WorldWideScience

Sample records for provisions providing protections

  1. Design of Provider-Provisioned Website Protection Scheme against Malware Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Takeshi; Tanimoto, Naoto; Hariu, Takeo; Itoh, Mitsutaka

    Vulnerabilities in web applications expose computer networks to security threats, and many websites are used by attackers as hopping sites to attack other websites and user terminals. These incidents prevent service providers from constructing secure networking environments. To protect websites from attacks exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications, service providers use web application firewalls (WAFs). WAFs filter accesses from attackers by using signatures, which are generated based on the exploit codes of previous attacks. However, WAFs cannot filter unknown attacks because the signatures cannot reflect new types of attacks. In service provider environments, the number of exploit codes has recently increased rapidly because of the spread of vulnerable web applications that have been developed through cloud computing. Thus, generating signatures for all exploit codes is difficult. To solve these problems, our proposed scheme detects and filters malware downloads that are sent from websites which have already received exploit codes. In addition, to collect information for detecting malware downloads, web honeypots, which automatically extract the communication records of exploit codes, are used. According to the results of experiments using a prototype, our scheme can filter attacks automatically so that service providers can provide secure and cost-effective network environments.

  2. 7 CFR 402.4 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CATASTROPHIC RISK PROTECTION ENDORSEMENT § 402.4 Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions. Department of Agriculture Federal Crop Insurance...

  3. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  4. Nigella sativa provides protection against metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigella sativa provides protection against metabolic syndrome. Abdul Saboor Shah, Gul Majid Khan, Amir Badshah, Shefaat Ullah Shah, Kifayat Ullah Shah, Shakeel Ahmad Mirza, Kifayat Ullah Shah, Kamran Ahmad Khan ...

  5. Efficient Job Provisioning for a Cloud Service Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Dharmvir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a very fast emerging technology as every enterprise is moving fast towards this system. Cloud Computing is known as a provider of dynamic services. It optimizes a very large, scalable and virtualized resource. So lots of industries have joined this bandwagon nowadays. One of the major research issues is to maintain good Quality of Service (QoS of a Cloud Service Provider (CSP. The QoS encompasses different parameters, like, smart job allocation strategy, efficient load balancing, response time optimization, reduction in wastage of bandwidth, accountability of the overall system, etc. The efficient allocation strategy of the independent computational jobs among different Virtual Machines (VM in a Data center (DC is a distinguishable challenge in the Cloud Computing domain and finding out an optimal job allocation strategy guided by a good scheduling heuristic for such an environment is a mape-k loop problem. So different heuristic approaches may be used for better result and in this result we paper we implement worst fit in mape-k and evaluated the results.

  6. Nurses' and patients' perceptions of privacy protection behaviours and information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Han, Yonghee; Kim, Ji-Su

    2017-08-01

    With increased attention to patient privacy and autonomy, privacy protection and information provision for patients are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse nurses' and patients' perceptions of the importance and performance of protecting patients' privacy and providing them with relevant information. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional investigation. Participants and research context: Participants were 168 patients hospitalised in medical and surgical wards and 176 nurses who cared for them. Ethical consideration: This study was approved by the Chung-Ang University Bioethics Committee, and informed written consent was collected from all participants. Nurses' recognition of the importance of protecting patients' privacy and providing adequate information was higher compared to their actual performance, and the nurses' level of performance was higher in comparison with the patients' recognition of its importance. Although a holistic approach to patient privacy protection and information provision is needed, the medical field has not embraced this model of care. These findings provide empirical data to create an ethical environment for the future, as considerable attention has been devoted to patients' rights and medical institutions' liability for providing explanations to patients.

  7. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  8. 78 FR 38483 - Area Risk Protection Insurance Regulations and Area Risk Protection Insurance Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... the effect of the reduced multiplier and provide a level of risk protection that is similar to that... available. The intended effect of this action is to offer producers a choice of Area Revenue Protection... economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). Executive...

  9. Factors associated with provision of long-acting reversible contraception among adolescent health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Katherine Blumoff; Makino, Kevin K; Coles, Mandy S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify provider and practice characteristics associated with long-acting reversible contraception (LARC – progesterone contraceptive implants or IUDs [intrauterine devices]) provision among adolescent health care providers. Methods We analyzed physician characteristics and self-reported provision of LARC using chi-square analyses. Multivariate logistic regressions identified factors predicting provision of any form of LARC, as well as progesterone contraceptive implants or IUDs specifically. Results In logistic regressions, residency training in obstetrics/gynecology or family medicine (rather than internal medicine/pediatrics) was the strongest predictor of LARC provision, particularly for IUDs. Practicing in suburban (rather than urban) and hospital-based (rather than private) settings was associated with lower and higher likelihoods of providing LARC respectively. Conclusions Exposure to procedural women’s health training was the strongest predictor LARC provision. Increasing the number of providers offering this type of contraception may have broad reaching consequences for adolescent pregnancy prevention, and may be most easily accomplished via contraceptive implants. PMID:23427785

  10. Service Provision for Autism in Mainland China: A Service Providers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Murray, Stuart; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers regarding the current healthcare provision and education services for children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and their families in mainland China. 10 service providers described the current policy and identified unmet needs within current practice. Providers…

  11. Engaging Micro-Businesses: A Guide for Learning Providers Delivering Skills Provision for Unemployed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This guide is primarily aimed at skills providers for unemployed adults, but will also be of interest to learning providers that wish to engage micro-businesses for the purpose of delivering other forms of provision such as apprenticeships and work-based learning through full cost recovery. The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education…

  12. 25 CFR 20.402 - When are protective services provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.402 When are protective services provided? Protective services are provided when children or adults: (a) Are deprived temporarily... under the supervision of the Bureau in regard to the use and disbursement of funds in the child's or...

  13. Exploring Demand and Provision in English Child Protection Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Rick; Goldacre, Allie; Grant, Robert; Jones, Ray

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study linking the national data-sets for all children in need and child protection services in England. The study was informed by an emerging literature on systems thinking in public services, and aimed to examine variations and patterns of response in local authorities to demand for child welfare services in their area. One hundred and fifty-two local authority census returns and other statistical indicators covering up to a thirteen-year per...

  14. Exploring Demand and Provision in English Child Protection Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rick; Goldacre, Allie; Grant, Robert; Jones, Ray

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study linking the national data-sets for all children in need and child protection services in England. The study was informed by an emerging literature on systems thinking in public services, and aimed to examine variations and patterns of response in local authorities to demand for child welfare services in their area. One hundred and fifty-two local authority census returns and other statistical indicators covering up to a thirteen-year period were combined into a single data-set. Statistical analysis was undertaken to explore the characteristics of demand, workload and workforce, trends over time and variations between local authorities. The results showed that the overall system has become increasingly geared towards protective interventions, especially since the Baby P scandal of 2008. Deprivation levels continue to be the key driver of referrals and other categories of demand, and are strongly associated with variations in service response, particularly in the initial stages of referral and assessment. Implications are considered for the current organisation of child welfare services in light of recent reviews and reforms.

  15. Motivation and reward systems in service provision: exploring motivators for people providing engineering services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie; Nandrup-Bus, Troels

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming a distinctive feature for manufacturing firms to compete strategically through service provision. In relation to reward systems the aim of this thesis is to investigate what motivates employees of servitized manufacturing firms when providing engineering services and why. Through...... quantitative and qualitative data collection with an international company within the European healthcare sector, the findings show that key motivating factors were to “delight” the customer and being able to take responsibility and accountability for ones work. Service employees were found to feel proud...

  16. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...

  17. 75 FR 73972 - Medicaid Program; Cost Limit for Providers Operated by Units of Government and Provisions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Integrity of Federal-State Financial Partnership AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS... Units of Government and Provisions To Ensure the Integrity of Federal-State Financial Partnership'' (72... Program; Cost Limit for Providers Operated by Units of Government and Provisions To Ensure the Integrity...

  18. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF FORMING THE SYSTEM OF FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROVIDING SOCIAL PROTECTION INVOLUNTARILY DISPLACED PERSONS WITH CLUSTER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Kropelnytska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article systematizes approaches to financial support and social adaptation of internally displaced persons (IDPs as well as their social protection, that is based on the analysis of legal framework, situation and sources of financial and social support to the EU member states of the IDPs in Ukraine and their social security. The study of the IDPs situation and the assessment of the required resources are based on a cluster approach, which defines optimal set of problem areas requiring priority social and financial support. This allowed to develop practical recommendations for the development of a comprehensive, transparent and unified policy of social protection through the development of a conceptual framework for the financial and economic provision of social protection IDPs, which will be the basic solution to the problems of social and financial provision forced migrants in Ukraine. Key words: forced migrants, internally displaced persons, cluster, social policy, social protection, social providing, financial providing.

  19. [Radiation protection provided by tungsten bismuth caps during interventional cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Avasola, Sergio; Díaz, Natalia; Roldán, Reynaldo; Gamarra, Jorge; Catalán, Mónica

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness against radiation of tungsten bismuth caps, used in interventional cardiology is not well known. To determine the degree of radiation protection conferred by these caps in real work conditions. We compared the gross electric charges received at brain lobe levels by three occupationally exposed professionals who participated in 22 consecutive procedures, inside and outside of the tungsten bismuth cap. The median electric charges outside and inside the cap were 3.71 (range 1.46-5.62) and 2.2 (range 1.29-3.93) nC, which correspond to a 40% radiation attenuation. However, the protection was heterogeneous. Tungsten bismuth caps provide an adequate attenuation, but its degree is heterogeneous.

  20. Provision of prehospital emergency medical services in Punjab, Pakistan: Case study of a public sector provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Veena M; Naseer, Rizwan; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    The availability and quality of emergency medical services in low- and middle-income countries, including Pakistan, are extremely limited. New models for prehospital emergency medical services provision have recently emerged across multiple sectors, and research on these models is urgently needed to inform current and future emergency medical services systems in low-resource settings. The objective of this case study was to provide a comprehensive description of the organizational structure and service delivery model of a public sector provider in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, Rescue 1122, with a focus on operations in Lahore. We used case study methodology to systematically describe the organizational model of Rescue 1122. Qualitative data were collected during an in-person site visit to Lahore in June 2013. Three sources were utilized-semi-structured in-depth interviews, document review, and nonparticipant observation. Data were analyzed according to the health system "building blocks" proposed by the World Health Organization. Rescue 1122 is based on a legal framework that provides public financing for EMS, resulting in financial stability for the service. The organization has also reportedly taken positive steps in engaging with communities, and in coordinating across EMS, fire and rescue. We noted benefits and challenges in scaling up the service to all districts in Punjab. Finally, some areas of improvement include supply chain management and expanded data utilization. Our case study highlights key components of the model, areas for strengthening, and opportunities for further research. Rescue 1122 provides an example of a government-financed and operated emergency medical system in a low-resource setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... for imports of fish and fish products. On April 30, 2010, NMFS published the advance notice of...: Director, Office of International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West...

  2. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  3. Temperate marine protected area provides recruitment subsidies to local fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, A; Montgomery, J C; Smith, A N H; Croucher, A E; McLeod, I M; Lavery, S D

    2017-10-25

    The utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of protecting exploited species and conserving biodiversity within MPA boundaries is supported by strong empirical evidence. However, the potential contribution of MPAs to fished populations beyond their boundaries is still highly controversial; empirical measures are scarce and modelling studies have produced a range of predictions, including both positive and negative effects. Using a combination of genetic parentage and relatedness analysis, we measured larval subsidies to local fisheries replenishment for Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus: Sparidae) from a small (5.2 km(2)), well-established, temperate, coastal MPA in northern New Zealand. Adult snapper within the MPA contributed an estimated 10.6% (95% CI: 5.5-18.1%) of newly settled juveniles to surrounding areas (approx. 400 km(2)), with no decreasing trend in contributions up to 40 km away. Biophysical modelling of larval dispersal matched experimental data, showing larvae produced inside the MPA dispersed over a comparable distance. These results demonstrate that temperate MPAs have the potential to provide recruitment subsidies at magnitudes and spatial scales relevant to fisheries management. The validated biophysical model provides a cost-efficient opportunity to generalize these findings to other locations and climate conditions, and potentially informs the design of MPA networks for enhancing fisheries management. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Protected methionine prolonged provision improves summer production and reproduction of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, A; Kianzad, D; Hajhosseini, A; Zalbeyk, A

    2013-06-15

    The objective was to establish prolonged effects of a rumen-protected Met (RPM) product (SmartamineM) on milk production and reproduction of high-producing early-lactation cows under extended very high ambient temperatures. Twenty four fresh Holstein cows (27 +/- 9 days in milk, 617 kg b.wt., 2.8 body condition score) including 12 second lactation and 12 higher lactation cows were randomly assigned to either control or RPM-supplemented total mixed rations (TMR, 520:480 g kg(-1) forage:concentrate), and were fed continuously for 5 months. Cows were offered TMR 3 times daily post-milking plus a top-dress alfalfa hay. The study was conducted from May through November of 2009 in central Iranian province of Isfahan. The RPM group had consistently greater 5-month-long average DM intake (21.9 vs. 19.1 kg day(-1)), milk yield (42.4 vs. 37.4 kg day(-1)), milk fat content (33 vs. 27.5 g kg(-1)), fat yield (1.40 vs. 1.04 kg day(-1)), milk protein content (29.6 vs. 27.5 g kg(-1)) and protein yield (1.25 vs. 1.02 kg day(-1)). Mature cows tended to produce more milk (42.2 vs. 37.6 kg day(-1)) and milk fat (1.30 vs. 1.13 kg day(-1)) than second lactation cows. The RPM significantly improved ovary function, estrus expression visibility and body condition score (3 vs. 2.6), while shortening days open (106 vs. 143) and calving interval (387 vs. 421 d). Findings provide compelling evidence for beneficial effects of prolonged RPM provision on feed intake, milk production, and reproduction of Holstein cows under concurrent metabolic pressures of early lactation and stressful high ambient temperatures.

  5. Hollow Internodes Permit a Neotropical Understory Plant to Shelter Multiple Mutualistic Ant Species, Obtaining Protection and Nutrient Provisioning (Myrmecotrophy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Compin, Arthur; Azémar, Frédéric; Corbara, Bruno; Delabie, Jacques H C; Leroy, Céline

    2017-11-01

    The Neotropical understory plant Tachia guianensis (Gentianaceae)-known to shelter the colonies of several ant species in its hollow trunks and branches-does not provide them with food rewards (e.g., extrafloral nectar). We tested whether these ants are opportunistic nesters or whether mutualistic relationships exist as for myrmecophytes or plants sheltering ant colonies in specialized hollow structures in exchange for protection from enemies and/or nutrient provisioning (myrmecotrophy). We noted 37 ant species sheltering inside T. guianensis internodes, three of them accounting for 43.5% of the cases. They protect their host plants from leaf-cutting ant defoliation and termite damage because individuals devoid of associated ants suffered significantly more attacks. Using the stable isotope 15N, we experimentally showed that the tested ant species furnish their host plants with nutrients. Therefore, a mutualism exists. However, because it is associated with numerous ant species, T. guianensis can be considered a nonspecialized myrmecophyte.

  6. A Shifting Shield Provides Protection Against Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The Sun plays an important role in protecting us from cosmic rays, energetic particles that pelt us from outside our solar system. But can we predict when and how it will provide the most protection, and use this to minimize the damage to both pilotedand roboticspace missions?The Challenge of Cosmic RaysSpacecraft outside of Earths atmosphere and magnetic field are at risk of damage from cosmic rays. [ESA]Galactic cosmic rays are high-energy, charged particles that originate from astrophysical processes like supernovae or even distant active galactic nuclei outside of our solar system.One reason to care about the cosmic rays arriving near Earth is because these particles can provide a significant challenge for space missions traveling above Earths protective atmosphere and magnetic field. Since impacts from cosmic rays can damage human DNA, this risk poses a major barrier to plans for interplanetary travel by crewed spacecraft. And roboticmissions arent safe either: cosmic rays can flip bits, wreaking havoc on spacecraft electronics as well.The magnetic field carried by the solar wind provides a protective shield, deflecting galactic cosmic rays from our solar system. [Walt Feimer/NASA GSFCs Conceptual Image Lab]Shielded by the SunConveniently, we do have some broader protection against galactic cosmic rays: a built-in shield provided by the Sun. The interplanetary magnetic field, which is embedded in the solar wind, deflects low-energy cosmic rays from us at the outer reaches of our solar system, decreasing the flux of these cosmic rays that reach us at Earth.This shield, however, isnt stationary; instead, it moves and changes as the strength and direction of the solar wind moves and changes. This results in a much lower cosmic-ray flux at Earth when solar activity is high i.e., at the peak of the 11-year solar cycle than when solar activity is low. This visible change in local cosmic-ray flux with solar activity is known as solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux

  7. Incompletely matched influenza vaccine still provides protection in frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S; Moffatt, Cameron R M; Rosewell, Alexander; Dwyer, Dominic E; Lindley, Richard I; Booy, Robert; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2010-01-08

    A cluster-randomised controlled trial of antiviral treatment to control influenza outbreaks in aged-care facilities (ACFs) provided an opportunity to assess VE in the frail, institutionalised elderly. Data were pooled from five influenza outbreaks in 2007. Rapid testing methods for influenza were used to confirm outbreaks and/or identify further cases. Vaccination coverage among ACF residents ranged from 59% to 100%, whereas it was consistently low in staff (11-33%). The attack rates for laboratory-confirmed influenza in residents ranged from 9% to 24%, with the predominate strain determined to be influenza A. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene from a sub-sample demonstrated an incomplete match with the 2007 southern hemisphere influenza vaccine. Influenza VE was estimated to be 61% (95%CI 6%, 84%) against laboratory-confirmed influenza, 51% (95%CI -16%, 79%) against influenza-like illness, 82% (95%CI 27%, 96%) against pneumonia-related and influenza-related hospitalisations and 71% (95%CI -28%, 95%) against death from all causes. This supports the continued policy of targeted vaccination of the institutionalised, frail elderly. There is also reassurance that influenza vaccine can be effective against disease and severe outcomes, despite an incomplete vaccine match. This benefit is additional to protection from antivirals.

  8. Medical-grade collagen peptide in injectables provides antioxidant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kyo; Maehata, Yojiro; Okada, Yasue; Kusubata, Masashi; Hattori, Shunji; Tanaka, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Ayaka; Tokutomi, Fumiaki; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Komatsu, Tomoko; Otsuka, Takero; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il

    2015-03-01

    Medical-grade collagen peptide is used as an additive agent in pharmaceutical formulations; however, it is unknown as to whether the compound exerts antioxidant effects in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effects of medical-grade collagen peptide on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. We confirmed that medical-grade collagen peptide directly inhibited hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction or by ultraviolet irradiation of hydrogen peroxide, and singlet oxygen. In addition, an antioxidant effect of medical-grade collagen peptide on singlet oxygen was observed in peptide fractions 12-22. The total amount of antioxidant amino acids (Gly, Hyp, Glu, Ala, Cys, Met and His) constituted more than half of the total amino acids in these fractions. These results suggest that the observed antioxidant properties of medical-grade collagen peptide are due to the compound containing antioxidant amino acids. Medical-grade collagen peptide, which is used in pharmaceuticals, and especially in injectables, could provide useful antioxidant properties to protect the active ingredient from oxidation.

  9. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Barrera, Tatiana G; Maldonado, Jorge H

    2015-01-01

    Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  10. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Zarate-Barrera

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  11. California Family Planning Health Care Providers' Challenges to Same-Day Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M Antonia; Harper, Cynthia C; Brindis, Claire D

    2015-08-01

    To assess the extent to which practices offering family planning services are able to offer intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants in one visit and to identify the reasons why multiple visits may be required. In the fall of 2011, 1,000 California family planning providers were asked about their long-acting reversible contraception delivery practices in a probability survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine practice characteristics associated with same-day provision of IUDs and implants. Among the 636 responding practices, 67% offered an IUD and 40% offered a contraceptive implant onsite. Among those with onsite provision, the majority required two or more visits to place an IUD (58%); almost half required two visits to place an implant (47%). Nearly all Planned Parenthood practices could place an IUD (95%) or implant (95%) at the initial visit, whereas the majority of all other practice types could not. The main reasons for delaying IUD and contraceptive implant provision included the need to screen and wait for test results (68% and 24%, respectively) and clinic flow and scheduling issues (50% and 64%, respectively). Multivariable analyses indicated that Planned Parenthood practices were significantly more likely than private practices to have same-day insertion protocols. Most of the family planning providers surveyed have not adopted same-day long-acting reversible contraception insertion protocols and face barriers to same-day provision. III.

  12. Parents' and providers' attitudes toward school-located provision and school-entry requirements for HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jessica; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie; Apte, Gauri; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Perkins, Rebecca B

    2016-06-02

    To determine parents' and providers' attitudes toward school-located provision and school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. Parents/guardians of 11-17 y old girls and pediatric healthcare providers at one inner-city public clinic and three private practices completed semi-structured interviews in 2012-2013. Participants were asked open-ended questions regarding their attitudes toward school-located provision and school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. Parents' answers were analyzed with relationship to whether their daughters had not initiated, initiated but not completed, or completed the HPV vaccine series. Qualitative analysis was used to identify themes related to shared views. 129 parents/guardians and 34 providers participated. 61% of parents supported providing HPV vaccinations in schools, citing reasons of convenience, improved access, and positive peer pressure. Those who opposed school-located provision raised concerns related to privacy and the capacity of school nurses to manage vaccine-related reactions. Parents whose daughters had not completed the series were more likely to intend to vaccinate their daughters in schools (70%) and support requirements (64%) than parents who had not initiated vaccination (42% would vaccinate at school, 46% support requirements) or completed the series (42% would vaccinate at school, 32% support requirements; p requirements, largely because they felt that a requirement might provoke a public backlash that could further hinder vaccination efforts. School-located provision of HPV vaccination was widely accepted by healthcare providers and parents whose children have not completed the series, indicating that this venue might be a valuable addition to improve completion rates. Support for school-entry requirements was limited among both parents and healthcare providers.

  13. Medicaid program; cost limit for providers operated by units of government and provisions to ensure the integrity of federal-state financial partnership. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-29

    This regulation clarifies that entities involved in the financing of the non-Federal share of Medicaid payments must be a unit of government; clarifies the documentation required to support a Medicaid certified public expenditure; limits Medicaid reimbursement for health care providers that are operated by units of government to an amount that does not exceed the health care provider's cost of providing services to Medicaid individuals; requires all health care providers to receive and retain the full amount of total computable payments for services furnished under the approved Medicaid State plan; and makes conforming changes to provisions governing the State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to make the same requirements applicable, with the exception of the cost limit on reimbursement. The Medicaid cost limit provision of this regulation does not apply to: Stand-alone SCHIP program payments made to governmentally-operated health care providers; Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities and tribal 638 facilities that are paid at the all-inclusive IHS rate; Medicaid Managed Care Organizations (MCOs), Prepaid Inpatient Health Plans (PIHPs), and Prepaid Ambulatory Health Plans (PAHPs); Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and Rural Health Clinics (RHCs). Moreover, disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments and payments authorized under Section 701(d) and Section 705 of the Benefits Improvement Protection Act of 2000 are not subject to the newly established Medicaid cost limit for governmentally-operated health care providers. Except as noted above, all Medicaid payments and SCHIP payments made under the authority of the State plan and under waiver and demonstration authorities, as well as associated State Medicaid and SCHIP financing arrangements, are subject to all provisions of this regulation. Finally, this regulation solicits comments from the public on issues related to the definition of the Unit of Government.

  14. THE ECONOMIC APPROACH OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirnu Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As practice shows us, at the present time ecosystem services are recognized by humanity, but unfortunately are undervalued compared to their full potential. Most of planet's ecosystems are degradated by anthropic activity of humankind. It is almost impossible to say that there are no areas affected by human activity, however, the Protected Areas are a good opportunity, so the assessing of ecosystem services in Protected Areas can be a solution to the problem of economic growth. At present, there are few consistent informations on economic value of ecosystem services in Romania, on the basis of which can be adopted some sustainable financing policies of activities in Protected Areas. The premise from which we start is that a proper management of natural capital will allow biodiversity conservation and human well-being if it find appropriate economic instruments. For this reason, studies of economic research on the contribution of those ecosystem services to the communities welfare may constitute credible means for decision-makers, demonstrating the Protected Areas importance. This paper, based on the study of international and national literature, examines the state of knowledge on the economic and environmental valences of ecosystem services. The growing interest of researchers regarding the economic valuation of ecosystem services related to Protected Areas is visible through the many studies carried out at international level. Although national scientific research relating to ecosystem services is at the beginning, concerns researchers economists and ecologists have been directed toward this recess, of ecosystem services. The reason for we should assign an economic value to ecosystem services is to ensure that their value is included actively in decision-making and is not ignored because "is still available". Briefly, the paper start with an overview of the main definition of ecosystem services. From the point of economic value view, the paper

  15. The provision of income protection and activiation services for the unemployed in 'active' welfare states : an international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, H.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075238691

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses reforms of the design of the organisational arena for policy implementation and service provision in European welfare states, focusing on the policy areas of income protection and activation. First, it discusses and compares recent reform programmes in four countries: the UK,

  16. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection. [Ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  17. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  18. Clinical training alone is not sufficient for reducing barriers to IUD provision among private providers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha Sohail

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IUD uptake remains low in Pakistan, in spite of three major efforts to introduce the IUD since the 1960s, the most recent of these being through the private sector. This study examines barriers to IUD recommendation and provision among private providers in Pakistan. Methods A facility-based survey was conducted among randomly selected private providers who were members of the Greenstar network and among similar providers located within 2 Kilometers. In total, 566 providers were interviewed in 54 districts of Pakistan. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether correct knowledge regarding the IUD, self-confidence in being able to insert the IUD, attitudes towards suitability of candidates for the IUD and medical safety concerns were influenced by provider type (physician vs. Lady Health Visitor, whether the provider had received clinical training in IUD insertion in the last three years, membership of the Greenstar network and experience in IUD insertion. OLS regression was used to identify predictors of provider productivity (measured by IUD insertions conducted in the month before the survey. Results Private providers consider women with children and in their peak reproductive years to be ideal candidates for the IUD. Women below age 19, above age 40 and nulliparous women are not considered suitable IUD candidates. Provider concerns about medical safety, side-effects and client satisfaction associated with the IUD are substantial. Providers' experience in terms of the number of IUDs inserted in their careers, appears to improve knowledge, self-confidence in the ability provide the IUD and to lower age-related attitudinal barriers towards IUD recommendation. Physicians have greater medical safety concerns about the IUD than Lady Health Visitors. Clinical training does not have a consistent positive effect on lowering barriers to IUD recommendation. Membership of the Greenstar network also has little

  19. Clinical training alone is not sufficient for reducing barriers to IUD provision among private providers in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail; Fareed, Aslam; Keating, Joseph

    2011-12-30

    IUD uptake remains low in Pakistan, in spite of three major efforts to introduce the IUD since the 1960s, the most recent of these being through the private sector. This study examines barriers to IUD recommendation and provision among private providers in Pakistan. A facility-based survey was conducted among randomly selected private providers who were members of the Greenstar network and among similar providers located within 2 Kilometers. In total, 566 providers were interviewed in 54 districts of Pakistan.Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether correct knowledge regarding the IUD, self-confidence in being able to insert the IUD, attitudes towards suitability of candidates for the IUD and medical safety concerns were influenced by provider type (physician vs. Lady Health Visitor), whether the provider had received clinical training in IUD insertion in the last three years, membership of the Greenstar network and experience in IUD insertion. OLS regression was used to identify predictors of provider productivity (measured by IUD insertions conducted in the month before the survey). Private providers consider women with children and in their peak reproductive years to be ideal candidates for the IUD. Women below age 19, above age 40 and nulliparous women are not considered suitable IUD candidates. Provider concerns about medical safety, side-effects and client satisfaction associated with the IUD are substantial. Providers' experience in terms of the number of IUDs inserted in their careers, appears to improve knowledge, self-confidence in the ability provide the IUD and to lower age-related attitudinal barriers towards IUD recommendation. Physicians have greater medical safety concerns about the IUD than Lady Health Visitors. Clinical training does not have a consistent positive effect on lowering barriers to IUD recommendation. Membership of the Greenstar network also has little effect on lowering these barriers. Providers' barriers to

  20. Competence Based Management Development Provision to SMEs and the Providers' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison; Whittaker, John; Clark, John Loan; Boocock, Graham

    1999-01-01

    A British study of 29 providers of competency-based management training to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and a survey of 591 SMEs revealed that the value of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) was unclear to both groups. Providers felt NVQs lacked relevance to SMEs and were time consuming. Some SMEs participated only because…

  1. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological Resilience Provides No Independent Protection From Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danica W Y; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Burns, Richard; Roberts, Rachel M; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of resilience in the likelihood of suicidal ideation (SI) over time. We examined the association between resilience and SI in a young-adult cohort over 4 years. Our objectives were to determine whether resilience was associated with SI at follow-up or, conversely, whether SI was associated with lowered resilience at follow-up. Participants were selected from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project from Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia, aged 28-32 years at the first time point and 32-36 at the second. Multinomial, linear, and binary regression analyses explored the association between resilience and SI over two time points. Models were adjusted for suicidality risk factors. While unadjusted analyses identified associations between resilience and SI, these effects were fully explained by the inclusion of other suicidality risk factors. Despite strong cross-sectional associations, resilience and SI appear to be unrelated in a longitudinal context, once risk/resilience factors are controlled for. As independent indicators of psychological well-being, suicidality and resilience are essential if current status is to be captured. However, the addition of other factors (e.g., support, mastery) makes this association tenuous. Consequently, resilience per se may not be protective of SI.

  3. The provision of health and social care services for older people by respite providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David

    2013-10-01

    Respite services have been established to support family carers by providing a break from the responsibilities of caregiving. However the literature and anecdotal evidence suggests that respite services offer carers much more than just providing a period of rest. This study was initiated to identify and describe the health and social care services that are offered to family carers and care-recipients by respite services in South Australia. The findings show that respite providers offer a service to both the family carer and care-recipient. Both groups are offered socialisation and engagement opportunities, and care-recipients have access to a diverse range of health care services. The description of respite that emerges from this study is that of a complex service offering much more than just a period of rest from caregiving duties.

  4. Barriers to Health Care Providers' Provision of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception to Adolescent and Nulliparous Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brooke

    Despite recommendations for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as a first-line contraceptive method for adolescents and young women, its use in the United States remains low. This integrative review highlights previously unidentified barriers to health care providers' provision of LARC to adolescent and nulliparous young women. Four themes emerged: Appropriateness of Candidates and Contraceptive Safety, Provider Training and Work Setting, Appropriate Resources, and Opportunity. Raising awareness of barriers to LARC use may galvanize providers to find solutions. Nurses and other clinicians can remain aware of new contraceptive options and guidelines to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy among adolescents. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Provision of clinical pharmacy services in two safety net provider settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor SE

    2009-06-01

    free clinic and the community health center. Conclusion: A clinical pharmacy services model provides a role for the pharmacist in an interdisciplinary team (beyond the traditional dispensing role to identify medication related problems in the drug therapy of patients who utilize safety-net provider health care services.

  6. Providing earplugs to young adults at risk encourages protective behaviour in music venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan

    2016-06-01

    For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... provisions and their importance to consumers. After carefully considering all the requests and comments... for the April 2011 final rule) is fast approaching, the Department finds good cause that this action...

  8. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  9. Increase in use of protective earplugs by Rock and Roll concert attendees when provided for free at concert venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jieun; Smukler, Simon R; Chung, Yuan; House, Ron; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hearing protection use among attendees of Rock and Roll concerts at baseline and in concerts where earplugs are provided for free at concert venue entrances. Six concerts performed at two music venues in Toronto, Canada were evaluated. Study personnel observed and recorded the use of hearing protection at three concerts where no earplugs were distributed, and three concerts where earplugs were provided for free at the concert venue entrance. A total of 955 individuals over the age of 18 were observed at six concerts. Six hundred and thirty-seven individuals (64% male) were observed at concerts where no earplugs were provided, and 318 individuals (68% male) were observed at concerts where free earplugs were provided. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated a significant increase in hearing protection usage at concerts where earplugs were provided for free at the concert venue entrance, odds ratio 7.27 (95% CI: 3.24-16.30). The provision of free earplugs at concert venues may be a simple and inexpensive intervention that could be a component of a larger public health campaign to prevent non-occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

  10. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniteye, Patience; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2013-07-06

    Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Findings confirm that health providers' views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, 'social pressures' (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers' decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their 'discretion' in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop 'coping mechanisms' which impede implementation of abortion policy. The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that provider values and attitudes (not just resource

  11. Provision and protection of the rights of indigenous peoples of the North as a function of public authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Silantieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article describes the main problems of protection of the rights and freedomsof indigenous peoples as one of the most vulnerable groups of residents in a modernstate. The author emphasizes the relevance of the study, based on increased attention tothe preservation of the peoples of the North, especially by the international community.The purpose. The author dwells particularly on the legal protection of the rights of indigenouspeoples of the North, both on the global and national levels. The main tasks and functionsof state authorities on support and protection legal status of the indigenous Northernpeople are discussed.The methodology. General scientific methods (systemic, structural, formal logical and special(technical, legal, statistical methods are used.Results and scope of it’s application. After the analysis the national legislation the authoridentifies the shortcomings that impede the efficient activities of state authorities in thisdirection and comes to the conclusion that the Russian normative legal base, regulating theactivity of indigenous peoples of the North and protection of their rights, does not fullymeet modern requirements and existing needs. Among the major remedy options the authorcites a number of provisions which may be laid in the basis of the revised state policy.Conclusions. The Russian Federation has not used the full potential of the tools to preservethe culture and identity of peoples of the North, which allows to simulate and to conductfurther research to improve the quality of life of the peoples of the Russian North.

  12. TOWARDS THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: DO THE NEW ZIMBABWEAN CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS ON JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE SUFFICE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovemore Chiduza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available If human rights are to be effectively protected in any country, the judiciary has to recognise that it also has a role to play in this regard. The rationale for this is that the judiciary has a duty to enhance and protect human rights. Across Africa and most notably in Zimbabwe political interference has been noted as a factor that limits judicial independence. In Zimbabwe the weak protection of judicial independence has contributed to gross human rights violations. Constitutional reforms have been conducted in order to improve the independence of the judiciary and consequently the judicial protection of human rights. These efforts have resulted in the adoption of a new Constitution in Zimbabwe which has replaced the Lancaster House Constitution. The Constitutional reforms have captured legal principles which will ensure an improvement in the human rights situation. Key to the reforms has been the independence of the judiciary. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the judiciary. Despite such guarantees there are a number of challenges with regards to this independence. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyse the judicial reforms introduced by the Constitution of Zimbabwe with a view to establishing whether or not such reforms are likely to improve judicial independence and in turn the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe.

  13. 76 FR 9968 - Regulation for the Enforcement of Federal Health Care Provider Conscience Protection Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... funds from discriminating against certain health care providers based on their refusal to participate in... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 88 RIN 0991-AB76 Regulation for the Enforcement of Federal Health Care... statutory health care provider conscience protections will be handled by the Department's Office for Civil...

  14. Niacinamide leave-on formulation provides long-lasting protection against bacteria in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathapathi, Mruthyunjaya Swamy; Mallemalla, Prathyusha; Vora, Shilpa; Iyer, Vidula; Tiwari, Jyoti Kumar; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumdar, Amitabha

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) form a part of the skin's innate immune system. Their primary activity is to provide antimicrobial benefits and hence protect from infections. AMPs that are present on human skin include psoriasin (S100A7), RNase 7, lysozyme, LL-37 and defensins. Niacinamide is a well-known cosmetic ingredient that has been used traditionally for multiple skin benefits. Recent data indicate that niacinamide treatment can boost AMPs in human gut epithelial cells and in neutrophils. Treatment with niacinamide in mice also provided protection from skin infections by enhancing AMPs. In this article, we find that treatment with niacinamide formulation provides long-lasting protection against bacteria, potentially through the activation of an AMP response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rotating electrical machines - Part 5: Degrees of protection provided by the integral design of rotating electrical machines (IP code) - Classification

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Gives definitions for standard degrees of protection provided by enclosures; protection of machines against harmful effects due to the ingress of water; protection of machines against ingress of solid foreign objects; Protection of persons against contact with or approach to live parts and against contact with moving parts. Gives designations for these protective degrees and tests to verify that the machines meet the requirements.

  16. Stand structure influences nekton community composition and provides protection from natural disturbance in Micronesian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Nicole. Cormier

    2012-01-01

    Structurally complex mangrove roots are thought to provide foraging habitat, predation refugia, and typhoon protection for resident fish, shrimp, and crabs. The spatially compact nature of Micronesian mangroves results in model ecosystems to test these ideas. Tidal creek nekton assemblages were compared among mangrove forests impacted by Typhoon Sudal and differing in...

  17. Endothelium-protective sphingosine-1-phosphate provided by HDL-associated apolipoprotein M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Obinata, Hideru; Kumaraswamy, Sunil B

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the endothelium is provided by circulating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which maintains vascular integrity. We show that HDL-associated S1P is bound specifically to both human and murine apolipoprotein M (apoM). Thus, isolated human ApoM(+) HDL contained S1P, whereas ApoM(-) HDL did...

  18. Protection From Mosquito Biting Provided by Permethrin-Treated Military Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Stephen P; Sferopoulos, Rodi; Lee, Bin

    2014-11-01

    A study to evaluate the protection provided by permethrin-treated fabric following cold-water washing against biting by mosquitoes is reported. Australian Defense Force (ADF) disruptive pattern combat uniform (DPCU) shirt fabric and entire shirts were treated by dipping in a 0.6% emulsion (Perigen Defense, containing 500 g/liter permethrin), and commercial factory treatment in the United States (Factory A) and Europe (Factory B). Protection was recorded after 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50 washes. The treated fabric provided 100% protection against bites of Anopheles farauti Laveran for at least 50 washes, although only 4.8-19.0% of this species fed through untreated DPCU. The protection provided by each type of permethrin treatment against Aedes aegypti (L.) biting was variable; however, there were no significant differences between the percentage of mosquitoes biting between 1 and 10 washes. A comparison between the two factory treatments for 1-50 washes also showed no statistical difference in Ae. aegypti feeding. Chemical analysis of fabric was conducted using gas chromatography and showed that the initial dose was 0.125 mg/cm(2) for Perigen-treated fabric, which fell to 0.004 mg/cm(2) after 10 washes. By contrast, factory treatments resulted in initial dose rates of 0.20 mg/cm(2) for Factory A and 0.19 mg/cm(2) for Factory B. After 10 washes, Factory A-treated fabric had 0.09 mg/cm(2) and Factory B 0.15 mg/cm(2) of permethrin. Despite the higher concentrations of permethrin in the fabric, there was not a commensurate increase in biting protection provided by the factory-treated fabric, compared with fabric treated by dipping in permethrin emulsion. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  20. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  1. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Foundations and self-tanning products: Do they provide any protection from the sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquenet, Benjamin; Couteau, Céline; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2009-11-01

    As soon as the weather turns sunny, everyone wants a tan. People with skin phototypes III and IV, called melanocompetent, have no problem meeting this fashion requirement. But things are quite different for people with phototypes I and II and so these individuals look for alternative solutions. In essence, light skin burns easily when exposed to the sun. Therefore, light-skinned people are offered a cosmetic solution through self-tanning products or foundations. It seemed interesting to us to evaluate the sun protection power of this type of product. To do this, we used an in vitro method to determine the typical indicators related to sunscreen products, such as sun protection factor (SPF), ultraviolet (UV)-A protection factor (PF-UVA), UV-B/UV-A ratio as well as the critical wavelength because these artificial tanning products could be considered sunscreen products by users. It is important to know whether a self-tanning product and/or a foundation provide sun protection and whether they meet the standards set for other sunscreen products. Protection which is imbalanced for either UV-B or UV-A radiation is potentially harmful for users believing themselves adequately protected. To do this, we assembled the requisite conditions for forming melanoidins in the cosmetic itself. We tested seven amino acids found in the corneal cells of the epidermis. Regardless of the amino acid used, the corresponding SPF was essentially zero (approximately SPF 2). Foundations, on the other hand, proved to be much more interesting because they possess a non-negligible SPF as well as good photostability making these products safe in terms of their mode of application (applied once daily).

  3. Anesthesia Providers Adherence to the Use of Gloves and Eye Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    surgical asepsis principles were established. These principles focused mainly on the prevention of contamination of surgical wounds by...offer no protection against the risk of infectious disease transmission. The natural skin barrier can be breached by excessive handwashing , cuts...patients. Notably, 13 providers (46.4%) stated that they believe that surgical patients should be routinely tested for HIV, HBV and HCV. Needlestick or

  4. Do water quality criteria based on nonnative species provide appropriate protection for native species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaowei; Wang, Zijian; Wang, Yeyao; Lv, Yibing; Rao, Kaifeng; Jin, Wei; Giesy, John P; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2015-08-01

    The potential use of toxicity data for nonnative species to derive water quality criteria is controversial because it is sometimes questioned whether criteria based on species from one geographical region provide appropriate protection for species in a different region. However, this is an important concept for the development of Chinese water quality criteria or standards. Data were assembled on 38 chemicals for which values were available for both native and nonnative species. Sensitivities of these organisms were compared based on the 5% hazardous concentration values and the species sensitivity distribution from a literature review. Results of the present study's analysis showed that there is approximately 74% certainty that use of nonnative species to generate water quality criteria would be sufficiently protective of aquatic ecosystems in China. Without applying any assessment factor to the water quality criteria generated from nonnative species, the uncertainty would be 26% when the native Chinese species might be under protection. Applying an assessment factor of 10 would offer adequate protection to native Chinese species for approximately 90% of tested chemicals and thus reduce the uncertainty from 26% to 10%. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Live attenuated nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus vaccine provides broad cross protection against new variant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T-H; Kim, M-S; Jang, J-H; Lee, D-H; Park, J-K; Youn, H-N; Lee, J-B; Park, S-Y; Choi, I-S; Song, C-S

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide, and the emergence of new variant strains complicates disease control. The present study investigated the genetic and protectotypic features of newly emerged Korean IBV strains. A phylogenetic analysis showed that several recent isolates formed 2 different clusters (new cluster 1 and 2), which were distinct from other preexisting clusters. New cluster 1 IBV strains represented recombinants between Korean nephropathogenic strain KM91 and the QXIBV strain. New cluster 2 IBV strains showed low amino acid homology (vaccines (H120 and K2 strain) against these new isolates. In cross-protection studies, the H120 strain did not provide sufficient protection against these variants. However, highly attenuated nephropathogenic IBV vaccine, K2 strain, provided significantly higher levels of protection against variants compared with chickens vaccinated with H120 (P vaccine could be helpful for the reduction of economic losses caused by newly evolving IBV recombinants (new cluster 1) and variants (new cluster 2).

  6. Polysaccharide specific monoclonal antibodies provide passive protection against intranasal challenge with Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P AuCoin

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus that is the causative agent of melioidosis. The bacterium is inherently resistant to many antibiotics and mortality rates remain high in endemic areas. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS and capsular polysaccharide (CPS are two surface-associated antigens that contribute to pathogenesis. We previously developed two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific to the CPS and LPS; the CPS mAb was shown to identify antigen in serum and urine from melioidosis patients. The goal of this study was to determine if passive immunization with CPS and LPS mAbs alone and in combination would protect mice from a lethal challenge with B. pseudomallei. Intranasal (i.n. challenge experiments were performed with B. pseudomallei strains 1026b and K96423. Both mAbs provided significant protection when administered alone. A combination of mAbs was protective when low doses were administered. In addition, combination therapy provided a significant reduction in spleen colony forming units (cfu compared to results when either the CPS or LPS mAbs were administered alone.

  7. Huperzine A provides robust and sustained protection against induced seizures in Scn1a mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available De novo loss-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC SCN1A (encoding Nav1.1 are the main cause of Dravet syndrome (DS, a catastrophic early-life encephalopathy associated with prolonged and recurrent early-life febrile seizures (FSs, refractory afebrile epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and a 15-20% mortality rate. SCN1A mutations also lead to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+, which is an inherited disorder characterized by early-life FSs and the development of a range of adult epilepsy subtypes. Current antiepileptic drugs often fail to protect against the severe seizures and behavioral and cognitive deficits found in patients with SCN1A mutations. To address the need for more efficacious treatments for SCN1A-derived epilepsies, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A, a naturally occurring reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In CF1 mice, Hup A (0.56 or 1 mg/kg was found to confer protection against 6 Hz-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-, and maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizures. Robust protection against 6 Hz-, MES-, and hyperthermia-induced seizures was also achieved following Hup A administration in mouse models of DS (Scn1a+/- and GEFS+ (Scn1aRH/+. Furthermore, Hup A-mediated seizure protection was sustained during 3 weeks of daily injections in Scn1aRH/+ mutants. Finally, we determined that the muscarinic and GABAA receptors play a role in Hup A-mediated seizure protection. These findings indicate that Hup A might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for increasing seizure resistance in DS and GEFS+, and more broadly, in other forms of refractory epilepsy.

  8. NS1-Truncated Live Attenuated Virus Vaccine Provides Robust Protection to Aged Mice from Viral Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Natalie; Langlois, Ryan A.; Krammer, Florian; Margine, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes associated with age contribute to the high rates of influenza virus morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Compounding this problem, aged individuals do not respond to vaccination as well as younger, healthy adults. Efforts to increase protection to this demographic group are of utmost importance, as the proportion of the population above the age of 65 is projected to increase in the coming decade. Using a live influenza virus with a truncated nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), we are able to stimulate cellular and humoral immune responses of aged mice comparable to levels seen in young mice. Impressively, a single vaccination provided protection following stringent lethal challenge in aged mice. PMID:22787224

  9. Providing the full DDF link protection for bus-connected SIEPON based system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, I.-Shyan; Pakpahan, Andrew Fernando; Liem, Andrew Tanny; Nikoukar, AliAkbar

    2016-09-01

    Currently a massive amount of traffic per second is delivered through EPON systems, one of the prominent access network technologies for delivering the next generation network. Therefore, it is vital to keep the EPON optical distribution network (ODN) working by providing the necessity protection mechanism in the deployed devices; otherwise, when failures occur it will cause a great loss for both network operators and business customers. In this paper, we propose a bus-connected architecture to protect and recover distribution drop fiber (DDF) link faults or transceiver failures at ONU(s) in SIEPON system. The proposed architecture provides a cost-effective architecture, which delivers the high fault-tolerance in handling multiple DDF faults, while also providing flexibility in choosing the backup ONU assignments. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture provides the reliability and maintains quality of service (QoS) performance in terms of mean packet delay, system throughput, packet loss and EF jitter when DDF link failures occur.

  10. Combination of ACE inhibitor with nicorandil provides further protection in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Taniguchi, Kei; Higaki, Masato; Ueda, Shuko; Shima, Tomoko; Nagura, Michito; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J; Uchida, Shunya

    2014-12-15

    An inhibition in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most widely used therapies to treat chronic kidney disease. However, its effect is occasionally not sufficient and additional treatments may be required. Recently, we reported that nicorandil exhibited renoprotective effects in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Here we examined if nicorandil can provide an additive protection on enalapril in chronic kidney disease. Single treatment with either enalapril or nicorandil significantly ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in the rat remnant kidney while the combination of these two compounds provided additive effects. In addition, an increase in oxidative stress in remnant kidney was also blocked by either enalapril or nicorandil while the combination of the drugs was more potent. A mechanism was likely due for nicorandil to preventing manganase superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and sirtuin (Sirt)3 from being reduced in injured kidneys. A study with cultured podocytes indicated that the antioxidative effect could be mediated through sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) in the mitochondrial KATP channel since blocking SUR with glibenclamide reduced MnSOD and Sirt3 expression in podocytes. In conclusion, nicorandil may synergize with enalapril to provide superior protection in chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The solar ultraviolet B radiation protection provided by shading devices with regard to its diffuse component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-10-01

    The composition of the incident solar global ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with regard to its beam and diffuse radiation fractions is highly relevant with regard to outdoor sun protection. This is especially true with respect to sun protection during leisure-time outdoor sun exposure at the shore and pools, where people tend to escape the sun under shade trees or different types of shading devices, e.g., umbrellas, overhangs, etc., believing they offer protection from the erythemal solar radiation. The degree of sun protection offered by such devices is directly related to the composition of the solar global UVB radiation, i.e., its beam and diffuse fractions. The composition of the incident solar global UVB radiation can be determined by measuring the global UVB (using Solar Light Co. Inc., Model 501A UV-Biometer) and either of its components. The beam component of the UVB radiation was determined by measuring the normal incidence beam radiation using a prototype, tracking instrument consisting of a Solar Light Co. Inc. Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The horizontal beam component of the global UVB radiation was calculated from the measured normal incidence using a simple geometric correlation and the diffuse component is determined as the difference between global and horizontal beam radiations. Horizontal and vertical surfaces positioned under a horizontal overhang/sunshade or an umbrella are not fully protected from exposure to solar global UVB radiation. They can receive a significant fraction of the UVB radiation, depending on their location beneath the shading device, the umbrella radius and the albedo (reflectance) of the surrounding ground surface in the case of a vertical surface. Shading devices such as an umbrella or horizontal overhang/shade provide relief from the solar global radiation and do block the solar global UVB radiation to some extent; nevertheless, a significant fraction of the solar global UVB

  12. Secure ICT service provisioning for cloud, mobile and beyond a workable architectural approach balancing between buyers and providers

    CERN Document Server

    von Faber, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces a reference architecture that enhances the security of services offered in the information and communication technology (ICT) market. It enables customers to compare offerings and to assess risks when using third-party ICT services including cloud computing and mobile services. Service providers are given a comprehensive blueprint for security implementation and maintenance covering service portfolio management, bid phases and realization projects as well as service delivery management. The architecture is completely modular and hierarchical. It contains a security taxonom

  13. Emerging Business Models in Education Provisioning: A Case Study on Providing Learning Support as Education-as-a-Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loina Prifti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to give a deeper understanding on emerging business models in the context of education. Industry 4.0/the Industrial Internet in general and especially recent advances in cloud computing enable a new kind of service offering in the education sector and lead to new business models for education: Education-as-a-Service (EaaS. Within EaaS, learning, and teaching contents are delivered as services. By combining a literature review with a qualitative case study, this paper makes a three-fold contribution to the field of business models in education: First, we provide a theoretical definition for a common understanding of EaaS. Second, we present the state-of-the-art research on this new paradigm. Third, in the case study we describe a “best practices” business model of an existing EaaS provider. These insights build a theoretical foundation for further research in this area. The paper concludes with a research agenda for further research in this emerging field.

  14. Coverage and Financial Risk Protection for Institutional Delivery: How Universal Is Provision of Maternal Health Care in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Gupta, Rakesh; Sharma, Atul; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    -economic groups and must be strengthened. The success of the public sector in providing high coverage and financial risk protection in maternal health provides encouragement for the role that the public sector can play in universalizing health care.

  15. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  16. The noble gas xenon provides protection and trophic stimulation to midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaur, Jérémie; Le Nogue, Déborah; Lemaire, Marc; Pype, Jan; Farjot, Géraldine; Hirsch, Etienne C; Michel, Patrick P

    2017-07-01

    Despite its low chemical reactivity, the noble gas xenon possesses a remarkable spectrum of biological effects. In particular, xenon is a strong neuroprotectant in preclinical models of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In this study, we wished to determine whether xenon retained its neuroprotective potential in experimental settings that model the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease. Using rat midbrain cultures, we established that xenon was partially protective for DA neurons through either direct or indirect effects on these neurons. So, when DA neurons were exposed to l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid so as to increase ambient glutamate levels and generate slow and sustained excitotoxicity, the effect of xenon on DA neurons was direct. The vitamin E analog Trolox also partially rescued DA neurons in this setting and enhanced neuroprotection by xenon. However, in the situation where DA cell death was spontaneous, the protection of DA neurons by xenon appeared indirect as it occurred through the repression of a mechanism mediated by proliferating glial cells, presumably astrocytes and their precursor cells. Xenon also exerted trophic effects for DA neurons in this paradigm. The effects of xenon were mimicked and improved by the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist memantine and xenon itself appeared to work by antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Note that another noble gas argon could not reproduce xenon effects. Overall, present data indicate that xenon can provide protection and trophic support to DA neurons that are vulnerable in Parkinson's disease. This suggests that xenon might have some therapeutic value for this disorder. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Provide context when reporting on the use of protected and endangered wildlife in ethnopharmacological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Nekaris, K A I

    2016-12-24

    The value of reports on the use of wildlife in ethnopharmacological surveys increases when context is provided on the legality of its use and on the species' conservation status. To evaluate if context is provided when protected and threatened animals are reported as being used in traditional medicine, and to provide recommendations for future reporting. Review of recent papers in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Rarely is information provided on (1) the conservation status of the animals that are used in traditional medicine, (2) whether the parts can be obtained non-invasively or if the animals have to be killed, or (3) whether or not it is legal to use the animals, their parts or derivatives according to national law. When presenting the results of ethnopharmalogical surveys include (1) the conservation status of the species affected, (2) whether or not parts could be harvested non-invasively and (3) the legality of harvesting and / or trading these animals, their parts or their derivatives. Our focus here is on animals, given that more so than in plants or fungi, many of their parts used in natural medicine cannot be obtained non-invasively, but a similar set of guidelines could be developed for other taxa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The views and experiences of nurses and midwives in the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Nalubega, Sylivia; McLuskey, John; Darlington, Nicola; Croston, Michelle; Bath-Hextall, Fiona

    2016-01-15

    Global progress towards HIV prevention and care is contingent upon increasing the number of those aware of their status through HIV testing. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is recommended globally as a strategy to enhance uptake of HIV testing and is primarily conducted by nurses and midwives. Research shows that provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling implementation is sub-optimal. The reasons for this are unclear. The review aimed to explore nurses' and midwives' views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. All cadres of nurses and midwives were considered, including those who undertake routine HIV testing as part of a diverse role and those who are specifically trained as HIV counselors. Types of phenomenon of interest: The review sought to understand the views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (including perceptions, opinions, beliefs, practices and strategies related to HIV testing and its implementation in practice). The review included only provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. It excluded all other models of HIV testing. The review included all countries and all healthcare settings. Types of studies: This review considered all forms of qualitative study design and methodology. Qualitative elements of a mixed method study were included if they were presented separately within the publication. A three-step search strategy was utilized. Eight databases were searched for papers published from 1996 to October 2014, followed by hand searching of reference lists. Only studies published in the English language were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Qualitative findings were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research findings were pooled

  19. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-06-13

    We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56-91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA.

  20. Indian community health insurance schemes provide partial protection against catastrophic health expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranson Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 72% of health expenditure in India is financed by individual households at the time of illness through out-of-pocket payments. This is a highly regressive way of financing health care and sometimes leads to impoverishment. Health insurance is recommended as a measure to protect households from such catastrophic health expenditure (CHE. We studied two Indian community health insurance (CHI schemes, ACCORD and SEWA, to determine whether insured households are protected from CHE. Methods ACCORD provides health insurance cover for the indigenous population, living in Gudalur, Tamil Nadu. SEWA provides insurance cover for self employed women in the state of Gujarat. Both cover hospitalisation expenses, but only upto a maximum limit of US$23 and US$45, respectively. We reviewed the insurance claims registers in both schemes and identified patients who were hospitalised during the period 01/04/2003 to 31/03/2004. Details of their diagnoses, places and costs of treatment and self-reported annual incomes were obtained. There is no single definition of CHE and none of these have been validated. For this research, we used the following definition; "annual hospital expenditure greater than 10% of annual income," to identify those who experienced CHE. Results There were a total of 683 and 3152 hospital admissions at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. In the absence of the CHI scheme, all of the patients at ACCORD and SEWA would have had to pay OOP for their hospitalisation. With the CHI scheme, 67% and 34% of patients did not have to make any out-of-pocket (OOP payment for their hospital expenses at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. Both CHI schemes halved the number of households that would have experienced CHE by covering hospital costs. However, despite this, 4% and 23% of households with admissions still experienced CHE at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. This was related to the following conditions: low annual income, benefit

  1. Provision of medical abortion by midlevel healthcare providers in Kyrgyzstan: testing an intervention to expand safe abortion services to underserved rural and periurban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Maksutova, Elmira; Boobekova, Aigul; Davletova, Ainura; Kazakbaeva, Chinara; Kondrateva, Yelena; Landoulsi, Sihem; Lazdane, Gunta; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Seuc Jo, Armando H

    2017-11-10

    To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of training midlevel healthcare providers (midwives and family nurses) to provide medical abortion and postabortion contraception in underserved areas in Kyrgyzstan. This was an implementation study at four referral facilities and 28 Felsher Obstetric Points in two districts to train their midwives and family nurses to deliver safe and effective abortion care with co-packaged mifepristone-misoprostol and provide contraceptives postabortion. The outcome of abortion - complete abortion, incomplete abortion or o-going pregnancy - was the primary end point measured. An international consultant trained 18 midwives and 14 family nurses (with midwifery diplomas) to provide medical abortion care. Supervising gynecologists based in the referral centers and study investigators based in Bishkek provided monthly monitoring of services and collection of patient management forms. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire at the follow-up visit documented women's acceptability of medical abortion services. All study data were cross-checked and entered into an online data management system for descriptive analysis. Between August 2014 and September 2015, midwives provided medical abortion to 554 women with a complete abortion rate of 97.8%, of whom 62% chose to use misoprostol at home. No women were lost to follow-up. Nearly all women (99.5%) chose a contraceptive method postabortion; 61% of women receiving services completed the acceptability form, of whom more than 99% indicated a high level of satisfaction with the service and would recommend it to a friend. This study demonstrates that trained Kyrgyz midwives and nurses can provide medical abortion safely and effectively. This locally generated evidence can be used by the Kyrgyz Ministry of Health to reduce unintended pregnancy and expand safe abortion care to women in underserved periurban and rural settings. Success in scaling up midwife/nurse provision of medical abortion in

  2. Mucosal vaccination with recombinant adenovirus encoding nucleoprotein provides potent protection against influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccines that target the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase cause inconvenience of having vaccination every year. For this reason, development of universal vaccines targeting conserved viral components is needed. In this study, we generated recombinant adenovirus (rAd vaccine encoding nucleoprotein (NP of A/PR/8/34 influenza virus, designated rAd/NP. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally or sublingually with rAd/NP vaccine and subsequently challenged with lethal doses of heterologous as well as homologous influenza viruses. We found that intranasal immunization of rAd/NP elicited strong mucosal IgA responses as well as stronger CD8 T-cell responses toward immunodominant K(d-restricted NP147-155 epitope than sublingual immunization. Importantly, only single intranasal but not sublingual immunization of rAd/NP provides potent protection against both homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. These results suggest that recombinant rAd/NP could be a universal vaccine candidate for mucosal administration against influenza virus.

  3. Neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate synergizes with immunomodulatory interferon beta to provide enhanced axon protection in autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reick, Christiane; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Thöne, Jan; Scannevin, Robert H; Saft, Carsten; Linker, Ralf A; Gold, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Despite recent advances in development of treatments for multiple sclerosis, there is still an unmet need for more effective and also safe therapies. Based on the modes of action of interferon-beta (IFN-β) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF), we hypothesized that anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects may synergize in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35-55-peptide. Murine IFN-β was injected s.c. every other day at 10.000IU, and DMF was provided at 15mg/kg by oral gavage twice daily. Control mice received PBS injections and were treated by oral gavage with the vehicle methylcellulose. Mice were scored daily by blinded observers and histological, FACS and cytokine studies were performed to further elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. Combination therapy significantly ameliorated EAE disease course in comparison to controls and monotherapy with IFN-β. Histological analyses showed a significant effect on axon preservation with almost twice as much axons present in inflamed lesions as compared to control. Remarkably, the effect on axonal preservation was more pronounced under combination therapy than with both monotherapies. Neither monotherapy nor combination therapy demonstrated modulation of cytokines and frequency of antigen presenting cells. Combination of IFN-β and DMF resulted in greater beneficial effects with improved tissue protection as compared to the respective monotherapies. Further combination studies of these safe therapies in human disease are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft tissue conduction as a possible contributor to the limited attenuation provided by hearing protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Chordekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC. Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a unprotected ears, (b ears covered with earmuffs, (c ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study

  5. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  6. Collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy provides endogenous protection in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuanming; Liang, Fengyin; Ren, Huixia; Yao, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiang; Li, Mingyue; Qin, Dajiang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2017-11-01

    Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging. Occlusion of the pial arteriole apparently increased the diameter and collateral blood flow of its leptomeningeal anastomoses, which significantly reduced the cortical infarction size. This result suggests that the collateral flow via surface communicating network connected with leptomeningeal anastomoses could greatly impact on the extent of infarction. We then further occluded the target pial arteriole and all of its leptomeningeal anastomoses. Notably, this type of occlusion led to reversals of blood flow in the penetrating arterioles mainly proximal to the occluded pial arteriole in a direction from the subsurface microcirculation network to surface arterioles. Interesting, the cell death in the area of ischemic penumbra was accelerated when we performed occlusion to cease the reversed blood flow in those penetrating arterioles, suggesting that the collateral blood flow from subsurface microcirculation network exerts protective roles in delaying cell death in the ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence that collateral blood vessels at different cerebrovascular hierarchy are endogenously compensatory mechanisms in brain ischemia. © 2016 International Society of

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayin; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wengting; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of angiogenesis and the resulting improvement of cerebral microcirculation are key restorative mechanisms and represent an important therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that post-stroke angiogenesis would be enhanced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), a major component of dietary fish oil. To this end, we found that transgenic fat-1 mice that overproduce n-3 PUFAs exhibited long-term behavioral and histological protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Importantly, fat-1 transgenic mice also exhibited robust improvements in revascularization and angiogenesis compared to wild type littermates, suggesting a potential role for n-3 fatty acids in post-stroke cerebrovascular remodeling. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs induced upregulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang 2) in astrocytes after tFCI and stimulated extracellular Ang 2 release from cultured astrocytes after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Ang 2 facilitated endothelial proliferation and barrier formation in vitro by potentiating the effects of VEGF on phospholipase Cγ1 and Src signaling. Consistent with these findings, blockade of Src activity in post-stroke fat-1 mice impaired n-3 PUFA-induced angiogenesis and exacerbated long-term neurological outcomes. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential angiogenic treatment capable of augmenting brain repair and improving long-term functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:24794156

  8. Factors affecting providers' delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy: a five-country analysis of national service provision assessment surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C

    2014-11-20

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) delivered during antenatal care (ANC) visits has been shown to be a highly efficacious and cost-effective intervention. Given the high rates of ANC attendance in sub-Saharan Africa, the current low IPTp coverage represents considerable missed opportunities. The objective of this study was to explore factors affecting provider's delivery of IPTp during ANC consultations. Data from five nationally representative service provision assessment surveys informed the statistical analyses (Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda; 2006-2010). Poisson regression models with robust/clustered standard errors were used to estimate the effect of different determinants on IPTp delivery from 4,971 observed ANC consultations. The five major modifiable determinants of IPTp delivery were: 1) user-fees for ANC medicines (relative risk (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.62-0.93); 2) facilities having IPTp guidelines (RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24); 3) facilities having implemented IPTp as part of their routine ANC services offering (RR = 4.18; 95% CI: 1.75-10.01); 4) stock-outs of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.27-0.60); and, 5) providers having received IPTp training (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35). Using the population-attributable fraction, it was estimated that addressing these barriers jointly could lead to a 31% increase in delivery of this intervention during ANC consultations. Of these four potentially modifiable determinants, training of providers for IPTp had the largest potential impact. If proved to be cost-effective, dispensing IPTp training to ANC providers should be prioritized. Multifaceted approaches targeted in areas of low coverage and/or type of facilities least likely to provide this intervention should be implemented if the Roll Back Malaria target of 100% IPTp coverage by 2015 is to be attained.

  9. Experimental Shielding Evaluation of the Radiation Protection Provided by Residential Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elijah D.

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment has been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology and researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to research and develop the technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the U.S. housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection a certain building-type provides from ionizing radiation. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950's era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments seen today. To analyze a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building-types to various radioactive materials and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research uniquely analyzes the shielding effectiveness of a variety of likely U.S. residential buildings from a realistic source term in a laboratory setting. Results produced in the investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology by applying laboratory measurements to detailed computational models. These models are used to develop a series of validated building shielding factors for generic residential housing units using the computational code MCNP5. For these building shielding factors to be useful in radiologic consequence assessments and emergency response planning, two types of shielding factors have been developed for; (1) the shielding effectiveness of each structure within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material, and (2) the shielding effectiveness of each structure

  10. How do migratory species add ecosystem service value to wilderness? Calculating the spatial subsidies provided by protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Species that migrate through protected and wilderness areas and utilize their resources, deliver ecosystem services to people in faraway locations. The mismatch between the areas that most support a species and those areas where the species provides most benefits to society can lead to underestimation of the true value of protected areas such as wilderness. We present a method to communicate the “off-site” value of wilderness and protected areas in providing habitat to migratory species that, in turn, provide benefits to people in distant locations. Using northern pintail ducks (Anas acuta) as an example, the article provides a method to estimate the amount of subsidy – the value of the ecosystem services provided by a migratory species in one area versus the cost to support the species and its habitat elsewhere.

  11. Splenosis and sepsis: The born-again spleen provides poor protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Nathan T; Brunner, Andrew M; Kerr, Christine A; Schiffman, Fred J

    2011-01-01

    Splenosis describes ectopic splenic tissue found in patients after rupture of the spleen. These implants are commonly located on the omentum but can be scattered throughout the body in varying number and size. Although splenosis was first documented over a century ago, the precise mechanism for its development remains unknown. The degree of immunoprotection offered by this tissue remains unclear. Much of the human data is in the form of case reports documenting failure of splenotic tissue to protect against septicemia. Even accessory spleens may not offer complete protection once the primary spleen is removed. This review of the literature demonstrates that no amount of splenosis should be considered protective against overwhelming post-splenectomy infection.

  12. Cryptocephaline Egg Case Provides Incomplete Protection from Generalist Predators (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schöller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg case of Cryptocephalus rufipes (Goeze is described and illustrated. In laboratory trials, eggs of field-collected C. rufipes were observed for larval emergence (untreated control or exposed to two species of generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens or Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter in no-choice experiments. The behaviour of the predators upon contact with the C. rufipes eggs was observed. The number of hatching larvae was counted and compared. In the presence of each of the two species of predators, larval emergence was significantly reduced. Eggs that were not protected by an egg case were completely consumed by the predators. C. rufipes eggs were therefore incompletely protected from the studied generalist predators. This is the first study showing experimentally the protective function of cryptocephaline egg case.

  13. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  14. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papawee Suabjakyong

    Full Text Available The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L. Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A. We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  15. Does selective beta-1 blockade provide bone marrow protection after trauma/hemorrhagic shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Latha V; Cook, Kristin M; Sifri, Ziad C; Kotamarti, Srinath; Calderon, Gabriel M; Alzate, Walter D; Livingston, David H; Mohr, Alicia M

    2012-09-01

    Previously, nonselective beta-blockade (BB) with propranolol demonstrated protection of the bone marrow (BM) after trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS). Because selective beta-1 blockers are used commonly for their cardiac protection, the aim of this study was to more clearly define the role of specific beta adrenergic receptors in BM protection after trauma and HS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral lung contusion (LC) followed by HS for 45 minutes. After resuscitation, animals were injected with a selective beta-blocker, atenolol (B1B), butoxamine (B2B), or SR59230A (B3B). Animals were killed at 3 hours or 7 days. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured throughout the study period. BM cellularity, growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in BM, and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were assessed. Treatment with a B2B or B3B after LCHS restored both BM cellularity and BM HPC colony growth at 3 hours and 7 days. In contrast, treatment with a B1B had no effect on BM cellularity or HPC growth but did decrease heart effectively rate throughout the study. Treatment with a B3B after LCHS increased Hb as compared with LCHS alone. After trauma and HS, protection of BM for 7 days was seen with use of either a selective beta-2 or beta-3 blocker. Use of a selective beta-1 blocker was ineffective in protecting the BM despite a physiologic decrease in heart rate. Therefore, the protection of BM is via the beta-2 and beta-3 receptors and it is not via a direct cardiovascular effect. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Ensured power supply and environmental protection as elements of a provident social policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkopf, G.

    1980-09-01

    The conflict situation between the industry and environmental protection, which has developed in post-war Germany is examined in the light of the current governmental approach to the power supply problem. Means of resolving the principal problem areas are discussed.

  17. t-BHQ Provides Protection against Lead Neurotoxicity via Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxicity of lead has been well established, and oxidative stress is strongly associated with lead-induced neurotoxicity. Nrf2 is important for protection against oxidative stress in many disease models. We applied t-BHQ, which is an Nrf2 activator, to investigate the possible role of Nrf2 in the protection against lead neurotoxicity. t-BHQ significantly attenuated the oxidative stress in developmental rats by decreasing MDA level, as well as by increasing SOD activity and GSH content, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis was detected by Nissl staining, and Bax expression was inhibited in the t-BHQ-treated group. Results showed that t-BHQ suppressed ROS production and caspase 3/7 activity but increased intracellular GSH content, in SH-SY5Y cells under lead exposure. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro, t-BHQ enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and binding to ARE areas but did not induce Nrf2 transcription. These phenomena were confirmed using RT-PCR, EMSA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. Subsequent upregulation of the expression of HO-1, NQO1, and GCLC was observed. However, knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 adversely affected the protective effects of t-BHQ against lead toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, t-BHQ can protect against lead neurotoxicity, depending on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  18. Tetrahydrobiopterin precursor sepiapterin provides protection against neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium in nigral slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Jansen, Pernille; Hesslinger, Christian

    2003-01-01

    and protects against the toxic consequences of glutathione depletion. Here we studied the effects of manipulating tetrahydrobiopterin levels on MPP+ toxicity in organotypic, rat ventral mesencephalic slice cultures. In cultures exposed to 30 micro m MPP+ for 2 days, followed by 8 days 'recovery' in control...

  19. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  20. The new radiation protection ordinance: coming into effect and transitional provisions for nuclear medicine; Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung: In-Kraft-Treten und Uebergangsbestimmungen fuer den nuklearmedizinischen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Baller, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    The new radiation protection ordinance, which has come into effect with August 1{sup st}, 2001 implies some innovations, which are of relevance for nuclear medicine. This affects the allowance for handling with radioactive material, medical research, radioactive waste, expertise for radiation protection in medicine as well as regulations for radiation protection areas and dose limits. The regulations for application of radioactive material in humans in medicine have been changed too. This article gives an overview of the most relevant regulations, which have to be applied since the new radiation protection ordinance has come into effect. In addition, regulation are described for which transitional provisions exist including the time-limits which have to be considered. (orig.) [German] Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung, die zum 1. August 2001 in Kraft getreten ist, bringt einige Neuerungen, die fuer Nuklearmediziner von Bedeutung sind. Dies betrifft die Umgangsgenehmigung, die medizinische Forschung, den radioaktiven Abfall, die Fachkunde sowie Regelungen zu den Strahlenschutzbereichen und den Grenzwerten. Neu sind ebenfalls Regelungen zur Anwendung am Menschen in der Heilkunde. In dem Artikel sind die wichtigsten Vorschriften dargestellt, die mit Inkrafttreten der Verordnung anzuwenden sind, fuer welche Vorschriften Uebergangsbestimmungen bestehen und welche Fristen hierbei zu beachten sind. (orig.)

  1. Respiratory Protection Toolkit: Providing Guidance Without Changing Requirements-Can We Make an Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Elizabeth Ann; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Betcher, Cynthia Ann; Thrasher, Terri L; Mingerink, Donna R

    2016-12-01

    International travel and infectious respiratory illnesses worldwide place health care workers (HCWs) at increasing risk of respiratory exposures. To ensure the highest quality safety initiatives, one health care system used a quality improvement model of Plan-Do-Study-Act and guidance from Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) May 2015 Hospital Respiratory Protection Program (RPP) Toolkit to assess a current program. The toolkit aided in identification of opportunities for improvement within their well-designed RPP. One opportunity was requiring respirator use during aerosol-generating procedures for specific infectious illnesses. Observation data demonstrated opportunities to mitigate controllable risks including strap placement, user seal check, and reuse of disposable N95 filtering facepiece respirators. Subsequent interdisciplinary collaboration resulted in other ideas to decrease risks and increase protection from potentially infectious respiratory illnesses. The toolkit's comprehensive document to evaluate the program showed that while the OSHA standards have not changed, the addition of the toolkit can better protect HCWs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Genetic vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus provides protection without disease potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa R; Rangel, David; Graham, Barney S; Brough, Douglas E; Gall, Jason G

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of infectious lower respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. As there is no vaccine for RSV, we developed a genetic vaccine approach that induced protection of the entire respiratory tract from a single parenteral administration. The approach was based on adenovirus vectors derived from newly isolated nonhuman primate viruses with low seroprevalence. We show for the first time that a single intramuscular (IM) injection of the replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the RSV fusion (F0) glycoprotein induced immune responses that protected both the lungs and noses of cotton rats and mice even at low doses and for several months postimmunization. The immune response included high titers of neutralizing antibody that were maintained ≥ 24 weeks and RSV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The vectors were as potently immunogenic as a human adenovirus 5 vector in these two key respiratory pathogen animal models. Importantly, there was minimal alveolitis and granulocytic infiltrates in the lung, and type 2 cytokines were not produced after RSV challenge even under conditions of partial protection. Overall, this genetic vaccine is highly effective without potentiating immunopathology, and the results support development of the vaccine candidate for human testing.

  3. Low-canopy seagrass beds still provide important coastal protection services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn J A Christianen

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently quoted ecosystem services of seagrass meadows is their value for coastal protection. Many studies emphasize the role of above-ground shoots in attenuating waves, enhancing sedimentation and preventing erosion. This raises the question if short-leaved, low density (grazed seagrass meadows with most of their biomass in belowground tissues can also stabilize sediments. We examined this by combining manipulative field experiments and wave measurements along a typical tropical reef flat where green turtles intensively graze upon the seagrass canopy. We experimentally manipulated wave energy and grazing intensity along a transect perpendicular to the beach, and compared sediment bed level change between vegetated and experimentally created bare plots at three distances from the beach. Our experiments showed that i even the short-leaved, low-biomass and heavily-grazed seagrass vegetation reduced wave-induced sediment erosion up to threefold, and ii that erosion was a function of location along the vegetated reef flat. Where other studies stress the importance of the seagrass canopy for shoreline protection, our study on open, low-biomass and heavily grazed seagrass beds strongly suggests that belowground biomass also has a major effect on the immobilization of sediment. These results imply that, compared to shallow unvegetated nearshore reef flats, the presence of a short, low-biomass seagrass meadow maintains a higher bed level, attenuating waves before reaching the beach and hence lowering beach erosion rates. We propose that the sole use of aboveground biomass as a proxy for valuing coastal protection services should be reconsidered.

  4. [Requirements for the provision of healthcare to socially disadvantaged population groups: evaluation of 10 years of medical care provided to the homeless in Hanover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidl, Jana; Wenzlaff, Paul; Sens, Brigitte; Goesmann, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the German Federal Government introduced a general health insurance obligation, but there are still vulnerable groups such as poor and homeless people without access to medical care. Especially for social fringe groups, a visit to the doctor involves many obstacles. Ten years ago the project "Outreach medical care for homeless people and people threatened by homelessness in Hanover" was established in order to reduce those gaps in healthcare provision. A continuously conducted evaluation of the project shows that low-threshold consulting hours are accepted and the transition to medical specialists is becoming increasingly easy. So the evaluation plays an important part in the development of the project. Since the healthcare reform in 2004, however, the number of cases has increased by 30 % while the actual homeless target group has remained the same. In order to guarantee access to the healthcare system for patients who cannot afford additional payments, the abolition of the quarterly practice fee and other additional payments for people on a low income is an important step. The growing requirements, resulting from a changing clientele and changes in the general conditions, are raising questions as to the nature of such projects and its future funding. In the long run it isn't the aim of this non-profit project to take on central tasks of a mutually supportive community. Therefore the data and results collected on the evaluation not only serve to improve the projects management, but also provide important information to other initiatives outside Hanover whether and how to support the respective groups of patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT, ORGANIZATION AND PROVIDING OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION CONTROL IN ST. PETBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rakitin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of radiation environment and work experience of Rospotrebnadzor Administration in St. Petersburg in the field of organizing of population radiation protection control and interaction with the local government executive bodies. It shows the level and structure of the city population collective doses from the main dose forming ionizing irradiation sources. It emphasizes the integrated method of solving the population exposure limitation issues based on the results of radiation-hygienic passport system and on the data from Uniform State System for Doses Control and Registration. The evaluation of the work being carried out is given.

  6. Variable BCG efficacy in rhesus populations: Pulmonary BCG provides protection where standard intra-dermal vaccination fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreck, Frank A W; Tchilian, Elma Z; Vervenne, Richard A W; Sombroek, Claudia C; Kondova, Ivanela; Eissen, Okke A; Sommandas, Vinod; van der Werff, Nicole M; Verschoor, Ernst; Braskamp, Gerco; Bakker, Jaco; Langermans, Jan A M; Heidt, Peter J; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Kralingen, Klaas W; Thomas, Alan W; Beverley, Peter C L; Kocken, Clemens H M

    2017-05-01

    M.bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) notoriously displays variable protective efficacy in different human populations. In non-human primate studies using rhesus macaques, despite efforts to standardise the model, we have also observed variable efficacy of BCG upon subsequent experimental M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present head-to-head study, we establish that the protective efficacy of standard parenteral BCG immunisation varies among different rhesus cohorts. This provides different dynamic ranges for evaluation of investigational vaccines, opportunities for identifying possible correlates of protective immunity and for determining why parenteral BCG immunisation sometimes fails. We also show that pulmonary mucosal BCG vaccination confers reduced local pathology and improves haematological and immunological parameters post-infection in animals that are not responsive to induction of protection by standard intra-dermal BCG. These results have important implications for pulmonary TB vaccination strategies in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  8. Striatal grafts provide sustained protection from kainic and quinolinic acid-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N; Luo, S Q; Allen, G S; Whetsell, W O

    1988-12-01

    Grafts of neonatal striatal tissue were placed into the striata of adult rats. When challenged immediately with intrastriatal injections of either kainic or quinolinic acid, excitotoxic damage was prevented. Thirty days later these same graft recipients received another injection of excitotoxin. The intrastriatal grafts continued to mitigate toxin-induced damage. It is hypothesized that the grafted cells not only survive, but that they may continue to elaborate some substance or substances that prevent excitotoxin-induced injury for at least 30 days. Previous investigations indicated that grafts of neonatal striatal tissue can protect the recipient striatum from kainic acid toxicity. In the following study it is demonstrated that such grafts also protect the striatum from quinolinic acid, an endogenous excitotoxin which induces kainate-like neuronal degeneration and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. It is postulated that the salutary effect of striatal grafting may be sufficiently long lasting to mitigate a chronic toxic insult. Such grafting may therefore represent a therapy for Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders in which an endogenous or exogenous toxin has been implicated as the pathogenetic agent.

  9. Perioperative Lung Protection Provided by High-Dose Ambroxol in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Huayong; Zhang, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The purpose is to observe the clinical effect of large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride in lung protection during the perioperative period of lung cancer operation. Fifty-six lung cancer patients who have undergone open-thoracic pulmonary lobectomy were divided randomly into two groups, and were given normal and large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride, respectively, during their perioperative period. Statistics based on post-operation clinical observations were analyzed in terms of ease of expectoration and expectoration properties, duration of antibiotics dependence, occurrence of lung complications, and adverse reactions related to ambroxol hydrochloride. On the third and the seventh day, the experimental group showed signs of improvement in terms of ease of expectoration and expectoration properties, compared with the controlled group. In terms of occurrence of post-operation lung complications and duration of antibiotics dependence, the experimental group also performed better. Using large doses of ambroxol hydrochloride would result in better clinical effects than using normal doses in preventing post-operation complications, and its clinical value in lung protection during lung cancer perioperative period calls for further research and promotion.

  10. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Roberta M; Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S; Hay, Mark E

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3-6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3-5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260-280% as much coral cover and only 5-25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs.

  11. Integrated social facility location planning for decision support: Accessibility studies provide support to facility location and integration of social service provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available in facility provision ?Identification of suitable location(s) for selected new facilities and assisting in the development of a integrated facility provision location plans ?Evaluation of the impact of planned project or budget requests on facility backlog... the people?s access to transport ? Road network ? the road network is used to simulate the way in which people traverse across spaces. Different types of roads also have different speeds at which traffic or a person can move on it or impedances. Using...

  12. Financial Protection of Patients through Compensation of Providers: The Impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Flores (Gabriela); I. Por; C.R. Men; O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPublic providers have no financial incentive to respect their legal obligation to exempt the poor from user fees. Health Equity Funds (HEFs) aim to make exemptions effective by giving NGOs responsibility for assessing eligibility and compensating providers for lost revenue. We use the

  13. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  14. Would protecting tropical forest fragments provide carbon and biodiversity cobenefits under REDD+?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, William F; Martins, Sebastião V; Meira-Neto, João Augusto A; Simonelli, Marcelo; Edwards, David P

    2015-09-01

    Tropical forests store vast amounts of carbon and are the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats, yet they are being converted and degraded at alarming rates. Given global shortfalls in the budgets required to prevent carbon and biodiversity loss, we need to seek solutions that simultaneously address both issues. Of particular interest are carbon-based payments under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism to also conserve biodiversity at no additional cost. One potential is for REDD+ to protect forest fragments, especially within biomes where contiguous forest cover has diminished dramatically, but we require empirical tests of the strength of any carbon and biodiversity cobenefits in such fragmented systems. Using the globally threatened Atlantic Forest landscape, we measured above-ground carbon stocks within forest fragments spanning 13 to 23 442 ha in area and with different degrees of isolation. We related these stocks to tree community structure and to the richness and abundance of endemic and IUCN Red-listed species. We found that increasing fragment size has a positive relationship with above-ground carbon stock and with abundance of IUCN Red-listed species and tree community structure. We also found negative relationships between distance from large forest block and tree community structure, endemic species richness and abundance, and IUCN Red-listed species abundance. These resulted in positive congruence between carbon stocks and Red-listed species, and the abundance and richness of endemic species, demonstrating vital cobenefits. As such, protecting forest fragments in hotspots of biodiversity, particularly larger fragments and those closest to sources, offers important carbon and biodiversity cobenefits. More generally, our results suggest that macroscale models of cobenefits under REDD+ have likely overlooked key benefits at small scales, indicating the necessity to apply models that include finer

  15. Manganese Provides Antioxidant Protection for Sperm Cryopreservation that May Offer New Consideration for Clinical Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjna S. Cheema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated by sperm metabolism. While, ROS are required for maturation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, they also modify many peroxidable cellular compounds. There is production of ROS during cryopreservation and frozen spermatozoa are highly sensitive to lipid peroxidation (LPO. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen bovine sperm preserving both metabolic activity and cellular viability. Manganese (Mn++ is proved to be a chain breaking antioxidant in biological system. Therefore, we examined the role of (Mn++ during cryopreservation of cattle bull semen. Semen was divided into four parts and cryopreserved in egg-yolk-citrate extender + glycerol (EYC-G, EYC-G + 100 µM of Mn++, EYC-G + 150 µM of Mn++ and EYC-G + 200 µM of Mn++. After four hours of cooling and 24 hrs of freezing, the spermatozoa were examined for percentage motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS, LPO and protein leakage. Addition of manganese to the semen during cryopreservation showed a protective effect and accounted for an increase in semen quality parameters [percentage motility, HOS percent and decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA production and protein leakage]. The effect of manganese on motility and HOS was non-significant (p < 0.05 in cooled spermatozoa but significant with 150 µM of Mn++ in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. MDA production and protein leakage decreased to a significant and maximum level (p < 0.05 on addition of 200 µM of manganese. The addition of manganese to EYC-G dilutor will improve the quality/fertility of semen, which will result in improvement of in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination success rate.

  16. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. Copyright © 2015

  17. Validation of protection provided by one brand of filtering facepiece respirator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, John Rose [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences

    1995-05-01

    A previous laboratory study of a widely used disposable dust / mist (D/M) respirator (3M™8710) utilized a challenge agent that had high penetration values for D/M filter media. Therefore, measured protection factors (PFs) reflected both filter and faceseal penetration, and would be lower than that expected for faceseal penetration only. The purpose of this study was to determine a PF for this brand of disposable D/M respirator using a challenge agent that has low filter penetration for this type of filter. Methodology involved qualitatively (QLFT) and quantitatively (QNFT) fit testing 15 males and 15 females while wearing the respirator. One QLFT was done per subject using the saccharin method. Three QNFTs were performed on each subject utilizing a 2.5 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) monodisperse challenge aerosol. Measured PF`s were corrected for lung deposition of this size aerosol. The average fit for each subject was the arithmetic mean of the three PFs. The PFs were found to be approximately log-normally distributed, so logs of PFs were used in the statistical analysis. The exponent of the 95% lower tolerance level (LTL) of the fifth percentile of the log PFs was 50. This compares to an exponent of the 95% LTL of the fifth percentile of the log PFs of two determined in a previous study and to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Assigned Protection Factor (APF) of ten. No significant difference of average fit between males and females was found. The sensitivity of the saccharin QLFT was 42.9%, and specificity could not be evaluated.

  18. Candesartan and amlodipine combination therapy provides powerful vascular protection in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Shinji; Jin, Denan; Shimosato, Takashi; Sakonjo, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2011-02-01

    The vascular protective effects of placebo, candesartan (1 mg kg(-1) per day) monotherapy, candesartan (1 mg kg(-1) per day) and amlodipine (1 mg kg(-1) per day) combination therapy, and candesartan (1 mg kg(-1) per day) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (10 mg kg(-1) per day) combination therapy for 2 weeks were compared in stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive rats. Candesartan monotherapy significantly reduced blood pressure, and both combination therapies were equally and significantly lower than the monotherapy. Acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation was significantly stronger in all therapeutic groups than in the placebo-treated group. Furthermore, the relaxation was significantly stronger in the candesartan plus amlodipine-treated group than in the candesartan-treated group; however, there was no significant difference between the candesartan- and candesartan plus HCTZ-treated groups. Vascular gene expressions of the NADPH oxidase subunits p22(phox), gp91(phox), NOX1 and NOX4 were significantly attenuated in all therapeutic groups compared with the placebo-treated group, and there were no significant differences among those groups. However, a significant augmentation of vascular superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the candesartan plus amlodipine-treated group, but not in other groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the vascular tissues were significantly attenuated in all therapeutic groups. Compared with the candesartan-treated group, significant attenuation was observed in the candesartan plus amlodipine-treated group, but not in the candesartan plus HCTZ-treated group. Immunohistological analysis showed that areas positive for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were significantly reduced in all therapeutic groups, but this reduction was significantly greater for the candesartan plus amlodipine-treated group than for the candesartan-treated group. Thus, candesartan and amlodipine combination therapy could have a powerful protective effect in vascular tissues via

  19. Water Supply Protection Areas, Non-Community Wellhead Protection Areas; ncwhpa12; The intention of this dataset was to provide an overview of areas intended to be protected for the safety of non-community wells in Rhode Island., Published in 2012, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Water Supply Protection Areas dataset current as of 2012. Non-Community Wellhead Protection Areas; ncwhpa12; The intention of this dataset was to provide an overview...

  20. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M O'Connor

    Full Text Available The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland's southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19-52% of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0-4%. Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches.

  1. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Julie M.; Limpus, Colin J.; Hofmeister, Kate M.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Burnett, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland’s southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19–52%) of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0–4%). Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches. PMID:28187181

  2. Financial protection of patients through compensation of providers: the impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; Men, Chean R; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    Public providers have no financial incentive to respect their legal obligation to exempt the poor from user fees. Health Equity Funds (HEFs) aim to make exemptions effective by giving NGOs responsibility for assessing eligibility and compensating providers for lost revenue. We use the geographic spread of HEFs over time in Cambodia to identify their impact on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Among households with some OOP payment, HEFs reduce the amount paid by 35%, on average. The effect is larger for households that are poorer and mainly use public health care. Reimbursement of providers through a government operated scheme also reduces household OOP payments but the effect is not as well targeted on the poor. Both compensation models raise household non-medical consumption but have no impact on health-related debt. HEFs reduce the probability of primarily seeking care in the private sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Providing Password Protection and Limited Access to Models and Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Gene; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2007-08-09

    One of the most important concerns for regulatory agencies is the concept of reproducibility (i.e., reproducibility means credibility) of an assessment. One aspect of reproducibility deals with tampering of the assessment. In other words, when multiple groups are engaged in an assessment, it is important to lock down the problem that is to be solved and/or to restrict the models that are to be used to solve the problem. The objective of this effort is to provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with a means to limit user access to models and to provide a mechanism to constrain the conceptual site models (CSMs) when appropriate. The purpose is to provide the user (i.e., NRC) with the ability to “lock down” the CSM (i.e., picture containing linked icons), restrict access to certain models, or both.

  4. Protect Your Baby from Bleeds: Talk to Your Healthcare Provider about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Bleeds – Talk to Your Healthcare Provider about Vitamin K Without enough vitamin K, your baby has a chance of bleeding into ... even death. Infants who do not receive the vitamin K shot at birth can develop VKDB up to ...

  5. Preconditioning triggered by carbon monoxide (CO provides neuronal protection following perinatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S F Queiroga

    Full Text Available Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of acute mortality in newborns and cognitive and motor impairments in children. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia leads to excitotoxicity and necrotic and apoptotic cell death, in which mitochondria play a major role. Increased resistance against major damage can be achieved by preconditioning triggered by subtle insults. CO, a toxic molecule that is also generated endogenously, may have a role in preconditioning as low doses can protect against inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CO-induced preconditioning on neurons was addressed in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 1 h of CO treatment on neuronal death (plasmatic membrane permeabilization and chromatin condensation and bcl-2 expression was studied in cerebellar granule cells undergoing to glutamate-induced apoptosis. CO's role was studied in vivo in the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (common carotid artery ligature +75 min at 8% oxygen. Apoptotic cells, assessed by Nissl staining were counted with a stereological approach and cleaved caspase 3-positive profiles in the hippocampus were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were analyzed in hippocampal extracts by Western Blot. CO inhibited excitotoxicity-induced cell death and increased Bcl-2 mRNA in primary cultures of neurons. In vivo, CO prevented hypoxia-ischemia induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, limited cytochrome c released from mitochondria and reduced activation of caspase-3. Still, Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in hippocampus of CO pre-treated rat pups. Our results show that CO preconditioning elicits a molecular cascade that limits neuronal apoptosis. This could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy for high-risk cerebral hypoxia-ischemia patients, in particular neonates.

  6. Preconditioning Triggered by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Provides Neuronal Protection Following Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerøe, Marius; Alves, Paula M.; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of acute mortality in newborns and cognitive and motor impairments in children. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia leads to excitotoxicity and necrotic and apoptotic cell death, in which mitochondria play a major role. Increased resistance against major damage can be achieved by preconditioning triggered by subtle insults. CO, a toxic molecule that is also generated endogenously, may have a role in preconditioning as low doses can protect against inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CO-induced preconditioning on neurons was addressed in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 1 h of CO treatment on neuronal death (plasmatic membrane permeabilization and chromatin condensation) and bcl-2 expression was studied in cerebellar granule cells undergoing to glutamate-induced apoptosis. CO's role was studied in vivo in the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (common carotid artery ligature +75 min at 8% oxygen). Apoptotic cells, assessed by Nissl staining were counted with a stereological approach and cleaved caspase 3-positive profiles in the hippocampus were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were analyzed in hippocampal extracts by Western Blot. CO inhibited excitotoxicity-induced cell death and increased Bcl-2 mRNA in primary cultures of neurons. In vivo, CO prevented hypoxia-ischemia induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, limited cytochrome c released from mitochondria and reduced activation of caspase-3. Still, Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in hippocampus of CO pre-treated rat pups. Our results show that CO preconditioning elicits a molecular cascade that limits neuronal apoptosis. This could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy for high-risk cerebral hypoxia-ischemia patients, in particular neonates. PMID:22952602

  7. CD8+ T cells provide immune protection against murine disseminated endotheliotropic Orientia tsutsugamushi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, caused by a Gram-negative obligately intracellular coccobacillus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a long neglected but important tropical disease. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes illness in one million people each year, and 1 billion people are at risk. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the disease can cause severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate of 7-15%. The current gaps in knowledge of immunity include the unknown mechanisms of host immunity to O. tsutsugamushi. Using an intravenous (i.v. disseminated infection mouse model, we observed that more CD8+ T cells than CD4+ T cells were present in the spleen of infected mice at 12 dpi. We also determined that Treg cells and the proportion of T cells producing IL-10 were significantly increased from 6 dpi, which correlated with the onset of illness, body weight loss, and increased bacterial loads. We further studied CD8-/-, MHC I-/- and wild type control (WT C57BL/6J mice to determine the importance of CD8+ T cells and MHC I molecules. After infection with an ordinarily sub-lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi, all CD8-/- and MHC I-/- mice were moribund between 12 and 15 dpi, whereas all WT mice survived. Bacterial loads in the lung, kidney, liver and spleen of CD8-/- and MHC I-/- mice were significantly greater than those in WT mice. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ and granzyme B mRNA levels in the liver of CD8-/- and MHC I-/- mice were significantly greater than in WT mice. In addition, more severe histopathologic lesions were observed in CD8-/- mice. Finally, adoptive transfer confirmed a major role of immune CD8+ T cells as well as a less effective contribution by immune CD8 T cell-depleted splenocytes in protection against O. tsutsugamushi infection. These studies demonstrated the critical importance of CD8+ T cells in the host immune response during O. tsutsugamushi infection.

  8. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  9. Protection provided by masks sinkers in interventional techniques; Proteccion ofrecida por mascaras plomadas en tecnicas intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera Cegarra, O.; Alejo Luque, L.; Pifarre Martinez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The high doses that are taught in laboratories worked indispensable the use of shields and armor. In this context, the use of sinkers glasses is widespread, but not the sinkers of the masks. Our goal is to study the effectiveness of such masks for later comparison with that provided by leaded glasses with side shields. Specifically, compare the reduction in lens dose rate for different positions and orientations of the head of specialist intervention.

  10. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain's protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge.

  11. Reduced-Dose Schedule of Prophylaxis Based on Local Data Provides Near-Optimal Protection Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Daniel M; Warren, Joshua L; Steiner, Claudia A; Charu, Vivek; Viboud, Cécile; Pitzer, Virginia E

    2015-08-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infections among young children and can lead to severe disease among some infants. Infants at high risk for severe RSV infection receive monthly injections of a prophylactic monoclonal antibody during the RSV season based on national guidelines. We considered whether a reduced-dose schedule tailored to the local RSV season in the continental United States would provide adequate protection. Hospitalization data for 1942 counties across 38 states from 1997 to 2009 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). We assessed the timing of RSV epidemics at the county and state levels using a 2-stage hierarchical Bayesian change point model. We used a simple summation approach to estimate the fraction of RSV cases that occur during the window of protection provided by initiating RSV prophylaxis during different weeks of the year. The timing of RSV epidemic onset varied significantly at the local level. Nevertheless, the national recommendations for initiation of prophylaxis provided near-optimal coverage of the RSV season in most of the continental United States. Reducing from 5 to 4 monthly doses (with a later initiation) provides near-optimal coverage (protection comparable to 5 doses and could be considered as a way to improve the cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Natural IgG antibodies provide innate protection against ficolin-opsonized bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Saswati; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Nguan Soon; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2013-01-01

    For nearly five decades since its discovery, the role of natural IgG, which pre-exists in neonates and uninfected individuals, has remained unclear due to the general perception that natural antibodies lack affinity for pathogens. Here, we show for the first time that natural IgG recognizes a spectrum of bacteria through lectins like ficolin and mannose binding lectin (MBL). Infection-inflammation condition markedly increased the affinity of natural IgG for bacteria associated with ficolins. After opsonization with IgG:ficolin complex, the bacteria were phagocytosed by monocytes via FcγRI. Infection of C3−/− mice indicated that the natural IgG-mediated immune complex was formed independently of C3. AID−/− mice lacking IgG were susceptible to infection, unless reconstituted with natural IgG. Thus, we have proven that natural IgG is not quiescent; rather, it plays a vital and immediate role in immune defense. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on natural antibodies, opening new avenues to explore host–microbe interaction. PMID:24002211

  13. Bioactive glass combined with bisphosphonates provides protection against biofilms formed by the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Anna K; Skogman, Malena E; Rosenqvist, Kirsi; Juvonen, Helka; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Juppo, Anne; Fallarero, Adyary

    2016-03-30

    Biofilms play a pivotal role in the progression of periodontitis and they can be treated with antiseptics (i.e. chlorhexidine) or antibiotics, but these therapeutic alternatives are unable of ameliorating periodontal alveolar bone loss, which has been, on the other hand, successfully treated with bone-preserving agents. The improved bone formation achieved in animal models by the combination of two such agents: bioactive glass (BAG) and bisphosphonates has attracted the interest for further exploring dental applications. However, the antimicrobial effects that may result from combining them have not been yet investigated. Here, our aim was to explore the anti-biofilm effects that could result from combining BAG with bisphosphonates, particularly in a dental biofilm model. The experiments were performed with an oral cavity single-specie (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) biofilm assay, which was optimized in this contribution. Risedronate displayed an intrinsic anti-biofilm effect, and all bisphosphonates, except clodronate, reduced biofilm formation when combined with BAG. In particular, the anti-biofilm activity of risedronate was significantly increased by the combination with BAG. Since it has been proposed that some of the antimicrobial effects of BAG are caused by local pH changes, studies of pH variations were performed to gain a mechanistic understanding. However, the observed anti-biofilm effects could not be explained with lowered pHs. Overall, these results do provide further support for the promising use of bisphosphonate-BAG combinations in dental applications. These findings are particularly relevant for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or osteoporotic patients, which are known to be more vulnerable to periodontitis. In such cases, bisphosphonate treatment could play a double positive effect: local treatment of periodontitis (in combination with BAG) and systemic treatment of osteoporosis, prevention of hypercalcemia and metastases

  14. An antiretroviral/zinc combination gel provides 24 hours of complete protection against vaginal SHIV infection in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Kenney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated use, coitus-independent microbicide gels that do not contain antiretroviral agents also used as first line HIV therapy are urgently needed to curb HIV spread. Current formulations require high doses (millimolar range of antiretroviral drugs and typically only provide short-term protection in macaques. We used the macaque model to test the efficacy of a novel combination microbicide gel containing zinc acetate and micromolar doses of the novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MIV-150 for up to 24 h after repeated gel application.Rhesus macaques were vaginally challenged with SHIV-RT up to 24 h after repeated administration of microbicide versus placebo gels. Infection status was determined by measuring virologic and immunologic parameters. Combination microbicide gels containing 14 mM zinc acetate dihydrate and 50 µM MIV-150 afforded full protection (21 of 21 animals for up to 24 h after 2 weeks of daily application. Partial protection was achieved with the MIV-150 gel (56% of control at 8 h after last application, 11% at 24 h, while the zinc acetate gel afforded more pronounced protection (67% at 8-24 h. Marked protection persisted when the zinc acetate or MIV-150/zinc acetate gels were applied every other day for 4 weeks prior to challenge 24 h after the last gel was administered (11 of 14 protected. More MIV-150 was associated with cervical tissue 8 h after daily dosing of MIV-150/zinc acetate versus MIV-150, while comparable MIV-150 levels were associated with vaginal tissues and at 24 h.A combination MIV-150/zinc acetate gel and a zinc acetate gel provide significant protection against SHIV-RT infection for up to 24 h. This represents a novel advancement, identifying microbicides that do not contain anti-viral agents used to treat HIV infection and which can be used repeatedly and independently of coitus, and underscores the need for future clinical testing of their safety and ability to prevent HIV transmission in

  15. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors.

  16. 40 CFR 192.42 - Substitute provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute provisions. 192.42 Section 192.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... § 192.42 Substitute provisions. The regulatory agency may, with the concurrence of EPA, substitute for...

  17. Characterization of the UVA protection provided by avobenzone, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide in broad-spectrum sunscreen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Donathan G; Meyer, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Solar UV radiation (UVR) is composed of UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) wavelengths. Only two sunscreen active ingredients approved in the US, avobenzone (butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane) and zinc oxide (ZnO), provide true broad-spectrum protection against UVA wavelengths >360 nm. Although effective against shorter UVR wavelengths sunscreen film during UVR exposure, avobenzone needs to be formulated into sunscreen products using sound formulation strategies. To characterize the efficacy of avobenzone, ZnO, and TiO(2) in terms of their abilities to provide broad UVA protection and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the different formulation strategies used today to maintain the efficacy of avobenzone even during prolonged exposures to UVR. UVA efficacy was assessed by measuring absorbance profiles in vitro using Vitro Skin® (IMS Inc., Orange, CT, USA) as an inert substrate and by determining UVA protection factors (PFA) on human skin. The impact of avobenzone loss on sun protection factor (SPF) and PFA values was evaluated by serially reducing avobenzone concentrations in an otherwise photostable product. The photostabilizing influence of specific formulation ingredients was monitored by measuring the extent to which they prevented UVR-induced degradation of avobenzone, whereas photostability of commercial sunscreen products was quantified by measuring the percentage change in absorbance within the UVB and UVA spectral regions following irradiation of thin product films on inert substrates. Model formulations containing 3% avobenzone or 5% ZnO provided superior attenuation of UVA wavelengths >360 nm compared with formulas containing 5% TiO(2). Additionally, sunscreen products of similar SPF containing avobenzone or ZnO exhibited significantly higher PFA values than those containing TiO(2). The addition of photostabilized avobenzone or ZnO increased PFA values nearly 3-fold, whereas the addition of TiO(2) increased PFA values only modestly. Judicious

  18. Protective Immunity against Lethal F. tularensis holarctica LVS Provided by Vaccination with Selected Novel CD8+ T Cell Epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Haim, Erez; Bar-On, Liat; Ehrlich, Sharon; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2014-01-01

    Recently we described an unbiased bacterial whole-genome immunoinformatic analysis aimed at selection of potential CTL epitopes located in “hotspots” of predicted MHC-I binders. Applying this approach to the proteome of the facultative intra-cellular pathogen Francisella tularensis resulted in identification of 170 novel CTL epitopes, several of which were shown to elicit highly robust T cell responses. Here we demonstrate that by DNA immunization using a short DNA fragment expressing six of the most prominent identified CTL epitopes a potent and specific CD8+ T cell responses is being induced, to all encoded epitopes, a response not observed in control mice immunized with the DNA vector alone Moreover, this CTL-specific mediated immune response prevented disease development, allowed for a rapid clearance of the bacterial infection and provided complete protection against lethal challenge (10LD50) with F. tularensis holarctica Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) (a total to 30 of 30 immunized mice survived the challenge while all control DNA vector immunized mice succumbed). Furthermore, and in accordance with these results, CD8 deficient mice could not be protected from lethal challenge after immunization with the CTL-polyepitope. Vaccination with the DNA poly-epitope construct could even protect mice (8/10) against the more demanding pulmonary lethal challenge of LVS. Our approach provides a proof-of-principle for selecting and generating a multi-epitpoe CD8 T cell-stimulating vaccine against a model intracellular bacterium. PMID:24400128

  19. Protective immunity against lethal F. tularensis holarctica LVS provided by vaccination with selected novel CD8+ T cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Shahar; Cohen, Ofer; Bar-Haim, Erez; Bar-On, Liat; Ehrlich, Sharon; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2014-01-01

    Recently we described an unbiased bacterial whole-genome immunoinformatic analysis aimed at selection of potential CTL epitopes located in "hotspots" of predicted MHC-I binders. Applying this approach to the proteome of the facultative intra-cellular pathogen Francisella tularensis resulted in identification of 170 novel CTL epitopes, several of which were shown to elicit highly robust T cell responses. Here we demonstrate that by DNA immunization using a short DNA fragment expressing six of the most prominent identified CTL epitopes a potent and specific CD8+ T cell responses is being induced, to all encoded epitopes, a response not observed in control mice immunized with the DNA vector alone Moreover, this CTL-specific mediated immune response prevented disease development, allowed for a rapid clearance of the bacterial infection and provided complete protection against lethal challenge (10LD50) with F. tularensis holarctica Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) (a total to 30 of 30 immunized mice survived the challenge while all control DNA vector immunized mice succumbed). Furthermore, and in accordance with these results, CD8 deficient mice could not be protected from lethal challenge after immunization with the CTL-polyepitope. Vaccination with the DNA poly-epitope construct could even protect mice (8/10) against the more demanding pulmonary lethal challenge of LVS. Our approach provides a proof-of-principle for selecting and generating a multi-epitpoe CD8 T cell-stimulating vaccine against a model intracellular bacterium.

  20. Two-dimensional modelling of internal arc effects in an enclosed MV cell provided with a protection porous filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochette, D [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques, CNRS UMR 6069, Universite Blaise Pascal, IUT de Montlucon, Avenue Aristide Briand, BP 2235, 03101 Montlucon Cedex (France); Clain, S [Laboratoire de Mathematiques pour l' Industrie et la Physique, CNRS UMR 5640, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Andre, P [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques, CNRS UMR 6069, Universite Blaise Pascal, IUT de Montlucon, Avenue Aristide Briand, BP 2235, 03101 Montlucon Cedex (France); Bussiere, W [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques, CNRS UMR 6069, Universite Blaise Pascal, IUT de Montlucon, Avenue Aristide Briand, BP 2235, 03101 Montlucon Cedex (France); Gentils, F [Schneider Electric-Science and Technology Division-Research Center A2, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-05-21

    Medium voltage (MV) cells have to respect standards (for example IEC ones (IEC TC 17C 2003 IEC 62271-200 High Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear-Part 200 1st edn)) that define security levels against internal arc faults such as an accidental electrical arc occurring in the apparatus. New protection filters based on porous materials are developed to provide better energy absorption properties and a higher protection level for people. To study the filter behaviour during a major electrical accident, a two-dimensional model is proposed. The main point is the use of a dedicated numerical scheme for a non-conservative hyperbolic problem. We present a numerical simulation of the process during the first 0.2 s when the safety valve bursts and we compare the numerical results with tests carried out in a high power test laboratory on real electrical apparatus.

  1. Paternity protection can provide a kick-start for the evolution of male-only parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Andrew T; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Sperm competition and uncertainty of paternity hamper the evolution of male parental care. Thus, maternal care predominates in most taxa. What if males can, however, limit cuckoldry by guarding the eggs postmating? Here, we show that this provides a reason to reconsider an old and nowadays rather discredited hypothesis: that external fertilization is associated with male care because the parent who releases its gametes first can depart leaving the other in a "cruel bind," having to care for the offspring. In our model, protection of paternity provides an additional incentive for the male to stay associated with its young. When we then assume that offspring survive better if guarded, paternity protection proves enough to kick-start the evolution of male-only parental care from a scenario with no care. This fits with data from fishes, where male-only care is associated with external fertilization, whereas female-only care almost always evolves after an initial transition to internal fertilization. Our model unifies disparate hypotheses regarding parental care roles and provides support for the idea that care roles can be influenced by sex differences in selection to be physically close to the offspring, including selection that is initially not based on offspring survival. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades. PMID:27117478

  3. Intranasal co-administration of 1,8-cineole with influenza vaccine provide cross-protection against influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Xu, Yu-Ling; Lai, Yan-Ni; Liao, Shang-Hui; Liu, Ni; Xu, Pei-Ping

    2017-10-15

    Vaccination is the most efficient means for protection against influenza. However, the various vaccines have low efficacy to protect against pandemic strains because of antigenic drift and recombination of influenza virus. Adjuvant therapy is one of the attempts to improve influenza vaccine effective cross-protection against influenza virus infection. Our previous study confirmed that 1,8-cineole inhibits the NF-κB, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines, and relieves the pathological changes of viral pneumonia in mice infected with influenza virus. 1,8-cineole, administered via intranasal (i.n.) route, may also have the capacity to be an adjuvant of the influenza vaccine. This study was designed to investigate the potential use of i.n. co-administration of 1,8-cineole, a major component of the Eucalyptus essential oils, with influenza vaccine and whether could provide cross-protection against influenza virus infection in a mouse model. I.n. co-administration of 1,8-cineole in two doses (6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg) with influenza vaccine was investigated in a mouse model in order to see whether it could provide cross-protection against influenza virus infection. The mice were intranasally immunized three times at the 0, 7 and 14 day with vaccine containing 0.2 µg hemagglutinin (HA) and/or without 1,8-cineole. Seven days after the 3rd immunization dose, the mice were infected with 50 µl of 15 LD50 (50% mouse lethal dose) influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1). On day 6 post-infection, 10 mice per group were sacrificed to collect samples, to take the body weight and lung, and detect the viral load, pathological changes in the lungs and antibody, etc. The collected samples included blood serum and nasal lavage fluids. In addition, the survival experiments were carried out  to investigate the survival of mice. Mice i.n. inoculated with influenza vaccine and 12.5 mg/kg 1,8-cineole increased the production of influenza-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a antibodies

  4. Fabrication of multifunctional CaP-TC composite coatings and the corrosion protection they provide for magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cui; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Qing

    2017-08-28

    Two major problems with magnesium (Mg) alloy biomaterials are the poor corrosion resistance and infection associated with implantation. In this study, a novel calcium phosphate (CaP)/tetracycline (TC) composite coating for Mg implants that can both improve the corrosion resistance of Mg and release a drug in a durable way is reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that TC additives make the CaP coating more compact and uniform. Electrochemical tests indicated CaP/TC coatings can provide excellent corrosion protection for Mg alloy substrates. Besides, TC additives can also provide effective prevention of bone infection and inflammation due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties. The one-step hydrothermal process reported here greatly simplified the multi-step fabrication of smart coatings reported previously.

  5. The role of micro health insurance in providing financial risk protection in developing countries--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shifa Salman; Perveen, Shagufta; Khuwaja, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed

    2016-03-22

    Out of pocket payments are the predominant method of financing healthcare in many developing countries, which can result in impoverishment and financial catastrophe for those affected. In 2010, WHO estimated that approximately 100 million people are pushed below the poverty line each year by payments for healthcare. Micro health insurance (MHI) has been used in some countries as means of risk pooling and reducing out of pocket health expenditure. A systematic review was conducted to assess the extent to which MHI has contributed to providing financial risk protection to low-income households in developing countries, and suggest how the findings can be applied in the Pakistani setting. We conducted a systematic search for published literature using the search terms "Community based health insurance AND developing countries", "Micro health insurance AND developing countries", "Mutual health insurance AND developing countries", "mutual OR micro OR community based health insurance" "Health insurance AND impact AND poor" "Health insurance AND financial protection" and "mutual health organizations" on three databases, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct (Elsevier). Only those records that were published in the last ten years, in English language with their full texts available free of cost, were considered for inclusion in this review. Hand searching was carried out on the reference lists of the retrieved articles and webpages of international organizations like World Bank, World Health Organization and International Labour Organization. Twenty-three articles were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review (14 from Asia and 9 from Africa). Our analysis shows that MHI, in the majority of cases, has been found to contribute to the financial protection of its beneficiaries, by reducing out of pocket health expenditure, catastrophic health expenditure, total health expenditure, household borrowings and poverty. MHI also had a positive safeguarding effect on

  6. Oral administration of Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Suzuki, Kengo; Asayama, Yuta; Konno, Makoto; Saito, Keita; Yamazaki, Noriyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki

    2017-12-09

    Euglena gracilis Z is a micro-algae that is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of Euglena gracilis Z has β-1, 3-glucan structure. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon are reported to affect the immune system. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon against influenza virus infection in mice. Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon were administered to mice as a 2% dietary mixture ad libitum. At 2 weeks after initiation of dietary administration, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Survival rate was monitored 10 days after infection. In addition, we performed virus titer and cytokine profiles in the lung. High survival rates were observed for Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group. Significantly lower virus titer in the lung was observed in the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon-treated groups compared to the control group from day 1 after infection. Higher amount of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, and IL-10 was observed in the paramylon groups compared to the control group. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the Euglena gracilis Z and paramylon which provides protection against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  8. The role of micro health insurance in providing financial risk protection in developing countries- a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifa Salman Habib

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out of pocket payments are the predominant method of financing healthcare in many developing countries, which can result in impoverishment and financial catastrophe for those affected. In 2010, WHO estimated that approximately 100 million people are pushed below the poverty line each year by payments for healthcare. Micro health insurance (MHI has been used in some countries as means of risk pooling and reducing out of pocket health expenditure. A systematic review was conducted to assess the extent to which MHI has contributed to providing financial risk protection to low-income households in developing countries, and suggest how the findings can be applied in the Pakistani setting. Methods We conducted a systematic search for published literature using the search terms “Community based health insurance AND developing countries”, “Micro health insurance AND developing countries”, “Mutual health insurance AND developing countries”, “mutual OR micro OR community based health insurance” “Health insurance AND impact AND poor” “Health insurance AND financial protection” and “mutual health organizations” on three databases, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct (Elsevier. Only those records that were published in the last ten years, in English language with their full texts available free of cost, were considered for inclusion in this review. Hand searching was carried out on the reference lists of the retrieved articles and webpages of international organizations like World Bank, World Health Organization and International Labour Organization. Results Twenty-three articles were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review (14 from Asia and 9 from Africa. Our analysis shows that MHI, in the majority of cases, has been found to contribute to the financial protection of its beneficiaries, by reducing out of pocket health expenditure, catastrophic health expenditure, total health expenditure

  9. Factors that influence evidence-based program sustainment for family support providers in child protection services in disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Forster, Michell

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates program, workplace and process factors associated with implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based parenting support program (EBP) in disadvantaged communities. Correlation analyses and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between key implementation support factors and program implementation (at 18 months) and sustainment (at 36 months) post training with (N=35) Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family support providers using the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in Indigenous child protection agencies. This study demonstrated that for implementation at 18 months, there was a trend for implementing providers to report higher levels of partnership support, perceived program benefit, workplace support and workplace cohesion. However, the only significant relationship was with partnership support (r=.31 pprogram implementation. For sustained implementation at 36 months, no relationship was found between sustainment and program characteristics, workplace characteristics, supervision and peer support or sustainability planning. Supportive coaching was the only significant correlate (r=0.46, pp=0.009] in the program sustainment model. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further exploration of program and workplace variables and provide evidence to consider incorporating partnership support and supportive coaching in real world implementation models to improve the likelihood of EBP implementation and sustainment in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-05-08

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index ( SPI ), standardized soil water content index ( SSWI ), and standardized streamflow index ( SSI ). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI 12 than SPI 12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  11. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB, using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index (SPI, standardized soil water content index (SSWI, and standardized streamflow index (SSI. The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI12 than SPI12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding

  12. Oral immunization with cholera toxin provides protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M John; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Islam, Anjum; Haridas, Shilpa

    2013-05-07

    a common protective antigen(s) present in all C. jejuni serotypes is expected to provide broad protection. In our previous study, we showed that antibody to cholera toxin (CT) reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) from different strains of C. jejuni. We assumed that the B subunit of the toxin (CT-B), which is nontoxic and a component of licensed oral cholera vaccines, might be the component that cross-reacts with MOMP. In the current study, we showed that orally immunizing mice with CT protected them against colonization upon challenge with different serotypes of C. jejuni. We also showed that CT-B is the component mediating cross-reaction. Therefore, it might be possible to use cholera vaccines to prevent C. jejuni diarrhea. This could result in significant savings in vaccine development and treatment of the disease.

  13. Challenges to the provision of diabetes care in first nations communities: results from a national survey of healthcare providers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macaulay Ann C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal peoples globally, and First Nations peoples in Canada particularly, suffer from high rates of type 2 diabetes and related complications compared with the general population. Research into the unique barriers faced by healthcare providers working in on-reserve First Nations communities is essential for developing effective quality improvement strategies. Methods In Phase I of this two-phased study, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were held with 24 healthcare providers in the Sioux Lookout Zone in north-western Ontario. A follow-up survey was conducted in Phase II as part of a larger project, the Canadian First Nations Diabetes Clinical Management and Epidemiologic (CIRCLE study. The survey was completed with 244 healthcare providers in 19 First Nations communities in 7 Canadian provinces, representing three isolation levels (isolated, semi-isolated, non-isolated. Interviews, focus groups and survey questions all related to barriers to providing optimal diabetes care in First Nations communities. Results the key factors emerging from interviews and focus group discussions were at the patient, provider, and systemic level. Survey results indicated that, across three isolation levels, healthcare providers' perceived patient factors as having the largest impact on diabetes care. However, physicians and nurses were more likely to rank patient factors as having a large impact on care than community health representatives (CHRs and physicians were significantly less likely to rank patient-provider communication as having a large impact than CHRs. Conclusions Addressing patient factors was considered the highest impact strategy for improving diabetes care. While this may reflect "patient blaming," it also suggests that self-management strategies may be well-suited for this context. Program planning should focus on training programs for CHRs, who provide a unique link between patients and clinical services

  14. A copper-induced quinone degradation pathway provides protection against combined copper/quinone stress in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K; Gonskikh, Yulia; Solioz, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Quinones are ubiquitous in the environment. They occur naturally but are also in widespread use in human and industrial activities. Quinones alone are relatively benign to bacteria, but in combination with copper, they become toxic by a mechanism that leads to intracellular thiol depletion. Here, it was shown that the yahCD-yaiAB operon of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 provides resistance to combined copper/quinone stress. The operon is under the control of CopR, which also regulates expression of the copRZA copper resistance operon as well as other L. lactis genes. Expression of the yahCD-yaiAB operon is induced by copper but not by quinones. Two of the proteins encoded by the operon appear to play key roles in alleviating quinone/copper stress: YaiB is a flavoprotein that converts p-benzoquinones to less toxic hydroquinones, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as reductant; YaiA is a hydroquinone dioxygenase that converts hydroquinone putatively to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in an oxygen-consuming reaction. Hydroquinone and methylhydroquinone are both substrates of YaiA. Deletion of yaiB causes increased sensitivity of L. lactis to quinones and complete growth arrest under combined quinone and copper stress. Copper induction of the yahCD-yaiAB operon offers protection to copper/quinone toxicity and could provide a growth advantage to L. lactis in some environments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  16. Prior Inoculation with Type B Strains of Francisella tularensis Provides Partial Protection against Virulent Type A Strains in Cottontail Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R.; Adney, Danielle R.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Bowen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterium that is capable of causing severe disease (tularemia) in a wide range of species. This organism is characterized into two distinct subspecies: tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) which vary in several crucial ways, with some type A strains having been found to be considerably more virulent in humans and laboratory animals. Cottontail rabbits have been widely implicated as a reservoir species for this subspecies; however, experimental inoculation in our laboratory revealed type A organisms to be highly virulent, resulting in 100% mortality following challenge with 50–100 organisms. Inoculation of cottontail rabbits with the same number of organisms from type B strains of bacteria was found to be rarely lethal and to result in a robust humoral immune response. The objective of this study was to characterize the protection afforded by a prior challenge with type B strains against a later inoculation with a type A strain in North American cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp). Previous infection with a type B strain of organism was found to lengthen survival time and in some cases prevent death following inoculation with a type A2 strain of F. tularensis. In contrast, inoculation of a type A1b strain was uniformly lethal in cottontail rabbits irrespective of a prior type B inoculation. These findings provide important insight about the role cottontail rabbits may play in environmental maintenance and transmission of this organism. PMID:26474413

  17. Health Gains and Financial Protection Provided by the Ethiopian Mental Health Strategy: an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Kjell Arne; Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Fekadu, Abebaw; Chisholm, Dan

    2017-04-01

    Mental and neurological (MN) health care has long been neglected in low-income settings. This paper estimates health and non-health impacts of fully publicly financed care for selected key interventions in the National Mental Health Strategy in Ethiopia for depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and epilepsy. A methodology of extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) is applied to MN health care in Ethiopia. The impact of providing a package of selected MN interventions free of charge in Ethiopia is estimated for: epilepsy (75% coverage, phenobarbital), depression (30% coverage, fluoxetine, cognitive therapy and proactive case management), bipolar affective disorder (50% coverage, valproate and psychosocial therapy) and schizophrenia (75% coverage, haloperidol plus psychosocial treatment). Multiple outcomes are estimated and disaggregated across wealth quintiles: (1) healthy-life-years (HALYs) gained; (2) household out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures averted; (3) expected financial risk protection (FRP); and (4) productivity impact. The MN package is expected to cost US$177 million and gain 155,000 HALYs (epilepsy US$37m and 64,500 HALYs; depression US$65m and 61,300 HALYs; bipolar disorder US$44m and 20,300 HALYs; and schizophrenia US$31m and 8,900 HALYs) annually. The health benefits would be concentrated among the poorest groups for all interventions. Universal public finance averts little household OOP expenditures and provides minimal FRP because of the low current utilization of these MN services in Ethiopia. In addition, economic benefits of US$ 51 million annually are expected from depression treatment in Ethiopia as a result of productivity gains, equivalent to 78% of the investment cost. The total MN package in Ethiopia is estimated to cost equivalent to US$1.8 per capita and yields large progressive health benefits. The expected productivity gain is substantially higher than the expected FRP. The ECEA approach seems to fit well with the current

  18. Health Gains and Financial Protection Provided by the Ethiopian Mental Health Strategy: an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Fekadu, Abebaw; Chisholm, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mental and neurological (MN) health care has long been neglected in low-income settings. This paper estimates health and non-health impacts of fully publicly financed care for selected key interventions in the National Mental Health Strategy in Ethiopia for depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Methods: A methodology of extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) is applied to MN health care in Ethiopia. The impact of providing a package of selected MN interventions free of charge in Ethiopia is estimated for: epilepsy (75% coverage, phenobarbital), depression (30% coverage, fluoxetine, cognitive therapy and proactive case management), bipolar affective disorder (50% coverage, valproate and psychosocial therapy) and schizophrenia (75% coverage, haloperidol plus psychosocial treatment). Multiple outcomes are estimated and disaggregated across wealth quintiles: (1) healthy-life-years (HALYs) gained; (2) household out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures averted; (3) expected financial risk protection (FRP); and (4) productivity impact. Results: The MN package is expected to cost US$177 million and gain 155,000 HALYs (epilepsy US$37m and 64,500 HALYs; depression US$65m and 61,300 HALYs; bipolar disorder US$44m and 20,300 HALYs; and schizophrenia US$31m and 8,900 HALYs) annually. The health benefits would be concentrated among the poorest groups for all interventions. Universal public finance averts little household OOP expenditures and provides minimal FRP because of the low current utilization of these MN services in Ethiopia. In addition, economic benefits of US$ 51 million annually are expected from depression treatment in Ethiopia as a result of productivity gains, equivalent to 78% of the investment cost. Conclusions: The total MN package in Ethiopia is estimated to cost equivalent to US$1.8 per capita and yields large progressive health benefits. The expected productivity gain is substantially higher than the expected FRP. The

  19. Wounding patterns and human performance in knife attacks: optimising the protection provided by knife-resistant body armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleetman, A; Watson, C H; Horsfall, I; Champion, S M

    2003-12-01

    Stab attacks generate high loads, and to defeat them, armour needs to be of a certain thickness and stiffness. Slash attacks produce much lower loads and armour designed to defeat them can be far lighter and more flexible. Phase 1: Human performance in slash attacks: 87 randomly selected students at the Royal Military College of Science were asked to make one slash attack with an instrumented blade on a vertically mounted target. No instructions on how to slash the target were given. The direction, contact forces and velocity of each attack were recorded. Phase 2: Clinical experience with edged weapon attacks: The location and severity of all penetrating injuries in patients attending the Glasgow Royal Infirmary between 1993 and 1996 were charted on anatomical figures. Phase 1: Two types of human slash behaviour were evident: a 'chop and drag' blow and a 'sweep motion' type of attack. 'Chop and drag' attacks had higher peak forces and velocities than sweep attacks. Shoulder to waist blows (diagonal) accounted for 82% of attacks, 71% of attackers used a long diagonal slash with an average cut length of 34 cm and 11% used short diagonal attacks with an average cut length of 25 cm. Only 18% of attackers slashed across the body (short horizontal); the average measured cut length of this type was 28 cm. The maximum peak force for the total sample population was 212 N; the maximum velocity was 14.88 m s(-1). The 95 percentile force for the total sample population was 181 N and the velocity was 9.89 m s(-1). Phase 2: 431 of the 500 patients had been wounded with edged weapons. The average number of wounds sustained by victims in knife assaults was 2.4. The distribution of wounds by frequency and severity are presented. Anti-slash protection is required for the arms, neck, shoulders, and thighs. The clinical experience of knife-attack victims provides information on the relative vulnerabilities of different regions of the body. It is anticipated that designing a tunic

  20. Is it cost-effective to provide internet-based interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands? An analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kei-Long; Wijnen, Ben F M; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Pokhrel, Subhash; de Vries, Hein; Präger, Maximilian; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2017-12-15

    The cost-effectiveness of internet-based smoking cessation interventions is difficult to determine when they are provided as a complement to current smoking cessation services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such an alternate package compared with existing smoking cessation services alone (current package). A literature search was conducted to identify internet-based smoking cessation interventions in the Netherlands. A meta-analysis was then performed to determine the pooled effectiveness of a (web-based) computer-tailored intervention. The mean cost of implementing internet based interventions was calculated using available information, while intervention reach was sourced from an English study. We used EQUIPTMOD, a Markov-based state-transition model, to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios [expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained] for different time horizons to assess the value of providing internet-based interventions to complement the current package.). Deterministic sensitivity analyses tested the uncertainty around intervention costs per smoker, relative risks, and the intervention reach. Internet-based interventions had an estimated pooled relative risk of 1.40; average costs per smoker of €2.71; and a reach of 0.41% of all smokers. The alternate package (i.e. provision of internet-based intervention to the current package) was dominant (cost-saving) compared with the current package alone (0.14 QALY gained per 1000 smokers; reduced health-care costs of €602.91 per 1000 smokers for the life-time horizon). The alternate package remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Providing internet-based smoking cessation interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services could be a cost-saving policy option in the Netherlands. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    .5%; 87.0%) and P[6] was 55.2% (95% CI: -6.5%; 81.3%) Conclusions Rotarix™ vaccine demonstrated efficacy against severe gastroenteritis caused by diverse circulating rotavirus types. These data add to a growing body of evidence supporting heterotypic protection provided by Rotarix™. Trial registration number NCT00241644 PMID:22974466

  2. Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steele Andrew

    2012-09-01

    .0% and P[6] was 55.2% (95% CI: -6.5%; 81.3% Conclusions Rotarix™ vaccine demonstrated efficacy against severe gastroenteritis caused by diverse circulating rotavirus types. These data add to a growing body of evidence supporting heterotypic protection provided by Rotarix™. Trial registration number NCT00241644

  3. Single-dose replication-defective VSV-based Nipah virus vaccines provide protection from lethal challenge in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Michael K; Bird, Brian H; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Drew, Clifton P; Martin, Brock E; Coleman, Joann D; Rose, John K; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) continues to cause outbreaks of fatal human encephalitis due to spillover from its bat reservoir. We determined that a single dose of replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine vectors expressing either the NiV fusion (F) or attachment (G) glycoproteins protected hamsters from over 1000 times LD50 NiV challenge. This highly effective single-dose protection coupled with an enhanced safety profile makes these candidates ideal for potential use in livestock and humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Virus-specific memory CD8 T cells provide substantial protection from lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Meyerholz, David K; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an acute human respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality in 2002-2003. Several studies have demonstrated the role of neutralizing antibodies induced by the spike (S) glycoprotein in protecting susceptible hosts from lethal infection. However, the anti-SARS-CoV antibody response is short-lived in patients who have recovered from SARS, making it critical to develop additional vaccine strategies. SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells persisted for up to 6 years after SARS-CoV infection, a time at which memory B cells and antivirus antibodies were undetectable in individuals who had recovered from SARS. In this study, we assessed the ability of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells to mediate protection against infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD4 T or B cells. We demonstrate that memory CD8 T cells specific for a single immunodominant epitope (S436 or S525) substantially protected 8- to 10-month-old mice from lethal SARS-CoV infection. Intravenous immunization with peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding S436 or S525 resulted in accumulation of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lungs, and spleen. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of SARS-CoV, virus-specific memory CD8 T cells efficiently produced multiple effector cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) and cytolytic molecules (granzyme B) and reduced lung viral loads. Overall, our results show that SARS-CoV-specific memory CD8 T cells protect susceptible hosts from lethal SARS-CoV infection, but they also suggest that SARS-CoV-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses are necessary for complete protection. Virus-specific CD8 T cells are required for pathogen clearance following primary SARS-CoV infection. However, the role of SARS-CoV-specific memory CD

  5. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, as amended. Such provision shall provide for reasonable... environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.40 Cancellation for environmental protection or...

  6. Enteric coated spheres produced by extrusion/spheronization provide effective gastric protection and efficient release of live therapeutic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, João M S; Lechner, Tabea; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Edwards, Alexander D

    2015-09-30

    We present a novel but simple enteric coated sphere formulation containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Oral delivery of live bacterial cells (LBC) requires live cells to survive firstly manufacturing processes and secondly GI microbicidal defenses including gastric acid. We incorporated live L. casei directly in the granulation liquid, followed by granulation, extrusion, spheronization, drying and spray coating to produce dried live probiotic spheres. A blend of MCC, calcium-crosslinked alginate, and lactose was developed that gave improved live cell survival during manufacturing, and gave excellent protection from gastric acid plus rapid release in intestinal conditions. No significant loss of viability was observed in all steps except drying, which resulted in approximately 1 log loss of viable cells. Eudragit coating was used to protect dried live cells from acid, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was combined with sodium alginate to achieve efficient sphere disintegration leading to rapid and complete bacterial cell release in intestinal conditions. Viability and release of L. casei was evaluated in vitro in simulated GI conditions. Uncoated spheres gave partial acid protection, but enteric coated spheres effectively protected dried probiotic LBC from acid for 2h, and subsequently released all viable cells within 1h of transfer into simulated intestinal fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. First peptide vaccine providing protection against viral infection in the target animal: studies of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Langeveld; J.I. Casal; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); E. Cortes; R.L. de Swart (Rik); C. Vela (Carmen); K. Dalsgaard (Kristian); W.C. Puijk (Wouter); W.M.M. Schaaper (Wim); R.H. Meloen

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA synthetic peptide vaccine which protects dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus is described. The amino acid sequence used was discovered in previous studies on the immunogenic properties of previously mapped antigenic sites and represents the amino-terminal region of

  8. DNA Vaccination of the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) Provides Partial Protection Against Lethal Challenge with West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    thousands of human neurologic disease cases between 1999 and 2006, thousands of cases of equine encephalitis, and millions of deaths of native and...with rabies vaccine used to vaccinate wild raccoons and foxes (13). In addition, a vaccine is needed to protect valuable collections of captive birds

  9. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Dina A; Scarff, Jennifer M; Garcia, Preston P; Cassidy, Sara K B; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M; Inzana, Thomas J; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  10. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  11. Synthetic Cationic Peptide IDR-1002 Provides Protection against Bacterial Infections through Chemokine Induction and Enhanced Leukocyte Recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijnik, Anastasia; Madera, Laurence; Ma, Shuhua

    2010-01-01

    and the PI3K, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways. The protective activity of the peptide was associated with in vivo augmentation of chemokine production and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of infection. These results highlight the importance of the chemokine induction activity of host...

  12. Coinjection of a vaccine and anti-viral agents can provide fast-acting protection from foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Park, Gundo; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the cause of an economically devastating animal disease. With commercial inactivated FMD vaccines, the protection against FMD virus (FMDV) begins a minimum of 4 days post vaccination (dpv). Therefore, antiviral agents could be proposed for rapid protection and to reduce the spread of FMDV during outbreaks until vaccine-induced protective immunity occurs. In previous studies, we have developed two recombinant adenoviruses that simultaneously express porcine interferon-α and interferon-γ (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) and multiple siRNAs that target the non-structural protein-regions of FMDV (Ad-3siRNA), and we have shown that the combination of the two antiviral agents (referred to here as Ad combination) induced robust protection against FMDV in pigs. In an attempt to provide complete protection against FMDV, we co-administered Ad combination and the FMD vaccine to mice and pigs. In the C57BL/6 mice model, we observed rapid and continuous protection against homologous FMDV challenge from 1 to 3 dpv-the period in which vaccine-mediated immunity is absent. In the pig experiments, we found that most of the pigs (five out of six) that received vaccine + Ad combination and were challenged with FMDV at 1 or 2 dpv were clinically protected from FMDV. In addition, most of the pigs that received vaccine + Ad combination and all pigs inoculated with the vaccine only were clinically protected from an FMDV challenge at 7 dpv. We believe that the antiviral agent ensures early protection from FMDV, and the vaccine participates in protection after 7 dpv. Therefore, we can say that the combination of the FMD vaccine and effective antiviral agents may offer both fast-acting and continuous protection against FMDV. In further studies, we plan to design coadministration of Ad combination and novel vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J.; Balmanno, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway. PMID:28931068

  14. 40 CFR 63.1194 - Which general provisions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which general provisions apply? 63... Information § 63.1194 Which general provisions apply? The general provisions in subpart A of this part define... for general provisions that apply (or don't apply) to you as an owner or operator subject to the...

  15. Nasal IgA Provides Protection against Human Influenza Challenge in Volunteers with Low Serum Influenza Antibody Titre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Victoria M W; Francis, James N; Anderson, Katie J; Georges, Bertrand; Cope, Alethea V; Tregoning, John S

    2017-01-01

    In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent. Volunteers were pre-selected with low haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres in order to ensure a higher proportion of infection; this allowed us to explore the role of other immune correlates. In spite of HAI being uniformly low, there were variable levels of H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection. There was also a range of disease severity in volunteers allowing us to compare whether differences in systemic and local H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection affected disease outcome. H1N1 specific IgG level before challenge did not correlate with protection, probably due to the pre-screening for individuals with low HAI. However, the length of time infectious virus was recovered from the nose was reduced in patients with higher pre-existing H1N1 influenza specific nasal IgA or serum IgA. Therefore, IgA contributes to protection against influenza and should be targeted in vaccines.

  16. Cisplatin and doxorubicin induce distinct mechanisms of ovarian follicle loss; imatinib provides selective protection only against cisplatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Morgan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Chemotherapy treatment in premenopausal women has been linked to ovarian follicle loss and premature ovarian failure; the exact mechanism by which this occurs is uncertain. Here, two commonly used chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and doxorubicin were added to a mouse ovary culture system, to compare the sequence of events that leads to germ cell loss. The ability of imatinib mesylate to protect the ovary against cisplatin or doxorubicin-induced ovarian damage was also examined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Newborn mouse ovaries were cultured for a total of six days, exposed to a chemotherapeutic agent on the second day: this allowed for the examination of the earliest stages of follicle development. Cleaved PARP and TUNEL were used to assess apoptosis following drug treatment. Imatinib was added to cultures with cisplatin and doxorubicin to determine any protective effect. RESULTS: Histological analysis of ovaries treated with cisplatin showed oocyte-specific damage; in comparison doxorubicin preferentially caused damage to the granulosa cells. Cleaved PARP expression significantly increased for cisplatin (16 fold, p<0.001 and doxorubicin (3 fold, p<0.01. TUNEL staining gave little evidence of primordial follicle damage with either drug. Imatinib had a significant protective effect against cisplatin-induced follicle damage (p<0.01 but not against doxorubicin treatment. CONCLUSION: Cisplatin and doxorubicin both induced ovarian damage, but in a markedly different pattern, with imatinib protecting the ovary against damage by cisplatin but not doxorubicin. Any treatment designed to block the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the ovary may need to be specific to the drug(s the patient is exposed to.

  17. Co-infection with HPV types from the same species provides natural cross-protection from progression to cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rafal S; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Williams, Scott M; Zetola, Nicola M

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide administration of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines has resulted in cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types. Infection with multiple HPV types may offer similar cross-protection in the natural setting. We hypothesized that infections with two or more HPV types from the same species, and independently, infections with two or more HPV types from different species, associate with protection from high-grade lesions. We recruited a cohort of 94 HIV, HPV-positive women from Botswana, with Grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Infections with 2 or more HPV types from a single species associated with reduced lesion severity in univariate analysis (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.97, p = 0.042), when adjusted for the presence of HPV 16 or 18 types (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-1.00, p = 0.049), or all high-risk HPV type infections (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.90, p = 0.028). Infections with 2 or more HPV types from different species did not associate (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.25-1.81, p = 0.435). Our findings show that co-infections with genetically similar HPV types reduce the likelihood of progression to high-grade lesions in HIV positive women, an effect not observed in co-infections with taxonomically different HPV types. This observation is possibly caused by an immune cross-protection through a similar mechanism to that observed after HPV vaccination.

  18. Intrapulmonary Delivery of CpG-ODN Microdroplets Provides Protection Against Escherichia coli Septicemia in Neonatal Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Kalhari Bandara; Popowich, Shelly; Gunawardana, Thushari; Gupta, Ashish; Kurukulasuriya, Shanika; Karunarathna, Ruwani; Chow-Lockerbie, Betty; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Tikoo, Suresh K; Foldvari, Marianna; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) motifs (CpG-ODN) are effective immunostimulatory agents against a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases in different animals including poultry. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo injection of CpG-ODN confers protection in neonatal chickens against bacterial septicemias. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of needle-free intrapulmonary (IPL) delivery of CpG-ODN microdroplets against Escherichia coli infection in neonatal chicks. In the present study, we used 880 chicks in total keeping 40 chicks per group. Chicks were delivered CpG-ODN or saline by IPL at the day 1 of hatch. Three days later, chicks were challenged with two doses (1 × 104 CFU, n = 20 or 1 × 105 CFU, n = 20) of E. coli. Chicks treated with CpG-ODN by the IPL route had significantly lower clinical signs and bacterial load compared to the group treated with saline ( P coli septicemia. We observed dose- and exposure time-dependent immunoprotective effects of IPL CpG-ODN in chicks. We found that IPL delivery of CpG-ODN can induce protective immunity as early as 6 hr that remains effective at least until day 5 post-treatment. Moreover, there were no adverse effects of IPL delivery of CpG-ODN on growth or mortality up to 42 days of age. Based on these findings, it can be suggested that CpG-ODN delivery by IPL route can be a promising alternative to antibiotics for inducing protective immunity in chicks during the critical first week of neonatal life.

  19. Antibodies to Antigenic Site A of Influenza H7 Hemagglutinin Provide Protection against H7N9 Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Falko Schmeisser; Anupama Vasudevan; Swati Verma; Wei Wang; Esmeralda Alvarado; Carol Weiss; Vajini Atukorale; Clement Meseda; Weir, Jerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying major antigenic and protective epitopes of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) will be important for understanding the antibody response to vaccines developed against the novel influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in China in 2013. To facilitate antigenic characterization of the H7N9 HA and to develop reagents for evaluation of H7N9 candidate vaccines, we generated a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the HA of A/Shanghai/2/2013 using mammalian cell-derived virus-like particles ...

  20. The Tyrolean Alps LTSER platform – providing scientific insights for better management of protected areas. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 9 No. 1 9 1|

    OpenAIRE

    Kerle, Sarah; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    In a fast-changing world, Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) promises to provide new understanding of society-nature interactions. Management of protected areas (PAs) relies heavily on such scientific knowledge to address complex issues. Since large areas within the Tyrolean Alps are under protection, close collaboration between scientists working in LTSER within the Tyrolean Alps and the managers of PAs would be very beneficial for appropriate area management.

  1. An inventory of archaeological sites and collections in the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge under the provisions of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) requires Federal agencies and museums receiving federal funds to inventory human remains,...

  2. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Protection against Radiation-Induced Liver Injury by Antioxidative Process, Vasculature Protection, Hepatocyte Differentiation, and Trophic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Francois

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of the infusion of hMSCs for the correction of liver injuries, we performed total body radiation exposure of NOD/SCID mice. After irradiation, mir-27b level decreases in liver, increasing the directional migration of hMSCs by upregulating SDF1α. A significant increase in plasmatic transaminases levels, apoptosis process in the liver vascular system, and in oxidative stress were observed. hMSC injection induced a decrease in transaminases levels and oxidative stress, a disappearance of apoptotic cells, and an increase in Nrf2, SOD gene expression, which might reduce ROS production in the injured liver. Engrafted hMSCs expressed cytokeratin CK18 and CK19 and AFP genes indicating possible hepatocyte differentiation. The presence of hMSCs expressing VEGF and Ang-1 in the perivascular region, associated with an increased expression of VEGFr1, r2 in the liver, can confer a role of secreting cells to hMSCs in order to maintain the endothelial function. To explain the benefits to the liver of hMSC engraftment, we find that hMSCs secreted NGF, HGF, and anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10, IL1-RA contributing to prevention of apoptosis, increasing cell proliferation in the liver which might correct liver dysfunction. MSCs are potent candidates to repair and protect healthy tissues against radiation damages.

  3. A Live, Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection against Virulent Challenge in a Murine Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Ciaran M.; Mahon, Bernard P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite successful mass vaccination programs, whooping cough remains a significant cause of neonatal mortality. Immunity induced by current vaccines wanes in adolescence, requiring additional immunizations to prevent resurgence. There is a need for a new generation of vaccines capable of conferring long-lasting immunity from birth. Recently, a live, attenuated whooping cough vaccine, BPZE1, has been developed. Here, an established murine immunization model was used to examine the induction and longevity of immunological memory. In this predictive model, BPZE1 conferred a level of protection against virulent bacterial challenge comparable to that conferred by recovery from prior infection, up to 1 year after immunization. One year after immunization with BPZE1, a pertussis-specific persistent response, with high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), could be detected from spleen cells restimulated with inactivated Bordetella pertussis. BPZE1 induced low levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and no IL-10 or IL-5. BPZE1 immunization induced long-lasting, efficacious memory B-cell and specific antibody responses dominated by IgG2a, which were boosted by subsequent challenge. Finally, the antibody induced by BPZE1 was functionally relevant and could clear a virulent B. pertussis infection in antibody-deficient mice following passive transfer. This study suggests that BPZE1 is capable of conferring a high level of long-lived effective protection against virulent B. pertussis. PMID:21147936

  4. A live, attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine provides long-term protection against virulent challenge in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Ciaran M; Mahon, Bernard P

    2011-02-01

    Despite successful mass vaccination programs, whooping cough remains a significant cause of neonatal mortality. Immunity induced by current vaccines wanes in adolescence, requiring additional immunizations to prevent resurgence. There is a need for a new generation of vaccines capable of conferring long-lasting immunity from birth. Recently, a live, attenuated whooping cough vaccine, BPZE1, has been developed. Here, an established murine immunization model was used to examine the induction and longevity of immunological memory. In this predictive model, BPZE1 conferred a level of protection against virulent bacterial challenge comparable to that conferred by recovery from prior infection, up to 1 year after immunization. One year after immunization with BPZE1, a pertussis-specific persistent response, with high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), could be detected from spleen cells restimulated with inactivated Bordetella pertussis. BPZE1 induced low levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and no IL-10 or IL-5. BPZE1 immunization induced long-lasting, efficacious memory B-cell and specific antibody responses dominated by IgG2a, which were boosted by subsequent challenge. Finally, the antibody induced by BPZE1 was functionally relevant and could clear a virulent B. pertussis infection in antibody-deficient mice following passive transfer. This study suggests that BPZE1 is capable of conferring a high level of long-lived effective protection against virulent B. pertussis.

  5. Landscape mapping at sub-Antarctic South Georgia provides a protocol for underpinning large-scale marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Griffiths, Huw J.; Dorschel, Boris; Linse, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    Global biodiversity is in decline, with the marine environment experiencing significant and increasing anthropogenic pressures. In response marine protected areas (MPAs) have increasingly been adopted as the flagship approach to marine conservation, many covering enormous areas. At present, however, the lack of biological sampling makes prioritising which regions of the ocean to protect, especially over large spatial scales, particularly problematic. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach to marine landscape mapping at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia as an effective protocol for underpinning large-scale (105-106  km2) MPA designations. We have developed a new high-resolution (100 m) digital elevation model (DEM) of the region and integrated this DEM with bathymetry-derived parameters, modelled oceanographic data, and satellite primary productivity data. These interdisciplinary datasets were used to apply an objective statistical approach to hierarchically partition and map the benthic environment into physical habitats types. We assess the potential application of physical habitat classifications as proxies for biological structuring and the application of the landscape mapping for informing on marine spatial planning.

  6. 40 CFR 63.497 - Back-end process provisions-monitoring provisions for control and recovery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Polymers and Resins § 63.497 Back-end process provisions—monitoring provisions for control and recovery... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-monitoring provisions for control and recovery devices. 63.497 Section 63.497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. Topical nicotinamide modulates cellular energy metabolism and provides broad-spectrum protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapirabu, G; Yiasemides, E; Halliday, G M; Park, J; Damian, D L

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can profoundly suppress the cutaneous immune system, thus enhancing carcinogenesis. Agents that prevent UV-induced immunosuppression may thus reduce skin cancer. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) prevents UV-induced immunosuppression and carcinogenesis in mice, and solar-simulated (ss) UV-induced immunosuppression in humans. Its effectiveness against different UV wavebands and mechanism of action is as yet unknown. To determine the effects and mechanisms of topical nicotinamide on UV-induced suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in humans. Healthy Mantoux-positive volunteers in four randomised, double-blinded studies were irradiated with solar-simulated (ss)UV (UVB + UVA) or narrowband UVB (300 nm) or UVA (385 nm). Topical nicotinamide (0.2% or 5%) or its vehicle were applied immediately after each irradiation. Mantoux testing was performed at irradiated sites and adjacent unirradiated control sites 48 h after the first irradiation and measured 72 h later. Immunosuppression was calculated as the difference in Mantoux-induced erythema and induration at test sites compared to control sites. Human keratinocyte cell cultures, with and without ssUV and nicotinamide, were used for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assessment of TP53 and enzymes that regulate oxidative phosphorylation. Nicotinamide cooperated with ssUV to increase enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism and p53, and significantly protected against immunosuppression caused by UVB, longwave UVA and single and repeated ssUV exposures. Longwave UVA, which is poorly filtered by most sunscreens, was highly immune suppressive even at doses equivalent to 20 min of sun exposure. Nicotinamide, which protected against both UVB and UVA, is a promising agent for skin cancer prevention.

  8. Immunization with lipopolysaccharide-deficient whole cells provides protective immunity in an experimental mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell García-Quintanilla

    Full Text Available The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010, one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii.

  9. In vivo testing of the protection provided by non-latex gloves against a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-containing acetone-based dentin-bonding product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, T; Bruze, M; Gruvberger, B; Björkner, B

    2000-01-01

    In dentistry, allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates and allergic contact urticaria to latex are important occupational hazards. There is a need to identify non-latex gloves which are suitable for dental work but at the same time provide adequate protection against acrylate monomers. In a previous study, a new open-chamber system was used for testing the in vivo protection of 6 different gloves against an acrylate-containing ethanol-based dental adhesive. A nitrile glove gave the best protection among the gloves suitable for dental work. In the present study, the test model was used to investigate the in vivo protection of 7 non-latex gloves against a dental bonding product containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) in an acetone/water vehicle. Eight 2-HEMA-allergic patients participated. Two neoprene gloves gave the best protection. The protection of the poorest glove was comparable to that of the positive control (no glove). The study produced in vivo data useful in the implementation of individual preventative measures against contact allergy to acrylates.

  10. EPA Reducing Air Pollution from Old Diesel Engines, Grants Provide $1.18 Million to Protect People from Harmful Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is supporting local efforts to reduce air pollution in the New York City metropolitan area by providing a total of $1.18 million to help two organizations replace old, dirty diesel engines on boats

  11. Live attenuated influenza vaccine provides superior protection from heterologous infection in pigs with maternal antibodies without inducing vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in the US is hindered since inactivated vaccines do not provide robust cross-protection against the multiple antigenic variants co-circulating in the field. Vaccine efficacy can be further limited when administered to young pigs that possess maternally deriv...

  12. Recombinant PorA, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John

    2010-11-01

    Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, PorA, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to PorA prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-PorA) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, PorA provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.

  13. TLR1/2 activation during heterologous prime-boost vaccination (DNA-MVA enhances CD8+ T Cell responses providing protection against Leishmania (Viannia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jayakumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Viannia parasites present particular challenges, as human and murine immune responses to infection are distinct from other Leishmania species, indicating a unique interaction with the host. Further, vaccination studies utilizing small animal models indicate that modalities and antigens that prevent infection by other Leishmania species are generally not protective.Using a newly developed mouse model of chronic L. (Viannia panamensis infection and the heterologous DNA prime - modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA boost vaccination modality, we examined whether the conserved vaccine candidate antigen tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP could provide protection against infection/disease.Heterologous prime - boost (DNA/MVA vaccination utilizing TRYP antigen can provide protection against disease caused by L. (V. panamensis. However, protection is dependent on modulating the innate immune response using the TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 during DNA priming. Prime-boost vaccination using DNA alone fails to protect. Prior to infection protectively vaccinated mice exhibit augmented CD4 and CD8 IFNγ and memory responses as well as decreased IL-10 and IL-13 responses. IL-13 and IL-10 have been shown to be independently critical for disease in this model. CD8 T cells have an essential role in mediating host defense, as CD8 depletion reversed protection in the vaccinated mice; vaccinated mice depleted of CD4 T cells remained protected. Hence, vaccine-induced protection is dependent upon TLR1/2 activation instructing the generation of antigen specific CD8 cells and restricting IL-13 and IL-10 responses.Given the general effectiveness of prime-boost vaccination, the recalcitrance of Leishmania (Viannia to vaccine approaches effective against other species of Leishmania is again evident. However, prime-boost vaccination modality can with modulation induce protective responses, indicating that the delivery system is critical. Moreover, these results suggest that

  14. Immunization with Hexon modified adenoviral vectors integrated with gp83 epitope provides protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra L Farrow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Chagas disease is an endemic infection that affects over 8 million people throughout Latin America and now has become a global challenge. The current pharmacological treatment of patients is unsuccessful in most cases, highly toxic, and no vaccines are available. The results of inadequate treatment could lead to heart failure resulting in death. Therefore, a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses and protection against Chagas disease is necessary.The "antigen capsid-incorporation" strategy is based upon the display of the T. cruzi epitope as an integral component of the adenovirus' capsid rather than an encoded transgene. This strategy is predicted to induce a robust humoral immune response to the presented antigen, similar to the response provoked by native Ad capsid proteins. The antigen chosen was T. cruzi gp83, a ligand that is used by T. cruzi to attach to host cells to initiate infection. The gp83 epitope, recognized by the neutralizing MAb 4A4, along with His6 were incorporated into the Ad serotype 5 (Ad5 vector to generate the vector Ad5-HVR1-gp83-18 (Ad5-gp83. This vector was evaluated by molecular and immunological analyses. Vectors were injected to elicit immune responses against gp83 in mouse models. Our findings indicate that mice immunized with the vector Ad5-gp83 and challenged with a lethal dose of T. cruzi trypomastigotes confer strong immunoprotection with significant reduction in parasitemia levels, increased survival rate and induction of neutralizing antibodies.This data demonstrates that immunization with adenovirus containing capsid-incorporated T. cruzi antigen elicits a significant anti-gp83-specific response in two different mouse models, and protection against T. cruzi infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of several Ig isotypes

  15. Vaginally delivered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provides greater protection than tenofovir against genital herpes in a murine model of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Briana; Jandl, Thomas; Teller, Ryan S; Taneva, Ekaterina; Wang, Yanhua; Nagaraja, Umadevi; Kiser, Patrick F; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to genital herpes in medroxyprogesterone-treated mice may provide a surrogate of increased HIV risk and a preclinical biomarker of topical preexposure prophylaxis safety. We evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in this murine model because an intravaginal ring eluting this drug is being advanced into clinical trials. To avoid the complications of surgically inserting a ring, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-stable formulations of TDF were prepared. One week of twice-daily 0.3% TDF gel was well tolerated and did not result in any increase in HSV-2 susceptibility but protected mice from herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease compared to mice treated with the HEC placebo gel. No significant increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in vaginal washes or change in cytokine, chemokine, or mitochondrial gene expression in RNA extracted from genital tract tissue was detected. To further evaluate efficacy, mice were treated with gel once daily beginning 12 h prior to high-dose HSV-2 challenge or 2 h before and after viral challenge (BAT24 dosing). The 0.3% TDF gel provided significant protection compared to the HEC gel following either daily (in 9/10 versus 1/10 mice, P < 0.01) or BAT24 (in 14/20 versus 4/20 mice, P < 0.01) dosing. In contrast, 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel protected only 4/10 mice treated with either regimen. Significant protection was also observed with daily 0.03% TDF compared to HEC. Protection was associated with greater murine cellular permeability of radiolabeled TDF than of TFV. Together, these findings suggest that TDF is safe, may provide substantially greater protection against HSV than TFV, and support the further clinical development of a TDF ring.

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Insecticide-treated nets provide protection against malaria to children in an area of insecticide resistance in Southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, Aurore; Cornélie, Sylvie; Fassinou, Jacob; de Tove, Yolande Sissinto Savi; Adéothy, Adicath Adéola; Tokponnon, Filémon T; Makoutode, Patrick; Adechoubou, Alioun; Legba, Thibaut; Houansou, Telesphore; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothée; Akogbeto, Martin C; Massougbodji, Achille; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Donnelly, Martin; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2017-05-26

    Malaria control is heavily reliant on insecticides, especially pyrethroids. Resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides may threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control and lead to a resurgence of malaria in Africa. In 21 villages in Southern Benin with high levels of insecticide resistance, the resistance status of local vectors was measured at the same time as the prevalence of malaria infection in resident children. Children who used LLINs had lower levels of malaria infection [odds ratio = 0.76 (95% CI 0.59, 0.98, p = 0.033)]. There was no evidence that the effectiveness of nets was different in high and low resistance locations (p = 0.513). There was no association between village level resistance and village level malaria prevalence (p = 0.999). LLINs continue to offer individual protection against malaria infection in an area of high resistance. Insecticide resistance is not a reason to stop efforts to increase coverage of LLINs in Africa.

  18. The emotional impact of errors or adverse events on healthcare providers in the NICU: The protective role of coworker support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winning, Adrien M; Merandi, Jenna M; Lewe, Dorcas; Stepney, Lois M C; Liao, Nancy N; Fortney, Christine A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2017-07-26

    To examine the impact of errors or adverse events on emotional distress and professional quality of life in healthcare providers in the neonatal intensive care unit, and the moderating role of coworker support. Errors or adverse events can result in negative outcomes for healthcare providers. However, the role of coworker support in improving emotional and professional outcomes has not been examined. A cross-sectional online survey from a quality improvement initiative to train peer supporters in a neonatal intensive care unit. During 2015, 463 healthcare providers in a neonatal intensive care unit completed a survey assessing their experiences with an error or adverse event, anxiety, depression, professional quality of life and coworker support. Compared with those who did not experience an error or adverse event (58%), healthcare providers who observed (23%) or were involved (19%) in an incident reported higher levels of anxiety and secondary traumatic stress. Those who were involved in an event reported higher levels of depression and burnout. Differences between the three groups (no event, observation and involvement) for compassion satisfaction were non-significant. Perceived coworker support moderated the association between experiencing an event and both anxiety and depression. Specifically, experiencing an event was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression when coworkers were perceived as low in supportiveness, but not when they were viewed as highly supportive. Findings suggest that errors or adverse events can have a harmful impact on healthcare providers and that coworker support may reduce emotional distress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Leptin resistance extends to the coronary vasculature in prediabetic dogs and provides a protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Jarrod D; Dincer, U Deniz; Dick, Gregory M; Shibata, Haruki; Akahane, Rie; Saito, Masayuki; Tune, Johnathan D

    2005-09-01

    Hyperleptinemia, associated with prediabetes, is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and a mediator of coronary endothelial dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that acutely raising the leptin concentration to levels comparable with those observed in human obesity significantly attenuates coronary dilation/relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) both in vivo in anesthetized dogs and in vitro in isolated canine coronary rings. Accordingly, the purpose of this investigation was to extend these studies to a model of prediabetes with chronic hyperleptinemia. In the present investigation, experiments were conducted on control and high-fat-fed dogs. High-fat feeding caused a significant increase (131%) in plasma leptin concentration. Furthermore, in high-fat-fed dogs, exogenous leptin did not significantly alter vascular responses to ACh in vivo or in vitro. Coronary vasodilator responses to ACh (0.3-30.0 microg/min) and sodium nitroprusside (1.0-100.0 microg/min) were not significantly different from those observed in control dogs. Also, high-fat feeding did not induce a switch to an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor as a major mediator of muscarinic coronary vasodilation, because dilation to ACh was abolished by combined pretreatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (150 microg/min ic) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv). Quantitative, real-time PCR revealed no significant difference in coronary artery leptin receptor gene expression between control and high-fat-fed dogs. In conclusion, high-fat feeding induces resistance to the coronary vascular effects of leptin, and this represents an early protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction. The resistance is not due to altered endothelium-dependent or -independent coronary dilation, increased endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, or changes in coronary leptin receptor mRNA levels.

  20. Comparison of protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome field viruses against homologous and heterologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges. The reduction of secondary challenging PRRSV viremia coincided with the appearance of homologous PRRSV-specific NA and IFN-γ-SC. Homologous challenge reduced the severity of lung lesions and levels of PRRSV viremia significantly in pigs in comparison with heterologous challenge. The differences in homologous and heterologous NA and IFN-γ-SC response may explain the differences in protection against homologous and heterologous challenge between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge (immunization) with type 1 PRRSV provided protection against the secondary homologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV but failed to provide protection against the secondary heterologous challenge of type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge with type 2 PRRSV provided protection against both the secondary homologous challenge with type 2 PRRSV and the secondary heterologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  5. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  6. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  7. Inactivated vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) emulsified with squalene and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant provides long term protection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Kim, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2013-09-23

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) remains an unsolved health problem in Korean aquaculture. Vaccination plays a significant role in modern aquaculture, and the duration of protection provided is of vital importance. Here, we have demonstrated the efficacy, duration of protection and safety of an inactivated vaccine emulsified with squalene (5%) and aluminum hydroxide (0.5%). The inactivated VHS vaccine provided a moderate protection of 37% and 47% relative percent survival (RPS) at 4 and 10 weeks post vaccination (wpv). Addition of squalene and aluminum hydroxide into inactivated VHS vaccine clearly enhanced the level of protection showing 58% and 83% RPS at 4 and 10 wpv, respectively, indicating the need for adjuvants to enhance the efficacy. The vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 40 wpv (except week 57) than non-vaccinated fish to an intraperitoneal challenge of 10(7.1)TCID₅₀/fish at 15 °C, with RPS of 60%, 64%, 71%, 55%, 52% and 50% (45% at 57 week), respectively, covering the duration of natural outbreak. Fish challenged at 18 wpv at 6 °C showed 56% RPS and protection at a low temperature. The antibody titer was high at 3 wpv with an OD of 1.08 ± 0.13, but decreased gradually and was undetectable by 24 wpv. The vaccine formulation was safe without injection site reactions, adhesions, or pigmentation observed at 6, 12, 18, or 24 wpv. Inflammatory reactions were observed in the spleen intestine at 6 and 12 wpv but were similar as control by 24 wpv. These results confirm that this vaccine is efficient and safe for olive flounder and could offer an appropriate strategy to prevent VHS without causing side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the Fv due to a strong damping in the Fm, and a slight increase in the F0. Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I820), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P700. The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a "warming

  9. Chimeric anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B antibodies and lovastatin act synergistically to provide in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem E Tilahun

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB is one of a family of toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that act as superantigens, activating a large fraction of the T-cell population and inducing production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS and death. Extracellular engagement of the TCR of T-cells and class II MHC of antigen presenting cells by SEB triggers the activation of many intracellular signaling processes. We engineered chimeric antibodies to block the extracellular engagement of cellular receptors by SEB and used a statin to inhibit intracellular signaling. Chimeric human-mouse antibodies directed against different neutralizing epitopes of SEB synergistically inhibited its activation of human T-cells in vitro. In the in vivo model of lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, two of these antibodies conferred significant partial protection when administered individually, but offered complete protection in a synergistic manner when given together. Similarly, in vivo, lovastatin alone conferred only partial protection from TSS similar to single anti-SEB antibodies. However, used in combination with one chimeric neutralizing anti-SEB antibody, lovastatin provided complete protection against lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. These experiments demonstrate that in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB can be achieved by a statin of proven clinical safety and chimeric human-mouse antibodies, agents now widely used and known to be of low immunogenicity in human hosts.

  10. Immunization with cytomegalovirus envelope glycoprotein M and glycoprotein N DNA vaccines can provide mice with complete protection against a lethal murine cytomegalovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huadong; Yao, Yanfeng; Huang, Chaoyang; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Ze

    2013-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus virions contain three major glycoprotein complexes (gC I, II, III), all of which are required for CMV infectivity. These complexes also represent major antigenic targets for anti-viral immune responses. The gC II complex consists of two glycoproteins, gM and gN. In the current study, DNA vaccines expressing the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) homologs of the gM and gN proteins were evaluated for protection against lethal MCMV infection in a mouse model. Humoral and cellular immune responses, spleen viral titers, and mice survival and body-weight changes were examined. The results showed that immunization with gM or gN DNA vaccine alone was not able to offer good protection, whereas co-immunization with both gM and gN induced an effective neutralizing antibody response and cellular immune response, and provided mice with complete protection against a lethal MCMV challenge. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that the gC II (gM-gN) complex may be able to serve as a protective subunit antigen for future HCMV vaccine development.

  11. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  13. Xenon and Sevoflurane Provide Analgesia during Labor and Fetal Brain Protection in a Perinatal Rat Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhuang, Lei; Rei Fidalgo, António M.; Petrides, Evgenia; Terrando, Niccolo; Wu, Xinmin; Sanders, Robert D.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Johnson, Mark R.; Maze, Mervyn; Ma, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon), in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35%) or xenon (35%) were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND) 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic) neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be tested in clinical

  14. 29 CFR 553.201 - Statutory provisions: section 7(k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory provisions: section 7(k). 553.201 Section 553.201...: section 7(k). (a) Section 7(k) of the Act provides a partial overtime pay exemption for fire protection.... (b) As specified in §§ 553.20 through 553.28 of subpart A, workers employed under section 7(k) may...

  15. Silver sub-nanoclusters electrocatalyze ethanol oxidation and provide protection against ethanol toxicity in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Javier; Martínez, Susana E; Buceta, David; Rodríguez-Vázquez, María J; Blanco, M Carmen; López-Quintela, M Arturo; Egea, Gustavo

    2010-05-26

    Silver atomic quantum clusters (AgAQCs), with two or three silver atoms, show electrocatalytic activities that are not found in nanoparticles or in bulk silver. AgAQCs supported on glassy carbon electrodes oxidize ethanol and other alcohols in macroscopic electrochemical cells in acidic and basic media. This electrocatalysis occurs at very low potentials (from approximately +200 mV vs RHE), at physiological pH, and at ethanol concentrations that are found in alcoholic patients. When mammalian cells are co-exposed to ethanol and AgAQCs, alcohol-induced alterations such as rounded cell morphology, disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and activation of caspase-3 are all prevented. This cytoprotective effect of AgAQCs is also observed in primary cultures of newborn rat astrocytes exposed to ethanol, which is a cellular model of fetal alcohol syndrome. AgAQCs oxidize ethanol from the culture medium only when ethanol and AgAQCs are added to cells simultaneously, which suggests that cytoprotection by AgAQCs is provided by the ethanol electro-oxidation mediated by the combined action of AgAQCs and cells. Overall, these findings not only show that AgAQCs are efficient electrocatalysts at physiological pH and prevent ethanol toxicity in cultured mammalian cells, but also suggest that AgAQCs could be used to modify redox reactions and in this way promote or inhibit biological reactions.

  16. CD36 Provides Host Protection Against Klebsiella pneumoniae Intrapulmonary Infection by Enhancing Lipopolysaccharide Responsiveness and Macrophage Phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olonisakin, Tolani F; Li, Huihua; Xiong, Zeyu; Kochman, Elizabeth J K; Yu, Minting; Qu, Yanyan; Hulver, Mei; Kolls, Jay K; St Croix, Claudette; Doi, Yohei; Nguyen, Minh-Hong; Shanks, Robert M Q; Mallampalli, Rama K; Kagan, Valerian E; Ray, Anuradha; Silverstein, Roy L; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S

    2016-12-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae remains an important cause of intrapulmonary infection and invasive disease worldwide. K. pneumoniae can evade serum killing and phagocytosis primarily through the expression of a polysaccharide capsule, but its pathogenicity is also influenced by host factors. We examined whether CD36, a scavenger receptor that recognizes pathogen and modified self ligands, is a host determinant of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity. Despite differences in serum sensitivity and virulence of 3 distinct K. pneumoniae (hypermucoviscous K1, research K2, and carbapenemase-producing ST258) strains, the absence of CD36 significantly increased host susceptibility to acute intrapulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae, regardless of strain. We demonstrate that CD36 enhances LPS responsiveness to K. pneumoniae to increase downstream cytokine production and macrophage phagocytosis that is independent of polysaccharide capsular antigen. Our study provides new insights into host determinants of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity and raises the possibility that functional mutations in CD36 may predispose individuals to K. pneumoniae syndromes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John C; Burch, James A; Streilein, Robert D; Iannacchione, Mary Ann; Hall, Russell P; Pinnell, Sheldon R

    2008-09-01

    Skin cancer and photoaging changes result from ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative stress. Topical antioxidants may protect skin from these effects. We sought to determine whether a stable topical formulation of 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEFer) could protect human skin in vivo from substantial amounts of solar-simulated UV radiation. CEFer and its vehicle were applied to separate patches of normal-appearing human skin for 4 days. Each patch was irradiated with solar-simulated UV, 2 to 10 minimal erythema doses, at 2-minimal erythema dose intervals. One day later, skin was evaluated for erythema and sunburn cells, and immunohistochemically for thymine dimers and p53. UV-induced cytokine formation, including interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CEFer provided significant and meaningful photoprotection for skin by all methods of evaluation. The number of patients evaluated was relatively small. CEFer provided substantial UV photoprotection for skin. It is particularly effective for reducing thymine dimer mutations known to be associated with skin cancer. Its mechanism of action is different from sunscreens and would be expected to supplement the sun protection provided by sunscreens.

  18. Maternal immunization with respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein formulated with a novel combination adjuvant provides protection from RSV in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Latimer, L; Wang, Y; Simko, E; Gerdts, V; Potter, A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S

    2016-01-04

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the causative agent of serious upper and lower respiratory tract infections in newborns and infants. Protection from RSV is crucial for neonates, and maternal immunization is one approach that holds promise for providing immediate protection to young infants against severe RSV infection. We previously reported efficacy of a subunit vaccine consisting of the fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (ΔF/TriAdj) in neonates. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the ΔF/TriAdj as a maternal vaccine. Pregnant ewes were vaccinated intramuscularly with ΔF/TriAdj or PBS six weeks prior to lambing, and re-vaccinated four weeks later, which resulted in transfer of maternal antibodies (MatAbs) to the newborn lambs through the colostrum. Significantly higher levels of RSV ΔF-specific serum IgG were detected in vaccinated pregnant ewes and their lambs when compared to control animals, which revealed that MatAbs were passively transferred to the offspring. All newborn lambs were challenged with RSV at three days of age. After RSV challenge, virus production and lung pathology were significantly lower in lambs that had received passively transferred antibodies than in control animals. These results indicate that maternal immunization with ΔF/TriAdj might be an alternative, safe and effective approach to provide protection against RSV in newborn and young infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States.

  20. A live attenuated strain of Yersinia pestis ΔyscB provides protection against bubonic and pneumonic plagues in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuecan; Qi, Zhizhen; Du, Zongmin; Bi, Yujing; Zhang, Qingwen; Tan, Yafang; Yang, Huiying; Xin, Youquan; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2013-05-24

    To develop a safe and effective live plague vaccine, the ΔyscB mutant was constructed based on Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201 that is avirulent to humans, but virulent to mice. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the ΔyscB mutant were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the ΔyscB mutant was severely attenuated, elicited a higher F1-specific antibody titer and provided protective efficacy against bubonic and pneumonic plague in mouse model. The ΔyscB mutant could induce the secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Taken together, the ΔyscB mutant represented a potential vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and to provide good protection against both subcutaneous and intranasal Y. pestis challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A live attenuated BCG vaccine overexpressing multistage antigens Ag85B and HspX provides superior protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuefeng; Teng, Xindong; Jing, Yukai; Ma, Jilei; Tian, Maopeng; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Ruibo; Wang, Weihua; Li, Li; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most menacing infectious diseases, although attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been widely used to protect children against primary TB. There are increasing evidences that rapid growing and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) coexist in vivo after infection. However, BCG vaccine only elicits cell-mediated immune responses to secretory antigens expressed by rapid growing pathogen. BCG vaccine is thus unable to thwart the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and its protection wanes over age after neonatal immunization. In order to extend its ability for a durable protection, a novel recombinant BCG (rBCG) strain, named rBCG::XB, was constructed by overexpressing immunodominant multistage antigens of Ag85B and HspX, which are expressed by both rapid replicating and dormant M. tuberculosis. Long-term protective effect and immunogenicity of rBCG::XB were compared with the parental BCG in vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that rBCG::XB provided the stronger and long-lasting protection against M. tuberculosis H37Rv intranasal infection than BCG. The rBCG::XB not only elicited the more durable multistage antigen-specific CD4(+)Th1-biased immune responses and specific polyfunctional CD4(+)T cells but also augmented the CD8(+) CTL effects against Ag85B in vivo. In particular, higher levels of CD4(+) TEM and CD8(+) TCM cells, dominated by IL2(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM cells, were obtained in the spleen of rBCG::XB vaccinated mice. Therefore, our findings indicate that rBCG::XB is a promising candidate to improve the efficacy of BCG.

  2. Effects of aging temperature and time on the corrosion protection provided by trivalent chromium process coatings on AA2024-T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Swain, Greg M

    2013-08-28

    The effects of aging temperature and time on the physical structure of and corrosion protection provided by trivalent chromium process (TCP) coatings on AA2024-T3 are reported. The TCP coating forms a partially blocking barrier layer on the alloy surface that consists of hydrated channels and or defects. It is through these channels and defects that ions and dissolved O2 can be transported to small areas of the underlying alloy. Reactions initiate at these sites, which can ultimately lead to undercutting of the coating and localized corrosion. We tested the hypothesis that collapsing the channels and or reducing the number of defects in the coating might be possible through post-deposition heat treatment, and that this would enhance the corrosion protection provided by the coating. This was tested by aging the TCP-coated AA2024 alloys in air overnight at room temperature (RT), 55, 100, or 150 °C. The TCP coating became dehydrated and thinner at the high temperatures (55 and 100 °C). This improved the corrosion protection as evidenced by a 2× increase in the charge transfer resistance. Aging at 150 °C caused excessive coating dehydration and shrinkage. This led to severe cracking and detachment of the coating from the surface. The TCP-coated AA2024 samples were also aged in air at RT from 1 to 7 days. There was no thinning of the coating, but the corrosion protection was enhanced with a longer aging period as evidenced by a 4× increase in the charge transfer resistance. The coating became more hydrophobic after aging at elevated temperature (up to 100 °C) and with aging time at RT as evidenced by an increased water contact angle from 7 to 100 °C.

  3. Problems of Translation of Provisions of International Treaties Illustrated by The Example of Article 6 of the European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrońska Iwona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of these reflections is the analysis of issues concerning language translation of the treaty and connotations connected therewith of the meaning of legal regulations. As an example here one can cite Article 6 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950, prepared in the two official languages of the Council of Europe, i.e. English and French. The problems of interpretation of Article 6, which regulates the right to a fair trial, resulted from the official translation of the term “prawo do sprawiedliwego procesu sądowego” (the right to a just trial. This triggered a quite widespread discussion in the Polish doctrine as to whether the English term “fair” should be translated as “sprawiedliwy”. Moreover, on the basis of a translation so constructed other proposals of the concept in Article 6 appeared in the literature on the subject, such as “uczciwy” (honest, “słuszny” (right or “praworządny” (lawful trial. The article presents the argumentation of Polish lawyers on adopting the aforementioned terms, demonstrating how the language used in translation of the treaty may affect the accurate understanding of legal terminology.

  4. Vaccination with a novel recombinant Leishmania antigen plus MPL provides partial protection against L. donovani challenge in experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Suvercha; Vasishta, R K; Arora, Sunil K

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of immunity following subclinical or resolved infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani suggests that vaccination could prevent visceral leishmaniasis. The characteristics and in vitro stimulating capability of the recombinant proteins expressed by previously identified clones on the basis of their capacity to stimulate an indigenously established Leishmania-specific cell line leading to high level of IFN-gamma suggested these to be potential candidates for immunoprophylaxis against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of purified recombinant proteins from two of the identified cDNA clones along with the adjuvant MPL, in a hamster model of experimental leishmaniasis. We demonstrate here that the immunization of animals with one of the recombinant proteins (rF14) having 97% similarity to C1 clone of L. chagasi ribosomal protein gene P0 (rLiP0) along with MPL provided partial protection against the virulent challenge of L. donovani. The absence of antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses in these immunized animals may be responsible for the lack of complete and long-lasting protection.

  5. Airway-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells Provide Antigen-Specific Protection against Respiratory Virus Challenge through Rapid IFN-γ Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Sean R; Wilson, Jarad J; Wang, Hong; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2015-07-01

    CD8 airway resident memory T (TRM) cells are a distinctive TRM population with a high turnover rate and a unique phenotype influenced by their localization within the airways. Their role in mediating protective immunity to respiratory pathogens, although suggested by many studies, has not been directly proven. This study provides definitive evidence that airway CD8 TRM cells are sufficient to mediate protection against respiratory virus challenge. Despite being poorly cytolytic in vivo and failing to expand after encountering Ag, airway CD8 TRM cells rapidly express effector cytokines, with IFN-γ being produced most robustly. Notably, established airway CD8 TRM cells possess the ability to produce IFN-γ faster than systemic effector memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, naive mice receiving intratracheal transfer of airway CD8 TRM cells lacking the ability to produce IFN-γ were less effective at controlling pathogen load upon heterologous challenge. This direct evidence of airway CD8 TRM cell-mediated protection demonstrates the importance of these cells as a first line of defense for optimal immunity against respiratory pathogens and suggests they should be considered in the development of future cell-mediated vaccines. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. The RooPfs study to assess whether improved housing provides additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice in The Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, Margeret; Conteh, Lesong; Jeffries, David

    2016-01-01

    Background In malaria-endemic areas, residents of modern houses have less malaria than those living in traditional houses. This study will determine if modern housing provides incremental protection against clinical malaria over the current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs...... at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection, parasite density, and the prevalence of anemia. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light traps, followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Ancillary...

  7. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Rabies Vaccine Is Safe, Highly Immunogenic, and Provides Long-Lasting Protection in Dogs and Cats ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tao, Lihong; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Yang, Chinglai; Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao

    2011-01-01

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, has shown promise as a vaccine vector for mammals. Here, we generated a recombinant avirulent NDV La Sota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against rabies. The recombinant virus, rL-RVG, retained its high-growth property in chicken eggs, with titers of up to 109.8 50% egg infective doses (EID50)/ml of allantoic fluid. RVG expression enabled rL-RVG to spread from cell to cell in a rabies virus-like manner, and RVG was incorporated on the surface of the rL-RVG viral particle. RVG incorporation did not alter the trypsin-dependent infectivity of the NDV vector in mammalian cells. rL-RVG and La Sota NDV showed similar levels of sensitivity to a neutralization antibody against NDV and similar levels of resistance to a neutralization antibody against rabies virus. Animal studies demonstrated that rL-RVG is safe in several species, including cats and dogs, when administered as multiple high doses of recombinant vaccine. Intramuscular vaccination with rL-RVG induced a substantial rabies virus neutralization antibody response and provided complete protection from challenge with circulating rabies virus strains. Most importantly, rL-RVG induced strong and long-lasting protective neutralization antibody responses to rabies virus in dogs and cats. A low vaccine dose of 108.3 EID50 completely protected dogs from challenge with a circulating strain of rabies virus for more than a year. This is the first study to demonstrate that immunization with an NDV-vectored vaccine can induce long-lasting, systemic protective immunity against rabies. PMID:21632762

  8. 40 CFR 1033.655 - Special provisions for certain Tier 0/Tier 1 locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for certain Tier 0/Tier 1 locomotives. 1033.655 Section 1033.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....655 Special provisions for certain Tier 0/Tier 1 locomotives. (a) The provisions of this section apply...

  9. 40 CFR 63.215 - What General Provisions apply to me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What General Provisions apply to me? 63.215 Section 63.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... and Information § 63.215 What General Provisions apply to me? (a) All the provisions in 40 CFR part 61...

  10. 40 CFR 1068.15 - What general provisions apply for EPA decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What general provisions apply for EPA decision-making? 1068.15 Section 1068.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.15 What general provisions apply for EPA decision-making? (a) The Administrator...

  11. The provision of a cane provides greater benefit to community-dwelling people after stroke with a baseline walking speed between 0.4 and 0.8 metres/second: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucas R; Ada, Louise; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the provision of a cane on walking ability in ambulatory people with chronic stroke. Experimental study. Clinics within the community. Twenty-four people on average 6 years after a stroke, who were not regular users of walking sticks. Participants were categorized as slow (0.8 metres/second) on the basis of their baseline walking ability. Walking with and without a cane. Walking ability was measured using the 10-m Walk Test and reported as speed (metres/second), step length (metres), and cadence (steps/minute). Overall, the provision of a cane produced no significant change in speed (0.05 metres/second, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.11) or cadence (-3 steps/minute; 95% CI -8 to 3), but a small increase in step length (0.04 metres, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06). For the intermediate walkers, the cane increased speed by 0.18 metres/second (95% CI 0.11 to 0.24), step length by 0.07 metres (95% CI 0.05 to 0.09), but not cadence. The provision of a cane to the intermediate walkers also produced 0.27 metres/second (95% CI 0.18 to 0.36) more increase in speed compared with the fast walkers, and 0.12 metres/second (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21) more increase compared with the slow walkers. The provision of a cane produced most benefit to a subgroup of intermediate walkers in a group of community-dwelling people with chronic stroke whose walking had stabilized, without detriment to quality of walking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. Adenovirus vector-based multi-epitope vaccine provides partial protection against H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Hassan

    Full Text Available The emergence of H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes in humans reveals their pandemic potential. Although human-to-human transmission has been limited, the genetic reassortment of the avian and human/porcine influenza viruses or mutations in some of the genes resulting in virus replication in the upper respiratory tract of humans could generate novel pandemic influenza viruses. Current vaccines do not provide cross protection against antigenically distinct strains of the H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses. Therefore, newer vaccine approaches are needed to overcome these potential threats. We developed an egg-independent, adenovirus vector-based, multi-epitope (ME vaccine approach using the relatively conserved immunogenic domains of the H5N1 influenza virus [M2 ectodomain (M2e, hemagglutinin (HA fusion domain (HFD, T-cell epitope of nucleoprotein (TNP. and HA α-helix domain (HαD]. Our ME vaccine induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and caused a significant reduction in the viral loads in the lungs of vaccinated mice that were challenged with antigenically distinct H5, H7, or H9 avian influenza viruses. These results suggest that our ME vaccine approach provided broad protection against the avian influenza viruses. Further improvement of this vaccine will lead to a pre-pandemic vaccine that may lower morbidity, hinder transmission, and prevent mortality in a pandemic situation before a strain-matched vaccine becomes available.

  14. An inactivated gE-deleted pseudorabies vaccine provides complete clinical protection and reduces virus shedding against challenge by a Chinese pseudorabies variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichun; Guo, Rongli; Qiao, Yongfeng; Xu, Mengwei; Wang, Zhisheng; Liu, Yamei; Gu, Yiqi; Liu, Chang; Hou, Jibo

    2016-12-07

    Since the end of 2011 an outbreak of pseudorabies affected Chinese pig herds that had been vaccinated with the commercial vaccine made of Bartha K61 strain. It is now clear that the outbreak was caused by an emergent PRV variant. Even though vaccines made of PRV Bartha K61 strain can confer certain cross protection against PRV variants based on experimental data, less than optimal clinical protection and virus shedding reduction were observed, making the control or eradication of this disease difficult. An infectious clone of PRV AH02LA strain was constructed to generate a gE deletion mutant PRV(LA-AB) strain. PRV(LA-AB) strain can reach a titer of 108.43 TCID50 /mL (50% tissue culture infectious dose) on BHK-21 cells. To evaluate the efficiency of the inactivated vaccine made of PRV(LA-AB) strain, thirty 3-week-old PRV-negative piglets were divided randomly into six groups for vaccination and challenge test. All five piglets in the challenge control showed typical clinical symptoms of pseudorabies post challenge. Sneezing and nasal discharge were observed in four and three piglets in groups C(vaccinated with inactivated PRV Bartha K61 strain vaccine) and D(vaccinated with live PRV Bartha K61 strain vaccine) respectively. In contrast, piglets in both groups A(vaccinated with inactivated PRV LA-AB strain vaccine) and B(vaccinated with inactivated PRV LA-AB strain vaccine with adjuvant) presented mild or no clinical symptoms. Moreover, viral titers detected via nasal swabs were approximately 100 times lower in group B than in the challenge control, and the duration of virus shedding (3-4 days) was shorter than in either the challenge control (5-10 days) or groups C and D (5-6 days). The infectious clone constructed in this study harbors the whole genome of the PRV variant AH02LA strain. The gE deletion mutant PRV(LA-AB)strain generated from PRV AH02LA strain can reach a high titer on BHK-21 cells. An inactivated vaccine of PRV LA-AB provides clinical protection

  15. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years... status within 3 years from the time of award. Grantee B then provides services to homeless veterans for a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery provisions. 61...

  16. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  17. Medicaid program; cost limit for providers operated by units of government and provisions to ensure the integrity of federal-state financial partnership. Final rule; implementation of court orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    This final rule amends Medicaid regulations to conform with the decision by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia on May 23, 2008 in Alameda County Medical Center, et al. v. Michael O. Leavitt, Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, et al., 559 F. Supp. 2d (2008) that vacated a final rule with comment period published in the Federal Register in May 29, 2007. This regulatory action takes ministerial steps to remove the vacated provisions from the Code of Federal Regulations and reinstate the prior regulatory language impacted by the May 29, 2007 final rule with comment period.

  18. Monovalent H5 vaccine based on epitope-chimeric HA provides broad cross-clade protection against variant H5N1 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Prabakaran, Mookkan; Rajesh Kumar, Subaschandrabose; Tan, Yunrui; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-05-01

    H5N1 HPAI virus continues to be a severe threat for public health, as well as for the poultry industry, due to its high mortality and antigenic drift rate. There is no monovalent vaccine available which provides broad protection against those major circulating strains. In the present study, a monovalent H5 vaccine strain was developed with antigenic sequence analysis and epitope mutations. H5 from Indonesia strain (A/Indonesia/CDC669/2006) was used as backbone sequence. Three amino acids were mutated to express immunogenic epitopes from other circulating H5N1s in the backbone. RG influenza virus expressing the epitope-chimeric H5 can react in HI with multiple H5 monoclonal antibodies which fail to neutralize wild type CDC669. High titers in HI and virus neutralization against different clades H5N1s (clade 1, 2, 4 and 7) were detected using sera from mice immunized with the epitope-chimeric H5N1. The monovalent vaccine with RG-epitope-chimeric H5N1 protected mice from lethal challenge with H5N1s of different clades, including clade 1.0, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3. This study indicates that the broad immune response elicited by this single H5N1 virus allows it to be a promising candidate for a monovalent H5 universal vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by a protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado: application of the contingent valuation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Resende

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering that the economic valuation of ecosystem services is a useful approach to support the conservation of natural areas, we aimed to estimate the monetary value of the benefits provided by a protected area in southeast Brazil, the Serra do Cipó National Park. We calculated the visitor’s willingness to pay to conserve the ecosystems of the protected area using the contingent valuation method. Located in a region under intense anthropogenic pressure, the Serra do Cipó National Park is mostly composed of rupestrian grassland ecosystems, in addition to other Cerrado physiognomies. We conducted a survey consisting of 514 interviews with visitors of the region and found that the mean willingness to pay was R$ 7.16 year–1, which corresponds to a total of approximately R$ 716,000.00 year–1. We detected that per capita income, the household size, the level of interest in environmental issues and the place of origin influenced the likelihood that individuals are willing to contribute to the conservation of the park, as well as the value of the stated willingness to pay. This study conveys the importance of conserving rupestrian grassland and other Cerrado physiognomies to decision makers and society.

  20. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by a protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado: application of the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, F M; Fernandes, G W; Andrade, D C; Néder, H D

    2017-11-01

    Considering that the economic valuation of ecosystem services is a useful approach to support the conservation of natural areas, we aimed to estimate the monetary value of the benefits provided by a protected area in southeast Brazil, the Serra do Cipó National Park. We calculated the visitor's willingness to pay to conserve the ecosystems of the protected area using the contingent valuation method. Located in a region under intense anthropogenic pressure, the Serra do Cipó National Park is mostly composed of rupestrian grassland ecosystems, in addition to other Cerrado physiognomies. We conducted a survey consisting of 514 interviews with visitors of the region and found that the mean willingness to pay was R$ 7.16 year-1, which corresponds to a total of approximately R$ 716,000.00 year-1. We detected that per capita income, the household size, the level of interest in environmental issues and the place of origin influenced the likelihood that individuals are willing to contribute to the conservation of the park, as well as the value of the stated willingness to pay. This study conveys the importance of conserving rupestrian grassland and other Cerrado physiognomies to decision makers and society.

  1. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Bowden, Timothy R; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in Africa and Asia. Currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. However, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy skin disease (LSD) the vaccine can cause clinical disease. In order to develop safer vaccines effective against all three diseases, a pathogenic strain of LSDV (Warmbaths [WB], South Africa) was attenuated by removing a putative virulence factor gene (IL-10-like) using gene knockout (KO) technology. This construct (LSDV WB005KO) was then evaluated as a vaccine for sheep and goats against virulent capripoxvirus challenge. Sheep and goats were vaccinated with the construct and the animals were observed for 21days. The vaccine appeared to be safe, and did not cause disease, although it induced minor inflammation at the injection site similar to that caused by other attenuated sheep and goat pox vaccines. In addition, no virus replication was detected in blood, oral or nasal swabs using real-time PCR following vaccination and low levels of neutralising antibodies were detected in both sheep and goats. Leukocytes isolated from vaccinated animals following vaccination elicited capripoxvirus-specific IFN-γ secretion, suggesting that immunity was also T-cell mediated. Following challenge with virulent capripoxvirus, vaccinated sheep and goats were found to be completely protected and exhibited no clinical disease. Furthermore, real-time PCR of blood samples at various time points suggested that viremia was absent in both groups of vaccinated animals, as opposed to capripoxvirus-related clinical disease and viremia observed in the unvaccinated animals. These findings suggest that this

  2. A Cyclic Altered Peptide Analogue Based on Myelin Basic Protein 87–99 Provides Lasting Prophylactic and Therapeutic Protection Against Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Emmanouil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, amide-linked cyclic peptide analogues of the 87–99 myelin basic protein (MBP epitope, a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS, are tested for therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Cyclic altered peptide analogues of MBP87–99 with substitutions at positions 91 and/or 96 were tested for protective effects when administered using prophylactic or early therapeutic protocols in MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats. The Lys91 and Pro96 of MBP87–99 are crucial T-cell receptor (TCR anchors and participate in the formation of trimolecular complex between the TCR-antigen (peptide-MHC (major histocompability complex for the stimulation of encephalitogenic T cells that are necessary for EAE induction and are implicated in MS. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS applied on the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarboxyl/tert-butyl Fmoc/tBu methodology and combined with the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl. Cyclo(91–99[Ala96]MBP87–99, cyclo(87–99[Ala91,96]MBP87–99 and cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99, but not wild-type linear MBP87–99, strongly inhibited MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats when administered using prophylactic and early therapeutic vaccination protocols. In particular, cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99 was highly effective in preventing the onset and development of clinical symptoms and spinal cord pathology and providing lasting protection against EAE induction.

  3. Effectiveness and Duration of Protection Provided by the Live-attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine in the Medicare Population Ages 65 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izurieta, Hector S; Wernecke, Michael; Kelman, Jeffrey; Wong, Sarah; Forshee, Richard; Pratt, Douglas; Lu, Yun; Sun, Qin; Jankosky, Christopher; Krause, Philip; Worrall, Chris; MaCurdy, Tom; Harpaz, Rafael

    2017-03-15

    Tens of millions of seniors are at risk of herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) reduces that risk, although questions regarding effectiveness and durability of protection in routine clinical practice remain. We used Medicare data to investigate HZV effectiveness (VE) and its durability. This retrospective cohort study included beneficiaries ages ≥65 years during January 2007 through July 2014. Multiple adjustments to account for potential bias were made. HZV-vaccinated beneficiaries were matched to unvaccinated beneficiaries (primary analysis) and to HZV-unvaccinated beneficiaries who had received pneumococcal vaccination (secondary analysis). HZ outcomes in community and hospital settings were analyzed, including ophthalmic zoster (OZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Among eligible beneficiaries (average age 77 years), the primary analysis found VE for community HZ of 33% (95% CI: 32%-35%) and 19% (95% CI: 17%-22%), for the first 3, and subsequent 4+ years postvaccination, respectively. In the secondary analysis, VE was, respectively, 37% (95% CI: 36%-39%) and 22% (95% CI: 20%-25%). In the primary analysis, VE for PHN was 57% (95% CI: 52%-61%) and 45% (95% CI: 36%-53%) in the first 3 and subsequent 4+ years, respectively; VE for hospitalized HZ was, respectively, 74% (95% CI: 67%-79%) and 55% (95% CI: 39%-67%). Differences in VE by age group were not significant. In both the primary and secondary analyses, HZV provided protection against HZ across all ages, but effectiveness declined over time. VE was higher and better preserved over time for PHN and HZ-associated hospitalizations than for community HZ.

  4. 40 CFR 1042.670 - Special provisions for gas turbine engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for gas turbine... AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.670 Special provisions for gas turbine engines. The provisions of this section apply for gas turbine engines. (a) Implementation schedule. The requirements of...

  5. Protective measures for personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, J.J.

    1946-12-13

    This document addresses radiation protection concerns for workers in the experimental laboratories and production plants where nuclear fission piles are being used. A broad in-depth discussion is provided based with the experiences gained in the Manhattan Project and being applied to contemporary activities. Discussion is thorough and encompasses control of external irradiations including alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiations; and control of radioactivity within the body by control of inhalation, ingestion, and entrance through skin or wounds. General measures for the control of radiation hazards is addressed by provision of clothing and waste disposal. An Appendix 1 is entitled General Rules and Procedures Concerning Activity Hazards.

  6. A virosomal respiratory syncytial virus vaccine adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A provides protection against viral challenge without priming for enhanced disease in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Tobias; Stegmann, Toon; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Wilschut, Jan; de Haan, Aalzen

    2013-11-01

    Non-replicating respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates could potentially prime for enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) due to a T-cell-mediated immunopathology, following RSV infection. Vaccines with built-in immune response modifiers, such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, may avoid such aberrant imprinting of the immune system. We developed reconstituted RSV envelopes (virosomes) with incorporated TLR4 ligand, monophosphoryl lipid A (RSV-MPLA virosomes). Immune responses and lung pathology after vaccination and challenge were investigated in ERD-prone cotton rats and compared with responses induced by live virus and formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine (FI-RSV), a known cause of ERD upon RSV challenge. Vaccination with RSV-MPLA virosomes induced higher levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies than FI-RSV or live virus infection and provided protection against infection. FI-RSV, but not RSV-MPLA virosomes, primed for increases in expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and Th1 cytokine IL-1b, 6 hour-5 days after infection. By contrast, RSV-MPLA virosomes induced IFN-γ transcripts to similar levels as induced by live virus. Animals vaccinated with FI-RSV, but not RSV-MPLA virosomes showed alveolitis, with prominent neutrophil influx and peribronchiolar and perivascular infiltrates. These results show that RSV-MPLA virosomes represent a safe and immunogenic vaccine candidate that warrants evaluation in a clinical setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  8. Dengue virus specific IgY provides protection following lethal dengue virus challenge and is neutralizing in the absence of inducing antibody dependent enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ashley L; Williams, Katherine L; Harris, Eva; Alvine, Travis D; Henderson, Thomas; Schiltz, James; Nilles, Matthew L; Bradley, David S

    2017-07-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are severe disease manifestations that can occur following sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4). At present, there are no licensed therapies to treat DENV-induced disease. DHF and DSS are thought to be mediated by serotype cross-reactive antibodies that facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by binding to viral antigens and then Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on target myeloid cells. Using genetically engineered DENV-specific antibodies, it has been shown that the interaction between the Fc portion of serotype cross-reactive antibodies and FcγR is required to induce ADE. Additionally, it was demonstrated that these antibodies were as neutralizing as their non-modified variants, were incapable of inducing ADE, and were therapeutic following a lethal, antibody-enhanced infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that avian IgY, which do not interact with mammalian FcγR, would provide a novel therapy for DENV-induced disease. We demonstrate here that goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY neutralized DENV2 and did not induce ADE in vitro. Anti-DENV2 IgY was also protective in vivo when administered 24 hours following a lethal DENV2 infection. We were also able to demonstrate via epitope mapping that both full-length and alternatively spliced anti-DENV2 IgY recognized different epitopes, including epitopes that have not been previously identified. These observations provide evidence for the potential therapeutic applications of goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY.

  9. A biologically conjugated polysaccharide vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium provides protection against challenge of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Wei, Yunan; Kong, Qingke

    2017-11-30

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian airsacculitis and colibacillosis, resulting in significant economic loss to the poultry industry. O1, O2 and O78 are the three predominant serotypes. O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide is serotype determinant and highly immunogenic, and O-antigen polysaccharide-based vaccines have great potential for preventing bacterial infections. In this study, we utilized a novel yeast/bacterial shuttle vector pSS26 to clone the 10.8 kb operon synthesizing APEC O1 O-antigen polysaccharide. The resulting plasmid was introduced into attenuated Salmonella vaccines to deliver this O-antigen polysaccharide. O1 O-antigen was stably synthesized in attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium, demonstrated by slide agglutination, silver staining and western blot. Our results also showed that APEC O1 O-antigen produced in the Salmonella vaccines was attached to bacterial cell surfaces, and the presence of heterologous O-antigen did not alter the resistance to surface-acting agents. Furthermore, birds immunized orally or intramuscularly provided protection against the virulent O1 APEC challenge. Salmonella vaccines carrying APEC O1 O-antigen gene cluster also induced high IgG and IgA immune responses against lipopolysaccharide from the APEC O1 strain. The use of our novel shuttle vector facilitates cloning of large DNA fragments, and this strategy could pave the way for production of Salmonella-vectored vaccines against prevalent APEC serotypes. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. GPIIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonism Using Small Molecules Provides no Additive Long-Term Protection after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention as Compared to Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Michele; Saladini, Angela; Papalia, Francesco; Grillo, Placido; Nesta, Cristina; Cuturello, Domenico; Missiroli, Bindo; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2010-01-01

    ) provided no additive long-term protection against the occurrence of composite ischemic events whereas thrombolysis by tenecteplase did. PMID:20922049

  11. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa where members of previously disadvantaged groups regard the demand for minority protection with suspicion. An overview of the literature on the concept minority, legal provisions in international law and the main provisions in South African law ...

  12. 40 CFR 51.117 - Additional provisions for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the...

  13. 48 CFR 828.106-72 - Contract provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provision. 828... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 828.106-72 Contract provision. Insert 852.228-72, Assisting Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor... reactor batch process vent located at a new affected source shall control organic HAP emissions by...

  15. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitobe, Jiro; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Saito, Noriko; Shimuta, Ken; Koizumi, Nobuo; Koley, Hemanta

    2017-07-01

    Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.

  16. Afforestation, Subsequent Forest Fires and Provision of Hydrological Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Naranjo Quintanilla, Paula; Santos, Juliana Marisa; Serpa, Dalila; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Rocha, João; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean landscapes have experienced extensive abandonment and reforestation in recent decades, which should have improved the provision of hydrological services such as flood mitigation, soil erosion protection and water quality regulation. However, these forests are fire-prone, and the

  17. VP2-serotyped live-attenuated bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression provided serotype-specific protection and enables DIVA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, F.; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Daus, F.J.; Tacken, M.G.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Gennip, van H.G.P.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes Bluetongue in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control vector borne diseases; however, there are 26 known BTV serotypes showing little cross protection. The BTV serotype is mainly determined by genome

  18. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Mitobe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.

  19. Interprofessionalism, personalization and care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Mary; Brocklehurst, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    This UK-based empirical research investigates interprofessionalism and personalization to assess their potential to achieve quality care provision for people with long-term conditions. Governmental policies extol the virtues of interprofessionalism and personalization to drive modernization forward, however, change requires the commitment of health and social care professionals. Therefore the complexity of turning policy into practice requires continual review to ensure policy ideals become practice realities rather than speculative rhetoric. This paper examines interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE) by analysing the experiences and working relationships of professionals from different professions and their potential impact upon personalization initiatives. The conclusion argues that educational providers and professional awarding bodies need to enshrine interprofessionalism into curricula and qualification accreditation thereby instilling collaboration intrinsically into care provision.

  20. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus vaccines formulated with delta inulin adjuvants provide enhanced protection while ameliorating lung eosinophilic immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Ong, Chun Hao; Peng, Bi-Hung; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic was controlled by nonvaccine measures, coronaviruses remain a major threat to human health. The design of optimal coronavirus vaccines therefore remains a priority. Such vaccines present major challenges: coronavirus immunity often wanes rapidly, individuals needing to be protected include the elderly, and vaccines may exacerbate rather than prevent coronavirus lung immunopathology. To address these issues, we compared in a murine model a range of recombinant spike protein or inactivated whole-virus vaccine candidates alone or adjuvanted with either alum, CpG, or Advax, a new delta inulin-based polysaccharide adjuvant. While all vaccines protected against lethal infection, addition of adjuvant significantly increased serum neutralizing-antibody titers and reduced lung virus titers on day 3 postchallenge. Whereas unadjuvanted or alum-formulated vaccines were associated with significantly increased lung eosinophilic immunopathology on day 6 postchallenge, this was not seen in mice immunized with vaccines formulated with delta inulin adjuvant. Protection against eosinophilic immunopathology by vaccines containing delta inulin adjuvants correlated better with enhanced T-cell gamma interferon (IFN-γ) recall responses rather than reduced interleukin-4 (IL-4) responses, suggesting that immunopathology predominantly reflects an inadequate vaccine-induced Th1 response. This study highlights the critical importance for development of effective and safe coronavirus vaccines of selection of adjuvants based on the ability to induce durable IFN-γ responses. Coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cause high case fatality rates and remain major human public health threats, creating a need for effective vaccines. While coronavirus antigens that induce protective neutralizing antibodies have been identified, coronavirus vaccines

  1. A Prophylactic Multivalent Vaccine Against Different Filovirus Species is Immunogenic and Provides Protection from Lethal Infections of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Species in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    1985;54(1): 30-37. Coltart CE, Johnson AM, Whitty CJ. Role of healthcare workers in early epidemic spread of Ebola: policy implications of...Lethal Infections of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Species in Non-human Primates Short title 70 characters Immunogenicity and Protection of a...filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but large outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infections . A good prophylactic vaccine should be able

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus neutralizing antibodies provide in vivo cross-protection to PRRSV1 and PRRSV2 viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally R; Rahe, Michael C; Gray, Diem K; Martins, Kyra V; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2018-02-03

    Vaccine control and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the most important disease of swine, is difficult to achieve. However, the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibody activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under typical field conditions opens the door to new immunologic approaches for robust protection. We show here that passive administration of purified immunoglobulins with neutralizing antibodies reduced PRRSV2 infection by up to 96%, and PRRSV1 infection by up to 87%, whereas immune immunoglobulins lacking neutralizing activity had no effect on viral infection. Hence, immune competence of passive immunoglobulin transfer was associated specifically with antibody neutralizing activity. Current models of PRRSV infection implicate a minor envelope glycoprotein (GP) complex including GP2, GP3, and GP4, as critical to permissive cell infection. However, conserved peptides comprising the putative cell attachment structure did not attenuate neutralization or viral infection. The results show that immunological approaches aimed at induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies may substantially enhance immune protection against PRRSV. The findings further show that naturally occurring viral isolates are able to induce protective humoral immunity against unrelated PRRSV challenge, thus removing a major conceptual barrier to vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using field data to assess the effects of pesticides on crustacea in freshwater aquatic ecosystems and verifying the level of protection provided by water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Martha; Singh, Lucina; Mineau, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how well single-species laboratory data predict real-world pesticide toxicity effects on Crustacea. Data from field pesticide exposures from experimental mesocosm and small pond studies were converted into toxicity units (TUs) by dividing measured pesticide concentrations by the L(E)C50 for Daphnia or acute 5% hazard concentration for Crustacea (HC5-C). The proportion of crustacean taxa significantly affected by the pesticide treatment, called the count ratio of effect, was used in logistic regression models. Of 200 possible logistic model combinations of the TUs, fate, physicochemical variables, and structural variables versus the count ratio of effect for the mesocosm data, the best model was found to incorporate log(TU HC5-C). This model was used to convert pesticide water quality guidelines from around the world into estimates of the proportion of crustacean taxa predicted to be impacted by exposure to a pesticide at the water quality guideline concentration. This analysis suggests 64% of long-term water quality guidelines and 88% of short-term pesticide water quality guidelines are not protective of the aquatic life they are designed to protect. We conclude that empirically derived data from mesocosm studies should be incorporated into water quality guideline derivation for pesticides where available. Also, interspecific differences in susceptibility should be accounted for more accurately to ensure water quality guidelines are adequately protective against the adverse effects of pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  4. Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection 2011 Company Act stipulates that prevailing purpose of enterprise is mandatory element of memorandum of association. Connection between memorandum of association and environmental protection is based on provision that registration or doing certain business may be subject to license granted by relevant body. This is the case with 2009 Waste Management Act which provides for license granted by state authorities for doing one or more activities in waste management.

  5. A Single Dose Respiratory Recombinant Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection for Non-Human Primates from Lethal Ebola Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Huk; Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Qiu, Xiangguo; Shedlock, Devon J; Strong, Jim; Xu, Jason X; Michie, Kelly L; Audet, Jonathan; Fernando, Lisa; Myers, Mark J; Weiner, David; Bajrovic, Irnela; Tran, Lilian Q; Wong, Gary; Bello, Alexander; Kobinger, Gary P; Schafer, Stephen C; Croyle, Maria A

    2015-08-03

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues and cases appear in the United States and other countries, the need for long-lasting vaccines to preserve global health is imminent. Here, we evaluate the long-term efficacy of a respiratory and sublingual (SL) adenovirus-based vaccine in non-human primates in two phases. In the first, a single respiratory dose of 1.4×10(9) infectious virus particles (ivp)/kg of Ad-CAGoptZGP induced strong Ebola glycoprotein (GP) specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and Ebola GP-specific antibodies in systemic and mucosal compartments and was partially (67%) protective from challenge 62 days after immunization. The same dose given by the SL route induced Ebola GP-specific CD8+ T cell responses similar to that of intramuscular (IM) injection, however, the Ebola GP-specific antibody response was low. All primates succumbed to infection. Three primates were then given the vaccine in a formulation that improved the immune response to Ebola in rodents. Three primates were immunized with 2.0×10(10) ivp/kg of vaccine by the SL route. Diverse populations of polyfunctional Ebola GP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and significant anti-Ebola GP antibodies were present in samples collected 150 days after respiratory immunization. The formulated vaccine was fully protective against challenge 21 weeks after immunization. While diverse populations of Ebola GP-specific CD4+ T cells were produced after SL immunization, antibodies were not neutralizing and the vaccine was unprotective. To our knowledge, this is the first time that durable protection from a single dose respiratory adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine has been demonstrated in primates.

  6. VP2-serotyped live-attenuated bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression provides serotype-specific protection and enables DIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Femke; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke; Daus, Franz J; Tacken, Mirriam G J; Moormann, Rob J M; van Gennip, René G P; van Rijn, Piet A

    2014-12-12

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes Bluetongue in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control vector borne diseases; however, there are 26 known BTV serotypes showing little cross protection. The BTV serotype is mainly determined by genome segment 2 encoding the VP2 protein. Currently, inactivated and live-attenuated Bluetongue vaccines are available for a limited number of serotypes, but each of these have their specific disadvantages, including the inability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). BTV non-structural proteins NS3 and NS3a are not essential for virus replication in vitro, but are important for cytopathogenic effect in mammalian cells and for virus release from insect cells in vitro. Recently, we have shown that virulent BTV8 without NS3/NS3a is non-virulent and viremia in sheep is strongly reduced, whereas local in vivo replication leads to seroconversion. Live-attenuated BTV6 without NS3/NS3a expression protected sheep against BTV challenge. Altogether, NS3/NS3a knockout BTV6 is a promising vaccine candidate and has been named Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. Here, we show serotype-specific protection in sheep by DISA vaccine in which only genome segment 2 of serotype 8 was exchanged. Similarly, DISA vaccines against other serotypes could be developed, by exchange of only segment 2, and could therefore safely be combined in multi-serotype cocktail vaccines with respect to reassortment between vaccine viruses. Additionally, NS3 antibody responses are raised after natural BTV infection and NS3-based ELISAs are therefore appropriate tools for DIVA testing accompanying the DISA vaccine. To enable DIVA, we developed an experimental NS3 ELISA. Indeed, vaccinated sheep remained negative for NS3 antibodies, whereas seroconversion for NS3 antibodies was associated with viremia after heterologous BTV challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Summary Report of the History and Events Pertinent to the Civil Aeromedical Institute’s Evaluation of Providing Smoke/Fume Protective Breathing Equipment for Airline Passenger Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    No. FAA-AM-78- 4, pp. 34-43. January 1978. 9. deSteiguer, D.; and Saldivar , J.T. "An Analysis of Potential Protective Breathing Devices Intended for...Use by ’ Aircraft Passengers." Office of Aviation Medicine Report No. FAA-AM-83-10. May 1983. 10. Higgins, E.A.; Saldivar , J.T.; Lyne, P.J.; and...DOT/FAA/AM-85-10. October 1985. 11. Higgins, E.A.; Saldivar , J.T.; Lyne, P.J.; and Funkhouser, G.E. "A Study of Passenger Workload as Related to

  8. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, CANR, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Schafer, Elizabeth [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Burrage, Thomas G. [Department of Homeland Security, S & T, Targeted Advance Development, Virus, Cellular and Molecular Imaging Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Hoeprich, Paul D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: Elizabeth.Rieder@ars.usda.gov [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co{sup 2+} affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni{sup 2+}-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A{sub 24} FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A{sub 24} FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  9. A secretory cell type develops alongside multiciliated cells, ionocytes and goblet cells, and provides a protective, anti-infective function in the frog embryonic mucociliary epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaissi, Eamon; Rousseau, Karine; Lea, Robert; Soto, Ximena; Nardeosingh, Siddarth; Schweickert, Axel; Amaya, Enrique; Thornton, David J; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    The larval epidermis of Xenopus is a bilayered epithelium, which is an excellent model system for the study of the development and function of mucosal and mucociliary epithelia. Goblet cells develop in the outer layer while multiciliated cells and ionocytes sequentially intercalate from the inner to the outer layer. Here, we identify and characterise a fourth cell type, the small secretory cell (SSC). We show that the development of these cells is controlled by the transcription factor Foxa1 and that they intercalate into the outer layer of the epidermis relatively late, at the same time as embryonic hatching. Ultrastructural and molecular characterisation shows that these cells have an abundance of large apical secretory vesicles, which contain highly glycosylated material, positive for binding of the lectin, peanut agglutinin, and an antibody to the carbohydrate epitope, HNK-1. By specifically depleting SSCs, we show that these cells are crucial for protecting the embryo against bacterial infection. Mass spectrometry studies show that SSCs secrete a glycoprotein similar to Otogelin, which may form the structural component of a mucus-like protective layer, over the surface of the embryo, and several potential antimicrobial substances. Our study completes the characterisation of all the epidermal cell types in the early tadpole epidermis and reinforces the suitability of this system for the in vivo study of complex epithelia, including investigation of innate immune defences.

  10. 40 CFR 75.71 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for the purpose of calculating NOX mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MONITORING NOX Mass Emissions Provisions § 75.71 Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for the purpose of calculating NOX mass emissions. 75.71 Section 75.71 Protection of...

  11. Aqueous extract from leaf of Artocarpus altilis provides cardio-protection from isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats: Negative chronotropic and inotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka; Palacios, Javier; Simirgiotis, Mario J; Thomas, Jemesha; Nwokocha, Magdalene; Young, Lauriann; Thompson, Rory; Cifuentes, Fredi; Paredes, Adrian; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-05-05

    The leaves of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn, Fosberg) (Moraceae) are used in the management of hypertension; this study assessed the cardio-protective effects of the leaf extract on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial damage in rats. Twenty (20) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-230g) were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (Control), 2 (AA) received 50mg/Kg Artocarpus altilis (AA) only; 3 (ISO) received 85mg/Kg ISO only; 4 (ISO+AA/50) and 5 (ISO+AA/100) received 50 and 100mg/Kg AA respectively for 6 days, after induced with ISO twice (85mg/Kg) at a 24-h period. Blood pressure readings were taken before and after the administering of ISO using the tail cuff method. ECG was performed on anaesthetized rats. Cardiac contractility was measured in isolated right atrial muscles. Assessment of myocardial infarct (MI) size, heart/body weight ratio, biochemical, hematological and histo-morphological parameters were conducted at the end of seven days. An aqueous extract from leaves of A. altilis was analyzed for organic compounds using UHPLC mass spectrometry. ISO induced myocardial damage through an elevation of the heart rate (HR), infarct size and ECG distortions. Treatment with AA significantly (p˂0.05) reduced heart/body weight ratio (49%), MI (96%), HR (27%), sympathovagal imbalance (36%) and serum cardiac biomarkers (AST, LDH, HDL, triglycerides and CCK) caused by ISO. AA decreased the beat frequency of isolated right atrium (11%) cause by ISO, an action similar to propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist; 20%), but showed no significant changes in the QTc intervals of the ECG (suggesting no cardio-toxic drug-herb interactions), Thirty nine compounds were detected using high resolution LC-MS analysis (HPLC-Orbitrap-APCI-MS) in the extract. Pure compounds, as gallic acid and rutin, presented a higher negative chronotropic effect, similar to propranolol. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Artocarpus artilis has cardio-protective functions in

  12. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ying Wu

    Full Text Available Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4 virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system.

  13. Dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein vaccine provides help to a recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccine including mobilization of protective CD8+T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Loveline N; Nji, Nadesh N; Ambada, Georgia; Ngoh, Apeh A; Njambe Priso, Ghislain D; Tchadji, Jules C; Lissom, Abel; Magagoum, Suzanne H; Sake, Carol N; Tchouangueu, Thibau F; Chukwuma, George O; Okoli, Arinze S; Sagnia, Bertrand; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca; Tebit, Denis M; Esimone, Charles O; Waffo, Alain B; Park, Chae G; Überla, Klaus; Nchinda, Godwin W

    2018-03-01

    Recombinant Newcastle Disease virus (rNDV) vectored vaccines are safe mucosal applicable vaccines with intrinsic immune-modulatory properties for the induction of efficient immunity. Like all viral vectored vaccines repeated inoculation via mucosal routes invariably results to immunity against viral vaccine vectors. To obviate immunity against viral vaccine vectors and improve the ability of rNDV vectored vaccines in inducing T cell immunity in murine air way we have directed dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein (DEC-Gag) vaccine; for the induction of helper CD4 + T cells to a Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing codon optimized HIV-1 Gag P55 (rNDV-L-Gag) vaccine. We do so through successive administration of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein plus polyICLC (DEC-Gag) vaccine and rNDV-L-Gag. First strong gag specific helper CD4 + T cells are induced in mice by selected targeting of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein vaccine to dendritic cells (DC) in situ together with polyICLC as adjuvant. This targeting helped T cell immunity develop to a subsequent rNDV-L-Gag vaccine and improved both systemic and mucosal gag specific immunity. This sequential DEC-Gag vaccine prime followed by an rNDV-L-gag boost results to improved viral vectored immunization in murine airway, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site. Thus, complementary prime boost vaccination, in which prime and boost favor distinct types of T cell immunity, improves viral vectored immunization, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site such as the murine airway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and DiseasePublished by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  15. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  16. 40 CFR 1068.210 - What are the provisions for exempting test engines/equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL INFORMATION”. (ii) Your corporate name and trademark. (iii) Engine displacement, family... test engines/equipment? 1068.210 Section 1068.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Exemptions...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - General Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Maintenance Yes. § 63.8(c)(1)(i) CMS maintenance Yes. § 63.8(c)(1)(ii) Spare Parts for CMS Malfunction Yes... Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Table 6 Table 6 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—General Provisions Citation Subject Applies to subpart...

  18. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  19. Discovery of a Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Greater In Vivo Protection than the Murine Precursor of Palivizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Lu-Ting; Cao, Jian-Li; Sun, Yong-Peng; McLellan, Jason S; Graham, Barney S; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2017-08-01

    Palivizumab, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes antigenic site II on both the prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein, is the only prophylactic agent approved for use for the treatment of RSV infection. However, its relatively low neutralizing potency and high cost have limited its use to a restricted population of infants at high risk of severe disease. Previously, we isolated a high-potency neutralizing antibody, 5C4, that specifically recognizes antigenic site Ø at the apex of the pre-F protein trimer. We compared in vitro and in vivo the potency and protective efficacy of 5C4 and the murine precursor of palivizumab, antibody 1129. Both antibodies were synthesized on identical murine backbones as either an IgG1 or IgG2a subclass and evaluated for binding to multiple F protein conformations, in vitro inhibition of RSV infection and propagation, and protective efficacy in mice. Although 1129 and 5C4 had similar pre-F protein binding affinities, the 5C4 neutralizing activity was nearly 50-fold greater than that of 1129 in vitro In BALB/c mice, 5C4 reduced the peak titers of RSV 1,000-fold more than 1129 did in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data indicate that antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø are more efficacious at preventing RSV infection than antibodies specific for antigenic site II. Our data also suggest that site Ø-specific antibodies may be useful for the prevention or treatment of RSV infection and support the use of the pre-F protein as a vaccine antigen.IMPORTANCE There is no vaccine yet available to prevent RSV infection. The use of the licensed antibody palivizumab, which recognizes site II on both the pre-F and post-F proteins, is restricted to prophylaxis in neonates at high risk of severe RSV disease. Recommendations for using passive immunization in the general population or for therapy in immunocompromised persons with

  20. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined diazepam and MK-801 therapy provides synergistic protection from tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced tonic-clonic seizures and lethality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarjian, Michael P; Ali, Mahil S; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K; Heck, Diane E; Velíšek, Libor

    2015-05-01

    The synthetic rodenticide, tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT), is a persistent and highly lethal GABA-gated Cl(-) channel blocker. TMDT is clandestinely produced, remains popular in mainland China, and causes numerous unintentional and deliberate poisonings worldwide. TMDT is odorless, tasteless, and easy to manufacture, features that make it a potential weapon of terrorism. There is no effective treatment. We previously characterized the effects of TMDT in C57BL/6 mice and surveyed efficacies of GABAergic and glutamatergic anticonvulsant treatments. At 0.4 mg/kg i.p., TMDT produced neurotoxic symptomatology consisting of twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, often progressing to status epilepticus and death. If administered immediately after the occurrence of the first clonic seizure, the benzodiazepine diazepam (DZP) effectively prevented all subsequent seizure symptoms, whereas the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) primarily prevented tonic-clonic seizures. The latter agent, however, appeared to be more effective at preventing delayed death. The present study further explored these phenomena, and characterized the therapeutic actions of DZP and MK-801 as combinations. Joint treatment with both DZP and MK-801 displayed synergistic protection against tonic-clonic seizures and 24 h lethality as determined by isobolographic analysis. Clonic seizures, however, remained poorly controlled. A modification of the treatment regimen, where DZP was followed 10 min later by MK-801, yielded a reduction in both types of seizures and improved overall outcome. Simultaneous monitoring of subjects via EEG and videography confirmed effectiveness of this sequential regimen. We conclude that TMDT blockage at GABAA receptors involves early activation of NMDA receptors, which contribute to persistent ictogenic activity. Our data predict that a sequential combination treatment with DZP followed by MK-801 will be superior to either individual therapy with, or

  2. Can Bias Evaluation Provide Protection Against False-Negative Results in QT Studies Without a Positive Control Using Exposure-Response Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Georg; Zhou, Meijian; Dota, Corina; Garnett, Christine; Keirns, James; Malik, Marek; Stockbridge, Norman; Darpo, Borje

    2017-01-01

    The revised ICH E14 document allows the use of exposure-response analysis to exclude a small QT effect of a drug. If plasma concentrations exceeding clinically relevant levels is achieved, a positive control is not required. In cases when this cannot be achieved, there may be a need for metrics to protect against false-negative results. The objectives of this study were to create bias in electrocardiogram laboratory QT-interval measurements and define a metric that can be used to detect bias severe enough to cause false-negative results using exposure-response analysis. Data from the IQ-CSRC study, which evaluated the QT effect of 5 QT-prolonging drugs, were used. Negative bias using 3 deterministic and 2 random methods was introduced into the reported QTc values and compared with fully automated data from the underlying electrocardiogram algorithm (COMPAS). The slope estimate of the Bland-Altman plot was used as a bias metric. With the deterministic bias methods, negative bias, measured between electrocardiogram laboratory values and COMPAS, had to be larger than approximately -20 milliseconds over a QTcF range of 100 milliseconds to cause failures to predict the QT effect of ondansetron, quinine, dolasetron, moxifloxacin, and dofetilide. With the random methods, the rate of false-negatives was ≤5% with bias severity < -10 milliseconds for all 5 drugs when plasma levels exceeded those of interest. Severe and therefore detectable bias has to be introduced into reported QTc values to cause false-negative predictions with exposure-response analysis. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasra Ayuob

    Full Text Available A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3.Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed.Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities compared to the group which received PH alone.Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  4. Phenotypic Characterization of a Novel Virulence-Factor Deletion Strain of Burkholderia mallei That Provides Partial Protection against Inhalational Glanders in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozue, Joel A; Chaudhury, Sidhartha; Amemiya, Kei; Chua, Jennifer; Cote, Christopher K; Toothman, Ronald G; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Klimko, Christopher P; Wilhelmsen, Catherine L; Raymond, Jolynn W; Zavaljevski, Nela; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei (Bm) is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After respiratory exposure, Bm establishes itself within host macrophages before spreading into major organ systems, which can lead to chronic infection, sepsis, and death. Previously, we combined computational prediction of host-pathogen interactions with yeast two-hybrid experiments and identified novel virulence factor genes in Bm, including BMAA0553, BMAA0728 (tssN), and BMAA1865. In the present study, we used recombinant allelic exchange to construct deletion mutants of BMAA0553 and tssN (ΔBMAA0553 and ΔTssN, respectively) and showed that both deletions completely abrogated virulence at doses of >100 times the LD50 of the wild-type Bm strain. Analysis of ΔBMAA0553- and ΔTssN-infected mice showed starkly reduced bacterial dissemination relative to wild-type Bm, and subsequent in vitro experiments characterized pathogenic phenotypes with respect to intracellular growth, macrophage uptake and phagosomal escape, actin-based motility, and multinucleated giant cell formation. Based on observed in vitro and in vivo phenotypes, we explored the use of ΔTssN as a candidate live-attenuated vaccine. Mice immunized with aerosolized ΔTssN showed a 21-day survival rate of 67% after a high-dose aerosol challenge with the wild-type Bm ATCC 23344 strain, compared to a 0% survival rate for unvaccinated mice. However, analysis of histopathology and bacterial burden showed that while the surviving vaccinated mice were protected from acute infection, Bm was still able to establish a chronic infection. Vaccinated mice showed a modest IgG response, suggesting a limited potential of ΔTssN as a vaccine candidate, but also showed prolonged elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underscoring the role of cellular and innate immunity in mitigating acute infection in inhalational glanders.

  5. Phenotypic characterization of a novel virulence-factor deletion strain of Burkholderia mallei that provides partial protection against inhalational glanders in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A. Bozue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei (Bm is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After respiratory exposure, Bm establishes itself within host macrophages before spreading into major organ systems, which can lead to chronic infection, sepsis, and death. Previously, we combined computational prediction of host-pathogen interactions with yeast two-hybrid experiments and identified novel virulence factor genes in Bm, including BMAA0553, BMAA0728 (tssN, and BMAA1865. In the present study, we used recombinant allelic exchange to construct deletion mutants of BMAA0553 and tssN (ΔBMAA0553 and ΔTssN, respectively and showed that both deletions completely abrogated virulence at doses of >100 times the LD50 of the wild-type Bm strain. Analysis of ΔBMAA0553- and ΔTssN-infected mice showed starkly reduced bacterial dissemination relative to wild-type Bm, and subsequent in vitro experiments characterized pathogenic phenotypes with respect to intracellular growth, macrophage uptake and phagosomal escape, actin-based motility, and multinucleated giant cell formation. Based on observed in vitro and in vivo phenotypes, we explored the use of ΔTssN as a candidate live-attenuated vaccine. Mice immunized with aerosolized ΔTssN showed a 21-day survival rate of 67% after a high-dose aerosol challenge with the wild-type Bm ATCC 23344 strain, compared to a 0% survival rate for unvaccinated mice. However, analysis of histopathology and bacterial burden showed that while the surviving vaccinated mice were protected from acute infection, Bm was still able to establish a chronic infection. Vaccinated mice showed a modest IgG response, suggesting a limited potential of ΔTssN as a vaccine candidate, but also showed prolonged elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underscoring the role of cellular and innate immunity in mitigating acute infection in inhalational glanders.

  6. Inhibition of the visual cycle in vivo by 13-cis retinoic acid protects from light damage and provides a mechanism for night blindness in isotretinoin therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieving, Paul A.; Chaudhry, Prem; Kondo, Mineo; Provenzano, Matthew; Wu, David; Carlson, Thomas J.; Bush, Ronald A.; Thompson, Debra A.

    2001-01-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is frequently prescribed for severe acne [Peck, G. L., Olsen, T. G., Yoder, F. W., Strauss, J. S., Downing, D. T., Pandya, M., Butkus, D. & Arnaud-Battandier, J. (1979) N. Engl. J. Med. 300, 329–333] but can impair night vision [Fraunfelder, F. T., LaBraico, J. M. & Meyer, S. M. (1985) Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 534–537] shortly after the beginning of therapy [Shulman, S. R. (1989) Am. J. Public Health 79, 1565–1568]. As rod photoreceptors are responsible for night vision, we administered isotretinoin to rats to learn whether night blindness resulted from rod cell death or from rod functional impairment. High-dose isotretinoin was given daily for 2 months and produced systemic toxicity, but this caused no histological loss of rod photoreceptors, and rod-driven electroretinogram amplitudes were normal after prolonged dark adaptation. Additional studies showed, however, that even a single dose of isotretinoin slowed the recovery of rod signaling after exposure to an intense bleaching light, and that rhodopsin regeneration was markedly slowed. When only a single dose was given, rod function recovered to normal within several days. Rods and cones both showed slow recovery from bleach after isotretinoin in rats and in mice. HPLC analysis of ocular retinoids after isotretinoin and an intense bleach showed decreased levels of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal, and the accumulation of the biosynthetic intermediates, 11-cis and all-trans retinyl esters. Isotretinoin was also found to protect rat photoreceptors from light-induced damage, suggesting that strategies of altering retinoid cycling may have therapeutic implications for some forms of retinal and macular degeneration. PMID:11172037

  7. 40 CFR 85.2109 - Inclusion of warranty provisions in owners' manuals and warranty booklets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of warranty provisions in owners' manuals and warranty booklets. 85.2109 Section 85.2109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....2109 Inclusion of warranty provisions in owners' manuals and warranty booklets. (a) A manufacturer...

  8. PROVIDING DETAILS FROM TITANIUM ALLOYS OF ANTICORROSION PROTECTION AND DECORATIVE PAINT DURING CHEMICO-THERMAL PROCESSING INTO VERIFIED NITROGEN AND OXYGEN ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Pohreliuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of the forming of oxynitride layers on the surface of titanium alloys at the controlled modification of preliminarily formed nitride coatings by oxygen are determined. The dependence of the surface colouring of titanium alloys depending on the composition of formed oxynitrides is showed. It is determined that oxynitriding provides the high corrosion resistance of the titanium alloys. The expediency of the differential approach to the choice of the phase-structural state of the surface layers of oxynitrated titanium depending on the aggressive environment is showed.

  9. Provision of frequency control by wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckmann, Markus; Baier, Andre [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, wind farms do not provide frequency control in Germany. Because of the increasing wind energy generation, wind farms will have to provide this ancillary service in the future. Even though the provision of frequency control by wind farms has become a big field of research, no work has yet been done concerning the proof of the provision. Thus, the scope of this paper is the presentation of a new concept how wind farms can prove the provision of frequency control. Moreover, this paper describes a method for calculating the available amount of frequency control power based on probabilistic forecasts. An economic analysis is conducted for three different wind farms and a virtual power plant consisting of these wind farms participating at the market for negative tertiary control power in Germany. (orig.)

  10. A Recombinant 63-kDa Form of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Produced in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Provides Protection in Rabbit and Primate Inhalational Challenge Models of Anthrax Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-21

    Cameron Douglas and Randy Greasham for helpful discussions and reagents. We are grateful to Patricia Cameron for providing E. coli-expressed rLF, and to...of new vaccines against Bacillus anthracis. J Appl Microbiol 2001;91(4):609–13. 13] Ivins BE, Pitt ML, Fellows PF, Farchaus JW, Benner GE, Waag DM

  11. Will circumcision provide even more protection from HIV to women and men? New estimates of the population impact of circumcision interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Timothy B; Alsallaq, Ramzi A; Baeten, Jared M; Weiss, Helen; Celum, Connie; Gray, Ron; Abu-Raddad, Laith

    2011-03-01

    Mathematical modelling has indicated that expansion of male circumcision services in high HIV prevalence settings can substantially reduce population-level HIV transmission. However, these projections need revision to incorporate new data on the effect of male circumcision on the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Recent data on the effect of male circumcision during wound healing and the risk of HIV transmission to women were synthesised based on four trials of circumcision among adults and new observational data of HIV transmission rates in stable partnerships from men circumcised at younger ages. New estimates were generated for the impact of circumcision interventions in two mathematical models, representing the HIV epidemics in Zimbabwe and Kisumu, Kenya. The models did not capture the interaction between circumcision, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An increase in the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission during wound healing is unlikely to have a major impact of circumcision interventions. However, it was estimated that circumcision confers a 46% reduction in the rate of male-to-female HIV transmission. If this reduction begins 2 years after the procedure, the impact of circumcision is substantially enhanced and accelerated compared with previous projections with no such effect-increasing by 40% the infections averted by the intervention overall and doubling the number of infections averted among women. Communities, and especially women, may benefit much more from circumcision interventions than had previously been predicted, and these results provide an even greater imperative to increase scale-up of safe male circumcision services.

  12. PROVISIONS – ACCOUNTING TOOLS OF RISK MITIGATION ECONOMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica SINTEA (ANGHEL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Provisions represent a defense of the economic entity against the risks they may face. These have an important role in funding decisions that will be taken in future when it is desirable an absorption fusion in the establishment or when it is desirable concluding contracts and /or commercial banking. As more provisions are created, even more protected, the company credibility with partners is higher. Any investor is interested in the transparency of accounts as they are the real economic picture of the entity and the basis from which to start making management decisions. Constituting provisions is accomplished after the inventory of patrimonial.

  13. Iraq: Learning Civilian Protection the Hard Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahr Muhammedally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article—based on the author’s interviews with civilians and security forces in areas retaken from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS in Northern Iraq in 2015—examines challenges in civilian protection when pro-government forces take control of areas formerly under control of anti-government forces.1 It recommends to the Iraqi and Kurdish leadership specific harm mitigation training for their forces, a protection-based approach to shield civilians from harm from all sides, and provision of security to returnees, including protection both from crime and revenge attacks. Such preventative measures, if enacted before major military operations to retake populated areas under ISIS control begin, would better protect civilians, strengthen the government’s mission against ISIS and provide building blocks for a stable Iraq.

  14. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    that the housing provision as currently practised is not socially sustainable as it does not rely on data from the .... Design Base. One of the first issues the architect always tries to address before embarking on a design is to obtain the design brief and analyse the data provided. ..... of Housing. Nigeria: Jos Universal. Press.

  15. 45 CFR 612.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... science, news releases) may be provided to the public without reliance on this Part. As a matter of policy... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 612.1 Section 612.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF...

  16. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  17. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... impact on the type and nature of houses provided within the city .... architects. The common data usually obtained when it comes to mass housing estates provision has been that of income capability of the house owners as shown in researches by Igbinosa.

  18. Legal protection of pet animals in domestic legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the author's analysis is the issue of legal protection of pet animals. Through analysis of applicable provisions contained in the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia, on one hand, and the fundamental principles and provisions set out in the European Convention for the Protection of Pet animals, on the other hand, this paper attempts to point out the degree of legal protection that pet animals are awarded under domestic legal regulations, as well as to answer the question of compatibility of the national legislation with the international standards set out in the mentioned European Convention regarding the above mentioned question. In addition, since the legal protection of pet animals is also regulated by relevant by-laws in our law, the analysis of certain aspects of protection provided to pet animals, specifically the Decision of the city of Novi Sad on keeping of domesticated animals, the paper attempts to draw attention to compliance of the solutions adopted in this legal act, with the fundamental principles of protection, provided to pets by laws or the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia. Finally, in order to provide a more comprehensive insight in terms of achievement of the legal protection of pets in Serbian law, the paper analyzes the types of unlawful conduct of the owner or the holder of the animals, as well as their respective sanctioning prescribed in specific laws or bylaws.

  19. Methods of Services Provision in Slovak Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Sičáková-Beblavá

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of services provision in Slovak towns.  It addresses decision-making concerning selected services provision, based on a transaction cost economic model. The article looks at five types of services from that point of view. These are core services, i.e., services that are provided in most Slovak towns, thereby allowing outcomes of decision-making to be compared, and services which can be outsourced according to transaction cost theory. Findings partially confirm the hypothesis: Slovak towns do outsource, though “insourcing” moderately prevails. However, a comparison of several research studies in the area indicates a trend towards higher outsourcing of such local services provision.  The findings show that public bodies do not always select the most suitable methods of services provision, as suggested by the transaction costs theory (the Brown-Potoski model. This indicates that it is not only economic models that influence decision-making concerning the organization of services provision in the Slovak towns.

  20. The Extent to which Laws and Regulations on Environmental Liability Protect the Environment and Compensate the Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Maidment, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an examination and analysis of the laws and regulations on environmental liability, in light of the growing global concern of oil pollution of the marine environment. It considers several fundamental legal provisions that have attempted to protect the environment and compensate the victims of oil pollution and assesses the extent to which these provisions have achieved these aims. A recent high profile incident has reinstated the issue as a worldwide public concern and p...

  1. Protecting Children Victims of Crimes of Human Trafficking in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the paper there were examined the main provisions of the European legislative act framework in the domain of protecting children victims of human trafficking offenses, with some critical remarks. The paper can be useful to the European and Romanian legislator, practitioners and academics in the field. The novelty consists of analyzing the provisions of the European legislative act, focusing on the practical ways provided for the protection of children victims of this kind of crime, and the formulated critical remarks.

  2. Genesis of regulatory and legal provision of financial safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Pataridze-Vyshynska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems that concern regulatory and legal provision of financial safety. The scientific groundwork of researchers of this matter in Ukraine is analyzed and its gaps are revealed. The state competences concerning the regulation of financial safety are investigated. The legal provision of financial safety in a retrospective section is considered. The short characteristic of the main legal instruments that make the subsoil for formation of financial safety environment is provided. The main stages of legislative process of ensuring financial safety are found out. The paradigm of financial safety formation is generalized. The possibilities of ensuring financial safety in different areas of the state financial policy through the definition of problem aspects and ways of their decision are defined. It is certain that the problem of protection of national interests in the economic sphere is rather actual, especially in formation of financial safety environment in modern conditions. This problem is subject to further investigation of both lawmakers and scientists-economists.

  3. Advance provision of oral contraceptives to family planning clients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya ...

  4. 29 CFR 778.409 - Provision for overtime pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for overtime pay. 778.409 Section 778.409 Labor... Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and one-half...

  5. Information provision in medical libraries: An evidence based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined information provision in special libraries such as medical libraries. It provides an overview of evidence based practice as a concept for information provision by librarians. It specifically proffers meaning to the term evidence as used in evidence based practice and to evidence based medicine from where ...

  6. Myricetin attenuates lung inflammation and provides protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The euthanasia was followed by the collection of lung samples for subsequent experimental analysis. Estimation of 'wet-to-dry' weight ratio. After euthanasia, the extent of pulmonary edema in the experimental groups was assessed by measuring the 'wet-to-dry' weight of the lungs. For this, the left lung was removed and.

  7. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  8. Decentralizing provision of mental health care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee

    2017-04-01

    In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.

  9. PROVISIONING RESTORABLE VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS USING BARABASI AND WAXMAN TOPOLOGY GENERATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ravi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As internet usage grows exponentially, network security issues become increasingly important. Network security measures are needed to protect data during transmission. Various security controls are used to prevent the access of hackers in networks. They are firewall, virtual private networks and encryption algorithms. Out of these, the virtual private network plays a vital role in preventing hackers from accessing the networks. A Virtual Private Network (VPN provides end users with a way to privately access information on their network over a public network infrastructure such as the internet. Using a technique called “Tunneling”, data packets are transmitted across a public routed network, such as the internet that simulates a point-to-point connection. Virtual private networks provide customers with a secure and low-cost communication environment. The basic structure of the virtual circuit is to create a logical path from the source port to the destination port. This path may incorporate many hops between routers for the formation of the circuit. The final, logical path or virtual circuit acts in the same way as a direct connection between the two ports. Our proposed Provisioning Restorable Virtual Private Networks Algorithm (PRA is used to combine the provisioning and restoration algorithms to achieve better results than the ones obtained by independent restoration and provisioning. In order to ensure service quality and availability in Virtual Private Networks, seamless recovery from failures is essential. The quality of service of the Virtual Private Networks is also improved due to the combination of provisioning and restoration. The bandwidth sharing concept is also applied in link to improve the quality of service in the Virtual Private Network. The performance analysis of the proposed algorithm is carried out in terms of cost, the number of nodes, the number of VPN nodes, delay, asymmetric ratio and delay with constraints with

  10. Single-dose mucosal immunization with a candidate universal influenza vaccine provides rapid protection from virulent H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E Price

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The sudden emergence of novel influenza viruses is a global public health concern. Conventional influenza vaccines targeting the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase must antigenically match the emerging strain to be effective. In contrast, "universal" vaccines targeting conserved viral components could be used regardless of viral strain or subtype. Previous approaches to universal vaccination have required protracted multi-dose immunizations. Here we evaluate a single dose universal vaccine strategy using recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing the conserved influenza virus antigens matrix 2 and nucleoprotein.In BALB/c mice, administration of rAd via the intranasal route was superior to intramuscular immunization for induction of mucosal responses and for protection against highly virulent H1N1, H3N2, or H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Mucosally vaccinated mice not only survived, but had little morbidity and reduced lung virus titers. Protection was observed as early as 2 weeks post-immunization, and lasted at least 10 months, as did antibodies and lung T cells with activated phenotypes. Virus-specific IgA correlated with but was not essential for protection, as demonstrated in studies with IgA-deficient animals.Mucosal administration of NP and M2-expressing rAd vectors provided rapid and lasting protection from influenza viruses in a subtype-independent manner. Such vaccines could be used in the interval between emergence of a new virus strain and availability of strain-matched vaccines against it. This strikingly effective single-dose vaccination thus represents a candidate off-the-shelf vaccine for emergency use during an influenza pandemic.

  11. 10 CFR 63.9 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected activities... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 63.9 Section 63.9 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.9 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee...

  12. 10 CFR 61.9 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 61.9 Section 61.9 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 61.9 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a...

  13. 10 CFR 60.9 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 60.9 Section 60.9 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 60.9 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a...

  14. 10 CFR 40.7 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected activities does not automatically render him or... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 40.7 Section 40.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Provisions § 40.7 Employee protection. (a...

  15. Arm's Length Provision of Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Schultz, Christian

    We analyze the economic consequences of strategic delegation of the right to decide between public or private provision of governmental service and/or the authority to negotiate and renegotiate with the chosen service provider. Our model encompass both bureaucratic delegation from a government to...... contracts. The bargaining effect improves the bargaining position vis a vis a private firm with market power and leads to a lower price for the service......We analyze the economic consequences of strategic delegation of the right to decide between public or private provision of governmental service and/or the authority to negotiate and renegotiate with the chosen service provider. Our model encompass both bureaucratic delegation from a government...... to a privatization agency and electoral delegation from voters to a government. We identify two powerfull effects of delegation when contracts are incomplete: The incentive effect increases the incentive part of service providers' remuneration and we show that strategic delegation may substitute formal incentive...

  16. An evaluation of the role of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 and 15 in the protection provided by sub-unit and live streptomycin-dependent pleuropneumonia vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumamao, J Q; Bowles, R E; van den Bosch, H; Klaasen, H L B M; Fenwick, B W; Blackall, P J

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the serological response of pigs receiving either the Porcilis APP vaccine or a modified live vaccine based on a streptomycin-dependent (SD) strain of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and then challenged with an Australian isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae of either serovar 1 or 15 as a means of understanding the protection provided by both vaccines against serovar 1 but not against serovar 15. The serological tests evaluated were serovar-specific polysaccharide ELISA tests (for serovar 1 and 15), ELISA tests for antibodies to three A. pleuropneumoniae toxins (ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII) as well as to a 42 kDa outer membrane protein (OMP), a haemolysin neutralisation (HN) assay and immunoblotting. The tests were used to detect antibodies in vaccinated pigs that had been shown to be protected against serovar 1 but not serovar 15. In the polysaccharide antigen ELISA assays, both vaccines resulted in a significant rise in the titre in the serovar 1 ELISA but not the serovar 15 ELISA. The Porcilis APP vaccinated pigs showed a significant response in the ApxI, ApxIII and 42 kDa OMP ELISA. In the ApxII ELISA, all pigs tested (the Porcilis APP vaccinates and the controls) were positive on entry to the trial. In the HN assay, the Porcilis APP vaccinated pigs showed a significant response after one dose while the SD vaccinated pigs required two doses of vaccine before a marked rise in titre was induced. Immunoblotting revealed that neither vaccine generated antibodies that recognised the ApxIII produced by serovar 15. The failure of these vaccines to provide protection against serovar 15 may be due to novel virulence factors possessed by serovar 15, significant differences between the ApxIII toxin of serovar 15 and those present in the Porcilis APP vaccine or failure by both vaccines to induce antibodies to the serovar 15 specific polysaccharide.

  17. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contact Us Share White House Infrastructure ... Response Respuesta a huracanes California wildfires update U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Video Highlights EPA provides over $3. ...

  18. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  19. Health system frailties in tuberculosis service provision in Russia: an analysis through the lens of formal nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, R J; Dimitrova, B; Drobniewski, F; Samyshkin, Y; Pomerleau, J; Hohlova, G Y; Skuratova, N; Kuznetsov, S; Fedorin, I; Atun, R

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe health system challenges faced by tuberculosis (TB) treatment facilities in Russia through an analysis of formal institutional dietary provisions to patients in an inpatient facility that provides care for poor patients. Analysis of formal dietary provisions by institutions and financing data from TB hospitals in Samara Oblast, Russia. Formal dietary provision for inpatients with TB has fallen substantially in recent years. In a hospital providing inpatient care for the poorest patients with fewest social support networks, this has been very pronounced. The likely reason for this is that financial support for other budget lines, principally salaries, has required protection. Formal institutional nutritional support in institutions providing care for the poorest patients with TB is unlikely to be enhancing the speed of recovery, or reducing the duration of infectiousness. Furthermore, the role that hospital may have played in the past in enabling patients to regain weight lost before admission may have been limited by reductions in formal financing. Reductions in state provision of food for patients may serve as an important illustration of wider TB control system frailties in the Russian Federation.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1435 - Heat exchanger provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Heat exchanger provisions. 63.1435... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1435 Heat exchanger... for heat exchange systems, with the exceptions noted in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. (b...

  1. 40 CFR 63.650 - Gasoline loading rack provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline loading rack provisions. 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.650 Gasoline... or operator of a Group 1 gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial Classification...

  2. 48 CFR 904.404 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entitled “Security” and “Classification” in contracts with educational institutions for research work... Protection of Worker Safety and Health, in all contracts that contain the clause at 952.204-2, Security, but... provision and contract clause. (d) The security clauses to be used in DOE contracts are found at 952.204...

  3. Fighting child sexual abuse in Zanzibar through provision and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fighting child sexual abuse in Zanzibar through provision and sharing of child protection information. Abbas Mohamed Omar, Haji Ali Haji, Masoud Hemed Nassor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Access control for on-demand provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Cloud Computing brings advantages to both customers and service providers to utilize and manage computing and network resources more efficiently with virtualization, service-oriented architecture technologies, and automated on-demand resource provisioning. However, these advantages

  5. 7 CFR 457.141 - Rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Appropriate title for insurance provider) Both FCIC and Reinsured Policies Rice Crop Provisions If a conflict... Standards for Rice including, but not limited to, protein and oil content or milling quality will not be...

  6. Adapted SERVQUAL for evaluating the provision of information as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVQUAL) for measuring the provision of information as an Extension Service. It explores agricultural Extension Services as a customer service and SERVQUAL as a service evaluation tool. The study aims to provide an adapted SERVQUAL instrument ...

  7. Stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 influenza virus vaccines with AS03 adjuvant provide cross-protection from H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 virus challenge in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangjie; Belser, Jessica A; Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Creager, Hannah M; Guo, Zhu; Jefferson, Stacie N; Liu, Feng; York, Ian A; Stevens, James; Maines, Taronna R; Jernigan, Daniel B; Katz, Jacqueline M; Levine, Min Z; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2017-08-01

    Avian influenza viruses, notably H5 subtype viruses, pose a continuous threat to public health due to their pandemic potential. In recent years, influenza virus H5 subtype split vaccines with novel oil-in-water emulsion based adjuvants (e.g. AS03, MF59) have been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and able to induce broad immune responses in clinical trials, providing strong scientific support for vaccine stockpiling. However, whether such vaccines can provide protection from infection with emerging, antigenically distinct clades of H5 viruses has not been adequately addressed. Here, we selected two AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccines from the US national pre-pandemic influenza vaccine stockpile and assessed whether the 2004-05 vaccines could provide protection against a 2014 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus (A/northern pintail/Washington/40964/2014), a clade 2.3.4.4 virus responsible for mass culling of poultry in North America. Ferrets received two doses of adjuvanted vaccine containing 7.5µg of hemagglutinin (HA) from A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (clade 1) or A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) virus either in a homologous or heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime. We found that both vaccination regimens elicited robust antibody responses against the 2004-05 vaccine viruses and could reduce virus-induced morbidity and viral replication in the lower respiratory tract upon heterologous challenge despite the low level of cross-reactive antibody titers to the challenge H5N2 virus. This study supports the value of existing stockpiled 2004-05 influenza H5N1 vaccines, combined with AS03-adjuvant for early use in the event of an emerging pandemic with H5N2-like clade 2.3.4.4 viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. 29 CFR 458.32 - Provision for accounting and financial controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for accounting and financial controls. 458.32... Additional Provisions Applicable § 458.32 Provision for accounting and financial controls. Every labor organization shall provide accounting and financial controls necessary to assure the maintenance of fiscal...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460). ...

  10. Reform of social services provision in Ukraine: current statuse and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dubych

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the reforming progress in the social services provision in Ukraine have been analysed; its features and consequences under the present conditions have been revealed; the key problems that arise in the course of the reforms implementation in the social services provision system have been outlined as well as their possible solutions have been determined.The attention is focused on the basic forms of social protection of population in Ukraine (social benefits. The main drawbacks that slow down the progress of reforming the system of providing social services to the population in Ukraine: legislative and regulatory unsettled; the inefficiency and irrationality in approaches to financing and governance; government monopolization of the market of social services; failure mechanisms for the implementation of norms of the law on social services. Was determined that social service system characterized by poorly targeted of receiving the social benefits. Also is scattered budgetary social spending. This leads to significant differences of incomes and increasing income inequality. Researched that despite the ongoing modernization reforms the efficiency system of social protection in Ukraine remains quite low. Financial and economic crisis and other destructive processes taking place in Ukrainian society. This situation is unacceptable and requires a detailed study to key decisions for its improvement. Keywords: social protection, social services, the current status of reform, legal and regulatory framework, national model, financing, optimization.

  11. 40 CFR 1054.612 - What special provisions apply for equipment manufacturers modifying certified nonhandheld engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What special provisions apply for..., SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Special Compliance Provisions § 1054.612 What special... engine manufacturer (such as exhaust backpressure) and you use a catalyst as described in the original...

  12. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch front...

  13. Development of the Arabic Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S; Pevalin, David J

    2016-08-01

    This study develops a new instrument, the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale, and assesses its psychometric properties in an Arab Muslim nurse sample. The Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale was developed to measure the frequency with which nurses provided aspects of spiritual care. Most of the available spiritual care instruments were developed in the West and reflect a predominantly Christian tradition. A review of the literature on spiritual care in nursing revealed that no instrument exists for measuring spiritual care interventions provided by nurses to Arab Muslim patients. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational design. Following an extensive literature search, review by an expert panel and a pilot study which included patients' views regarding aspects of spiritual care provided by nurses, the final version of the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale was tested in a convenience sample of 360 Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. Correlational and factor analysis were used. The internal consistency of the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale was high, with α coefficient of 0·85. The exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure for the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale as hypothesised. A significant positive correlation between the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale and religiosity was in the expected direction though small in magnitude. This study initiates the development of an instrument for the provision of spiritual care intervention by nurses that balances the religious and existential dimensions of spirituality. The Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale exhibited acceptable evidence of internal consistency and validity among Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. Further work was suggested to firmly establish all aspects of this new scale. This culturally specific instrument contributes to the evaluation of the provision of spiritual care by Jordanian Muslim nurses to their patients, to

  14. 40 CFR 63.113 - Process vent provisions-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vent provisions-reference control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 Process vent provisions—reference control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...

  15. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...

  16. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  17. Managing the Intellectual-Personnel Provision of the Leadership Development at the Enterprises of Internal Consumer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyltsiv Taras G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that the strategically important direction of development and increase of efficiency of functioning of domestic enterprises, carrying out activities in the internal market, is use of approaches and principles of leadership. It has been proved that development of leadership requires proper intellectual and personnel provision of enterprises. The article defines the essence of concept of intellectual-personnel provision and provides its structural-functional characterization with components of innovation, technical and technological security, structure of staff, stability of personnel, productivity and efficiency of labor, social security, staff development. It has been proved that in order to form intellectual-personnel provision of enterprises it is necessary to implement such measures as formation, accumulation and effective use of intellectual and personnel capital, development in terms of intellectualization of enterprises. It has been determined that the advancing of intellectual-personnel provision of enterprises needs to improve the securing of enterprises with qualified personnel and intellectual capital, enhancing the stability of staff and increasing efficiency of use of intellectual capital, providing enterprises with effective and productive work, social protection, training and development of staff.

  18. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons...) 482-4895, [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons... direct or indirect transfer of chemical weapons. This collection implements the following provision of...

  19. A study on strategic provisioning of cloud computing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaiduzzaman, Md; Haque, Mohammad Nazmul; Rejaul Karim Chowdhury, Md; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is currently emerging as an ever-changing, growing paradigm that models "everything-as-a-service." Virtualised physical resources, infrastructure, and applications are supplied by service provisioning in the cloud. The evolution in the adoption of cloud computing is driven by clear and distinct promising features for both cloud users and cloud providers. However, the increasing number of cloud providers and the variety of service offerings have made it difficult for the customers to choose the best services. By employing successful service provisioning, the essential services required by customers, such as agility and availability, pricing, security and trust, and user metrics can be guaranteed by service provisioning. Hence, continuous service provisioning that satisfies the user requirements is a mandatory feature for the cloud user and vitally important in cloud computing service offerings. Therefore, we aim to review the state-of-the-art service provisioning objectives, essential services, topologies, user requirements, necessary metrics, and pricing mechanisms. We synthesize and summarize different provision techniques, approaches, and models through a comprehensive literature review. A thematic taxonomy of cloud service provisioning is presented after the systematic review. Finally, future research directions and open research issues are identified.

  20. A Study on Strategic Provisioning of Cloud Computing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Whaiduzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is currently emerging as an ever-changing, growing paradigm that models “everything-as-a-service.” Virtualised physical resources, infrastructure, and applications are supplied by service provisioning in the cloud. The evolution in the adoption of cloud computing is driven by clear and distinct promising features for both cloud users and cloud providers. However, the increasing number of cloud providers and the variety of service offerings have made it difficult for the customers to choose the best services. By employing successful service provisioning, the essential services required by customers, such as agility and availability, pricing, security and trust, and user metrics can be guaranteed by service provisioning. Hence, continuous service provisioning that satisfies the user requirements is a mandatory feature for the cloud user and vitally important in cloud computing service offerings. Therefore, we aim to review the state-of-the-art service provisioning objectives, essential services, topologies, user requirements, necessary metrics, and pricing mechanisms. We synthesize and summarize different provision techniques, approaches, and models through a comprehensive literature review. A thematic taxonomy of cloud service provisioning is presented after the systematic review. Finally, future research directions and open research issues are identified.

  1. A Study on Strategic Provisioning of Cloud Computing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejaul Karim Chowdhury, Md

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is currently emerging as an ever-changing, growing paradigm that models “everything-as-a-service.” Virtualised physical resources, infrastructure, and applications are supplied by service provisioning in the cloud. The evolution in the adoption of cloud computing is driven by clear and distinct promising features for both cloud users and cloud providers. However, the increasing number of cloud providers and the variety of service offerings have made it difficult for the customers to choose the best services. By employing successful service provisioning, the essential services required by customers, such as agility and availability, pricing, security and trust, and user metrics can be guaranteed by service provisioning. Hence, continuous service provisioning that satisfies the user requirements is a mandatory feature for the cloud user and vitally important in cloud computing service offerings. Therefore, we aim to review the state-of-the-art service provisioning objectives, essential services, topologies, user requirements, necessary metrics, and pricing mechanisms. We synthesize and summarize different provision techniques, approaches, and models through a comprehensive literature review. A thematic taxonomy of cloud service provisioning is presented after the systematic review. Finally, future research directions and open research issues are identified. PMID:25032243

  2. 48 CFR 1604.7201 - FEHB Program Large Provider Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... methodology the carrier used to compute the provider's profit; and, (v) Describe the provider risk provisions... term ends. (c) Large Provider Agreements based on cost analysis are subject to the provisions of FAR 52.215-2, “Audit and Records-Negotiation.” (d) Large Provider Agreements based on price analysis are...

  3. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  4. Construction Contract Provisions Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    tractor, and localized variations characteristic of the subsurface materials of the region are anticipated and if encountered, such variations will...34Contract drawings, maps, and specification. On larger projects, provide one set of sepias , both large scale and reduced, in addition to the contact

  5. 25 CFR 531.1 - Required provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Hiring, firing, training and promoting employees; (5) Maintaining the gaming operation's books and... security personnel; (9) Providing fire protection services; (10) Setting advertising budget and placing advertising; (11) Paying bills and expenses; (12) Establishing and administering employment practices; (13...

  6. Means of escape provisions and evacuation simulation of public building in Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Taib, Nooriati; Ying, Choo Siew

    2017-10-01

    The Uniform Building By-law 1984 of Malaysia is the legal document governing fire safety requirements in buildings. Its prescriptive nature has made the requirements out dated from the viewpoint of current performance based approach in most developed countries. The means of escape provisions is a critical requirement to safeguard occupants' safety in fire especially in public buildings. As stipulated in the UBBL 1984, the means of escape provisions includes sufficient escape routes, travel distance, protection of escape routes, etc. designated as means to allow occupants to escape within a safe period of time. This research aims at investigating the effectiveness of those provisions in public buildings during evacuation process involving massive crowd during emergencies. This research includes a scenario-based study on evacuation processes using two software i.e. PyroSim, a crowd modelling software to conduct smoke study and Pathfinder to stimulate evacuation model of building in Malaysia and Singapore as comparative study. The results show that the buildings used as case study were designed according to Malaysian UBBL 1984 and Singapore Firecode, 2013 respectively provide relative safe means of escape. The simulations of fire and smoke and coupled with simulation of evacuation have demonstrated that although there are adequate exits designated according to fire requirements, the impact of the geometry of atriums on the behavior of fire and smoke have significant effect on escape time especially for unfamiliar user of the premises.

  7. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene Airborne...

  8. [Papal provisions for lesser benefices in the diocese of Breslau 1447-1471].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Karl

    2003-01-01

    During the fifteenth century the popes were severely criticized for problems allegedly created by their provisions for benefices: prolonged law-suits, immense costs, and absenteeism of priests. Papal provisions for higher benefices, bishoprics and monasteries, were usually a political compromise. For lesser benefices, i.e. canonries or vicaries in cathedral or collegiate churches, parishes or altars in towns or villages, the background is seldom clear. Sometimes influential people at the papal curia strove to secure their livings, sometimes local princes, lords or towns provided their servants with incomes, sometimes ambitious clerics sought papal protection against local rivals. The extent to which the papacy was involved in appointments to lesser benefices varied throughout Europe and can only be studied in the regional archives. For the diocese of Breslau this has not been done so far, but the Repertorium Germanicum published by the German Historical Institute in Rome provides the data extant in the papal registers and account-books. The present study sums up these sources from the accession of Nicholas V in 1447 to the death of Paul II in 1471, a period, during which Silesia and especially its capital Breslau held close contact with Rome in order to fight the heretic Bohemian king George of Podiebrad. Nevertheless, the proportions of papal involvement in appointments for lesser benefices in the dioceses were apparently small. The cathedral of St John at Breslau had to admit papal exspectanices and provisions. But only half of the collegiate churches in Silesia were affected to some degree, especially Holy Cross at Breslau and St Mary at Grob-Glogau. Very few important town parishes were concerned, for example St Mary Magdalene at Breslau, the parishes at Neisse and at Neumarkt. It is not possible to say how many papal provisions were successful; those that were usually favoured men with influential friends in Silesia. If Rome introduced foreigners at all, they

  9. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, T. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape....... concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates...

  10. Protection provided by criminal law against hazards of nuclear energy and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Also a survey of the history of definition of offences against the atomic energy law and radiation protection law in the Federal Republic of Germany. Der strafrechtliche Schutz vor den Gefahren der Kernenergie und den schaedlichen Wirkungen ionisierender Strahlen. Zugleich eine Darstellung der historischen Entwicklung der Kernenergie- und Strahlendelikte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The subjects, principles and purpose of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law are set out, and criminal offences under atomic energy law are outlined explaining the legal terminology applied. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive materials are briefly discussed, primarily looking at the hazards involved and the protective role of criminal law principles that have been developed in connection with the atomic energy law and its application in practice. The draft version of the 16th criminal law amendment act - Act to combat environmental delinquency - is discussed, which aims at adoption of all criminal offences under atomic energy law by the Criminal Code. The book furthermore presents considerations about basic features of delinquency under atomic energy and radiation protection law, revealing elements and facts of offences defined, and particular problems resulting thereof. The question arises, e.g., whether an incorporation of the provisions into the Special Annex to the Criminal Code, in sections 27 and 28, is a wise and suitable decision. The book finally discusses the development of definition of criminal offences by a de lege feranda approach, referring to (1) the Chernobyl reactor accident, (2) the Nuclear Safeguards agreements, and (3) the definition of maximum permissible radiation dose. (HP).

  11. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.

  12. Doctors and Witches, Conscience and Violence: Abortion Provision on American Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2016-12-01

    Popular entertainment may reflect and produce-as well as potentially contest-stigma regarding abortion provision. Knowledge of how providers are portrayed on-screen is needed to improve understanding of how depictions may contribute to the stigmatization of real providers. All abortion provision plotlines on American television from 2005 to 2014 were identified through Internet searches. Plotlines were assessed in their entirety and coded for genre, abortion provision space, provider characteristics, method and efficacy of provision, and occurrence of violence. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes in how these features were depicted. Fifty-two plotlines involving abortion provision were identified on 40 television shows; a large majority of plotlines appeared in dramas, particularly in the subgenre of medical dramas. Medical spaces were depicted as normal and safe for abortion provision, and nonmedical spaces were often portrayed as remote and unsafe. Legal abortion care using medical methods was depicted as effective and safe, and legal providers were presented as compassionate, while providers operating outside of medical and legal authority were depicted as ineffective, dangerous and uncaring. Fictional providers were largely motivated by the belief that abortion provision is a necessary and moral service. Plotlines linked abortion provision to violence. The differing ways in which legal and illegal abortion are portrayed reveal potential consequences regarding real-world abortion provision, and suggest that representations situated in medical contexts may work to legitimate and destigmatize such provision. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  13. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Maintenance is National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemme, Kris

    2015-01-01

      U.S. critical infrastructure protection (CIP) necessitates both the provision of security from internal and external threats and the repair of physically damaged critical infrastructure which may disrupt services. For years, the U.S...

  14. Modular Cure Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Hansen, Casper; Frandsen, Thomas

    facilitate co-creation through open platforms and service modularity. Based on data from two pharmaceuticals we explore issues of governance related to the relative openness of platforms and their completeness. Whereas some pharmaceuticals should cater to sophisticated needs of competent users through open......Pharmaceuticals increasingly consider the potential of services, as healthcare payers require them to provide data on treatment outcomes. Ranging from corporate websites to free apps, these services are meant to increase the value of product offerings. This paper investigates how services can...

  15. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for marketing, standards for marketing, appropriateness of recommended purchase, standard format...) or 4980C. The principles of paragraph (b)(3) of this section apply to any case in which a State...

  16. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing any separability assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its...

  17. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  18. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    CONSENT IN THE ERITREAN CIVIL CODE. Consent is a requirement or prerequisite for many ... Notwithstanding the provisions of ArtfZl] Civil Code where an investigating police officer considers it necessary, having .... Liability Article 2028 — General Principle. Whosoever causes damage to another by an offence.

  19. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... a high level of community participation in the provision of such infrastructure as schools, electricity, ... Department of Geography & Environmental Management, ... “secondary towns”. The range of cites or towns that constitute the level of urban hierarchy vary among countries, depending on the pattern of.

  1. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates.......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country...

  2. Eye Tracking Technique for Product Information Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    This paper is about the study of the design of the product information provision system using eye tracking, which helps users in deciding over purchase of the product, with a system to provide product information that the user needs by tracking eye gaze of the user via Smart phone. The system provides the user with information of the product that attracts the user's eye, by means of users' eye tracking, user information confirmation using face recognition and user's preference for product. Therefore, once it is determined that the user requires a product, the server sends the product information stored in the product information database to the user's Smart phone to provide information the user requires. The customer, provided with product information in real time, can purchase the product that he/she wants efficiently, and avoid excessive consumption with accurate product information.

  3. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  4. GIS-based evaluation of public facility provision to achieve improved governance and equitable service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available of greatest need. In tandem with the development of service provision standards, the GIS accessibility analysis enables more effective provision, management and monitoring of publicly provided facilities and services. Importantly, this technology promotes a..., management and monitoring of publicly provided facilities and services, within a transparent process. The methodology applied ensures that the backlog and provision in facilities is based on population distribution and relative shortages...

  5. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  6. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  7. Provision of Palliative Care Services by Family Physicians Is Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankuda, Claire K; Jetty, Anuradha; Bazemore, Andrew; Petterson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Provision of palliative care services by primary care physicians is increasingly important with an aging population, but it is unknown whether US primary care physicians see themselves as palliative practitioners. This study used cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2013 American Board of Family Medicine Maintenance of Certification Demographic Survey. Of 10,894 family physicians, 33.1% (n = 3609) report providing palliative care. Those providing palliative care are significantly more likely to provide non-clinic-based services such as care in nursing homes, home visits, and hospice. Controlling for other characteristics, physicians reporting palliative care provision are significantly (P palliative care, with physician and practice characteristics driving reporting palliative care provision. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. Security infrastructure for on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Wlodarczyk, T.W.; Rong, C.; Ziegler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Providing consistent security services in on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services is of primary importance due to multi-tenant and potentially multi-provider nature of Clouds Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) environment. Cloud security infrastructure should address two aspects of the

  9. Impact of Higher Learning Institutions in Provision of Quality Socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Higher Learning Institions (HLIs) in provision of quality socio-economic development in Tanzania. In the new knowledge economy, the main roles of HLIs are: to provide high level manpower needs of the society, provide new knowledge and diffusing it into the ...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart W of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart W

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart W 1 Table 1 to Subpart W of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Polyamides Production Pt. 63, Subpt. W, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart W of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart W Reference Applies to subpart W BLR WSR WSR alternative standard, and BLR equipment...

  11. 40 CFR 1068.220 - What are the provisions for exempting display engines/equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”. (2) Your corporate name and trademark. (3) Engine displacement... display engines/equipment? 1068.220 Section 1068.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Exemptions...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.635 - What provisions apply to new manufacturers that are small businesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to new manufacturers that are small businesses? 1051.635 Section 1051.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... businesses? (a) If you are a small business (as defined by the Small Business Administration at 13 CFR 121...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1456 - What are the provisions for cellulosic biofuel waiver credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... biofuel waiver credits? 80.1456 Section 80.1456 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... What are the provisions for cellulosic biofuel waiver credits? (a) If EPA reduces the applicable volume of cellulosic biofuel pursuant to section 211(o)(7)(D)(i) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7545(o)(7...

  14. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  15. Size of nest-cavity entrance influences male attractiveness and paternal provisioning in house wrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Darren S; Dorset, Erin E; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K; Bowers, E Keith

    2017-05-01

    In altricial birds, parental provisioning is plastic and can respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. In this study, we manipulated the size of entrances into artificial nest cavities (i.e., nestboxes) in a population of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) as a means of manipulating a male's sexual attractiveness, and examined changes in parental provisioning. Nest cavities with large entrances are less desirable as nesting sites, and the males at these sites are less attractive to females. Therefore, we predicted that males at boxes that had large entrances would invest more in parental care (i.e., those that succeeded in finding a mate would provision their offspring at a higher rate) than males at nestboxes with small entrances. As predicted, males provisioned their offspring with food at the highest rates at nestboxes with enlarged entrances, and male provisioning effort positively predicted the number of fledglings they produced per egg. Males at these boxes provisioned more than their mates and more than females and males at nestboxes with small entrances. At nestboxes with small entrances, males provisioned at the same rate as females, and female provisioning did not differ significantly between treatments, on average. Male and female provisioning rates were negatively correlated, such that the increase in provisioning by males at nestboxes with enlarged entrances did not enhance nestling condition, likely because food delivery by females declined with increased provisioning by males. However, the amount of time females spent providing warmth for their ectothermic young increased with increases in male provisioning, suggesting that levels of male parental care altered the mode, not necessarily the extent, of care provided by females. These findings suggest that male provisioning is related to sexual attractiveness, and that sexual conflict over biparental care may not be as simple as the assessment of food provisioning might otherwise suggest.

  16. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: implications for pediatric plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Megan M; Meara, John G

    2012-01-01

    Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has stimulated wide debate in the medical and surgical community. Endorsed by the American Medical Association and a number of primary care-focused organizations, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and nearly all other surgical associations opposed the bill. This divergence stems not from direct disagreement over provisions in the bill but from opposition to or support of certain provisions with direct implications for the physicians represented by a given organization, as well as the relative importance of provisions for which these organizations share a common opinion. Regarding the field of pediatric plastic surgery, the surgical perspective of the ACS and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the medical perspective of the American Academy of Pediatrics align on many issues. Given the lack of specificity of any of the provisions for a field as specialized as pediatric plastic surgery, this review will focus on broader implications of the PPACA both for medical and surgical needs of pediatric patients and for the surgeons providing their care. The provisions of the PPACA are distributed along an implementation timeline, with some major changes having already occurred. The popularity of some of the early provisions, many pertaining to the pediatric population, has implications for any attempt at repeal of the law as a whole in coming years. Despite its daunting length, the PPACA can be approached by considering its provisions in 4 major categories: increased consumer protections, increased accountability for insurers, increased access to affordable care, and quality and cost improvement.

  17. Protection of media pluralism in the republic of Serbia under the new legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a short review of the provisions of the Law on Public Information and Media and Law on Electronic Media, concerning to the protection of media pluralism and media concentrations. The author points out that these rules focus on better protection of media pluralism and on providing greater transparency of media ownership, because the major changes introduced by the laws are the media register and new, more detailed regulated, media concentration regime. Therefore, the new laws establish the modern regulatory framework of the Republic of Serbia in the area of media concentration, which represent a solid basis for further development of media pluralism.

  18. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like South Africa, New Zealand is a \\'third\\' country in terms of the EU Directive on data protection. New Zealand recognised the need for data protection and adopted a data protection Act over 15 years ago. The focus of this article is on the data protection provisions in New Zealand law with a view to establishing whether ...

  19. Wheelchair service provision education in academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Fung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An estimated 70 million people with disabilities need wheelchairs. To address this global crisis, the World Health Organization (WHO proposed an eight-step wheelchair service provision model to ensure service quality regardless of resource setting. The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP aims to facilitate the integration of the WHO eight-step model into professional rehabilitation programmes.Objective: To develop an enhanced understanding of the current wheelchair service provision education provided in professional rehabilitation programmes worldwide.Methods: In a cross-sectional design, an online survey was distributed to ISWP contacts of educational institutions. Quantitative responses were analysed through summary statistics and qualitative answers were analysed by content analyses. When relevant, educational institutions were stratified into resource settings.Results: Seventy-two representatives of educational institutions in 21 countries completed the survey. Wheelchair content was taught in 79% of represented institutions, of which 75% of respondents reported using original course material, 10% of respondents used WHO Wheelchair Service Training Packages and 15% of respondents used other available resources. The majority of educational institutions teaching with their own wheelchair-related course material taught ≤ 20 hours. Fourteen of the 15 respondents without wheelchair education, expressed an interest in integrating wheelchair education into their academic curricula.Conclusion: The majority of the educational institutions teach wheelchair education; however, there is great variability in what and how it is taught and evaluated. The results demonstrate the need for more in-depth investigation regarding the integration process of wheelchair education in educational institutions, with the ultimate goal of improving wheelchair service provision worldwide.

  20. 75 FR 70487 - Proposed Rules for Implementing the Whistleblower Provisions of Section 21F of the Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... of the Government under the qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act, ``voluntarily'' provided...) . The qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act include a ``public disclosure bar,'' which, as recently...'' disclosed the information to the Government before filing suit. Id. Because the qui tam provisions of the...

  1. 77 FR 61735 - Changes and Examination Guidelines To Implement the First-Inventor-to-File Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... To Implement the First- Inventor-to-File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act; Reopening... to implement the first-inventor-to-file (FITF) provisions the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA... message over the Internet addressed to: [email protected] . Comments may also be submitted by postal...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.615 - What are the provisions for exempting engines designed for lawn and garden applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) The engine must have a nominal displacement of 1000 cc or less. (2) The engine must have a... engines designed for lawn and garden applications? 1048.615 Section 1048.615 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Compliance Provisions § 1048.615 What are the provisions for exempting engines...

  3. 75 FR 48273 - Technical Service Provider Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... provisions by expanding the definition Technical Service Provider Assistance, which contained an error in the omission of ``Indian Tribe'' in the definition of Technical Service Provider. DATES: Effective Date: This amendment is effective on August 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angel Figueroa, Team Leader...

  4. 75 FR 6839 - Technical Service Provider Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 652 RIN 0578-AA48 Technical Service Provider Assistance AGENCY: Natural... Final rule amends the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) regulations for technical service provider (TSP) provisions under the Food Security Act of 1985. The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of...

  5. Protecting the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, O

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 African charter and the 1990 UN convention on the rights of the child have had an impact on efforts by Nigeria to legally protect the welfare of children. The African Charter and the international community are particularly concerned about legally protecting the best interests of children accused or found guilty of breaking the law: recognizing a legal age of responsibility for infringements of the penal code, separating a child, deprived of liberty from imprisoned adults when it is in the child's interests, and applying separate laws, procedures, authorities, and institutions for children. The African charter also seeks to shield children from environmental adversity and exploitation in employment or jobs that interfere with health and formal education. It is illegal to use children for begging, to abduct children, or to traffic in the sale of children by any person, including parents or legal guardians. Children are to be protected from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse in prostitution, pornographic activities, and coercion to perform sexual acts. Declines in infant mortality, elimination of diseases and malnutrition, and provision of education, particularly for female children and the gifted and the disadvantaged, are recommended. Pregnant adolescents should have access to education during and after the pregnancy. Protection is also sought from narcotic drug production, use, and trafficking, child marriage, and child abuse and torture, and participation in armed conflicts. Children are to be protected upon dissolution of marriage and in adoption. Children need to be assured the right to play and recreation. Nigeria has taken steps to implement fully the provisions of the convention, and to integrate the provisions within the existing Children and Young Persons Laws. The provisions will be integrated by the Department of Social Welfare of the Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services. More punitive enforcement measures will be included in the new

  6. 29 CFR 1960.34 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DOD, etc.; (6) Includes preparation of FEDSTD 313, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), involving all... National Technical Information Services. (d) All Federal agencies shall use MSDS either provided by DOD, or... the preparation of agency “Occupant Emergency Plans” (formerly called “Facility Self-Protection Plans...

  7. On the rarity of observations of food provisioning by male dickcissels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Best, Louis B.

    2001-01-01

    Males of polygynous bird species typically provide less parental care to their offspring than males of monogamous species (Ketterson and Nolan 1994). Generally, in polygynous species, a male forfeits some potential reproductive success if he shifts his reproductive effort from mating with multiple females to parental care (Trivers 1972, Gubemick et al. 1993, Schleicher et al. 1993). In the polygynous dickcissel (Spiza americana), singing and foraging activities constitute much of a male's time-activity budget (Schartz and Zimmerman 1971, Finck 1984). Although male dickcissels are attentive to their nests and mates (e.g., nest protection and vigilance) females incubate the eggs and feed the young (Gross 1921). Herein, we describe an account of a male dickcissel feeding brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) young early in the breeding season, summarize and review previous reports of food provisioning by the male dickcissel, and discuss the rarity of this behavior in the dickcissel.

  8. 77 FR 26175 - Section 42 Qualified Contract Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... provisions of section 42(h)(6)(F), including regulations to prevent the manipulation of the qualified... manipulation of the amount determined under section 42(h)(6)(F). Section 42(h)(6)(I) provides that the Agency... the general public and before the close of the one-year offer of sale period only with the consent of...

  9. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  10. Higher Education Provision Using Systems Thinking Approach--Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhukaram, Anandhi Vivekanandan; Sgouropoulou, Cleo; Feldman, Gerald; Amini, Ardavan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the complexities involved in higher education provision and how systems thinking and socio-technical systems (STS) thinking approach can be used to understand the education ecosystem. Systems thinking perspective is provided using two case studies: the development of European Learner Mobility (EuroLM)…

  11. ASSESSMENT OF IMPORTANT SEISMIC PROVISIONS OF EBCS 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dynamic analysis for certain classes of structures making it relatively ... provide as much background material as possible ... Important conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made on the basis of this review. Comparison of the provisions of EBCS 8 with those of other international codes is not the. Journal of EAEA ...

  12. Viewing the proposed South African Business Rescuie Provisions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article also notes that the South African proposals do not divide the procedure clearly into a decision-making stage and the period whilst the company is operating under the rescue plan. The Australian provisions provide for a clear break between a period where the creditors have yet to make a choice about the ...

  13. Effective information provision to rural dwellers in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As recommended, public librarians should create a clear vision of their values in their capacity to provide effective quality services to rural dwellers through awareness campaign, orientation of rural dwellers on the use of alternatives means of lively hood, mobile library services, provision of community services by the NLA, ...

  14. evolution of hiv training for enhanced care provision in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12 (Supplement) December 2013. EVOLUTION OF HIV TRAINING FOR ENHANCED CARE PROVISION IN KENYA: CHALLENGES AND ... Objective: To provide an overview of the evolution of HIV training in Kenya, from. 2003 to date ..... for training, lack of necessary equipment, inadequate remuneration and benefit and.

  15. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  16. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  17. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits.

  18. Generic Architecture for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Provisioning Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ham, J. van der; Strijkers, R.J.; Ghijsen, M.; Ngo, C.; Cristea, M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides information about the proposed architectural framework for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provisioning model that includes the following components: the Composable Services Architecture (CSA) that intends to provide a conceptual and methodological framework for

  19. Rethinking knowledge provision for the marginalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schad, Iven; Thai Thi, Minh; Hoffmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in Vietnam has undergone massive changes over the last decades. Initially triggered by an economic reform process (Doi Moi) initiated in 1986, the system was formalized by the first decree on agricultural extension in 1993 (GSRV (Government...... a growing plurification of knowledge system actors. However, the traditional orientation towards technology transfer was maintained. In the era of rapid growth since that time, an unprecedented experimentation with different approaches to extension has been set-up, with the government’s willingness to allow...... of this chapter are to (a) provide an overview of the historical development of rural advisory and knowledge provision in Vietnam, and how legal frameworks have changed over time, (b) demonstrate how more client-centered extension approaches can be translated and utilized at the field level, and (c) focus...

  20. "Ethics surrounding the provision of abortion care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Miranda, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion. Both unethical behaviors may be associated with severe consequences for the health of women whose care was refused or delayed. Less attention is given to the ethical obligation to prevent induced abortion from recurring by offering postabortion contraception to comply with the ethical obligation of preventing harm to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Co-administration of recombinant major envelope proteins (rA27L and rH3L) of buffalopox virus provides enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati

    2017-05-01

    Buffalopox virus (BPXV) and other vaccinia-like viruses (VLVs) are causing an emerging/re-emerging zoonosis affecting buffaloes, cattle and humans in India and other countries. A27L and H3L are immuno-dominant major envelope proteins of intracellular mature virion (IMV) of orthopoxviruses (OPVs) and are highly conserved with an ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, two recombinant proteins namely; rA27L (21S to E110; ∼30 kDa) and rH3L(1M to I280; ∼50 kDa) of BPXV-Vij/96 produced from Escherichia coli were used in vaccine formulation. A combined recombinant subunit vaccine comprising rA27L and rH3L antigens (10 μg of each) was used for active immunization of adult mice (20μg/dose/mice) with or without adjuvant (FCA/FIA) by intramuscular route. Immune responses revealed a gradual increase in antigen specific serum IgG as well as neutralizing antibody titers measured by using indirect-ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT) respectively, which were higher as compared to that elicited by individual antigens. Suckling mice passively administered with combined anti-A27L and anti-H3L sera showed a complete (100%) pre-exposure protection upon challenge with virulent BPXV. Conclusively, this study highlights the potential utility of rA27L and rH3L proteins as safer candidate prophylactic antigens in combined recombinant subunit vaccine for buffalopox as well as passive protective efficacy of combined sera in employing better pre-exposure protection against virulent BPXV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunizing adult female mice with a TcpA-A2-CTB chimera provides a high level of protection for their pups in the infant mouse model of cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Price

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae expresses two primary virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP. CT causes profuse watery diarrhea, and TCP (composed of repeating copies of the major pilin TcpA is required for intestinal colonization by V. cholerae. Antibodies to CT or TcpA can protect against cholera in animal models. We developed a TcpA holotoxin-like chimera (TcpA-A2-CTB to elicit both anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the infant mouse model of cholera. Adult female CD-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally three times with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera and compared with similar groups immunized with a TcpA+CTB mixture, TcpA alone, TcpA with Salmonella typhimurium flagellin subunit FliC as adjuvant, or CTB alone. Blood and fecal samples were analyzed for antigen-specific IgG or IgA, respectively, using quantitative ELISA. Immunized females were mated; their reared offspring were challenged orogastrically with 10 or 20 LD50 of V. cholerae El Tor N16961; and vaccine efficacy was assessed by survival of the challenged pups at 48 hrs. All pups from dams immunized with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or the TcpA+CTB mixture survived at both challenge doses. In contrast, no pups from dams immunized with TcpA+FliC or CTB alone survived at the 20 LD50 challenge dose, although the anti-TcpA or anti-CTB antibody level elicited by these immunizations was comparable to the corresponding antibody level achieved by immunization with TcpA-A2-CTB or TcpA+CTB. Taken together, these findings comprise strong preliminary evidence for synergistic action between anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies in protecting mice against cholera. Weight loss analysis showed that only immunization of dams with TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or TcpA+CTB mixture protected their pups against excess weight loss from severe diarrhea. These data support the concept of including both TcpA and CTB as immunogens in development of an

  3. Immunizing adult female mice with a TcpA-A2-CTB chimera provides a high level of protection for their pups in the infant mouse model of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory A; Holmes, Randall K

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae expresses two primary virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). CT causes profuse watery diarrhea, and TCP (composed of repeating copies of the major pilin TcpA) is required for intestinal colonization by V. cholerae. Antibodies to CT or TcpA can protect against cholera in animal models. We developed a TcpA holotoxin-like chimera (TcpA-A2-CTB) to elicit both anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the infant mouse model of cholera. Adult female CD-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally three times with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera and compared with similar groups immunized with a TcpA+CTB mixture, TcpA alone, TcpA with Salmonella typhimurium flagellin subunit FliC as adjuvant, or CTB alone. Blood and fecal samples were analyzed for antigen-specific IgG or IgA, respectively, using quantitative ELISA. Immunized females were mated; their reared offspring were challenged orogastrically with 10 or 20 LD50 of V. cholerae El Tor N16961; and vaccine efficacy was assessed by survival of the challenged pups at 48 hrs. All pups from dams immunized with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or the TcpA+CTB mixture survived at both challenge doses. In contrast, no pups from dams immunized with TcpA+FliC or CTB alone survived at the 20 LD50 challenge dose, although the anti-TcpA or anti-CTB antibody level elicited by these immunizations was comparable to the corresponding antibody level achieved by immunization with TcpA-A2-CTB or TcpA+CTB. Taken together, these findings comprise strong preliminary evidence for synergistic action between anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies in protecting mice against cholera. Weight loss analysis showed that only immunization of dams with TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or TcpA+CTB mixture protected their pups against excess weight loss from severe diarrhea. These data support the concept of including both TcpA and CTB as immunogens in development of an effective multivalent

  4. Paediatric death and dying: exploring coping strategies of health professionals and perceptions of support provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Elizabeth; Hafiz, Alaa

    2015-06-01

    Without question a child's death is a devastating event for parents and families. Health professionals working with the dying child and family draw upon their expertise and experience to engage with children, parents and families on this painful journey. This is a delicate and sensitive area of practice and has strong and penetrating effects on health professionals. They employ physical, emotional, spiritual and problem solving strategies to continue to perform this role effectively and to protect their continued sense of wellbeing. To explore health professionals' perceptions of bereavement support surrounding the loss of a child. The research was underpinned by social constructionism. Semi-structured interviews were held with 10 health professionals including doctors, nurses and social workers who were directly involved in the care of the dying child and family in 7 cases of paediatric death. Health professional narratives were analysed consistent with Charmarz's (2006) approach. For health professionals, constructions around coping emerged as peer support, personal coping strategies, family support, physical impact of support and spiritual beliefs. Analysis of the narratives also revealed health professionals' perceptions of their support provision. Health professionals involved in caring for dying children and their families use a variety of strategies to cope with the emotional and physical toll of providing support. They also engage in self-assessment to evaluate their support provision and this highlights the need for self-evaluation tools in paediatric palliative care.

  5. Locating provisioning ecosystem services in urban forests: Forageable woody species in New York City, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Hurley; Marla R. Emery

    2017-01-01

    Scholarship on the ecosystem services provided by urban forests has focused on regulating and supporting services, with a growing body of research examining provisioning and cultural ecosystem services from farms and gardens in metropolitan areas. Using the case of New York, New York, USA, we propose a method to assess the supply of potential provisioning ecosystem...

  6. 42 CFR 417.442 - Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of... Medicare Contract § 417.442 Risk HMO's and CMP's: Conditions for provision of additional benefits. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a risk HMO or CMP must, during any...

  7. 34 CFR 675.1 - Purpose and identification of common provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.1 Purpose and identification of common provisions. (a) The Federal Work-Study (FWS) program provides part... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and identification of common provisions. 675.1...

  8. An assessment of the free health care provision system in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the free health care provision system in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Conclusion: The absence of clearly defined criteria for waiving user fees at public health facilities has made the free health care provision system difficult for both the providers and users.

  9. Constitutional Property Rights Protection and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper seeks to estimate the economic growth effect of constitutional provisions for property rights protection. It does so using the unique situation in formerly communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus where all but two introduced new constitutions after the fall...... protection of property rights is not associated with economic development in the long run, but tends to impose costs during a period of institutional transition and implementation proportional to the constitutional change....... of the Iron Curtain. The effects of implementing different constitutional provisions can therefore be observed in a group of countries with the same formal starting point. Estimates provide no evidence of positive effects and mainly point towards a negative conclusion: the introduction of constitutional...

  10. Exogenous proline and glycine betaine mediated upregulation of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems provides better protection against salt-induced oxidative stress in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Nahar, Kamrun; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM) and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM) in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49) and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54) rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h) significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings' tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB.

  11. Exogenous Proline and Glycine Betaine Mediated Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems Provides Better Protection against Salt-Induced Oxidative Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Hasanuzzaman, Md.; Nahar, Kamrun; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM) and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM) in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49) and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54) rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h) significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings' tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB. PMID:24991566

  12. Exogenous Proline and Glycine Betaine Mediated Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems Provides Better Protection against Salt-Induced Oxidative Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49 and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54 rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC and chlorophyll (chl content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA, glutathione (GSH and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, and glyoxalase I (Gly I activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings’ tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB.

  13. Model for quantifying the synergies between farmland biodiversity conservation and water protection at catchment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Janne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Korpela, Eeva-Liisa; Kuussaari, Mikko

    2013-12-15

    This paper studies joint provision of two environmental non-market commodities related to agriculture: biodiversity conservation and water protection. We provide an optimising tool for analysing spatial dependencies of multifunctional agriculture at catchment scale. We show that efficiency gains can be achieved by spatial allocation and choice of the type of vegetation. In particular, inclusion of meadow nectar plants in the founding grass seed mixture of set-asides was found out to be an economically efficient measure to promote biodiversity and water protection on warm, steep slopes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with the provision of hospice care for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Mark, Barbara A; Daniel Lee, Shoou-Yih; Domino, Marisa; Song, Mi-Kyung; Jacobson Vann, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Children at the end of life often lack access to hospice care at home or in a dedicated facility. The factors that may influence whether or not hospices provide pediatric care are relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to understand the institutional and resource factors associated with provision of pediatric hospice care. This study used a retrospective, longitudinal design. The main data source was the 2002 to 2008 California State Hospice Utilization Data Files. The sample size was 311 hospices or 1368 hospice observations over seven years. Drawing on institutional and resource dependence theory, this study used generalized estimating equations to examine the institutional and resource factors associated with provision of pediatric hospice care. Interaction terms were included to assess the moderating effect of resource factors on the relationship between institutional factors and provision of care. Membership in professional groups increased the probability (19%) of offering hospice services for children. Small- (-22%) and medium-sized (-11%) hospices were less likely to provide care for children. The probability of providing pediatric hospice care diminished (-23%) when competition increased in the prior year. Additionally, small size attenuated the accreditation-provision relationship and medium size magnified the membership-provision relationship. Professional membership may promote conformity to industry standards of pediatric care and remove the unknowns of providing hospice care for children. Hospices, especially medium-sized hospices, interested in developing or expanding care for children may benefit by identifying a pediatric champion to join a professional group. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elderly Persons as Intergenerational Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn J.

    1986-01-01

    Programs involving elderly persons in the provision of child care services have evolved as a possible solution to problems identified by working parents and the elderly. Community members must work together on clearly defined objectives if opportunities are to be provided for elderly persons to participate in meaningful intergenerational child…

  16. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  17. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  18. The importance of provision and utilization of supervisor support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munc, Alec; Eschleman, Kevin; Donnelly, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Three cross-sectional studies examined the benefits of provision of supervisor support while controlling for subordinate utilization of supervisor support. Data were collected from workers in a subordinate role (Study 1 N = 355; Study 2 N = 229; Study 3 N = 109). Consistent with expectations, provision of supervisor support consistently explained unique variance in affective job criteria while controlling for utilization of supervisor support. The results indicate that supervisors should acknowledge that their workers experience the affective benefits of supervisor support even if the workers do not consistently use the support provided. Contrary to expectations, provision of supervisor support did not consistently explain unique variance in perceived job stressors while controlling for utilization of supervisor support. However, workers must utilize the supervisor support provided in order to perceive fewer job stressors. We recommend supervisors to take caution when relocating their support to different subordinates based solely on a lack of utilization of support, as this may cause higher perceived job stressors for their subordinates based on the lack of provision of that support. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Provision of the Disabled Facilities in Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Yuhainis Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Person with Disabilities Act 2008 has become an eye opener towards the provision of disabled facilities in all public buildings especially regarding healthcare accessibility. The aim of this research is to analyse the provision of the disabled facilities provided in a public hospital in Perak, Malaysia. To support the research, it was supporting with two objectives that are to identify the designs and requirements of disabled facilities that need to be fulfilled according to Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL and other standard regulations and to identify the level of awareness of public on disabled facilities in the public hospital. For the purpose of the research, the observation method has been done towards three (3 selected hospital in Perak and questionnaire survey have been distributed to 96 respondents among the staff and visitors of the hospitals. All the data collected from the questionnaire survey and the checklist using UBBL standard requirement, then analysed using the SPSS V.21. The outcome of the observation indicates that most of the hospitals were provided with the disabled facilities, but there are still some rooms for improvement regarding specifications and the provision itself. In a nutshell, this research helps the management of the hospital together with the public on the importance of the provision of the disabled facilities in public buildings.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout all...

  1. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal protective clothing and equipment. 197.555... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and equipment. (a) When the use of respirators in compliance with § 197.550 and the personal protective clothing...

  2. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  3. Assessing Ecosystem Service Provision Under Climate Change to Support Conservation and Development Planning in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, Lisa; Wolny, Stacie; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Helsingen, Hanna; Hamel, Perrine; Bartlett, Ryan; Dixon, Adam; Horton, Radley M.; Lesk, Corey; Manley, Danielle; hide

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) information into national-scale development and climate adaptation planning has yet to become common practice, despite demand from decision makers. Identifying where ES originate and to whom the benefits flowunder current and future climate conditionsis especially critical in rapidly developing countries, where the risk of ES loss is high. Here, using Myanmar as a case study, we assess where and how ecosystems provide key benefits to the countrys people and infrastructure. We model the supply of and demand for sediment retention, dry-season baseflows, flood risk reduction and coastal storm protection from multiple beneficiaries. We find that locations currently providing the greatest amount of services are likely to remain important under the range of climate conditions considered, demonstrating their importance in planning for climate resilience. Overlap between priority areas for ES provision and biodiversity conservation is higher than expected by chance overall, but the areas important for multiple ES are underrepresented in currently designated protected areas and Key Biodiversity Areas. Our results are contributing to development planning in Myanmar, and our approach could be extended to other contexts where there is demand for national-scale natural capital information to shape development plans and policies

  4. Assessing ecosystem service provision under climate change to support conservation and development planning in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stacie; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Helsingen, Hanna; Hamel, Perrine; Bartlett, Ryan; Dixon, Adam; Horton, Radley; Lesk, Corey; Manley, Danielle; De Mel, Manishka; Bader, Daniel; Nay Won Myint, Sai; Myint, Win; Su Mon, Myat

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) information into national-scale development and climate adaptation planning has yet to become common practice, despite demand from decision makers. Identifying where ES originate and to whom the benefits flow–under current and future climate conditions–is especially critical in rapidly developing countries, where the risk of ES loss is high. Here, using Myanmar as a case study, we assess where and how ecosystems provide key benefits to the country’s people and infrastructure. We model the supply of and demand for sediment retention, dry-season baseflows, flood risk reduction and coastal storm protection from multiple beneficiaries. We find that locations currently providing the greatest amount of services are likely to remain important under the range of climate conditions considered, demonstrating their importance in planning for climate resilience. Overlap between priority areas for ES provision and biodiversity conservation is higher than expected by chance overall, but the areas important for multiple ES are underrepresented in currently designated protected areas and Key Biodiversity Areas. Our results are contributing to development planning in Myanmar, and our approach could be extended to other contexts where there is demand for national-scale natural capital information to shape development plans and policies. PMID:28934282

  5. Inactivated and live bivalent fowl adenovirus (FAdV8b + FAdV11) breeder vaccines provide broad-spectrum protection in chicks against inclusion body hepatitis (IBH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Popowich, Shelly; Ojkic, Davor; Kurukulasuriya, Shanika; Chow-Lockerbie, Betty; Gunawardana, Thushari; Goonewardene, Kalhari; Karunarathna, Ruwani; Ayalew, Lisanework E; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Tikoo, Suresh K; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2018-01-29

    Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) is comprised of five species (A to E) and 12 serotypes (1-7, 8a, 8b, 9-11). Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is caused by FAdV-7, 8a, 8b (species E) and FAdV-2 and 11 (species D). Commercial vaccines against IBH are not available in Canada. Autogenous FAdV broiler breeder vaccines are now used in some areas where outbreaks of IBH are occurring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a bivalent (species D and E) live and an inactivated FAdV broiler breeder vaccine in protecting broiler chicks against IBH through maternal antibody (MtAb) transfer. FAdV seronegative broiler breeders (n = 300/group) received either a live or inactivated bivalent (FAdV-8b-SK + FAdV-11-1047) vaccine. The live vaccine (1 × 104 TCID50 of each virus/bird) was given orally once at 16 weeks of age and the inactivated vaccine (1 × 106TCID50 of each virus + 20% Emulsigen D) was given intramuscularly at 16 and 19 weeks of age. Controls (n = 150) were given saline orally. The inactivated vaccine group was boosted 3 weeks later with the same vaccine. Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in sera (n = 10) were detected at 19, 22, 30 and 48 weeks of age. NAb were able to neutralize various FAdV serotypes within species D and E. Mean NAb were similar in the both live and killed vaccine groups at 19, 30 and 48 weeks and ranged from 2.4 to 3.7 log10. Approximately 26 ± 7% of MtAbs were passively transferred through eggs to day-old chicks. Progeny challenged with a lethal dose (1 × 107 TCID50/bird intramuscularly) of FAdV-8b-SK, FAdV-11-1047, or FAdV-2-685 (n = 90/group) at 14 days post-hatch (dph) showed 98-100% protection in broiler chicks to homologous or heterologous FAdV challenges. Our data suggests that a bivalent live and an inactivated FAdV vaccine are equally effective and have the potential for the control of IBH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PROTECTION OF WORKS TITLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COPYRIGHT PROTECTION AND TRADEMARK PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George-Mihai IRIMESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is assessing the possibilities of protecting the titles of works. One possibility is the protection by means of registered or unregistered trademarks. This route presents difficulties because of the distinctiveness perspective. In this sense, the European case-law has recently developed a constant practice and outlined a series of criteria that should be taken into consideration when examining a trademark consisting of a title. Another possibility is protecting the title under the provisions of the copyright law. From this respect, the practice has not yet determined a constant practice. However, the dominant opinion is that the originality criterion should be taken into consideration when assessing the protection of a tile. Finally, brief conclusion are made, including short remarks on the cumulative protection of titles, both as trademarks and under the copyright law.

  7. Dynamics of ecosystem services provided by subtropical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtropical forest and a 23-year history of growth on 3 subtropical forest plantations in Southeastern China. The ‘People's Republic of China Forestry Standard: Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation Norms’ was revised and applied to quantify the receiver values of ecosystem services, which were then compared with the emergy-based, donor values of the services. The results revealed that the efficiencies of subtropical forests and plantations in providing ecosystem services were 2 orders of magnitude higher than similar services provided by the current China economic system, and these efficiencieskept increasing over the course of succession. As a result, we conclude that afforestation is an efficient way to accelerate both the ability and efficiency of subtropical forests to provide ecosystem services. This paper is significant because it examines the dynamics of the provision of ecosystem services by forests over a succession series that spans 400 years. The paper also examines the rate of increase of services during forest restoration over a period of 23 years. The emergy used in ecosystem services provision is compared to the provision of similar services by economic means in the Chinese e

  8. 24 CFR 206.27 - Mortgage provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage provisions. 206.27 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.27 Mortgage provisions. (a...

  9. 28 CFR 512.21 - Copyright provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright provisions. 512.21 Section 512... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.21 Copyright provisions. (a) An employee of the Bureau may not copyright... non-employee may copyright original materials developed as a result of research conducted under this...

  10. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  11. 38 CFR 8.29 - Policy provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy provisions. 8.29 Section 8.29 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE National Service Life Insurance Policy § 8.29 Policy provisions. Contracts of insurance authorized to be made in accordance with the...

  12. 24 CFR 5.321 - Lease provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.321 Lease provisions. (a) Lease provisions. (1) PHAs which have established pet... persons with disabilities: (i) State that tenants are permitted to keep common household pets in their...

  13. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... may be amended as needed to meet management responsibilities for the area. ...

  14. 9 CFR 93.916 - Special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions. 93.916 Section 93.916 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. Consumer protection in creditor-debtor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The capitalist financial market is governed by terms and conditions imposed by large banking corporations and institutions. In creditor-debtor relations, the creditor (lender, lessor is in a dominant economic and legal position at the moment of entering into a credit agreement, which enables him to impose different terms and conditions upon the debtor (borrower, lessee and introduce unfair contractual clauses. Therefore, the legislator and government institutions have to protect debtors (consumers as credit beneficiaries from such credit terms and conditions that unfairly aggravate the debtors legal position. In this article, the author analyzes the legal position of subjects of credit relations, with particular reference to the legislative provisions governing the protection of the debtor (consumer as an economically and legally dependant contracting party. Apart from being significantly affected by financial market reforms and changes in the mortgage legislation, the legal position of debtors (consumers has been additionally aggravated in Serbian legislation in the past decade. After discussing the creditor-debtor relations, the author focuses on the issue of establishing a balance of interests; the balance of the creditor and the debtor interests may be achieved by enabling the creditor to keep the financial incentive (earnings form the interest rate and obliging the debtor (credit-user to provide legal certainty and protection against unfair contractual clauses.

  16. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  17. Employer, use of personal protective equipment, and work safety climate: Latino poultry processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Anderson, Andrea M; Mora, Dana C; Carrillo, Lourdes; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-02-01

    This analysis describes the work safety climate of Latino poultry processing workers and notes differences by worker personal characteristics and employer; describes the use of common personal protective equipment (PPE) among workers; and examines the associations of work safety climate with use of common PPE. Data are from a cross-sectional study of 403 Latino poultry processing workers in western North Carolina. Work safety climate differed little by personal characteristics, but it did differ consistently by employer. Provision of PPE varied; for example, 27.2% of participants were provide with eye protection at no cost, 57.0% were provided with hand protection at no cost, and 84.7% were provided with protective clothing at no cost. PPE use varied by type. Provision of PPE at no cost was associated with lower work safety climate; this result was counter-intuitive. Consistent use of PPE was associated with higher work safety climate. Work safety climate is important for improving workplace safety for immigrant workers. Research among immigrant workers should document work safety climate for different employers and industries, and delineate how work safety climate affects safety behavior and injuries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Salmonella Typhimurium, the major causative agent of foodborne illness inactivated by a phage lysis system provides effective protection against lethal challenge by induction of robust cell-mediated immune responses and activation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Gayeon; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-10-25

    Salmonella Typhimurium infection via foodborne transmission remains a major public health threat even in developed countries. Vaccines have been developed to reduce the disease burden at the pre-harvest stage, but the cell-mediated immune response against intracellular invasion of the pathogen is not sufficiently elicited by conventional killed Salmonella vaccines, which are safer than live vaccines. In this study, we developed a genetically inactivated vaccine candidate by introducing lysis plasmid pJHL454 harboring the λ phage holin-endolysin system into S. Typhimurium; we designated this vaccine JOL1950. In vitro expression of endolysin was validated by immunoblotting, and complete inactivation of JOL1950 cells was observed following 36 h of the lysis. Electron microscopic examinations by scanning electron microscopy and immunogold labeling transmission EM revealed conserved surface antigenic traits of the JOL1950 cells after lysis. An in vivo immunogenicity study in mice immunized with lysed cells showed significantly increased serum IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a levels. Further, we observed markedly increased in vitro cell proliferation and upregulation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in the repulsed splenic T-cells of immunized mice. In dendritic cells (DCs) treated with lysed JOL1950, we observed a significant increase in dendritic cell activation, co-stimulatory molecule production, and levels of immunomodulatory cytokines. In addition, Th1 and Th17 cytokines were also released by naïve CD4+ T-cells pulsed with primed DCs. Lysed JOL1950 also protected against lethal challenge in immunized mice. Together, these results indicate that our vaccine candidate has great potential to induce cell-mediated immunity against S. Typhimurium by facilitating the activation of DCs.

  19. 40 CFR 51.902 - Which classification and nonattainment area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas designated nonattainment for the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.902 Section 51.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.902 Which classification and...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gg of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart GG 1 Table 1 to Subpart GG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., Subpt. GG, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart GG of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart GG Reference Applies to affected sources in subpart GG Comment 63.1(a)(1) Yes 63.1(a)(2) Yes 63.1(a)(3) Yes 63...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Eee of... - General Provisions Applicable to Subpart EEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart EEE 1 Table 1 to Subpart EEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., Subpt. EEE, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart EEE of Part 63—General Provisions Applicable to Subpart EEE Reference Applies to subpart EEE Explanation 63.1 Yes. 63.2 Yes. 63.3 Yes. 63.4 Yes. 63.5 Yes. 63.6(a), (b...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart R of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart R

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart R 1 Table 1 to Subpart R of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pipeline Breakout Stations) Pt. 63, Subpt. R, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart R of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart R Reference Applies to subpart R Comment 63.1(a)(1) Yes 63.1(a)(2) Yes 63.1(a)(3) Yes...

  3. 48 CFR 952.223-72 - Radiation protection and nuclear criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiation protection and nuclear criticality. 952.223-72 Section 952.223-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.223-72 Radiation protection and nuclear...

  4. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and... Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  5. Baseline data for evaluating development trajectory and provision of ecosystem services of created fringing oyster reefs in Vermilion Bay, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the time frame in which ecosystem services (that is, water quality maintenance, shoreline protection, habitat provision) are expected to be provided is important when restoration projects are being designed and implemented. Restoration of three-dimensional shell habitats in coastal Louisiana and elsewhere presents a valuable and potentially self-sustaining approach to providing shoreline protection, enhancing nekton habitat, and providing water quality maintenance. As with most restoration projects, the development of expected different ecosystem services often occurs over varying time frames, with some services provided immediately and others taking longer to develop. This project was designed initially to compare the provision and development of ecosystem services by created fringing shoreline reefs in subtidal and intertidal environments in Vermilion Bay, Louisiana. Specifically, the goal was to test the null hypothesis that over time, the oyster recruitment and development of a sustainable oyster reef community would be similar at both intertidal and subtidal reef bases, and these sustainable reefs would in time provide similar shoreline stabilization, nekton habitat, and water quality services over similar time frames. Because the ecosystem services hypothesized to be provided by oyster reefs reflect long-term processes, fully testing the above-stated null hypothesis requires a longer-time frame than this project allowed. As such, this project was designed to provide the initial data on reef development and provision of ecosystem services, to identify services that may develop immediately, and to provide baseline data to allow for longer-term follow up studies tracking reef development over time. Unfortunately, these initially created reef bases (subtidal, intertidal) were not constructed as planned because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in April 2010, which resulted in reef duplicates being created 6 months apart. Further confounding the

  6. 75 FR 12451 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... this preamble is organized as follows: Table of Contents I. Background of Final Rule II. Overview of... that are affected by the rule. The lists, which currently are embedded in three paragraphs of subpart A... the General Provisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule...

  7. 75 FR 22699 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to the General Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AQ15 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Minor Harmonizing Changes to... withdrawing the direct final rule to amend the general provisions for the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG... Part 98 Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Greenhouse gases, Suppliers...

  8. 40 CFR 1068.245 - What temporary provisions address hardship due to unusual circumstances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL INFORMATION”. (2) Your corporate name and trademark. (3) Engine displacement (in liters or cubic... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS...? (a) After considering the circumstances, we may permit you to introduce into U.S. commerce engines...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year (0...

  10. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.4 Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference. (a... contract of carriage for the transportation of household goods, provided that: (1) The bill of lading or... household goods. ...

  11. EGb761 provides a protective effect against Aβ1-42 oligomer-induced cell damage and blood-brain barrier disruption in an in vitro bEnd.3 endothelial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Wan

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of senile dementia which is characterized by abnormal amyloid beta (Aβ accumulation and deposition in brain parenchyma and cerebral capillaries, and leads to blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption. Despite great progress in understanding the etiology of AD, the underlying pathogenic mechanism of BBB damage is still unclear, and no effective treatment has been devised. The standard Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has been widely used as a potential cognitive enhancer for the treatment of AD. However, the cellular mechanism underlying the effect remain to be clarified. In this study, we employed an immortalized endothelial cell line (bEnd.3 and incubation of Aβ(1-42 oligomer, to mimic a monolayer BBB model under conditions found in the AD brain. We investigated the effect of EGb761 on BBB and found that Aβ1-42 oligomer-induced cell injury, apoptosis, and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, were attenuated by treatment with EGb761. Moreover, treatment of the cells with EGb761 decreased BBB permeability and increased tight junction scaffold protein levels including ZO-1, Claudin-5 and Occludin. We also found that the Aβ(1-42 oligomer-induced upregulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, which mediates Aβ cytotoxicity and plays an essential role in AD progression, was significantly decreased by treatment with EGb761. To our knowledge, we provide the first direct in vitro evidence of an effect of EGb761 on the brain endothelium exposed to Aβ(1-42 oligomer, and on the expression of tight junction (TJ scaffold proteins and RAGE. Our results provide a new insight into a possible mechanism of action of EGb761. This study provides a rational basis for the therapeutic application of EGb761 in the treatment of AD.

  12. Environmental protection provided for by European Community law, as shown with the example of air pollution abatement. A critical review of the existing EC law, the regime of subordinate legislation, and the resulting national laws and their application in Germany; Umweltschutz durch europaeisches Gemeinschaftsrecht am Beispiel der Luftreinhaltung. Eine kritische Untersuchung der vertraglichen Grundlagen, ihrer sekundaerrechtlichen Ausgestaltung und der Umsetzung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns-Boehm, J.

    1994-12-31

    The EC`s decision to turn to economic instruments in support of environmental protection represents a significant step forward towards enhanced protection of the environment in Europe, and is regarded as a promising move in view of the essentially positive results achieved in other countries. There are two regulatory provisions in the making, namely that on a European tax on energy consumption and CO{sub 2}, and on environmental liability which, if designed with appropriate consistency, may lead industry to invest considerable sums for environmental protection and enhanced engineered safety holding commercial promise as a cost-reducing factor. The Commission and the other EC bodies would be well advised to act promptly and table the required economic instruments within short, as the environmental situation in Europe calls for urgent, efficient action. Wasting time now, probably waiting for the U.S.A. to come out first with a CO{sub 2} and energy tax, would mean delaying efficient intervention for ecologic relief for years, if not for decades. It is to be hoped that the competent EC bodies will soon establish the regulatory basis for the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} tax, and for an efficient liability regime. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Hinwendung der EG zu oekonomischen Instrumenten des Umweltschutzes stellt angesichts der im wesentlichen positiven Erfahrungen mit solchen Instrumenten einen wichtigen Schritt fuer einen besseren Umweltschutz in Europa dar. Die beiden zur Zeit anstehenden Regelungen ueber eine CO{sub 2}- und Energiesteuer und ueber eine Haftung fuer Umweltschaeden koennen bei konsequenter Ausgestaltung zu erheblichen umweltverbessernden und risikominimierenden Investitionen der betroffenen Unternehmen fuehren, weil diese dadurch Kosten einsparen koennen. Die Chancen, die der Einsatz der genannten oekonomischen Instrumente bietet, sollten von der Kommission und den uebrigen Gemeinschaftsorganen aber auch schnellstmoeglich wahrgenommen werden. Der

  13. Protecting Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  14. Multinational Subsidiary Knowledge Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    knowledge protection intensity. In addition, technological cluster regions in the host country can be expected to provide opportunities for knowledge sourcing and MNC subsidiaries may be willing to protect knowledge less intensively to participate in cluster networks. We test our hypotheses using a dataset...... of 694 observations of 631 MNC subsidiaries in Germany and develop recommendations for research, managers and policy makers....

  15. Effects of Information Provision in an Vertically Differentiated Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tasneem Chipty; Ann Dryden Witte

    1998-01-01

    We study the effects of consumer information on equlibrium market prices and observable product quality in the market for child care. Child care markets offer a unique opportunity to study these effects because of the existence of resource and referral agencies (R&Rs) in some markets. R&Rs provide consumers with information on availability, price, and observable characteristics of care. To understand the effects of information provision in markets like child care, we examine the effects of in...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwwwww... - Table 1 to Subpart WWWWWW of Part 63. Applicability of General Provisions to Plating and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Applicability of General Provisions to Plating and Polishing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart WWWWWW of Part 63. Applicability of General Provisions to Plating and Polishing Area Sources Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Plating and Polishing Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWWWW, Table 1 Table 1...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD 2 Table 2 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63—General Provisions to...

  18. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. [The revised system of hospitalization for medical care and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuo, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The Act to Partially Amend the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled was passed on June 13, 2013. Major amendments regarding hospitalization for medical care and protection include the points listed below. The guardianship system will be abolished. Consent by a guardian will no longer be required in the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection. In the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection, the administrators of the psychiatric hospital are required to obtain the consent of one of the following persons: spouse, person with parental authority, person responsible for support, legal custodian, or curator. If no qualified person is available, consent must be obtained from the mayor, etc. of the municipality. The following three obligations are imposed on psychiatric hospital administrators. (1) Assignment of a person, such as a psychiatric social worker, to provide guidance and counseling to patients hospitalized for medical care and protection regarding their postdischarge living environment. (2) Collaboration with community support entities that consult with and provide information as necessary to the person hospitalized, their spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. (3) Organizational improvements to promote hospital discharge. With regard to requests for discharge, the revised law stipulates that, in addition to the person hospitalized with a mental disorder, others who may file a request for discharge with the psychiatric review board include: the person's spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. If none of the above persons are available, or if none of them are able to express their wishes, the mayor, etc. of the municipality having jurisdiction over the place of residence of the person hospitalized may request a discharge. In order to promote transition to life in the

  20. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saraperä

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The observed groundwater and surface water contamination resulted in a need to characterize the subsurface geology in the whole area of the contaminated esker aquifer. The primary sedimentary units were introduced into a three-dimensional (3-D geologic model of the aquifer made with EarthVision geologic modeling software. The information obtained from the 3-D geological model was then introduced into a numerical groundwater flow model made with MODFLOW code, which was calibrated with MODFLOWP code.The results of this study were used to guide the sealing of the tailings impoundment in order to prevent the further contamination of the Töllinperä aquifer. The groundwater flow model was used to interpret and simulate the flow system, and to provide a plan to safely continue water supply to local inhabitants from the unpolluted parts of the aquifer.

  1. 7 CFR 1493.530 - Miscellaneous provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.530 Miscellaneous provisions. (a) Assignment. (1) The...

  2. 19 CFR 171.55 - Notice provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 6079 of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and implementing regulations. (b) Notice provision. The... property and shall include a statement of the applicable law under which the property is seized and a...

  3. 48 CFR 4.607 - Solicitation Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... United States or its outlying areas. ..., Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, in solicitations that— (1) Are expected to result in a..., Central Contractor Registration. (b) Insert the provision at 52.204-5, Women-Owned Business (Other Than...

  4. 24 CFR 266.410 - Mortgage provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Mortgage and... accordance with HUD guidelines. (i) Regulatory Agreement. The mortgage must contain a provision incorporating the Regulatory Agreement by reference. ...

  5. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  6. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Attitudes of Healthcare Providers towards Providing Contraceptives for Unmarried Adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to assess the attitude of Healthcare Providers towards providing contraceptives for unmarried adolescents in four Local Government Areas in Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 490 Healthcare Providers in 24 randomly selected healthcare facilities using self-administered, pre-tested questionnaires. Results More than half (57.5%) of the respondents perceived the provision of contraceptives for unmarried adole...

  8. Protect Yourself: Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dust masks) can be used for dust, mists, welding fumes, etc. They do not provide protection from ... tion against most vapors, acid gases, dust or welding fumes. Cartridges/filters must match contaminant(s) and be ...

  9. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide critical services, such as clean drinking water, productive fisheries, and outdoor recreation, that support our economies, ... Watershed Assessments Integrated Assessment of Watershed Condition Protection Projects and Partnerships Additional Resources Main menu Environmental Topics ...

  10. Banks' Procyclical Behavior: Does Provisioning Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Bouvatier; Laetitia Lepetit

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A panel of 186 European banks is used for the period 1992-2004 to determine if banking behaviors, induced by the capital adequacy constraint and the provisioning system, amplify credit fluctuations. Our nding is consistent with the bank capital channel hypothesis, which means that poorly capitalized banks constrained to expand credit. We also find that loan loss provisions (LLP) made in order to cover identified credit losses (non discretionary LLP) amplify credit fluc...

  11. Determinants of occupational pension provision in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dummann, Kathrin

    2007-01-01

    Demographic change causes an undersupply of financial old age benefits within the statutory pay-as-you-go pension system in Germany. Therefore, the provision of occupational as well as private pensions has to be enhanced. However, there seems to be an undersupply of occupational pension provision particularly in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Using survey data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and the German SAVE survey, the present paper studies econometrically the deter...

  12. Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard J; Birkner, Jeffrey S

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory protection is used as a method of protecting individuals from inhaling harmful airborne contaminants and in some cases to supply them with breathable air in oxygen-deficient environments. This article focuses on the use and types of personal respiratory protection (respirators) worn by individuals at workplaces where airborne hazardous contaminants may exist. Respirators are increasingly also being used in nonindustrial settings such as health care facilities, as concerns regarding infectious epidemics and terrorist threats grow. Pulmonologists and other clinicians should understand fundamental issues regarding respiratory protection against airborne contaminants and the use of respirators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  14. Biomimetic Urban Design: Ecosystem Service Provision of Water and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maibritt Pedersen Zari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ecosystem biomimicry methodology for urban design called ecosystem service analysis. Ecosystem services analysis can provide quantifiable goals for urban ecological regeneration that are determined by site specific ecology and climate of an urban area. This is important given the large negative environmental impact that most cities currently have on ecosystems. If cities can provide some of their own ecosystem services, pressure may be decreased on the surrounding ecosystems. This is crucial because healthier ecosystems enable humans to better adapt to the impacts that climate change is currently having on urban built environments and will continue to have in the future. A case study analyzing two ecosystem services (provision of energy and provision of water for an existing urban environment (Wellington, New Zealand is presented to demonstrate how the ecosystem services analysis concept can be applied to an existing urban context. The provision of energy in Wellington was found to be an example of an ecosystem service where humans could surpass the performance of pre-development ecosystem conditions. When analyzing the provision of water it was found that although total rainfall in the urban area is almost 200% higher than the water used in the city, if rainwater harvested from existing rooftops were to meet just the demands of domestic users, water use would need to be reduced by 20%. The paper concludes that although achieving ecological performance goals derived from ecosystem services analysis in urban areas is likely to be difficult, determining site and climate specific goals enable urban design professionals to know what a specific city should be aiming for if it is to move towards better sustainability outcomes.

  15. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B

    2017-01-01

    A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course. Two coders reviewed transcriptions of audio recordings from participants' first simulation scenario debriefings and performed constant comparison analysis to identify unifying themes. Themes were verified through member checking with two focus groups of prehospital providers. A total of 122 EMTs and paramedics participated in 16 audiotaped debriefing sessions and two focus groups. Four overarching themes emerged regarding the experience of PFCC by prehospital providers: (1) Perceived barriers included the prehospital environment, limited manpower, multi-tasking medical care, and concern for interference with patient care; (2) Providing emotional support comprised of empathetically comforting caregivers, maintaining a calm demeanor, and empowering families to feel involved; (3) Effective communication strategies consisted of designating a family point person, narration of actions, preempting the next steps, speaking in lay terms, summarizing during downtime, and conveying a positive first impression; (4) Tactics to overcome PFCC barriers were maintaining a line of sight, removing and returning a caregiver to and from the scene, and providing situational awareness. Based on debriefings from simulated scenarios, some prehospital providers identified the provision of

  16. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2002-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported.

  17. Cross-sector Service Provision in Health and Social Care: An Umbrella Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Winters

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Meeting the complex health needs of people often requires interaction among numerous different sectors. No one service can adequately respond to the diverse care needs of consumers. Providers working more effectively together is frequently touted as the solution. Cross-sector service provision is defined as independent, yet interconnected sectors working together to better meet the needs of consumers and improve the quality and effectiveness of service provision. Cross-sector service provision is expected, yet much remains unknown about how it is conceptualised or its impact on health status. This umbrella review aims to clarify the critical attributes that shape cross-sector service provision by presenting the current state of the literature and building on the findings of the 2004 review by Sloper. Methods: Literature related to cross-sector service provision is immense, which poses a challenge for decision makers wishing to make evidence-informed decisions. An umbrella review was conducted to articulate the overall state of cross-sector service provision literature and examine the evidence to allow for the discovery of consistencies and discrepancies across the published knowledge base. Findings: Sixteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Seven themes emerged: Focusing on the consumer, developing a shared vision of care, leadership involvement, service provision across the boundaries, adequately resourcing the arrangement, developing novel arrangements or aligning with existing relationships, and strengthening connections between sectors. Future research from a cross-organisational, rather than individual provider, perspective is needed to better understand what shapes cross-sector service provision at the boundaries. Conclusion: Findings aligned closely with the work done by Sloper and raise red flags related to reinventing what is already known. Future researchers should look to explore novel areas rather than looking into

  18. Agricultural Information Provision in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Lenrie O.

    1986-01-01

    A study undertaken to determine why Nigerian farmers do not receive adequate information on agricultural research showed that they depended on agricultural extension officers and radio and television programs for information. Extension officers could strengthen their information disseminating capability by having librarians provide them with…

  19. Assessment and application of potential food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongzhong; Gao, Yanghua; Zhu, Lifen

    2006-08-01

    The assessment of food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas is helpful for better understanding the function of ecosystems in local human well-beings. In this paper, process-based models are used to assess the potential food provisioning services derived from agriculture ecosystems and grassland ecosystems, a modifying model along with normal woodlands and a set of modifying coefficients is built to assess the potential food from woodland ecosystems. A set of power regression models based on environment factors are built to estimate the potential fish production from water ecosystems. Land cover data stemmed from Landsat TM images, as well as other natural and social-economic data in 1km resolution such as temperature, precipitation, and DEM, are used to support these assessment models. It shows that the four ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can provide 85.98×10 12 calories heat, 2.49 billion kilograms protein and 823.4 million kilograms fat. Human carrying capacity model under the balance nutrition pattern is built in this paper, which results in two key findings: ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can feed 45.92 million people under wealthy living standard which is 1.53 times of the current population, and the sustainable population is from 9.69 to 36.23 million under that living standard. Multi-scale population pressure model is built to calculate the population pressure index in Three-gorge areas. The grain for green pressure index, a multivariate linear weighed model, is used to determine the spatial distribution of farmland fit for grain for green and fit for protecting.

  20. Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT provides protection against acute craniocerebral injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Notch signaling pathway is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT inhibits Notch signaling pathway and promotes nerve regeneration after cerebral ischemia. However, neuroprotective effects of DAPT against acute craniocerebral injury remain unclear. In this study, we established rat model of acute craniocerebral injury, and found that with the increase of damage grade, the expression of Notch and downstream protein Hes1 and Hes5 expression gradually increased. After the administration of DAPT, the expression of Notch, Hes1 and Hes5 was inhibited, apoptosis and oxidative stress decreased, neurological function and cognitive function improved. These results suggest that Notch signaling can be used as an indicator to assess the severity of post-traumatic brain injury. Notch inhibitor DAPT can reduce oxidative stress and apoptosis after acute craniocerebral injury, and is a potential drug for the treatment of acute craniocerebral injury.

  1. Does secrecy provide ample protection for traditional knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ... a traditional setting and context (WIPO Intellectual Property Needs 26)". Communities are included in this understanding of "holder". 2. Traditional knowledge may take many forms, from extraction methods, knowledge of plant material properties, agricultural methods, and healing techniques, to rituals, folklore, dance, and ...

  2. Cytosolic superoxide dismutase can provide protection against Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Tanomrat, Rataya; Wongwairot, Sirima; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert; Changklungmoa, Narin

    2016-10-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SOD), antioxidant metallo-enzymes, are a part of the first line of defense in the trematode parasites which act as the chief scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ROS). A recombinant Fasciola gigantica cytosolic SOD (FgSOD) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for immunizing rabbits to obtain polyclonal antibodies (anti-rFgSOD). This rabbit anti-rFgSOD reacted with the native FgSOD at a molecular weight of 17.5kDa. The FgSOD protein was expressed at high level in parenchyma, caecal epithelium and egg of the parasite. The rFgSOD reacted with antisera from rabbits infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 5, and 7 weeks after infection, and reacted with sera of infected mice. Anti-rFgSOD exhibited cross reactivity with the other parasites' antigens, including Eurytrema pancreaticum, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fischoederius cobboldi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Paramphistomum cervi, and Setaria labiato papillosa. A vaccination was performed in imprinting control region (ICR) mice by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSOD combined with Freund's adjuvant. At 2 weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae by oral route. IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera were determined to indicate Th2 and Th1 immune responses. It was found that the parasite burden was reduced by 45%, and both IgG1 and IgG2a levels showed correlation with the numbers of worm recoveries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Provision of clinical forensic medical services in Australia: a qualitative survey 2011/12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Payne-James, J Jason

    2014-01-01

    The provision of clinical forensic medicine services is dependent on jurisdiction and relevant legal instruments. A needs analysis was performed to understand the current service provision within NSW and compare and contrast the service with other jurisdictions in Australia. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the roles, functions and clinical forensic medical services currently provided in the different Australian jurisdictions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Multiple Seasonal Holt-Winters Exponential Smoothing to Predict Cloud Resource Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf A. Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Elasticity is one of the key features of cloud computing that attracts many SaaS providers to minimize their services’ cost. Cost is minimized by automatically provision and release computational resources depend on actual computational needs. However, delay of starting up new virtual resources can cause Service Level Agreement violation. Consequently, predicting cloud resources provisioning gains a lot of attention to scale computational resources in advance. However, most of current approac...

  5. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  6. School Psychologists as Mental Health Providers: The Impact of Staffing Ratios and Medicaid on Service Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Katie; Meyer, Lauren; Way, Samara; Mclean, Deija

    2017-01-01

    As one out of five children in the United States demonstrate some type of mental or behavioral health concern warranting additional intervention, federal policies have emphasized the need for school-based mental health (SBMH) services and an expansion of Medicaid reimbursement for eligible children and families. Most youth access mental health…

  7. Perceptions on diabetes care provision among health providers in rural Tanzania : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangome, M.N.; Geubbels, Eveline; Klatser, P.R.; Dieleman, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes prevalence in Tanzania was estimated at 9.1% in 2012 among adults aged 24–65 years — higher than the HIV prevalence in the general population at that time. Health systems in lower- and middle-income countries are not designed for chronic health care, yet the rising burden of

  8. Australian Rural Accountants' Views on How Locally Provided CPD Compares with City-Based Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Abdel K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses Australian rural accountants' attitudes and levels of satisfaction with continuing professional development (CPD), based on whether the CPD was delivered by a professional accounting body in a rural or metropolitan area. The paper responds to prior research that finds rural accountants are dissatisfied with professional…

  9. Challenges of user-centred assistive technology provision in Australia: shopping without a prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emily J; Layton, Natasha Ann; Foster, Michele M; Bennett, Sally

    2016-01-01

    People with disability have a right to assistive technology devices and services, to support their inclusion and participation in society. User-centred approaches aim to address consumer dissatisfaction and sub-optimal outcomes from assistive technology (AT) provision, but make assumptions of consumer literacy and empowerment. Policy discourses about consumer choice prompt careful reflection, and this paper aims to provide a critical perspective on user involvement in assistive technology provision. User-centred approaches are considered, using literature to critically reflect on what user involvement means in AT provision. Challenges at the level of interactions between practitioners and consumers, and also the level of markets and policies are discussed, using examples from Australia. There is no unanimous conceptual framework for user-centred practice. Power imbalances and differing perspectives between practitioners and consumers make it difficult for consumers to feel empowered. Online access to information and international suppliers has not surmounted information asymmetries for consumers or lifted the regulation of publicly funded AT devices. Ensuring access and equity in the public provision of AT is challenging in an expanding market with diverse stakeholders. Consumers require personalised information and support to facilitate their involvement and choice in AT provision. Implications for Rehabilitation Variations in approaches informing AT provision practices have a profound impact on equity of access and outcomes for consumers. An internationalised and online market for AT devices is increasing the need for effective information provision strategies and services. Power imbalances between practitioners and consumers present barriers to the realisation of user-centred practice.

  10. Exploring different scenarios of land use policy and their impacts on provision of ecosystem services in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Randow, C.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Thonicke, K.; Verbeeck, H.; Guimberteau, M.; Langerwisch, F.; Rammig, A.; Galbraith, D.; Maksic, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2014-12-01

    A great challenge faced by the Amazon region is to maintain the ecosystem services provided by the pristine forest and its complex ecological processes, as well as the needs of the growing human population in the region, in face of global environmental changes and growing demands for land use. In the present study we analyze two different storylines linking different land use scenarios to possible impacts on the provision of ecosystem services in Amazonia: 1) a sustainable, environmental development scenario and 2) a chaotic, uncontrollable deforestation scenario. The future land cover maps are projected by a spatially explicit, dynamic land use model (LuccME) and are then used as inputs, in combination with climate change scenarios, to drive four biosphere models (INLAND, ORCHIDEE, JULES and LPJ). The biosphere models simulate changes in evapotranspiration and carbon fluxes and stocks. Finally, overlaying the biosphere model outputs with maps of roads or protected areas in the region, we analyze how the two land use scenarios will possibly affect the provision of key ecosystem services in the region.

  11. Municipal climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alber, G. [Klima-Buendnis - Alianza Clima e.V., Climate Alliance of European Cities with Indigenous Rainforest Peoples (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    Municipal climate protection is not only an important contribution to protecting the Earth's climate, but also yields local benefits such as promoting industry, or reducing emissions and noise and, not least, provides incentives for innovation and new forms of cooperation. Nonetheless, climate protection remains a challenge, for there is still a long way to go until the necessary climate change policy targets are met. Therefore, the Climate Alliance has developed a methodology as a recommendation to local authorities for the strategic development of programs of action that encompass all activity areas of relevance to climate protection. It is to support local authorities from their initial decision to engage in climate protection right through to their monitoring of the performance of measures implemented. (orig.)

  12. Building on safety, feasibility, and acceptability: the impact and cost of community health worker provision of injectable contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Bratt, John; Malkin, Morrisa; Nduna, Mavis Mwale; Otterness, Conrad; Jumbe, Lydia; Mbewe, Reuben Kamoto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A critical shortage of doctors, nurses, and midwives in many sub-Saharan African countries inhibits efforts to expand access to family planning services, especially in rural areas. One way to fill this gap is for community health workers (CHWs) to provide injectable contraceptives, an intervention for which there is growing evidence and international support. In 2009, with approval from the Government of Zambia (GoZ), FHI 360 collaborated with ChildFund Zambia to design and implement such an intervention as part of its existing CHW family planning program. Methods: The safety of CHW provision of injectable DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) was measured by client reports and by a 21-item structured observation checklist. Feasibility and acceptability were measured by interviews with CHWs and a subset of DMPA clients. The impact of adding DMPA to pill and condom provision was assessed by family planning uptake among the clients of trained CHWs from February 2010 to February 2011. Costs were documented using spreadsheets over the period November 2009 to February 2011. Results: Scores were high on all measures of safety, feasibility, and acceptability. Couple-years of protection (CYP, protection from pregnancy for 1 year) was provided to 51 condom clients, 391 pill clients, and 2,206 DMPA clients. Of the 1,739 clients new to family planning, 85% chose injectable DMPA, while 13% chose pills and 2% chose condoms. Continuation rates were also high, at 63% after 1 year as compared with 47% for pill users. Incremental costs per couple-year were US$21.24 if 50% of users continue with CHW-provided DMPA. Conclusion: The study affirms that the provision of injectable contraceptives by CHWs is safe, acceptable, and feasible in the Zambian context, with very high rates of uptake in hard-to-reach areas. High continuation rates among clients mean that costs of the intervention can be low when added to an existing community-based distribution program

  13. 10 CFR 1044.10 - Will your identity be protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will your identity be protected? 1044.10 Section 1044.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTED DISCLOSURES UNDER SECTION 3164 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 § 1044.10 Will your identity...

  14. 36 CFR 241.1 - Cooperation in wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in wildlife... FISH AND WILDLIFE General Provisions § 241.1 Cooperation in wildlife protection. (a) Officials of the... and regulations for the protection of wildlife. (b) Officials of the Forest Service who have been, or...

  15. Can protected areas work in artisanal fisheries of Uganda? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...

  16. Can protected areas work in artisanal fisheries of Uganda? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management agitates for provision of Marine Protected. Areas (MPAs) which seem to be effective in developed countries. However, efforts to control artisanal fisheries through protection have not been adequately assessed. The Uganda portion of. Lake Edward, Kazinga channel and ...

  17. Possible means of legal protection for computer programs and perspectives of future development

    OpenAIRE

    Toufar, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    This theses focuses on the possible legal protection of a computer program as well as on the legal nature of computer program as an intangible asset. Both copyright protection (as a standard and worldwide accepted means of protection) and also the other possibilities, i.e. patent protection and protection based on provisions regulating an unfair competition are discussed. Each means of protection is assessed based on its usability in relation with the computer program taking the overall impac...

  18. ADAPTIVE SERVICE PROVISIONING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Jayapal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing efficient and scalable service provisioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a big research challenge. In adaptive service provisioning mechanism an adaptive election procedure is used to select a coordinator node. The role of a service coordinator is crucial in any distributed directory based service provisioning scheme. The existing coordinator election schemes use either the nodeID or a hash function to choose the coordinator. In these schemes, the leader changes are more frequent due to node mobility. We propose an adaptive scheme that makes use of an eligibility factor that is calculated based on the distance to the zone center, remaining battery power and average speed to elect a core node that change according to the network dynamics. We also retain the node with the second highest priority as a backup node. Our algorithm is compared with the existing solution by simulation and the result shows that the core node selected by us is more stable and hence reduces the number of handoffs. This in turn improves the service delivery performance by increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing the delay, the overhead and the forwarding cost.

  19. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  20. Pollinator Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    What the EPA is doing to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticides; including addressing the issue of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), risk assessment, decline in pollinator health in general, and why pollinators are important.