’ In an obvious, though nevertheless taken-for-granted, way, language is intrinsic to the creation and maintenance of the institutions and practices that we may wish to investigate as educational researchers; hence the importance of discourse analysis, and it...
Arts education are understood and implemented by ways of different discourses. Following critical discourse theory, discourses are part of power strategies and they predominantly fight for dominance. What this means is that certain discourses and accompanying practices of arts education may rule and others may be subordinated or neglected. A…
Cluckie, Gillian; Rudd, Anthony G; McKevitt, Christopher
thrombolysis for stroke has been licensed in the UK since 2007 and needs to be administered within 4.5 h. Given this time critical factor, the media may have an important role in public awareness. this review aimed to find out how stroke thrombolysis was reported in UK national and London local newspapers and how treatment risks and benefits were communicated. Newspapers published between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2010 were searched for articles on thrombolysis. Fifty-six articles were included and dispositive analysis, a qualitative analysis method, was used to identify themes. four main themes were identified: inaccurate description of thrombolysis, stroke clinicians' involvement, presentation of risks and benefits and patient stories. Inaccuracies included the presentation of thrombolysis as a treatment for transient ischaemic attack. Clinicians were quoted to suggest that thrombolysis produced complete recovery but were not reported to discuss risks or broader stroke management. The articles reported little or no risks of treatment. Patients' stories were used to reinforce that thrombolysis produces full recovery. this review found that newspaper media provides the public with inaccurate perspectives on thrombolysis. Clinicians may wish to check press articles prior to publishing and to consider the impact of reporting thrombolysis as a treatment which produces complete recovery.
Full Text Available Introduction. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of generalized pustules, accompanied by elevated body temperature and neutrophilia. Objective. Presentation of a patient with AGEP provoked by furosemide. Case report. We present a case of a 65-year-old patient diagnosed with and treated for generalized pustular eruption, with fever and changes in laboratory tests. Numerous coexisting medical conditions and a great number of frequently changed drugs (ciprofloxacin, allopurinol, folic acid, calcium carbonate, cyclophosphamide, atorvastatin, betaxolol and furosemide hindered identification of the causative factor. Conclusions. On the basis of the medical history and clinical picture, the patient was diagnosed with generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by furosemide.
Linvill, Darren L.; Pyle, Andrew S.
Course: Civil discourse, argumentation, debate, persuasion, political communication. Objectives: This unit activity will help students build an understanding of civil discourse and its function in society. Students will: (1) increase their capacity to examine arguments critically, (2) enhance their own ability to self-reflect critically, and (3)…
Jaime Andrés Ararat Herrera
Full Text Available This article aims to elucidate certain ideological stances in the administrative discourse of entrepreneurship in High Education Institutions in Medellin. The qualitative-approach methodology is based on the Critical Discourse Analysis and analyzes the “construction” of discourses from the discursive practices of those in charge of orienting their social praxis in the abovementioned institutions. The information was gathered with the use of semistructured interviews and ideological analysis of the news textual structure in institutional newspapers. The results evidence internal contradictions between the theoretical and practical discourse that support the teaching of entrepreneurship in each institution. The theoretical discourse professes an inclusive discourse based on social equality and opportunities for everyone; whereas the practical discourse evidences a discourse based on exclusion through the use of certain strategies and discursive devices that identify ideological stances as group members of a specific social group. Two social groups are “built” from the socio-discursive viewpoint: entrepreneurs and employees.El objetivo es dilucidar ciertas posturas ideológicas en el discurso administrativo delemprendimiento que se manifiestanen las Instituciones de Educación Superior de Medellín.Se trata de examinar, mediante un enfoque cualitativo y una metodología de AnálisisCrítico del Discurso, la “construcción” de tales posturas mediante las prácticas discursivasde los encargados de orientar la praxis social de esta actividad en dichas entidades. Seutilizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis ideológico de la estructura textual denoticias en periódicos institucionales. Los resultados evidencian una contradicción entreel discurso teórico y el práctico que dan soporte a la enseñanza del emprendimiento. Elprimero profesa un discurso inclusivo, fundamentado en la igualdad social y de oportunidadpara
Boeriis, Morten; Nørgaard, Nina
Using a multimodal social semiotic perspective, this article presents an analysis of the University of Southern Denmark as a text with particular focus on discourse and framing (cf. van Leeuwen 2005). The university consists of an original part and more recent extensions. The article examines how...... the original and the new parts of the buildings respectively realize different discourses related to education and the educational system more generally, and in particular how framing plays an important role in this respect. While employing van Leeuwen’s system network for framing (2005: 18) for the analysis......, the analysis also points to potentially useful adjustments....
Aslam, U; Afzal, S; Syed, Shakir
Hyperventilation causes respiratory alkalosis. The nervous system is more excitable in alkalosis. This phenomenon can be observed as paraesthesia in fingers and toes as well as around the lips in anxious patients breathing rapidly. We wanted to test this phenomenon on already irritable nerves like the median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We deployed 50 patients who came in to the day case unit for carpal tunnel decompression with electro-physiologically proven diagnosis. We devised a test whereby patients were made to hyperventilate under prescribed conditions and repeated Phalen's test and Tinel's sign for comparison. These were compared with a control group chosen randomly among hospital staff. 86% patients had a positive result which was just behind Phalen's test in sensitivity. It was also 100% specific as there were no false positives. Hyperventilation is a phenomenon which provokes carpal tunnel syndrome. Its clinical value remains to be seen due to cumbersome method and probable patient non-compliance but it is a new discovery. It may be useful in other irritable-nerve-syndromes as a test to add to our available armament. It may be an additional factor or a primary reason for nocturnal paraesthesias in CTS patients.
In diesem Interview schildert Ruth WODAK die Anfänge ihrer Karriere und was sie in das Feld der Kritischen Diskursanalyse geführt hat. Sie legt dar, was an der Kritischen Diskursanalyse "kritisch" ist, differenziert "Kritik" von "Dogmatismus" und thematisiert die Beziehung zwischen Kritik und einer normativen Position. An Ende des Interviews stellt sie in Aussicht, dass eine "integrative Interdisziplinarität" ein Weg sein kann, um disziplinäre Inkommensurabilität zu überwinden. In this int...
Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim
Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Locher, Miriam A.
This chapter deals with electronic discourse by discussing the pragmatics of language use in computer-mediated settings. In many so-called first world countries, accessing the Internet by means of a computer or a smartphone, etc. has become an everyday activity for many people. In only little more than twenty years of publicly accessible Internet access, the use of computer-mediated forms of communication has developed from primarily information websites and email exchanges to highly interact...
Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... in collaborative governance processes in Denmark. The paper contributes to refining methodologies of organizational discourse analysis by elaborating method-mixing that embraces multimodal organizational discourses. Furthermore it discusses practical implications of the struggling subjectification processes...
El Mustapha Lahlali
Full Text Available This paper examines the development and change of Arab media discourse since mid-1990s. The paper looks at how the production and consumption of media discourse have changed dramatically in the Arab world over the last decade or so, notably in relation to taboos such as religion, governance and gender. The paper argues that transnational Arab media, particularly al-Jazeera, have contributed to this change by adopting a liberal and critical approach when dealing with Arab taboos. This change is clearly reflected in the new discourse adopted by both the Arab public and Arab media. Such a discourse practice shapes and is shaped by a new Arab social, cultural and political practice.
Full Text Available Media has become a very powerful cultural institution in the last past decades of the 20th century and inspired many critical studies in disciplines such as linguistics, semiotics, pragmatics, discourse studies and not least, in the field of mass communication itself. The first studies of media language focused on easily observable surface structures, such as the biased or partisan use of words in the description of Us and Them, especially along political and social lines, for instance in the representations of communists. The traditional approach on the analysis of the biased, stereotypical - sexist or racist images in the media, has taken into account both texts, as well as illustrations of photos. Semiotics found its way into media studies quite early, and thus brought some basic structural notions to the study of media discourse and a necessary component of a broader study of media images.
Salager-Meyer, Francoise; Ariza, Maria Angeles Alcaraz; Zambrano, Nahirana
Addresses the socio-pragmatic phenomenon of academic conflict from a cross-cultural and diachronic perspective. It is examined by combining a quantitative approach and a qualitative discoursal analysis of its salient rhetorical features in corpus of Spanish, French, and English medical articles published between 1930 and 1995. (VWL)
Full Text Available Women and sexual minorities in the United States continue to experience subordinate status, and the policy gains they have made in areas such as reproductive rights and marriage equality continue to be challenged in political discourse. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of texts from the 2012 Democratic and Republican national conventions in order to examine the extent to which ideological representations of the family were employed to legitimize public policy positions related to gender (e.g., abortion and sexuality (e.g., same-sex marriage. We analyzed two forms of text (official party platform document, transcripts of speeches with distinct intended audiences (i.e., party members, general audience. Findings revealed that an ideological representation of the traditional family ideal—featuring a heterosexual couple, their children, and asymmetric gender relations—was present within speeches given by both parties, particularly by the spouses of the presidential candidates (Michelle Obama and Ann Romney. Although this ideological representation was subsequently used within the Republican Party platform to legitimize positions against same-sex marriage and abortion, the Democratic Party platform challenged this representation of the family to instead advocate for policy positions in favor of same-sex marriage and women’s reproductive rights. We discuss this ambivalence within Democratic texts in light of the different audiences that party convention texts seek. Implications for gender- and sexuality-based policies are discussed, as well as the importance of examining political discourse across diverse forms and settings.
Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…
Letetia van der Poll
that “non-obscene” sexually explicit material has social value, as do esteemed works of literature and art. Secondly, the court assumes that all individuals have equal access to the means of expression and dissemination of ideas and thus fails to acknowledge substantive (and gendered structural inequalities. A closer inspection reveals that the Supreme Court’s justification of why freedom of expression is such a fundamental freedom in a constitutional democracy (and the reason that “non-obscene” sexually explicit material consequently enjoys constitutional protection is highly suspect, both intellectually and philosophically. And yet the South African Constitutional Court has explicitly recognised the same philosophical justification as the basis for free speech and expression. The Constitutional Court has, in fact, both supported and emphasised the idea that freedom of expression stands central to the concepts of democracy and political transformation through participation, and has expressly confirmed the association between freedom of expression and the political rights safeguarded under the Bill of Rights. Moreover, the Constitutional Court has also endorsed the conception of adult gender-specific sexually explicit material as a form of free expression. And yet by embracing a moralistic, libertarian model of free expression, the very ideal of a free, democratic and equal society, one in which women can live secure from the threat of harm, is put at risk. A moralistic, libertarian model is simply not capable of conceptualising sexually explicit material as a possible violation of women’s fundamental interests in equality, dignity and physical integrity.This article has a two-fold objective. The first is to critically examine the dominant discourse on adult gender-specific sexually explicit material emanating from United States jurisprudence (and its resonance in South African constitutional thought, and secondly, to assess whether this particular
Beynon-Jones, Siân M
In this paper, I highlight key differences between a discourse analytic approach to women's accounts of abortion and that taken by the growing body of research that seeks to explore and measure women's experiences of abortion stigma. Drawing on critical analyses of the conceptualisation of stigma in other fields of healthcare, I suggest that research on abortion stigma often risks reifying it by failing to consider how identities are continually re-negotiated through language-use. In contrast, by attending to language as a form of social action, discursive psychology makes it possible to emphasise speakers' capacity to construct "untroubled" (i.e. non-stigmatised) identities, while acknowledging that this process is constrained by the contexts in which talk takes place. My analysis applies these insights to interviews with women concerning their experiences of having an abortion in England. I highlight three forms of discursive work through which women navigate "trouble" in their accounts of abortion, and critically consider the resources available for meaning-making within this particular context of talk. In doing so, I aim to provoke reflection about the discursive frameworks through which women's accounts of abortion are solicited and explored.
This research explores how Russian national identity is constructed through political discourses pertaining to the Arctic. Theoretically this thesis addresses how national identity is constructed through these discourses and subsequently how this identity is used to justify Russia’s Arctic policy to a domestic as well as an international audience. In order to achieve this a hybrid methodology combining critical discourse analysis and political discourse analysis was applied to two forms of po...
Full Text Available 本研究是以Fairclough的批判論述分析模式為架構，探討臺灣原住民族語教育的論述文本、論述實踐及社會實踐，分別進行文本分析、過程分析及社會分析。本研究的結論如下：一、現行族語教育政策制定與執行過程欠缺評估與監督；二、族語教育隱含我族中心主義的意識形態與權力鬥爭；三、原住民主體性論述是主宰當今族語教育政策的霸權；四、族語論述實踐與臺灣族群意識和政治存在辯證關係；五、族語政策論述體系重構原住民族社會的知識信仰；六、族語教育政策和原住民的族群認同應解構。This research followed Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis model to explore the discourse text, discourse practice, and social practice of Taiwan indigenous language education. It conducted text analysis, processing analysis, and social analysis. The conclusions are as follows: (1 The existing decision making and execution process for indigenous language education policy are lack of evaluation and monitoring. (2The Indigenous language education has concealed ethnocentrism and power conflicts. (3 The indigenous subjectivism discourse has become the hegemony that manipulates present indigenous language education policy. (4 The existence of dialectic relationship among indigenous discourse practice, Taiwan ethnic consciousness and politics. (5The indigenous language policyscourse system rebuilds the knowledge and belief of indigenous society. (6 Indigenous language education policy and indigenous ethnic identity should be detached from each other.
Shaw, Ryan D.
Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…
Hoel, Nora Stranden
This thesis examines how the dominant ideas about social class in American political discourse have been challenged by the rhetoric of the Bernie Sanders campaign in the 2016 presidential primary election. Through critical discourse analysis, I find that Bernie Sanders is the main bearer of a new discourse of inequality in American political and public discourse, which has its roots in the Occupy Wall Street movement in 2011 and previous developing strands from the 1990s and early 2000s.
Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities
Full Text Available El discurso, en cuanto práctica social, permite la expresión concreta de las opiniones y creencias que una persona o un grupo pueden albergar sobre un hecho, una situación o con respecto a otro grupo social. Esto hace que el discurso se convierta en un dispositivo efectivo de socialización que se puede usar para reproducir y avalar ideologías, entendidas como conceptos que abarcan una dimensión tanto social como subjetiva. Ergo, a la vez que son sistemas de creencias exteriorizados en la tradición, los valores o los ideales también son estructuras cognoscitivas que fabrican los esquemas de pensamiento y acción individuales. Es precisamente esta dimensión subjetiva de la ideología la que le otorga al discurso su mayor poder y eficacia simbólica, dado que el significado de las vivencias humanas es determinado por las interacciones sociales, que, en últimas, son actos comunicativos acaecidos en el mundo simbólico del lenguaje. El discurso y la ideología están, así, íntimamente ligados.As a social practice, discourse allows for the concrete expression of the opinions and beliefs that a person or group may have regarding a fact, a situation, or another social group. This makes discourse an effective mechanism for socialization, which can be used to reproduce and endorse ideologies, understood as concepts that include a social and a subjective dimension. Therefore, while values or ideals are systems of beliefs expressed in tradition, they are also cognitive structures that build individual thought and action patterns. It is precisely this subjective dimension that grants discourse greater power and symbolic efficacy, since the meaning of human experiences is determined by social interactions, which are ultimately communicative acts that take place in the symbolic world of language. Thus, discourse and ideology are intimately linked.
Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel
Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy - thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities - such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision - policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance.
Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel
Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063
Geier, D A; King, P G; Sykes, L K; Geier, M R
Emerging evidence supports the theory that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from a combination of genetic/biochemical susceptibility, specifically a reduced ability to excrete mercury (Hg), and exposure to Hg at critical developmental periods. Elemental/inorganic Hg is released into the air/water where it becomes methylated and accumulates in animal tissues. The US population is primarily exposed to methyl-Hg by fish consumption. In addition, many pharmaceuticals have been, and some continue to be, a ubiquitous source of danger because they contain mercurials. Mercurials may be found in drugs for the eye, ear, nose, throat, and skin; in bleaching creams; as preservatives in cosmetics, tooth pastes, lens solutions, vaccines, allergy test and immunotherapy solutions; in antiseptics, disinfectants, and contraceptives; in fungicides and herbicides; in dental fillings and thermometers; and many other products. Hg has been found to cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioural dysfunctions similar to traits defining/associated with ASDs, and that these similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Furthermore, a review of molecular mechanisms indicates that Hg exposure can induce death, disorganization and/or damage to selected neurons in the brain similar to that seen in recent ASD brain pathology studies, and this alteration may likely produce the symptoms by which ASDs are diagnosed. Finally, a review of treatments suggests that ASD patients who undergo protocols to reduce Hg and/or its effects show significant clinical improvements in some cases. In conclusion, the overwhelming preponderance of the evidence favours acceptance that Hg exposure is capable of causing some ASDs.
Célia Maria Magalhães
Full Text Available In this paper I set out from Brazilian social theories on race to analyse a contemporary corpus of news reports in a Brazilian broadsheet newspaper. The aim is investigating change in mediated discourses on race. Based on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA and with the help of corpus linguistics methodological tools I focus on lexical items used to categorise race, the semantic relations created and their association with discourse representation in the newspaper. The combined analysis of semantic relations and interdiscursivity has allowed for the perception of tensions over the use of terms from different semantic fields to categorize race and of conflicting discourses of race classification in the paper. The analysis has also allowed for a cautious interpretation of dialogicality and of different orientations to racial difference, following the social research inventories in Fairclough (2003 in the reports.Neste trabalho parto de teorias sociais sobre a questão racial para analisar um corpus de reportagens contemporâneas de um jornal brasileiro de grande circulação. O objetivo é investigar a mudança nos discursos mediados sobre a questão racial. Com base na teoria da Análise Crítica do Discurso (ACD e com o suporte de ferramentas metodológicas da lingüística de corpus, focalizo os itens lexicais usados para categorizar raça e as relações semânticas que estes constroem associados com a representação de discurso no jornal. A análise combinada das relações semânticas e da interdiscursividade permitiu perceber que há uma tensão no uso de termos de campos semânticos diferentes para categorizar a questão racial e discursos conflitantes sobre a classificação de raça no jornal. A análise também permitiu uma interpretação cautelosa da dialogicidade e das diversas orientações para a diferença racial, utilizando os inventários de pesquisa social de Fairclough (2003.
O discurso pedagógico das diretrizes curriculares nacionais: competência crítica e interdisciplinaridade The pedagogical discourse of the national curricular directives: critical competence and inter disciplinarity
José Sérgio Carvalho
Full Text Available O texto discute alguns aspectos do discurso pedagógico das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais, ressaltando como o jargão pedagógico e o recurso a expressões consagradas e slogans educacionais obnubilam a especificidade da tarefa educativa em instituições escolares e ignoram os desafios concretos da ação docente nessas instituições. As análises centram-se no ideal de "desenvolvimento da competência crítica", visto como objetivo do processo de escolarização e no ideal pedagógico da "interdisciplinaridade", tomando-os como exemplares típicos desse tipo de discurso.This text discusses some aspects of the pedagogical discourse of the National Curricular Directives, emphasizing how pedagogical jargon and the recourse to consecrated expressions and educational slogans cloud the specificity of the educational task in school institutions and ignore the concrete challenges to teaching activities in these institutions. The analyses center on the ideal of "developing critical competency", seen as the objective of the process of schooling and in the pedagogical ideal of "inter disciplinarity" taking them as examples typical of this type of discourse.
Full Text Available With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2. This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. The 3rd course of immunochemotherapy was complicated with a thyroid storm manifested by high fever, tachycardia and even transient cardiac arrest. Fortunately, he recovered eventually from this crisis by immediate resuscitation followed by antithyroid dugs. Our case highlights the rare complication of a thyroid storm provoked by IL-2 treatment. Precaution against autoimmune thyroid dysfunction is required during treatment with IL-2 and probably also other kinds of newly-developed immunotherapy to avoid life-threatening complications.
Full Text Available The present research attempts to highlight the functions of silence in confrontational discourse in television interviews within the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA and Conversation Analysis (CA. The research starts with the hypothesis that silence can be used for expressing power in discourse. Since silence represents an element of discontinuity in speech, it occurs relatively rarely in confrontational discourse, which is characterized by continuous flow of speech and a quick turn-taking system. However, when it does occur, it is particularly obvious and can represent either an expression of power or absence of power. The research focuses on pauses and gaps, analyzes their functions of power, and is conducted as a contrastive analysis between English and Serbian. The results obtained show that both in the English and Serbian corpora, silence in confrontational discourse can indeed be a means for expressing power, but also a sign that the speaker is in an unfavourable position.
The challenge for academics as reflective practitioners is to engage how the discourses entailed in service learning, especially how they shape the way academics think and produce understandings and critical engagements of service learning practices in their various local contexts. Discourse analysis as a critical ...
This paper offers a conceptual analysis of ability discourse using the theoretical lens of critical whiteness studies and the methodological framework of critical discourse analysis. From its origins in the Progressive Era to contemporary debates on tracking, the concept of giftedness has been formed through racial projects throughout US history.…
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma reflexão teórica sobre a análise de discurso crítica (Chouliaraki e Fairclough, 1999 e os estudos culturais e pós-coloniais, como espaços híbridos de saberes complementares que informam os estudos do papel da linguagem nas representações de identidades culturais híbridas. Propõe-se uma articulação do conceito bakhtiniano de hibridização textual - adotado na análise crítica do discurso como peça fundamental da prática de interpretação textual e expandido para dar conta de gêneros de discursos emergentes -, com o conceito de hibridismo cultural de Homi Bhabha (1998, uma reelaboração também do conceito de Bakhtin que visa dar conta do espaço pós-colonial ambivalente das culturas. Uma análise do poema "Para ouvir e entender 'Estrela' ", do escritor brasileiro negro Cuti, é apresentada para ilustrar o potencial dessa articulação teórica para investigar manifestações culturais que buscam interrogar um sistema de valores e conceitos em torno da obliteração das diferenças raciais e sua inserção no espaço político e cultural da nação.This paper invites theoretical reflection on critical discourse analysis (Chouliaraki e Fairclough, 1999, cultural studies and postcolonial studies as sites of hybridity of complementary knowledges which inform studies of the role of language in the representations of hybrid cultural identities. A theoretical dialogue is proposed between Bakhtin's concept of textual hybridization - borrowed by critical discourse analysis as a fundamental notion in textual interpretation and expanded so as to account for genres pertaining to emerging discourses -, and Homi Bhabha's concept of cultural hybridity, also drawing on Bakhtin in order to explain ambivalence in postcolonial cultures. An analysis of the poem "Para ouvir e entender 'Estrela' ", by black Brazilian writer Cuti, is carried out in order to illustrate the potentiality of this theoretical dialogue for
The paper addresses political discourse specifics in global mass media as exemplified by the coverage of events in Egypt of 2013 and other latest political and economic developments. It gives a critical review of Russian literature written on the subject of mass media and stresses the need to elaborate cognitive interpretation techniques required to understand the global media content currently formed on the Internet. The author shows stereotyped expressions and evaluative connotations of pol...
... coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post‑hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students' pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping ...
Wytiaz, Victoria; Homko, Carol; Duffy, Frank; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P
Nutritional counseling for gastroparesis focuses on reduction of meal size, fiber, and fat to control symptoms. The tolerance of gastroparesis patients for particular foods is largely anecdotal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize foods provoking or alleviating gastroparesis symptoms. Gastroparesis patients completed: (1) Demographic Questionnaire; (2) Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms; (3) Food Toleration and Aversion survey asking patients about experiences when eating certain foods utilizing a scale from -3 (greatly worsening symptoms) to +3 (greatly improving symptoms). Descriptive qualities (acidic, fatty, spicy, roughage-based, bitter, salty, bland, and sweet) were assigned to foods. Forty-five gastroparesis patients participated (39 idiopathic gastroparesis). Foods worsening symptoms included: orange juice, fried chicken, cabbage, oranges, sausage, pizza, peppers, onions, tomato juice, lettuce, coffee, salsa, broccoli, bacon, and roast beef. Saltine crackers, jello, and graham crackers moderately improved symptoms. Twelve additional foods were tolerated by patients (not provoking symptoms): ginger ale, gluten-free foods, tea, sweet potatoes, pretzels, white fish, clear soup, salmon, potatoes, white rice, popsicles, and applesauce. Foods provoking symptoms were generally fatty, acidic, spicy, and roughage-based. The foods shown to be tolerable were generally bland, sweet, salty, and starchy. This study identified specific foods that worsen as well as foods that may help alleviate symptoms of gastroparesis. Foods that provoked symptoms differed in quality from foods that alleviated symptoms or were tolerable. The results of this study illustrate specific examples of foods that aggravate or improve symptoms and provide suggestions for a gastroparesis diet.
Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John
It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank psleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article presents the historical origin of the term "Koebner phenomenon". The literature data reflect the etiology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of isomorphic mechanisms provoking responses in lichen planus, psoriasis, scleroder-ma, syphilis. Variants of the Koebner phenomenon's classifications are given. The clinical cases of limited scleroderma after mechanical injury are described.
Hoek, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290605; Evers-Vermeul, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191644684; Sanders, T.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075243911
Discourse relations hold between two or more text segments. The process of discourse annotation not only involves determining what type of relation holds between segments, but also indicating the segments themselves. Often, segmentation and annotation are treated as individual steps, and separate
Samuel L. Tunstall
Full Text Available Here I discuss elements of critical discourse analysis (CDA and their importance in relation to quantitative literacy (QL. Through an overview of theory, synthesis of research, and examples, I argue that the discursive nature of textbooks has a nontrivial impact on students' mathematical dispositions - an important component of QL. In particular, texts are a means of disseminating the culture of mathematics, one which has a tendency to paint mathematics as esoteric and male-dominated. Such a characterization has profound implications for the numeracy community, one of which is that we cannot assume that changes in curriculum are sufficient for effecting QL -- simply transitioning to more contextualized mathematics is not enough. Furthermore, it is critical that we examine our own discourse--whether spoken or through text--for ways in which we may be implicitly or explicitly prolong a view of mathematics in which students have little agency.
but is a practical approach to the analysis of discourse or that which most people believe do when they attempt to communicate through words, gestures, or signs. In part one, the authors define discourse and its context and language. Discourse is the communicative process resulting in a communicative act realized as text.
Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media (Hacia un discurso para la crítica en la enseñanza de la lengua: análisis de representaciones socioculturales en medios de comunicación)
Vargas Torres, Margarita Rosa
This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines.…
Benoit, William L.
Describes the theory of image restoration discourse as an approach for understanding corporate crisis situations. States this theory can be used by practitioners to help design messages during crises and by critics or educators to critically evaluate such messages. Describes and illustrates the theory's basic concepts. Offers suggestions for…
Владимир Ильич Карасик
Full Text Available The paper deals with approaches to discourse studies. The approaches may be regarded as discourse dimensions associated with models presented and substantiated by M.M. Bakhtin, J. Habermas, Yu.M. Lotman and M.A.K. Halliday. They comprise contents, participants, tonality, channel and communicative actions. The approaches described complement each other and make it possible to synthesize the results achieved in Text Linguistics, Pragmatics, Social Linguistics, and Discourse Studies. They are joined by and oriented towards the concept of Language Personality, i.e. persons who manifest themselves in various kinds of communicative situations. However, each discourse dimension corresponds to a certain type of discourse. A Topic Approach to discourse focuses upon its contents (its referential substance and specifies the correlation between explicit and implicit meaning expression. A Subject Approach to discourse makes it possible to single out and describe two basic types of communication as presented in Personality bound and Status bound discourse, the former diverges into two subtypes - Habitual and Existential communication, whereas the latter is manifested in various kinds of Institutional discourse. A Tonality Approach to discourse highlights different types of stylistic and emotional modes of communication and correspondingly characterizes personality types who are engaged in such situations. A Regime Approach is concentrated on communication channel and technical peculiarities of behavior determined by those restrictions. An Action Approach to discourse gives us a broader understanding of a performative act, i.e. an action incorporated in culture and a situational behavioral interaction.
Full Text Available This study examines textual and semiotic aspects of adverts according to critical discourse analysis. The focus of the study is the concept of gender identity. In adverts, different texts are appropriated in new ways explicitly as well as implicitly. Here texts work in a process of discourse technologisation. Both the feminine and the masculine are represented discursively in their heterogeneity: the feminine is represented as a commodified body; it is also frail and pathological. The masculine is linked with power, but with fashion too. Adverts position readers ideologically, so that they can define their gender identities as consumers.Este estudo examina aspectos textuais e semióticos de anúncios publicitários segundo a análise de discurso crítica. O foco do estudo é o conceito de identidade de gênero. Nos anúncios, diferentes textos são apropriados de novas maneiras, de forma explícita e implícita. Aqui os textos funcionam em um processo de tecnologização do discurso. Tanto o feminino quanto o masculino são representados discursivamente em sua heterogeneidade: o feminino é representado como um corpo mercadorizado; é também frágil e patológico. O masculino é ligado ao poder, mas também à moda. Os anúncios posionam os/as leitores/as ideologicamente, com o fim de definir suas identidades de gênero como consumidores/as.
The school textbooks have been a useful site for inquiry into ways environmentalism is communicated. Rooted in the dominant social value of exploiting nature to satisfy human desire, shallow environmentalism treats environmental and ecological destruction by addressing immediate physical symptoms but refuses to reflect critically on the underlying…
Reilly, Jacqueline; Niens, Ulrike
In post-conflict and divided societies, global citizenship education has been described as a central element of peacebuilding education, whereby critical pedagogy is seen as a tool to advance students' thinking, transform their views and promote democratic behaviours. The present study investigates understandings of and attitudes to global…
Irina Aleksandrovna Yakoba
Full Text Available The article considers a vital issue of struggling for human consciousness via language being a tool, subject, and result of power implementation mechanisms. Different discourse technologies, revealed by Russian and foreign linguists, are characterized. The author introduces and gives proof to a phenomenon discourse technology of power'. Discourse structures of smart, soft and hard powers, which are the base of discourse technology of power, are described. Examples of such technologies from mass media texts, constructed with the help of lingua-cognitive mechanisms of spindoctoring, focusing, defocusing etc., are given. They allow to manipulate the content, misinterpret, distort or hide it, replacing concepts. It is proved that any semantic variation contributes to a change in evaluation and emotions, "imposes" a certain attitude to the situation, shifts the focus of modalities in perception. With the help of critical discourse analysis methods, specially designed technological discourse of power, domination and control are identified and deconstructed as the dominative means of a mass consciousness control. An important practical task facing modern linguistics is framed. It is to uncover the mechanisms of discourse manipulative technologies and share them with a concerned addressee to resist the attraction of manipulative content generated by professionals and do not fall under its influence.
Discourse studies is a vast, multidisciplinary, and rapidly expanding area of research, embracing a range of approaches including discourse analysis, corpus analysis, conversation analysis, interactional sociolinguistics, critical discourse analysis, genre analysis and multimodal discourse analysis. Each approach offers its own unique perspective…
O'Brien, Catherine A.; Placier, Peggy
From an ethnographic case study of a state-funded residential school for the Deaf, the authors employed Critical Discourse Analysis to identify competing discourses in the talk of educators. These discourses are embedded in the historical oppression and labeling of deaf people as disabled and the development of Deaf culture as a counter-discourse.…
Calvard, Tom; Meliou, Elina
This paper is chiefly concerned with critically articulating the conceptual relationships between potential multiple identity (dis)advantages facing women and the effectiveness of leadership development practices. Although leadership development has been systematically studied in recent years (e.g. Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, and McKee, 2014; Ely, Ibarra, and Kolb, 2011), much less is known about its relation to gender (Ely et al, 2011). Furthermore, even less has been written about leaders...
This study uses discourse, ideology and hegemony as a theoretical foundation to investigate the development of the polarised discourses of management accounting and the medical profession during the introduction of a NPM reform in the public health care debate, using Denmark as a case study. 194...... newspaper articles and 73 medical profession articles from 2002 to 2008 are analysed, using critical discourse analysis. The analysis shows that the management accounting discourse becomes the dominating ideology which is embedded in the public rhetorical debate. There are three peculiar outcomes...... perspective of a patient oriented focus to a quantitative focus through strong rationalised arguments. This puts the medical profession in a dilemma concerning their ideological Hippocratic Oath versus the NPM efficiency focus. However, they choose to gradually adopt management accounting terms in their own...
Full Text Available In this study, we applied the text-change paradigm to investigate whether and how discourse hierarchy affected the memory representation of a discourse. Three kinds of three-sentence discourses were constructed. In the hierarchy-high condition and the hierarchy-low condition, the three sentences of the discourses were hierarchically organized and the last sentence of each discourse was located at the high level and the low level of the discourse hierarchy, respectively. In the linear condition, the three sentences of the discourses were linearly organized. Critical words were always located at the last sentence of the discourses. These discourses were successively presented twice and the critical words were changed to semantically related words in the second presentation. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy. Global discourse hierarchy is established as an important factor in constructing the mental representation of a discourse.
Freshwater, Dawn; Cahill, Jane; Essen, Chris
Discourses of interdisciplinary health-care are becoming more centralised in the context of global healthcare practices, which are increasingly based on multisystem interventions. As with all dominant discourses that are narrated into being, many others have been silenced and decentralised in the process. While questions of the nature and constituents of interdisciplinary practices continue to be debated and rehearsed, this paper focuses on the discourse of interdisciplinary collaboration using psychiatry as an example, with the aim of highlighting competing and alternative discourses. The fundamental premise of this paper is that collaborative relationships form the basis of interdisciplinary practices in psychiatry. Through a critical engagement and a deconstructive reading of the pretext, context and subtexts of interdisciplinarity, we interrogate the concept of interdisciplinary practice within psychiatry. We contend that an important part of understanding and further conceptualising the discourse is through fracturing it. This process is illustrated in the successive stages of our conceptual map of discourse development: establishing, maintaining and developing discourses. An understanding of interdisciplinary practice is not only critical for psychiatry, but also offers important insights into the performance of collaborative failures and indeed successes across nursing and allied health professions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Orchard Gallery opened in Derry in 1978. It was set up by Derry City Council, which appointed a then young artist and art teacher, Declan McGonagle, as its first exhibition director. In 1979-80, D. McGonagle convinced the council that the money it wanted to allocate to acquire works and establish a collection should be used to commission artists and art critics to produce artists’ books and publications. The artistic programme of the Orchard gallery aimed to exhibit a wide range of artist...
Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to student...
.... Building on a comprehensive review of critical nuclear discourse since 1945, this project suggests intertextual analysis of current nuclear discourse can encourage politically-meaningful public...
Derby, John K.
This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…
Michel Foucault's discourse theory and Pierre Bourdieu's critical sociology are used to reexamine early literacy training. The resulting model is used to describe educational discourse, particularly in a series of literacy events in an Australian first-grade classroom. Implications for pedagogy are discussed. (70 references) (Author/MSE)
Arnott, Margaret; Ozga, Jenny
The paper draws on critical discourse analysis to examine and discuss some of the key developments in the governing of education in Scotland since the election of the Scottish National Party (SNP) government in May 2007. It analyses these developments, drawing on a study of key policy texts and suggests that discourse analysis has much to…
Using social realist theory and critical discourse analysis, this article examines a number of discourses which construct academic staff attitudes to teaching and learning in their disciplines. It seeks to explain academics' resistance to engaging in activities aimed at professionalising academic practice. The research described in the article…
In this paper, I utilize complementary features of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) to trace and investigate issues of power, materiality, and reproduction embedded within notions of citizenship and civic engagement. I interrogate the often narrow and conservative political and public discourses in Arizona that…
Besley, A. C.
The idea of finding Foucault first looks at the many influences on Foucault, including his Nietzschean acclamations. It examines Foucault's critical history of thought, his work on the orders of discourse with his emphasis on being a pluralist: the problem he says that he has set himself is that of the individualization of discourses. Finally, it…
Obarisiagbon, A; Azodo, Cc; Omoaregba, Jo; James, Bo
Undetected and unaddressed anxiety negatively affects performance in clinical learning environments. The aim was to investigate the anxiety provoking situations in clinical dental care delivery among students of preclinical and clinical years and house officers. A 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Zung self-rating anxiety scale were the data collection tools. Of the 84 recruited, 79 completed the study giving 94.0% (79/84) response rate. The median age of the participants was 25 years with 50.6% (40/79) being 20-25 years. Gender distribution revealed that males constituted 60.8% (48/79) of the participants. House officers constituted 29.1% (23/79), clinical students 36.7% (29/79), and preclinical students 34.2 (27/79) of the participants. The top anxiety provoking situations using the modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire were extracting wrong tooth 3.24 (1.06), inability to pass examination 3.32 (1.01), achieving examination requirement 3.19 (1.01), fracturing a tooth 3.08 (0.98) and accidental pulp exposure 2.96 (1.04). Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post-hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students' pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children while house officers/clinical students and house officers/preclinical students' pairs were for help in faint episode. Overall, 2.5% (2/79) had severe, 69.6% (55/79) moderate, 26.6% (21/79) mild clinical anxiety while 1 (1.3%) of the participants expressed no clinical anxiety. Data from this study revealed that the clinical anxiety of moderate severity was prevalent among the studied dental healthcare students. The anxiety-provoking
Conducted a behavioral test and a behavioral interview to assess children's spontaneous use of self-speech and self-regulation in a fear-provoking situation. 44 children (aged 8-12 yrs) performed a series of more fear-provoking (e.g., jumping off the high diving board) or less fear-provoking (e.g.,
Cristian Venegas Ahumada
The objective is to analyze the structural and photographic discourse of the Autumn-Winter campaign 2008 of FES stores for young people. This was done by a semiotic theory and a critical-structural methodology of discourse. An analysis of 4 advertising photographs was done, and at once an analysis of the discourse “FES says no to violence against Women”, which explains the campaign’s target. The result is: The discourse was subjected to production condition (society of control) and makes adve...
Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.
Dr. Zahra Shahsavar
Full Text Available Translation has a crucial role in human life. Despite the importance of the influence of ideology in translation, there is lack of research in this area. This study tries to investigate the influence of ideology on translations from English into Persian. The corpus consists of “A Tale of Two Cities” written by Charles Dickens (1859 along with its two Persian translations"داستان دو شهر" written by Ebrahimi (1980 and Younesi (1999. The researchers applied Fairclough’s (1989 approach to investigate ideological differences between the original text and the translated versions. They focused on the importance of experiential values which depict the text producer’s experience of the natural and social world. The results showed a significant difference between classification schemes, ideological contested words, overwordings and meaning relations of the source book and its two Persian translations. We also found Younesi’s translation ideologically closer to the source book. The findings of this study may help instructors to make the debate of translation studies far away from substituting lexical and grammatical equivalences. It is effective for researchers and practitioners in translation to pay more attention to the ideology as a major aspect of language and culture. It can also be useful for translators in criticizing and evaluating translation, and improving their works to translate books, news, or articles particularly from English to Persian.
Full Text Available The paper presents a critical analysis of the discourse of a preschool education curriculum. Its starting point is Foucault’s concept of discourse as language in use, which not only reflects the social order, but also shapes it through a network of conventions, knowledge and practices determining man’s – or, in this case, the reader’s – perception of reality. The analysis is based on identifying the discourse strategies and/or systems of rules laid out in the text The basic principles of the preschool education curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children – model A which make possible certain statements and insights regarding children and thus position the child and the preschool teacher by means of discourse repertoires. This approach helps contextualize the text and leads to an understanding of the basic discourse mechanism involved in the creation of specific versions of preschool education. As discourse analysis itself is related to interpretation and narratology, with the story as a constant, so is this paper a story about a preschool curriculum, for, like any other text, it tells an unfinished story that can yet evolve in different directions.
Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.
Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is a typologically based structural-functional theory of language. It has a top-down organization to achieve psychological adequacy, and takes the Discourse Act as its basic unit of analysis to achieve pragmatic adequacy. Although itself strictly a model of
Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.
The aim of the paper is to explore how spatialities are contructed in spatial policy discourses and to explore how these construction processes might be conceptualised and analysed.......The aim of the paper is to explore how spatialities are contructed in spatial policy discourses and to explore how these construction processes might be conceptualised and analysed....
Lamers, M.J.A.; Spooren, W.P.M.S.
This reading study registered eye movements to investigate the influence of different discourse constructional factors on anaphor resolution in written discourse. More specifically, the study focused on the influence of the possible interplay of proximity between a possible referent and the anaphor
description of the structure of a text as defined which are the conversational and writ- ten genres, each ... The skills gained in analysis of discourse in part one are a prerequisite for handling work in part two, which is basically a practice section. This second part is largely an application of the skills of discourse analysis.
tracing how heterogeneous entities are (re)(con)figured to achieve performing a discourse's stability. Using mundane office practices that configure the corporate sustainability/carbon discourse as an example, the article spells out how qualitative data analysis, grounded theory and Science and Technology...
Arnaut, Karel; Spotti, Max; Ilie, Cornelia; Tracy, Karen; Sandel, Todd
Superdiversity discourse is a relatively new, primarily academic discourse whose increasing presence in the domains of social work, institutional policy, urban and national politics, and the media is signaling a rapidly growing uptake, albeit one that is disciplinarily fragmented and geographically
D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); H. Kamp
textabstractThis article gives a survey of Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), including recent developments, and with an emphasis on logical issues. Discourse representation structures are defined, and various prespectives on their static and dynamic meaning are discussed. This discussion leads
Hermansen, Janni Berthou
This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...
Van Leeuwen, Theo
This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the…
The meaning of text appears to be tightly related to intentions and circumstances. Context sensitivity of meaning is addressed by theories of discourse structure. Few attempts have been made to exploit text organization in summarization. This thesis is an exploration of what knowledge of discourse
believe do when they attempt to communicate through words, gestures, or signs. In part one, the authors define discourse and its context and language. Discourse is the communicative process resulting in a communicative act realized as text. Text is often thought in terms of the written or printed words on a page. However ...
in which it is embedded. The contributions of this book reflect this multi-faceted approach to rhetoric, discourse and genre through their focus upon and analysis of different institutionalised discourses. Thus, within the three sections of political, journalistic and organisational discourse, the articles...... as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...... discuss various discourse types and their rhetorical features, contributing to the understanding of rhetoric and discourse having significant influence on human action and interaction in society....
. The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach is used as a unifying framework for the studies. This approach offers an attractive methodology for doing explorative discourse analysis on emic and culturally-sensitive grounds. Cultural Keywords in Discourse will be of interest to researchers and students......Cultural keywords are words around which whole discourses are organised. They are culturally revealing, difficult to translate and semantically diverse. They capture how speakers have paid attention to the worlds they live in and embody socially recognised ways of thinking and feeling. The book...... contributes to a global turn in cultural keyword studies by exploring keywords from discourse communities in Australia, Brazil, Hong Kong, Japan, Melanesia, Mexico and Scandinavia. Providing new case studies, the volume showcases the diversity of ways in which cultural logics form and shape discourse...
Avgitidou, Sofia; Stamou, Anastasia G.
This study explores the construction of discourses about childhood in the Greek daily press. It employs the theoretical frameworks of the new sociology of childhood and critical discourse analysis to question which discourses of childhood are constructed in the daily press presenting cases where children were the victimisers in school violent…
Since 1994, South African society has been set on the road to becoming a democratic society. This transformation has far reaching implications for educational thought and practice. The present ANC led government has advocated the establishment of an educational discourse conducive to critical thinking as an integral ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This paper has been planned as a critical response to Murat Civaner's article entitled 'Medical Ethics arguments should be concordant with scientific knowledge and certain values', published in the Autumn 2015 issue of Turkish Journal of Bioethics. It also aims to provide an evaluation of the way the authoritarian discourse manifests itself in ethical arguments.[¤]METHODS[|]For this purpose, the paper first presents the views of Orhan Hançerlioğlu on Karl Marx and Karl Popper and treats these views as a written example of such authoritarian discourse, which is essentially a problematic attitude that results from an inability to acknowledge the value-laden aspects of a given perspective. [¤]RESULTS[|]In order to show that problems in Hançerlioğlu's approach is also present in Civaner's arguments, several examples where the author did not recognize the value-laden aspects and the subjective nature of information are provided. The paper then examines the recent claim by Celal Şengör, who asserted that force feeding of feces to individuals do not qualify as torture. Based on the presentation and the justification of this reductionist claim, it is emphasized that the relationship between information and values is much more complicated than those presented by Civaner. Civaner's claim, which asserts that the concept of conscience should have no place in medical ethics arguments, is also evaluated on this basis and the dangers of excluding the moral agent in ethical evaluation are underlined. In addition, the relationship of the paternalist tradition with the perspective which I refer to as the 'macro axis' is examined. Last but not least, the paper deals with the concept of 'ethics of ethics' by using examples from national and international ethics literature and emphasizes the reason why it is important for the ethicist to become aware of her own scheme of values. [¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]The paper concludes that contrary
assemblages, and ‘the future’, in order to develop a prefigurative discourse studies for social change that is relevant to the turbulent twenty first century. This exploration of key issues is illustrated with three case studies: (a) reality TV parenting programmes, (b) the “Earth Hour” global media campaign...
...: The data were examined by combining the techniques of corpus linguistics with critical discourse analysis to generate keywords and concordance lines and then to make an interpretation what this may...
This article reflects on the relationship between Lacanian Discourse Analysis and Marxism, critical psychology, political action, revolutionary practice and the events of history. In addition, it underlines the historical nature of discourse and its analysis, excluding the existence of an analytical ahistorical metalanguage. This exclusion is the starting point for the reincorporation of history into the discursive sphere, an elucidation of how discourse and discourse analysis can deal with h...
Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the
Full Text Available Foucauldian discourse analysis has developed as a field in the social sciences and has established itself as a methodological approach in qualitative social research. In recent years, discourse linguistics has emerged in German-language humanities as part of linguistics. This new approach refers to the work of Michel FOUCAULT. Discourse linguistics "after FOUCAULT" is presented in two new volumes. This review essay discusses which suggestions and contributions from this area of linguistics could be important for Foucauldian discourse analysis. But we must critically ask whether this approach, which builds on the work of FOUCAULT,can still be regarded as a linguistic approach or if an approach through discursive concepts in linguistics must be recognized, one which opens itself to praxeological social sciences. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002191
Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Avis, James
This article explores constructions of teacher identities at a time of significant changes to public service professionalism. The article draws on different discourses of professionalism, contrasting "organisational" and "occupational" professionalism, with discourses of "personal" and "critical"…
Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav
High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.
Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta
The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis.
Jordi Solé Blanch
Full Text Available This article reviews the role of psychological discourse in education. On the one hand, the authors criticize the abuse of the mental health diagnosis in the field of education. On the other hand, analyze the effects of the expansion of the neurosciences in the conditions of production of pedagogical knowledge. Finally, examine the role of the neuroeducation and the development of emotional psychology in the construction of enterprising subjectivities. Against these colonizing tendencies of educational discourse, the authors advocate the establishment of a new pedagogical contract that allows rethink the exercise of the educational function of teachers and educators.
We bring contemporary theoretical approaches to bear on the question of the relationship between the material and the discursive in curriculum studies when researching the effects of power of the school curriculum in generating the inclusion/exclusion of learners. We argue for the need to bring...... materiality and discourse together in such a way that we might better address the political realities of education. From various international, historical, and theoretical contexts, we critically examine how discourse and materiality intricately define and describe the classifications by which notions...
Agustin, Oscar Garcia
Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...... points and concepts. Through the example of the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages, the book concludes by analyzing how social change from below is possible....
Яна Александровна Волкова
Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the
Gilbert, Tony P
This paper reports a study that explored the relationship between trust and managerialism through an analysis of professional discourse. Managerialism is a distinct set of discourses and practices related to managerial effectiveness, flexibility and consumer responsiveness that have come to characterize debates over the provision of health and welfare services across the developed world. At the same time, trust has attracted increasing academic and political interest. Managerial discourses are critical of healthcare professions and the way they operate. Professional opinions are challenged as representing the interests of professions rather than service users; as a consequence trust is contested. However, where practitioners are both professionals and managers, the boundaries between these discourses become blurred. Moreover, paradoxical development occurs where increasing autonomy for practitioners is accompanied by a strengthening of managerial controls over their activity. Discourse analysis was used to explore the text from two genres, academic literature and interviews (n = 17), in the context of community residential services for people with learning disabilities. The study was conducted in 2001. Two broad themes were identified, each with a number of sub-themes. The first focuses on the relationship between managerialism and trust located around the management of expectations. The second, 'the politics of care', explores the way professional and managerial discourse articulate to produce complementary and contradictory positions. The colonization of professional activity by managerial discourse has produced a context where professional activity is defined by a series of managerial imperatives; trust, which was once the product of intimate social activity is now shaped through techniques based on distrust such as audits and quality monitoring. Nevertheless, the persistence of tensions between trust and managerialism suggest an ongoing struggle for
The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...
The years-long negotiations on an international mechanism for loss and damage (L&D) associated with climate change impacts got to a milestone during the nineteenth session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP-19), held in Warsaw in November 2013. The COP established the Warsaw international mechanism, aiming to address L&D associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme events and slow onset events, in vulnerable developing countries (Decision 2/CP.19). The pa...
Full Text Available Especially since the Fukushima nuclear catastrophe (2011, Germany has expanded its renewably sourced energies. Nuclear power is to be phased out by 2022. What is central to federal policy is the expansion of wind-generated energy. Plans for new wind farms have, however, faced opposition. And the transportation of electricity from the windy north to the high-use south entails an expansion of the existing power grid, which also provokes conflict. The article scrutinises dominant patterns of discourse on these issues. Based on current discourse theory, the research sheds light on the argumentative power of citizens’ initiatives with respect to nature conservation, landscape, health and economics.
Coelho, Carl; Lê, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan
Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC lesions. All participants were 30-35 years post-onset of injury and presented with persistent discourse impairments. The discourse performance of the R DLPFC group was not significantly different from either the L DLPFC group or the non-injured comparison group. Individuals from the L DLPFC group demonstrated specific difficulties with narrative coherence and inclusion of critical story components. Both measures were significantly different from the comparison group. The discourse ability of the DLPFC groups was significantly correlated with measures of working memory. Findings support the use of discourse analysis for examining language impairments in individuals with PFC lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cristian Venegas Ahumada
Full Text Available The objective is to analyze the structural and photographic discourse of the Autumn-Winter campaign 2008 of FES stores for young people. This was done by a semiotic theory and a critical-structural methodology of discourse. An analysis of 4 advertising photographs was done, and at once an analysis of the discourse “FES says no to violence against Women”, which explains the campaign’s target. The result is: The discourse was subjected to production condition (society of control and makes advertising a way to homogenize subjectivity of masses to consume. Recognition conditions demonstrate that this advertising discourse of symbolic violence means a type of violation of Men and Women Rights. An action like this requires commitment of Psychology in order to promote the social humanizing change, by means of university teaching and professional tasks.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD and not exhibiting (FMS comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C. All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip, pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver, and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms.
Full Text Available AbstractThe microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mtb in the lungs, liver and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota. Interestingly, dysbiosis of microbes showed significant increase in the bacterial burden in lungs and dissemination of Mtb to spleen and liver. Further, elevation in the number of Tregs and decline in the pool of IFN-γ and TNF-α releasing CD4 T cells was noticed. Interestingly, fecal transplantation in the gut microbiota disrupted animals exhibited improved Th1 immunity and lesser Tregs population. Importantly, these animals displayed reduced severity to Mtb infection. This study for the first time demonstrated the novel role of gut microbes in the susceptibility to TB and its prevention by microbial implants. In future, microbial therapies may help in treating patients suffering from TB.
Sommer, Jannek K.; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark
In this poster we address consumption of technology from the perspective of failure. A large body of studies of consumption of technology have focused on consumer acceptance (Kozinets, 2008). These studies have identified particular narratives about social and economic progress, and pleasure...... (Kozinets, 2008) as drivers of consumer acceptance of new technology. Similarly, Giesler (2008) has conceptualized consumer acceptance of technology as a form of marketplace drama, in which market ideologies are negotiated between consumers and media discourses. We suggest to study discourses around failed...... technology products to explore the negotiation of the familiar and alien that makes consumers reject or embrace a new technology. Thus, this particular project sets out to analyze consumer discourses surrounding the Google Glass video “How it Feels [through Google Glass]” on YouTube, because we want...
De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor
Induced microseismicity is a controversial issue related to fluid injection into deep geological formations. The occurring of felt earthquakes after stopping injection especially generates concern, because the correlation between injection and seismic activity is unclear. Thus, advancing in its understanding is crucial to minimize its occurrence. Here, we perform numerical simulations of hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems to analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger co- and post-injection seismicity. Apart from the direct impact of fluid pressure increase, we acknowledge thermal effects due to cooling and stress redistribution due to fault slip. We analyze the effect of these three processes both separately and superimposed. We find that preferential flow through conductive fractures or fault zones provokes pressure and temperature perturbations that result in not only heterogeneous variation of the stress field, but also highly anisotropic variations of the local stress tensor. Anisotropic variations tend to stabilize some fractures, but destabilize others. Moreover, shear slip causes a significant variation of the stress field that enlarges the range of critical fracture orientations. We find that, given the different response times of mechanical, hydraulic and thermal effects, post-injection seismicity may occur on non-critically oriented faults that were originally stable. During injection, such faults become destabilized by thermal and shear slip stress changes, but remain static by the superposition of pressure forcing. However, they become unstable and fail when the pressure forcing dissipates shortly after injection stops abruptly.
Full Text Available This research paper sets out to project an in-depth study of the advertising discourse by applying methodological approaches of Discourse Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis to the chosen “advertisements”. It aims at examining the ‘power relations and struggles’ among product-producers and product-consumers, to gauge the level of psychological dominance exercised through the advertising discourse. The study, fundamentally, presents a counter-analysis of ‘advertising strategies’, as to how far they influence the consumers’ attitudes and to what extent the consumers direct their ‘discourse’. In other words, this research attempts to answer the question: ‘who turns out to be more powerful by controlling the other’s mind, in advertiser-consumer relationship?’, whether it is the consumer who shapes the discourse of advertisements through their demands, or the advertiser who affects the consumers’ beliefs through their ‘discourse’! Thus, the current paper presents a comprehensive review of the relevant literature leading towards a theoretical framework of preferred DA and CDA approaches to be further applied on the discourse of advertisements. And towards the end, it states the final remarks concluding the entire discussion and reflecting upon the effectiveness of Critical Discourse Analysis in its application on the advertising phenomena.
Paul Ten Have
Full Text Available This review discusses a recent book by Robin WOOFFITT in which conversation analysis (CA is confronted with some other analytic approaches to "discourse." The author uses the term discourse analysis in a rather specific way, as a label for an analytic tradition that has become prominent in (social psychology in the UK. Two other traditions, critical discourse analysis and Foucauldian discourse analysis are also discussed later in the book. The major criticism raised in the review is that the book’s usefulness is limited by its restriction to approaches currently en vogue in Britain and its selective treatment of CA. In an Epilogue the issues raised in the book are discussed in a wider perspective. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060239
Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.
Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…
Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce
In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…
understandings of itself as a community of peaceful, caring societies built on consensus social democracy challenged by neoliberalism, globalisation and immigration? How can discourse studies study these developments in a positive yet critical fashion, with tools crafted with our concerns (not Anglo American...... in shaping a better understanding of ‘the Nordic’, eg. to promote sustainable sociodiscursive practices of living together informed by discourse studies research?...
Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled
Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…
Critical Discourse Analysis has recently begun to consider the implications of research in Evolutionary Psychology for political communication. At least three positions have been taken: (i) that this research requires Critical Discourse Analysis to re-examine and defend some of its foundational assumptions (Chilton 2005); (ii) that this research provides a useful explanatory framework for Critical Discourse Analysis in which questions can be addressed why might speakers pursue particular disc...
Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.
This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's…
Christensen, Marie Herget; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Boye, Kasper
in Danish, the lexicon-grammar contrast is a more important cue to discourse prominence (foreground vs. background status) than focalization (by means of focus particles). BOYE, K. & HARDER, P. 2012. A usage-based theory of grammatical status and grammaticalization. Language, 88, 1-44. RENSINK, R. A., O...
To the Indian reader, the word discourse, evokes a respected figure interpreting divine wisdom to common folk in an accessible fash- ion. I dug a bit deeper with Google trans- late, and found that the original Russian ti- tle of Shafarevich's book was more like Se- lected Chapters of Algebra and that it was first published in a ...
As for sociological theories, anti-globalisation discourse does not so much reject them, as largely ignore them. ... Further, whilst what Pierre Bourdieu calls the. 'left hand' of the state, has been in decline, ..... question is whether or not to form a labour party (Moody, 1997; Song, 1999;. Lambert, 1999; Callinicos, 1999; Jose, ...
Presents a description of a major class of vocabulary, signalling nouns, that have important discourse functions in establishing links across and within clauses. The description provides a framework useful to materials writers, teachers, and learners of English for academic purposes. (Author/VWL)
B. R. Mogilevich
Full Text Available Tolerance, communication and theme repertoire are communicative discourse components. The dialogue relations of communicators in the process of their life activity reflect where socio-cultural specific characteristics. The speech structure of communication adherence to speech frames and the Principles of Cooperation and Politeness as indicators of tolerance and empathy. Language speakers share one discourse code as a condition of successful communication. Discourse activity represents information exchange in the process of achieving various socio-cultural and cognitive goals. Tolerance, in its term, includes communicators` mutual empathy as the main conditions of communication success. Communicative tolerance is presented as communicative behavior prescriptions, specific for various socio-cultural areas. Theme repertoire phenomenon means shared knowledge and interpretation of all social communication participants. The combination of global context and local ones acquire special significance. Contextual limitations reflect socio-cultural specifics and are determined by the existence of behavior stereotypes and their evaluation. Thus, each discourse component contributes to achieving social-communication goals.
Young, Sara Lewis-Bernstein
The purpose of this critical ethnographic study is to provide an account from within a public school of some of the ways that heterosexist discourses and silences are reproduced and challenged. As a classroom teacher and critical ethnographer, I conducted this research with straight-identified high school students as they came to understand,…
Full Text Available The paper considers problems and possibilities connected with governing and realising the “transition to sustainability”—or at least to a more deeply resilient energy system. Conceptually its focus is on neo-institutional analysis and critical discourse analysis and the development of a discourse-institutional perspective. The first strand of the paper outlines the limitations of and potential insights into the governance of sustainability transitions that may be derived from adopting an approach based on a more thoroughgoing appreciation and application of work in sociology on neo-institutional theory. The second strand of the paper concerns discourse, recognising the role of text, discursive practice and social structures in framing the possibilities considered available and legitimate for governance. The two strands are brought together in a discourse-institutionalist framework, an approach that is illustrated by a case study of microgeneration in the UK. The paper’s conclusion makes suggestions regarding the conduct of future research employing the proposed approach, and for furthering our understanding of issues connected with the governance of sustainability transitions.
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Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.
Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.
Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.
Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.
This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…
Kalbertodt, Janina; Primus, Beatrice; Schumacher, Petra B
In a reading production experiment we investigate the impact of punctuation and discourse structure on the prosodic differentiation of right dislocation (RD) and afterthought (AT). Both discourse structure and punctuation are likely to affect the prosodic marking of these right-peripheral constructions, as certain prosodic markings are appropriate only in certain discourse structures, and punctuation is said to correlate with prosodic phrasing. With RD and AT clearly differing in discourse function (comment-topic structuring vs. disambiguation) and punctuation (comma vs. full stop), critical items in this study were manipulated with regard to the (mis-)match of these parameters. Since RD and AT are said to prosodically differ in pitch range, phrasing, and accentuation patterns, we measured the reduction of pitch range, boundary strength and prominence level. Results show an effect of both punctuation and discourse context (mediated by syntax) on phrasing and accentuation. Interestingly, for pitch range reduction no difference between RDs and ATs could be observed. Our results corroborate a language architecture model in which punctuation, prosody, syntax, and discourse-semantics are independent but interacting domains with correspondence constraints between them. Our findings suggest there are tight correspondence constraints between (i) punctuation (full stop and comma in particular) and syntax, (ii) prosody and syntax as well as (iii) prosody and discourse-semantics.
Full Text Available In a reading production experiment, we investigate the impact of punctuation and discourse structure on the prosodic differentiation of right dislocation and afterthought. Both discourse structure and punctuation are likely to affect the prosodic marking of these right-peripheral constructions, as certain prosodic markings are appropriate only in certain discourse structures, and punctuation is said to correlate with prosodic phrasing. With right dislocation and afterthought clearly differing in discourse function (comment-topic structuring vs. disambiguation and punctuation (comma vs. full stop, critical items in this study were manipulated with regard to the (mis match of these parameters. Since right dislocation and afterthought are said to prosodically differ in pitch range, phrasing and accentuation patterns, we measured the reduction of pitch range, boundary strength and prominence level. Results show an effect of both punctuation and discourse context (mediated by syntax on phrasing and accentuation. Interestingly, for pitch range reduction no difference between right dislocations and afterthoughts could be observed. Our results corroborate a language architecture model in which punctuation, prosody, syntax and discourse-semantics are independent but interacting domains with correspondence constraints between them. Our findings suggest there are tight correspondence constraints between (i punctuation (full stop and comma in particular and syntax, (ii prosody and syntax as well as (iii prosody and discourse-semantics.
Kalbertodt, Janina; Primus, Beatrice; Schumacher, Petra B.
In a reading production experiment we investigate the impact of punctuation and discourse structure on the prosodic differentiation of right dislocation (RD) and afterthought (AT). Both discourse structure and punctuation are likely to affect the prosodic marking of these right-peripheral constructions, as certain prosodic markings are appropriate only in certain discourse structures, and punctuation is said to correlate with prosodic phrasing. With RD and AT clearly differing in discourse function (comment-topic structuring vs. disambiguation) and punctuation (comma vs. full stop), critical items in this study were manipulated with regard to the (mis-)match of these parameters. Since RD and AT are said to prosodically differ in pitch range, phrasing, and accentuation patterns, we measured the reduction of pitch range, boundary strength and prominence level. Results show an effect of both punctuation and discourse context (mediated by syntax) on phrasing and accentuation. Interestingly, for pitch range reduction no difference between RDs and ATs could be observed. Our results corroborate a language architecture model in which punctuation, prosody, syntax, and discourse-semantics are independent but interacting domains with correspondence constraints between them. Our findings suggest there are tight correspondence constraints between (i) punctuation (full stop and comma in particular) and syntax, (ii) prosody and syntax as well as (iii) prosody and discourse-semantics. PMID:26648883
Full Text Available This paper explores varieties and examples of discourses of consumption, focusing primarily on US-American cultural discourses. The international community has in recent years developed an extremely valuable body of literature examining strategies for facilitating sustainable consumption; economic ramifications of varying consumption behaviors; attitudes and social structures that encourage or discourage sustainable consumption; approaches to consumption as a component of a sustainable or “green” lifestyle; and considerations of consumption practices in relation to inequities between North and South. The United States has made relatively few contributions to this body of literature thus far. But although the U.S. has not been one of the primary sources of academic literature on sustainable consumption, several types of discourses on consumption have become prominent in U.S. popular culture. These types of discourses include examinations of the moral status of consumption; investigations of the environmental or health consequences of modern consumption behaviors; explorations and critiques of green consumerism; and discourses that either construct or critique the commodification of the nonhuman world to produce objects for consumption. Throughout this paper I outline and offer examples of these strains of popular discourse, drawing on a newly-emerging body of U.S. literature and critically analyzing instances of discourse about sustainable consumption in film, television, internet, and print media. I conclude by examining new perspectives on sustainable coexistence that offer transformative possibilities for establishing relationships with the more-than-human world that are not based primarily on consumption.
Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...
Florentin Smarandache; Daniela Gifu; Mirela Teodorescu
Discourse analysis is a synergy of social science disciplines, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, and translation studies, subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies. The aim of this paper is to present the applicability of (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Social Structures, introduced for the first ...
Full Text Available Since the fall of the Berlin wall, the process of globalization has been understood as a necessary fate. The myth of the almightiness of the market economy, liberalization and deregulation is revitalized. Before us, there is a phenomenon Lacan’s discourse of University, which in 20 century was firstly given as a Stalinist discourse and today is given as a neo-liberal discourse of globalization. From underneath og a seeming objectivity, a Master insists-either the Party and the Capital. Just as the utopia of the world proletarian revolution has fallen apart, the utopia of globalize capitalism and liberal democracy is also falling apart. The 9/11 event is opening opportunities for a construction of the field of social and political, out of the contour of the status quo. The coordinates of the possibility has changed and if we take the non-existence of the grand Autre on ourselves, then the contingence interference in the existent socio-symbolic order is possible.
Gill, R.; Elias, A. S.
In this article we focus on a new yet under-examined cultural phenomenon: the turn to ‘Love your body’ (LYB) discourses. Taking a feminist critical standpoint, we move away from an affirmative reading of LYB discourses and instead understand them as a postfeminist articulation of sexism. Our analysis identifies the key motifs of LYB discourses and contextualizes their dramatic proliferation over the last decade. Situated at the historical convergence of neoliberal governmentality, emotional c...
The following commentary critically reflects on the pragmatic and semiotic approach to language and identity articulated by Tapia, Rojas, and Picado (Culture & Psychology, Tapia et al. 2017). The following questions are central: 1) What theoretical position is (tacitly) being articulated regarding the nature of language and discourse? Although the authors admit that an explicit theorization of language and discourse is not their focus, the absence of a clear theoretical position is conspicuously problematic. And 2) is there an unintended cognitivism present in the way the authors formulate the relationship between language/discourse and identity? After discussing these questions, select parts of a radical interactional approach, grounded in discursive positioning, will be presented as an amendment to the present work, insofar as it attempts to both articulate a progressive theorization of language and discourse and avoid an unintended slide into cognitivism.
Full Text Available Discourse Theory is a heterogeneous ensemble of approaches, which have recently brought some refreshment in the social and political sciences. Although it offers a kind of social ontology based on post-structuralist approach towards language and discourse, it does not provide with a given methodology, ready to use in empirical research. Hitherto prevailing researches have rather looked for empirical exemplifications of the assumed theory, than made their referential strategy clear and convincing. Therefore, an effort of supplementing the theoretical and methodological matrix with some definite research techniques, seems substantial. A more empirically oriented discourse research approaches as Critical Discourse Analysis or even lexicometrical research can be here of a great value. Although a significant differences in ontological assumptions can be observed, a combined research strategies, enabling well proved empirical research appear not impossible to work out and successfully utilise.
Earle, Vicki; Myrick, Florence
This article examines the effects of intergenerational diversity on pedagogical practice in nursing education and highlights the need for nurse educators to engage in a critical discourse regarding the adequacy of current pedagogy in fostering an ethos that can optimize the teaching-learning process and promote ongoing learning for the future. It is evident that further research is needed to promote awareness and understanding of the expectations of today's students and to reform nursing pedagogy to accommodate the current generation of learners in colleges and universities. In this article, the context of intergenerational diversity is explored, the importance of evidenced-based practice is reinforced, and current nursing pedagogy is examined, with the intention to stimulate a philosophical discourse among nurse educators regarding fundamental values and beliefs about pedagogical practice. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Emotion in medical education rests between the idealised and the invisible, sitting uneasily at the intersection between objective fact and subjective values. Examining the different ways in which emotion is theorised within medical education is important for a number of reasons. Most significant is the possibility that ideas about emotion can inform a broader understanding of issues related to competency and professionalism. The current paper provides an overview of three prevailing discourses of emotion in medical education and the ways in which they activate particular professional expectations about emotion in practice. A Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of the medical education literature was carried out. Keywords, phrases and metaphors related to emotion were examined for their effects in shaping medical socialisation processes. Despite the increasing recognition over the last two decades of emotion as 'socially constructed', the view of emotion as individualised is deeply embedded in our language and conceptual frameworks. The discourses that inform our emotion talk and practice as teachers and health care professionals are important to consider for the effects they have on competence and professional identity, as well as on practitioner and patient well-being. Expanded knowledge of how emotion is 'put to work' within medical education can make visible the invisible and unexamined emotion schemas that serve to reproduce problematic professional behaviours. For this discussion, three main discourses of emotion will be identified: a physiological discourse in which emotion is described as located inside the individual as bodily states which are universally experienced; emotion as a form of competence related to skills and abilities, and a socio-cultural discourse which calls on conceptions from the humanities and social sciences and directs our attention to emotion's function in social exchanges and its role as a social, political and cultural mediator
Maria Otilia Guimarães Ninin
Full Text Available This article, based on the socio-cultural-historical theoretical perspective, discusses the activity in which individuals engage as constitutive of the social roles they occupy. It aims to trigger discussion of discursive dynamics in the context of critical-collaborative teacher education, focusing on internally persuasive and authoritative discourse (BAKHTIN, 1981 and their co-occurrence in situations of negotiation of meanings. This distinction is relevant because it is possible to understand different argumentative enunciations or not, conducted by educators in training, which approach or distance themselves from those cast by their trainers or isolated voices of theoretical practice, indicating possibilities of creation or reduction of dialogic expansion. From the emphasis on internally persuasive discourse, this article highlights the critical - collaborative argumentation role in training educators. Examples selected from a corpus of research collected in public school in São Paulo subsidize the discussion supported by Bakhtin (1981 and Vygotsky (1998; 2001.
Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley
Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…
This paper analyses recent policy and discourse in the UK lifelong learning sector to identify a tension in discourse which positions teacher educators as essential to the knowledge economy while simultaneously insisting on the deficits they represent. Drawing on critical analyses from Friedrich Nietzsche, Maurizio Lazzarato and Gilles Deleuze, I…
Fraser, Vikki; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth
Background: News media frames public perceptions. As such, news media becomes a useful source of analysis to understand the presence (or otherwise) of people with disabilities, particularly intellectual disabilities, within parenting discourses in Australia. Method: Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this article examines major Australian…
Li, X.; Hagoort, P.; Yang, Y.
In an event-related potential experiment with Chinese discourses as material, we investigated how and when accentuation influences spoken discourse comprehension in relation to the different information states of the critical words. These words could either provide new or old information. It was
Castro, Erin L.
This paper highlights deficit-oriented descriptions of underrepresented undergraduate students in STEM intervention programs at large public 4-year universities. Drawing from interview data and using critical discourse analysis, the author identifies how deficit discourses are mobilized among program staff and argues that such descriptions…
The author traces how discourse functions in the context of a school-based, urban Aboriginal education initiative, with a focus on the construction and organization of teaching subjects. Critical discourse analysis that traces spectres reveals some of the ways that whiteness and Eurocentrism create the possibilities for, and the conditions in…
As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…
Torrance, Deirdre; Humes, Walter
Increasing emphasis has been placed on leadership within educational theory, policy and practice. Drawing on a wide range of academic literature and policy documents, this paper explores how the discourse of leadership has shifted and for what purposes. The authors are critical of the lack of conceptual underpinning for that discourse, evident…
Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…
Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer
This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This article argues that local discourses are narrowed through globalisation policies and questions whether one can characterise as "post-globalisation" a state of global and local unification in one capitalist discourse. Further, the article critically engages with such a state of the world, questioning the export of neoliberal western…
Rasmussen, Tove Arendt; Andersen, Maria Wael; Halgaard Nielsen, Marie
On the basis of qualitative interviews on ’Energibyen Frederikshavn’ (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether the interest...... in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. The paper will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people in the participating focus group in the light of three rather different, theoretical positions. And, finally, we...
Hansen, Lars Kristian
These years increasing interest is put on IT project portfolio management (IT PPM). Considering IT PPM an interdisciplinary practice, this paper conducts a concept-based literature review of relevant articles across various research disciplines. It finds and classifies a stock of 107 relevant...... articles into four scientific discourses: the normative, the interpretive, the critical, and the dialogical discourses, as formulated by Deetz (1996). It finds that the normative discourse dominates the IT PPM literature, and few contributions represent the three remaining discourses, which unjustifiably...
This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a f...
Анна Александровна Горностаева
Full Text Available This article represents the analysis of American modern political discourse, mainly the field connected with the pre-election campaign 2016. It explores primary genres of political discourse (speeches, announcements, debates, party programmes, as well as secondary genres (commentaries, discussions, interpretation, political interviews. Owing to the fact that political communication embraces the whole range of informal political processes in society, the field of research includes the so-called informal political socializing. The aim of the paper is to study the use of irony and its functions in political discourse. The data used for the study were taken from candidates’ speeches, interviews with political and public figures, and recent witty sayings/comments. The study is based on the theory of critical discourse analysis (M. Bilig 2007, Teun A. van Dijk 2009, N. Fairclough 1996, P. Graham 2007, J. Lemke 2007, S. Scollon 2007, political discourse analysis (A. Beard 2001, D. Ponton 2011 etc. and theory of irony (L. Alba-Juez 2014, S. Attardo 2007, R. Giora 2001, 2003, L. Hutcheon 2005, B. Komlosi 2010 etc.. The analysis showed that irony is a frequent communicative strategy used by politicians in pre-election campaigns, it performs different functions, such as aggression, defense, entertainment and some others and plays a positive role in commucation with the audience. When used expertly, irony contributes to making political discourse more expressive and convincing. An ironic politician is a better manipulator of public opinion than one unable to use irony.
Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald
Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…
Rawding, Molly Rothermel; Wills, Theresa
Just as students need plenty of time to practice skills such as solving fraction problems, they also need time to practice the skills of discourse to become better communicators and stronger mathematicians. Embedded within discourse strategies are specific ways to maximize communication. When repeatedly practiced, students learn to listen to one…
Olson, Maria; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Nicoll, Katherine
This paper explores citizenship discourses empirically through upper secondary school student's understandings, as these emerge in and through their everyday experiences. Drawing on a post-structuralist theorisation inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, a discourse analysis of data from interviews with students is carried out. This analysis…
This is a story of relations and relating. There is no wolf, no Little Red Riding Hood; there are no bears, nor little piggies. It is not a heroic tale of how one particular discourse proves its superiority by vanquishing other discourses; it is not a tale told from behind the wings, the
Isaksson, Maria; Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm
to giving assurance of their expertise, trustworthiness and empathy, thus confirming our overall expectation that corporate credibility discourse is relatively uniform from a European perspective. However, contrary to our assumptions, the results of our study show that PR credibility discourse demonstrates...
Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…
Full Text Available H. G. Wells, as the forefather of science fiction, has used the relative notion of time in his stories such as Time Machine (1895. Speed is the initiator of a discourse in which humans are floating and moving ahead and has become one of the main “discourses” of the human being. Paul Virilio's theory of “dromology”, "vision machine" and “virtual reality”, along with "the aesthetics of disappearance" are applied in criticizing the novel scientific discourse by Wells who engenders a machinic, in the Deleuzian sense, and a cyborg discourse, through which he connotes the imperial narratives and the dromocratic powers. The usage of the Cyborg discourse by Wells in his science fiction stories has been to emphasize how the dromological and vision discourses are the prerequisite to the panoptical discourse through the microscopic and telescopic visions. It is concluded that the splintering frame is the created visual frame in the Wellsian science fiction.
Carlos Fabiano de Souza
Full Text Available This paper analyzes discourse formations acting as “memes” in social networks based on the writings of Fiorin (1998 and the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA as theoretical support. According to the conceptions of Fairclough (2001a, 2001b; 2003, CDA is a theory of discourse that aims to investigate language as a social and ideological practice. Thus, the study opens with considerations about the appearance of the term coined by Richard Dawkins in his book The Selfish Gene (1976, in which the author postulates the idea of “meme” – unity of cultural information that is replicated from person to person – in analogy to genes. Another theoretical perspective considered in the investigation are the conceptions of Susan Blackmore (1999 on the role of “memes” as a powerful force shaping our cultural evolution through ideas copied from individual to individual by imitation. The work closes with discussions on the implications of the role played by memetic components in virtual environments as an ideological representation of voices of characters from the real world that post comments in social networks, thus fostering discussions that cooperate to the dissemination of “memes”.
Marwah Kareem Ali
Full Text Available It is a fact that the role of pronouns, especially personal pronouns, in representing socio-political ideologies is not new as it has been studied extensively in relation to political discourse. However, this role needs to be examined in the newspaper discourse. Consequently, the current paper intends to examine personal and possessive pronouns used in newspaper articles to represent socio-political ideologies. Such a study requires a critical discourse analysis (CDA to analyse excerpts from news articles in Iraqi English newspaper, known as the Kurdish Globe (henceforth, KG, on the event of American military forces’ (henceforth, AMFs’ withdrawal from Iraq. Using a qualitative content analysis, the excerpts are categorized thematically in relation to the ideological values found in them. It is revealed that the KG newspaper made use of direct quotation of American politicians’ statements which contain plural personal and possessive pronouns when referring to their actions. This has served two aspects; firstly, it showed its objectivity in conveying the news event using quotations of newsworthy value. Secondly, it enhanced its socio-political ideologies through the direct quotations of American politicians whose government has a powerful authority over Iraq. On the one hand, the KG newspaper used personal and possessive pronouns associated with the positive representation of the U.S. government and its forces to show its trust in them. On the other hand, personal and possessive pronouns related to the Iraqi politicians were associated with negative representation to enhance its distrust in the Iraqi government.
Full Text Available The present paper will analyse manifestations of the journey metaphor from a critical discourse analytical perspective in order to observe how the journey metaphor is used as a discourse strategy in mediatized political speeches and interviews whereby political actors manipulate the second-frame interactional participants (the audience into sharing a (spurious sense of solidarity with them. There are three hypotheses that will be tested in the course of the analysis: the first is that a wide-variety of realjourney elements are exploited for the political metaphor of journey, and there is a concrete correspondence between journey vehicles and political scenarios. The second hypothesis is that journey metaphors that are used in political speeches, celebrity interviews and confrontational political interviews are of different types and complexity. The third hypothesis is that the manipulative intent behind the use of metaphors is exposed in the latter types of mediatized political discourse to varying degrees as a result of the different degrees of pragmatic accountability adhered to in the two subgenres. We argue that the first two hypotheses are confirmed on the basis of the qualitative analysis presented in the paper, whereas the third hypothesis is not borne out by the data.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.
Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A
Purpose This study investigated the relationship between pain and internal derangement in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods This study analyzed 356 TMD patients (712 temporomandibular joints [TMJs]). The inclusion criteria were the presence of spontaneous or provoked pain on one or both TMJs and having undergone MRI. The patients with provoked pain were divided into 3 groups: pain on palpation, pain on mouth opening, and pain on mastication. MRI was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. T1- and T2-weighted parasagittal and paracoronal images were obtained. According to the findings on the T1-weighted images, another 3 groups were created based on internal derangement: normal, disc displacement with reduction, and disc displacement without reduction. The MRI findings were independently interpreted by 2 experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologists at 2 different times. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using SPSS (version 12.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Provoked pain on mouth opening was found to be correlated with internal derangement in TMD patients (Ppain and provoked pain on palpation or mastication were not associated with internal derangement (P>.05). Conclusion These results suggest that internal derangement was a significant predictor of provoked pain on mouth opening. PMID:29279820
Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Præstegaard, Jeanette; Ytterberg, Charlotte
Aim This study aims to discuss current perceptions of rehabilitation and how present rehabilitation practice is affected by dominating discourses in Danish society by exploring discourses expressed in official publications and the constructed journal notes of occupational and physiotherapists' practice of stroke rehabilitation. Method The frame of reference is Fairclough's critical discourse analysis. The analysis comprises seven official documents relevant to stroke rehabilitation provided in Danish health services in 2012-2013. Also, notes written by occupational therapists and physiotherapists in medical records of 10 patients with a stroke diagnosis admitted to hospital in 2012. The documents included were read thoroughly. The texts were analyzed deductively, focusing on discursive practice on articulated understandings of rehabilitation, health practice approaches, and social practice. Results The dominating discourses seem to be Western neoliberalism organizational, medical and ethical discourses. The macro level of discourses consisted of political documents addressing rehabilitation nationally. The meso level mainly concerned medical discourses within stroke rehabilitation whereas the micro level represented local medical and ethical discourses. Conclusion The neoliberal discourse supports the medical discourse with strong emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In contrast to ethical discourses, documentation of rehabilitation practice marked more attention being paid to facilitating the patient's independence than to enabling the regaining of meaningful activities and participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Individualized rehabilitation must be organized with flexibility as it is a complex process Critical reflectiveness among health professionals is needed to provide individualized rehabilitation of high quality A broader range of stake holders, including patient organizations, are in demand within health policy making The discourses that
This article reports on the quantitative findings of a study that straddles the applied linguistic field of critical discourse analysis and a sociolinguistic field recently referred to as “queer linguistics”. Drawing on a quantitative method of analysis, the study investigates the linguistic framing of LGBT mobilisation in two South ...
Since 1994, South African society has been set on the road to becoming a democratic society. This transformation has far reaching implications for educational thought and practice. The present ANC led government has advocated the establishment of an educational discourse conducive to critical thinking as an integral ...
Hu, Chunyu; Xu, Yuting
The economic media discourse depends upon a complex web of metaphors, among which WAR metaphor is worthy of special attention. The data used in this study is comprised of 2566 articles (about 1.2 million words) under the "Economy" column of China Daily published in 2014. Critical Metaphor Analysis (CMA) is used as the analytical…
Mosley Wetzel, Melissa; Maloch, Beth; Hoffman, James V.; Taylor, Laura A.; Vlach, Saba Khan; Greeter, Erin
This study is part of a larger longitudinal, multiphase study on the development of literacy mentoring practices that seeks to bring attention to the learning of cooperating teachers. In this paper we concentrate on how cooperating teachers (CTs) engage in responsive Critical Discourse Analysis while viewing and discussing videos of their coaching…
One of her prayer texts is examined from a perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). It is shown that, much as WoLIM teach strict adherence to Biblical text (Maxwell, 2006; Togarasei, 2007), Shana's text represents a milestone in the evolution of the definition of the Christian divinity from a cult of a Trinity dominated ...
This article analyses the co-construction of the Bilingual teacher as advocate among preservice Bilingual teachers, through the use of narratives drawn from actual stories of Bilingual teachers, by means of drama-based pedagogy inspired by Theater of the Oppressed techniques. This study uses critical discourse analysis and Bakhtinian…
This paper seeks to discuss the place of oral tradition in African philosophical discourse. In doing this, the nature of oral tradition as well as its forms is critically discussed taking into cognizance Sophie Oluwole‟s scholarship on oral tradition in African philosophy. Oluwole defends the thesis that oral tradition almost ...
Working within the tenets of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and insights from Stanley Cohen's sociological concept of Moral Panic (MP), this study examined the motivations behind some of the online reactions to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. News of the outbreak of the dreaded disease in some countries like ...
Alfred, Mary V.
This article explores how notions of diaspora, migration, and globalization intersect to inform identities and social realities of those who leave their homeland and resettle in other nations. It calls for expanding the discourse of adult education to incorporate critical studies of the diaspora to make visible the inequality and imbalance of…
Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…
Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan
Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…
Henriksen, Lars Skov
The article presents four critical observations that it is argued characterize the Danish welfare discourse on the role of civil society and the voluntary sector. The first observation is the tendency to ascribe only positive outcomes to the increase in mutual cooperation and partnerships between...
Historical and cultural context and individual experience are likely to influence the ‘imagination of Europe’. Such discourses exist according to specific social patterns that may critically divide societies into different and competing social constructions of Europe. Is there a transnational
Examines two debates within the basic writing community (the reaction against Min Zhan Lu's early theoretical work and the recent acrimonious debate regarding Ira Shor's defense of mainstreaming) showing how they reflect conflicting models of the basic writing field, with "critical" discourse challenging the conventions and authority of…
How do we become the people we are? Humanist common sense proposes that people are born with a rational "self." But poststructural theory proposes a subjectivity formed in interaction with cultural discourses. Poststructural theory offers teachers fresh ways to teach critical literacy and thinking and provides students with ways to resist ideas…
The article critically reviews global discourses in the academic writing on comparative education dealing with the crises in African higher education. Several analyses explain how the struggling education systems can overcome obstacles and join the modern world in accordance with Western developmental models. One of ...
Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne
Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created
Full Text Available Onlinebasiertes kollaboratives Lernen erfordert eine neue Rolle der Lehrenden und damit verbunden auch neue didaktische Methoden. Ausgehend vom Begriff der Provokation wird eine solche Didaktik in Abgrenzung zur Vorstellung eines ausschliesslich selbstgesteuerten Lernens entwickelt. Provokation wird in diesem Zusammenhang als die intendierte Konfrontation eines Lernenden mit einstellungskonträrem Material verstanden. Die Grundlagen der hier vorgestellten Didaktik werden aus einer Vielzahl theoretischer Wurzeln und empirischer Forschungsergebnisse hergeleitet: Es wird auf die Beziehung zum Kompetenzbegriff, zur Systemtheorie, zur Emotionspsychologie, zur Induzierung kognitiver Konflikte, zur Dissonanztheorie und zu Kellys Theorie der persönlichen Konstrukte eingegangen. Als konkrete Methoden der provokativen Didaktik für das E-Learning werden u. a. provokative Statements, das Induzieren einstellungskonträrer Perspektiven und eine an die «Fixed-Role-Therapy» angelehnte Aufgabenstellung diskutiert. Die Methoden der provokativen Didaktik bedeuten eine hochgradige Individualisierung des Lernens und eine Intensivierung des Verhältnisses zwischen Lerner und Lehrendem.
Larsson, Sofia; Eliasson, Miriam; Klingberg Allvin, Marie; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Atuyambe, Lynn; Fritzell, Sara
Ugandan law prohibits abortion under all circumstances except where there is a risk for the woman's life. However, it has been estimated that over 250 000 illegal abortions are being performed in the country yearly. Many of these abortions are carried out under unsafe conditions, being one of the most common reasons behind the nearly 5000 maternal deaths per year in Uganda. Little research has been conducted in relation to societal views on abortion within the Ugandan society. This study aims to analyze the discourse on abortion as expressed in the two main daily Ugandan newspapers. The conceptual content of 59 articles on abortion between years 2006-2012, from the two main daily English-speaking newspapers in Uganda, was studied using principles from critical discourse analysis. A religious discourse and a human rights discourse, together with medical and legal sub discourses frame the subject of abortion in Uganda, with consequences for who is portrayed as a victim and who is to blame for abortions taking place. It shows the strong presence of the Catholic Church within the medial debate on abortion. The results also demonstrate the absence of medial statements related to abortion made by political stakeholders. The Catholic Church has a strong position within the Ugandan society and their stance on abortion tends to have great influence on the way other actors and their activities are presented within the media, as well as how stakeholders choose to convey their message, or choose not to publicly debate the issue in question at all. To decrease the number of maternal deaths, we highlight the need for a more inclusive and varied debate that problematizes the current situation, especially from a gender perspective.
Full Text Available Discourse analysis is a synergy of social science disciplines, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, and translation studies, subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies. The aim of this paper is to present the applicability of (t, i, f-Neutrosophic Social Structures, introduced for the first time as new type of structures, called (t, i, f-Neutrosophic Structures, and presented from a neutrosophic logic. Neutrosophy theory can be assimilated to interpret and evaluate the individual opinion of social structures. This type of analyse already tested and applied in mathematics, artificial inteligence as well can be applied in social sciences by reseachers in social sciences, communication, sociology, psycology.
on civil society through ‘colonization’, while civil society organizations act as ‘sensors’ for experiences of marginalization. Based on a case study of the discursive and political relations between the temperance organization The Blue Cross and the Danish state 1900-1938, this article shows empirically...... that this civil society organization introduced eugenic thinking well ahead of state legislation and furthermore lobbied for the illiberal policies on alcoholism that the state enforced in the 1930s. It is further argued that the eventual agreement by the two sides was possible, since both parties were informed...... by discourses emphasizing community over the individual. Some implications, including increased sensitivity to social relations, culture, and experience, for theories on civil society/state relations are hinted at....
Rensen, Yvonne C M; Oosterman, Joukje M; Walvoort, Serge J W; Eling, Paul A T M; Kessels, Roy P C
Intrusions on verbal memory tests have been used as an index for clinical confabulation. Severe memory impairments in combination with executive dysfunction have been suggested to be the underlying mechanism of confabulation, but to date, this relation is unclear. The aim of this study was (a) to examine the relation between (different types of) intrusions and confabulations in a large sample of confabulating patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and (b) to investigate whether different measures of executive functioning and memory performance are related to provoked and spontaneous confabulation. The Dutch version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and various executive function and memory tests were administered to a group of 51 confabulating patients with KS. Professional caregivers rated the severity of provoked and spontaneous confabulation behavior of the patients using the Nijmegen-Venray Confabulation List-20 (NVCL-20). The total number of intrusions on the CVLT was not related to either provoked or spontaneous confabulation scores. None of the CVLT intrusion scores correlated significantly with any of the confabulation scores, but we did find small-to-medium, positive correlations between unrelated intrusions and both provoked confabulations and spontaneous confabulation. Provoked confabulation behavior was associated with executive dysfunction and poorer memory performances. Spontaneous confabulation was not related to performance on measures of executive function and memory. The total number of intrusions on verbal memory tests and clinical confabulations appear to be different phenomena. Only unrelated intrusions produced on the CVLT might possibly be related to confabulations. The production of provoked, but not spontaneous, confabulation is associated with executive dysfunction and memory deficits.
Full Text Available This article reviews some new international releases in the field of discourse analysis in the tradition of Michel FOUCAULT. This kind of Foucauldian discourse analysis is related to other forms in the wider interdisciplinary field of discourse analysis. Nonetheless, it can be demonstrated that the Foucauldian form of discourse analysis is the most relevant one for contemporary analysis in the social sciences. It is argued that in the German social sciences the term "discourse analysis" is primarily used for theoretical social research or is used for empirical social research, without disclosing discourse-analytic methodology. Since the 1990s, the development of empirical methodologies for social discourse analysis in Germany has intensified. From it's beginning in the late 1960s, French methodology of discourse analysis has been empirically orientated. Here, the work of Michel PÊCHEUX is the central influence in which the epistemology of discourse analysis is thoroughly discussed and theorized. In France, PÊCHEUX continued the work of Michel FOUCAULT and, since then, one can speak of a Foucauldian tradition of discourse analysis, namely "French Discourse Analysis" (FDA. This review outlines the state-of- the-art of the transformation of Foucauldian discourse theory into a discourse-analytic methodology as a new kind of qualitative social research. For this reason, the influence and the analytic tools of linguistics are critically reviewed and a comparison of FDA in France and Foucauldian discourse analysis in Germany is undertaken. The first book reviewed is a British monograph from Glyn WILLIAMS that describes the development of French discourse analysis in the context of structuralism and poststructuralism. The book contains a thorough update of French discourse analysis and is path breaking for German readers of the discourse-analytic work of Michel PÊCHEUX. The volume comes on the heels of a new German handbook of social discourse
This paper rationalizes in the transatlantic perspective the instrumentalisation strategies of the right to free speech in postmodern legal discourses, stemming from the recent twenty years of American critical studies (rethinking Marxism, liberalism, nationalism, and post-structuralism). Race, gender, and sexual orientation are, consequently, the deconstructionist markers of the three legal movements discussed, namely: (1) critical race theory, (2) feminist jurisprudence, and (3) LGBT legal ...
Analyse et évaluation de l’argumentation dans l’analyse critique du discours (CDA : délibération et dialectique des Lumières Analysis and Evaluation of Argumentation in Critical Discourse Analysis: Deliberation and the Dialectic of Enlightenment
political discourse, which has focused upon British political responses to the current financial and economic crisis. We take political discourse to be primarily argumentative in character, and more specifically to be primarily practical argumentation and deliberation, and we argue that critical analysis of political discourse requires us to incorporate argumentation theory and analysis into the version of critical discourse analysis (CDA which we work with. We present this version of CDA, and our approach to analysis and evaluation of practical argumentation and deliberation, and then illustrate our approach with reference to part of the Budget speech which George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer in the British Conservative-Liberal Democratic Coalition government, gave in June 2010 and to the critical questioning of the government’s austerity strategy in public deliberation especially in the media. In the final section of the paper, we argue that our innovative approach to analysing and evaluating practical argumentation and deliberation is particularly effective in pursuing CDA’s objective to extend forms of critique familiar in critical social theory to discourse, drawing upon debates over the relationship of critique to rationality. We argue that the normative approach that we adopt is necessary for integrating analysis of argumentative discourse into critique, and that our approach is strongly consistent with the objectives of critical theory, at least as Habermas conceives them.
Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…
Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
In this article we respond to Bargiela-Chiappini, Iedema and Mumby.We notice that there is considerable agreement concerning the state of the art of organizational discourse analysis, while also discussing the disagreements. We expand on some of the ontological issues inherent in our argument......, further discuss the character of reductionism in organizational discourse analysis, the trappings of a priori assumptions, and, finally, argue that our critics themselves, perhaps inadvertently, tend to repeat the problematic moves we identified in our original article....
Full Text Available Research in meta-discourse, particularly explicit meta-discourse or meta-discourse markers has contributed much knowledge on the discourse features of specialised genres. However, there are very few studies on implicit meta-discourse. The current study explores implicit meta-discourse in legal discourse by comparing the implicit interpersonal meta-discourse in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China with the Constitution of the United States. The focus of the study is the use of implicit meta-discourse, particularly the grammatical meta-discourse in the legal discourse of two different languages and cultural groups. The findings demonstrate that there are similarities and differences in the use of implicit meta-discourse in the two constitutions. Within the context of language discourse, the findings of the current study suggest that legal discourse is distinctive in the use of implicit interpersonal meta-discourse, particularly in the way writers intrude into the discourse implicitly by certain key grammatical forms of meta-discourse. Despite the objectivity and rigour of legal discourse, the current study found that there is some level of subjectivity in such discourse, evident from the use of implicit meta-discourse.
Changes in healthcare organizations are inevitable and occurring at unprecedented rates. Such changes greatly impact nurses and their work, yet these experiences are rarely explored. Organizational change discourses remain grounded in perspectives that explore and explain systems, often not the people within them. Change processes in healthcare organizations informed by such organizational discourses validate only certain perspectives and forms of knowledge. This fosters exclusionary practices, limiting the capacity of certain individuals or groups of individuals to effectively contribute to change discourses and processes. The reliance on mainstream organizational discourses in healthcare organizations has left little room for the exploration of diverse perspectives on the subject of organizational change, particularly those of nurses. Michel Foucault's work challenges dominant discourse and suggest that strong reliance's on specific discourses effectively disqualify certain forms of knowledge. Foucault's writings on disqualified knowledge and parrhesia (truth telling and frank speech) facilitate the critical exploration of discourses that inform change in healthcare organizations and nurses capacities to contribute to organizational discourses. This paper explores the capacity of nurses to speak their truths within rapidly and continuously changing healthcare organizations when such changes are often driven by discourses not derived from nursing knowledge or experience. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haddara, Wael; Lingard, Lorelei
Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) has become a dominant idea in both medical education and clinical care as reflected in its incorporation into competency-based educational frameworks and hospital accreditation models. This study examined the published literature to explore whether a shared IPC discourse underpins these current efforts. Using a critical discourse analysis methodology informed by Michel Foucault's approach, the authors analyzed an archive of 188 texts published from 1960 through 2011. The authors identified the texts through a search of PubMed and CINAHL. The authors identified two major discourses in IPC: utilitarian and emancipatory. The utilitarian discourse is characterized by a positivist, experimental approach to the question of whether IPC is useful in patient care and, if so, what features best promote successful outcomes. This discourse uses the language of "evidence" and "validity." The emancipatory discourse is characterized by a constructivist approach concerned primarily with equalizing power relations among health practitioners; its language includes "power" and "dominance." This study suggests that IPC is not a single, coherent idea in medical education and health care. At least two different IPC discourses exist, each with its own distinctive truths, objects, and language. The extent to which educators and health care practitioners may tacitly align with one discourse or the other may explain the tensions that have accompanied the conceptualization, implementation, and assessment of IPC. Explicit acknowledgment of and attention to these discourses could improve the coherence and impact of IPC efforts in educational and clinical settings.
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Palmer, Jacqueline S.
Fleshes out a model of hysterical discourse, and applies it to an analysis of the charges and countercharges of "environmentalist hysteria." Gives special attention to the book that drew the earliest accusations of hysteria, Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." (SR)
, these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...... definition of action, is unable to conceive of this visualizing function. In the second part, I argue that discourse-narratology fares no better since the visualizing function is independent of voice and focalization. In the final part, I sketch a possible account of the visualizing function of simple...
Prasad, Rashmi; McRoy, Susan; Frid, Nadya; Joshi, Aravind; Yu, Hong
Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor performance of a classifier trained
Л Н Синельникова
Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non
Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery
The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…
Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W
in renal cortical membranes fractionated on sorbitol density gradients. Aortic clamp-induced acute hypotension (from 100 +/- 3 to 78 +/- 2 mmHg) provoked a 62% decrease in urine output and a significant decrease in volume flow from the proximal tubule detected as a 66% decrease in endogenous lithium......-density membranes enriched in apical markers. PTH at much lower doses (
Hansen, Philippe; Clerc, Bernard
We report an unusual case of anisocoria in the dog provoked by Datura stramonium, and an experimental clinical assay to reproduce the anisocoria using simple contact with part of the plant in four healthy dogs. Any part of the D. stramonium plant produced anisocoria following simple contact with the eye.
This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…
the ‘ market place’ are noted as sources of problems in the military’s ability to reason about the operational issues. Doctrinal discourse exists, but...influence of Foucault’s theories of power, particularly work earlier in his career. At one end of interpretation of Foucault , overarching and...omnipresent impersonal discourses do not allow individual agency, from a resistance point of view or otherwise.60 Another view is that Foucault acknowledges
This thesis examines the relationship between the public acceptance and image of nuclear energy and the discourse and arguments commonly employed by the nuclear institutions. In doing so, the Critical Discourse Analysis, the French Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics theories were used to evaluate important variables involved in the construction of the nuclear discourse such as social memory, intertextualilty and image construction. The analysis performed shows that the discourse in favor of the nuclear energy is in fact imbedded by the anti-nuclear discourse. As a consequence, the negative image of the nuclear sector is being reinforced at the same time that its public acceptance becomes more difficult. The core of this analysis consists of two sets of information. The first one is the Internet site of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). CNEN is the federal nuclear regulatory and research and development agency of Brazil. In this analysis it represents the discourse in favor of nuclear energy. The second set of information used in this thesis is composed by a number of texts displayed in the open literature such as newspapers, magazines and Internet sites, all of them expressing anti-nuclear positions. A careful comparison of both sets shows that the discourse of CNEN, instead of showing new ideas and issues related to nuclear energy, in fact, stays mainly in a reactive position as if it were trying to defend itself from the arguments posed by the anti-nuclear discourse. It was concluded that the discourse of CNEN is constrained within a complex field of non positive expressions, arguments and ideas mostly encountered in the anti-nuclear discourse which brings obvious difficulties to explain the benefits of nuclear energy as a whole. To overcome such situation a more detailed study of the CNEN discourse is suggested. (author)
Bayu Adi Sulistyo
Full Text Available This study belongs to Critical Discourse Analysis in sub-branch of Political Discourse. The analysis of this research uses the CDA theory by Norman Fairclough which is widely known as 3D model. Since CDA is closely related to ideology, this study investigates the ideology held by the text producer, speaker. The data used in this study is the speeches delivered by Trump in 2015 as the announcement of his decision to run in the US presidential race. Generally, there are two major topics in them: the dissatisfaction of the current government’s work, especially in economical and political aspect, and the negative perception on Islam. These are considered as Trump’s ideology. Based on the analysis, it can be inferred that Trump seems to have been successfull in creating his discourse. He has successfully persuaded the audience to be on his side.
Full Text Available Geopolitical discourses are an integral part of the contemporary geopolitics of each state. Driven by geopolitical traditions and imagination, they intercept and thus create all aspects of the discipline of critical geopolitics- the formal, practical and popular. The main area of our research is the discourse embedded in the popular geopolitics of a specific cultural product of Japan, anime. Anime are unique and thus suited for analysis for two reasons. The first is their specific, local production and global recognition. The second is their double coding. Although they are a product of the traditional geopolitical culture of Japan’s entertainment industry, they are able to create a contemporary geopolitical culture at the same time. Through an analysis of three anime series, Tokyo Magnitude 8.0, Earth Maiden Arjuna and Mobile Suit Gundam 00, we explore the geographic and geopolitical characteristics of Japan and their influence on the traditional, as well as the contemporary geopolitical discourses.
Hodges, Brian David; Maniate, Jerry M; Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad; Segouin, Christophe
Globalization discourse, and its promises of a 'flat world', 'borderless economy' and 'mobility of ideas and people', has become very widespread in all fields. In medical education this discourse is underpinned by assumptions that medical competence has universal elements and that medical education can therefore develop 'global standards' for accreditation, curricula and examinations. Yet writers in the field other than medicine have raised a number of concerns about an overemphasis on the economic aspects of globalization. This article explores the notion that it is time to study and embrace differences and discontinuities in goals, practices and values that underpin medical competence in different countries and to critically examine the promises-realized or broken-of globalization discourse in medical education.
Full Text Available The energy issue is a long-term one of the most discussed, controversial topics in relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The intention of the present article is an attempt to overcome the largely non-discursive and in the security conditions anchored way of looking at the energy interaction of the EU and the RF and through an integration discourse to analyze EU energy relations with Russia in the years 2004 - 2014. In the theoretical level, the article is based on a critical constructivism, which in relation to the discourse as the main concept reflects a number of fundamental knowledge. At the methodological level, the article is based on the discourse analysis as a basic methodological tool through which the author examines the EU text documents.
Fábio Santiago Nascimento
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise crítica do discurso (FAIRCLOUGH, 1992 de notícias de popularização da ciência (PC, enfocando os graus de assertividade e autoridade dos atores sociais representados no relato e discussão de descobertas científicas. A análise compreendeu trinta notícias de PC publicadas nos sites BBC News e Scientific American. Os resultados confirmam a posição de "insegurança discursiva" do jornalista na PC (MOIRAND, 2003, que utiliza diferentes estratégias discursivas para manter a aparente objetividade do discurso jornalístico. Em contraste, o pesquisador-autor do estudo (e seus colegas ocupa um papel privilegiado nas notícias, oferecendo explicações "coerentes" e apontando limitações nos estudos reportados. A ciência na mídia, desse modo, é uma autoridade epistêmica que reafirma uma lógica tradicional de produção do conhecimento baseada na (reconstrução contínua de hipóteses e teorias.This article presents a critical discourse analysis (FAIRCLOUGH, 1992 of science popularization (SP news, focusing on the degrees of assertiveness and authority of represented social actors in their task of reporting and discussing scientific discoveries. The analysis was comprised of thirty SP news from the BBC News and Scientific American websites. The results confirm the position of "discursive insecurity" (MOIRAND, 2003 held by the journalist who uses different discourse strategies to maintain the apparent objectivity of journalistic discourse. In contrast, the researcher-author of the study (and his colleagues occupies a privileged role in the news, providing "coherent" explanations and pointing out limitations in the reported studies. Hence science in the media is an epistemic authority which reaffirms a traditional logic of knowledge production based on a continuous (reconstruction of hypotheses and theories.
The literature on childhood involves various appraisals of childhood discourses fromvarious disciplines. The romantic view of passive children as needing affection andprotection is contrasted to the critical view of children that suggests defining children asempowered and active social agents. While these discourses of childhood are visible throughthe medium of written language, the elements of the discourses mediated through the visualimages remain uncovered. In addressing this gap in the li...
Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM still stands today as one of the most influential governance models in the water sector. Whereas previous analyses of IWRM have focused on the effectiveness of the institutional models it embodies and on policy implementation gaps, we examine the meanings that IWRM discourses have given to water management issues and how these meanings have in turn supported certain policy choices, institutions and practices. We use discourse analysis to study IWRM discourses in Nepal, where IWRM was introduced as the guiding policy principle for water management more than a decade ago, but not yet operationalised. We argue that IWRM discourses have operated a discursive closure in policy debates, thereby limiting the range of policy and institutional choices perceived as politically possible. In particular, we found that the promotion of IWRM as an institutional holy grail has obscured critical issues of social (injustice related to water resources development by promoting an apolitical and techno-managerial vision of water development, largely centralised and relying on expert knowledge. We defend the need to move away from institutional panaceas and towards deliberative processes that allow alternative voices, discourses and knowledge.
Вадим Викторович Дементьев
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the place of research on speech genres in the paradigm of discourse analysis. Focus is brought to bear on the directions of discourse analysis which have much in common with the theory of speech genre problems, categorical apparatus or set of base units, as well as using speech genre methodology to solve their problems. It is shown that the main problem, combining discourse analysis and theory of speech genres, is structuring and parameterization of speech communication, and thus - search for basic models of structuring, which organize a production of speech and its interpretation. In this regard, discourse units as well as their location with respect to the genres in the general speech space are discussed. The communicative and cognitive aspects of these units are analyzed, the chain links are constructed, which correspond to the components of communicative concepts that have clear compositional, thematic and stylistic content: the standard structure of the communicative concept is a chain of “action/act ~ process / manner ~ role / type ~ genre ~ communicative tonality”, while in most chains the main components are speech genres. Much attention is paid to the discursive classification of speech genres: genres are discussed in different types of discourse.
Mengyu He; Hajar Abdul Rahim
Research in meta-discourse, particularly explicit meta-discourse or meta-discourse markers has contributed much knowledge on the discourse features of specialised genres. However, there are very few studies on implicit meta-discourse. The current study explores implicit meta-discourse in legal discourse by comparing the implicit interpersonal meta-discourse in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China with the Constitution of the United States. The focus of the study is the use of im...
ADHD is a controversial concept, which provokes educational counselling to position in an explosive stress field of school system, health care system and youth welfare. This positioning could be sharpened by a discourse theoretical perspective and used for counselling in the sense of empowerment. Based on the clinical controversy of ADHD the institutional coherence of school system, youth welfare and health care system gets reconstructed as the societal basis of this clinical discourse, this for showing how the clinification of infantine experience and behaviour, connected with the ADHD-diagnosis, on the one hand is following the constriction of normality and on the other hand is aiming to assure equal opportunities.
Liang, Ling L.; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Yost, Deborah S.
This study describes the characteristics of pre-service teachers' discourse on a WebCT Bulletin Board in their investigations of local streams in an integrated mathematics and science course. A qualitative analysis of data revealed that the pre-service teachers conducted collaborative discourse in framing their research questions, conducting research and writing reports. The science teacher educator provided feedback and carefully crafted prompts to help pre-service teachers develop and refine their work. Overall, the online discourse formats enhance out-of-class communication and support collaborative group work. But the discourse on the critical examination of one another's point of views rooted in scientific inquiry appeared to be missing. It is suggested that pre-service teachers should be given more guidance and opportunities in science courses in carrying out scientific discourse that reflects reform-based scientific inquiry.
Oosterink, F.M.D.; de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.
Relatively little is known about the anxiety-provoking capacity of the various objects and situations characteristic of the dental setting. The aims of the current study were to establish a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking capacities of a large set of dental stimuli and to determine the differences in
Springer, Rusla Anne; Clinton, Michael E
Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) is a methodology that is well suited to inquiring into nursing knowledge and its organization. It is a critical analytic approach derived from Foucault's histories of science, madness, medicine, incarceration and sexuality, all of which serve to exteriorize or make visible the 'positive unconscious of knowledge' penetrating bodies and minds. Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) holds the potential to reveal who we are today as nurses and as a profession of nursing by facilitating our ability to identify and trace the effects of the discourses that determine the conditions of possibility for nursing practice that are continuously shaping and (re)shaping the knowledge of nursing and the profession of nursing as we know it. In making visible the chain of knowledge that orders the spaces nurses occupy, no less than their subjectivities, FDA is a powerful methodology for inquiring into nursing knowledge based on its provocation of deep critical reflection on the normalizing power of discourse. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J
AIMS: The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups - young adults (20-29 years old) and older adults (70-89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity.
This paper describes dominant discourses and practices which permeate English language learning and information and communication technologies (ICT). Through the adoption of a critical discourse analytic perspective, and drawing on New Literacy Studies research, it discusses how English language learning and ICT practices have come to take…
Van Atta, E.
In the fusion of neoliberalism and postfeminism and the anxiety-provoking environment of Higher Education (HE), this thesis explores the masculinities and femininities as they are negotiated by men and women academics in HE in Cyprus. The study uncovers gendered issues that emerge as academics construct new gendered academic subjectivities based on neoliberal and postfeminist discourses. Through a psychosocial lens and a combination of gender theories of the defended psychosocial subject (Hol...
Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict
Nguyen Van Han
Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory.
Gosselin, K; Norris, J L; Ho, M-J
Global medical education standards, largely designed in the West, have been promoted across national boundaries with limited regard for cultural differences. This review aims to identify discourses on cultural globalization in medical education literature from non-Western countries. To explore the diversity of discourses related to globalization and culture in the field of medical education, the authors conducted a critical review of medical education research from non-Western countries published in Academic Medicine, Medical Education and Medical Teacher from 2006 to 2014. Key discourses about globalization and culture emerged from a preliminary analysis of this body of literature. A secondary analysis identified inductive sub-themes. Homogenization, polarization and hybridization emerged as key themes in the literature. These findings demonstrate the existence of discourses beyond Western-led homogenization and the co-existence of globalization discourses ranging from homogenization to syncretism to resistance. This review calls attention to the existence of manifold discourses about globalization and culture in non-Western medical education contexts. In refocusing global medical education processes to avoid Western cultural imperialism, it will also be necessary to avoid the pitfalls of other globalization discourses. Moving beyond existing discourses, researchers and educators should work towards equitable, context-sensitive and locally-driven approaches to global medical education.
Bachour, Candi C; Bachmann, Gloria A; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie A; Brown, Candace S
Successful recruitment in clinical trials for chronic pain conditions is challenging, especially in women with provoked vulvodynia due to reluctance in discussing pain associated with sexual intercourse. The most successful recruitment methods and the characteristics of women reached with these methods are unknown. To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of four recruitment methods and to determine socioeconomic predictors for successful enrollment in a National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter clinical trial evaluating a gabapentin intervention in women with provoked vulvodynia. Recruitment methods utilized mass mailing, media, clinician referrals and community outreach. Effectiveness (number of participants enrolled) and efficiency (proportion screened who enrolled) were determined. Socioeconomic variables including race, educational level, annual household income, relationship status, age, menopausal status and employment status were also evaluated regarding which recruitment strategies were best at targeting specific cohorts. Of 868 potential study participants, 219 were enrolled. The most effective recruitment method in enrolling participants was mass mailing ( p recruitment methods ( p = 0.11). Relative to clinician referral, black women were 13 times as likely to be enrolled through mass mailing (adjusted odds ratio 12.5, 95% confidence interval, 3.6-43.1) as white women. There were no differences in enrollment according to educational level, annual income, relationship status, age, menopausal status, or employment status and recruitment method. In this clinical trial, mass mailing was the most effective recruitment method. Race of participants enrolled in a provoked vulvodynia trial was related to the recruitment method.
Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.